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Sample records for abstract lung cancer

  1. Lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung ... lung cancer than of breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Lung cancer is more common in older adults. It ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell ...

  2. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  3. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  4. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy people with a high risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer screening is recommended for older adults who ... last 15 years. What you can expect During lung cancer screening During an LDCT scan of the lungs, ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  7. Lung Cancer and Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Timothy; Haithcock, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Lung transplantation remains a viable option for patients with endstage pulmonary disease. Despite removing the affected organ and replacing both lungs, the risk of lung malignancies still exists. Regardless of the mode of entry, lung cancer affects the prognosis in these patients and diligence is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  9. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  10. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of radiation therapy Randomized Clinical Trial: Trial design in which participants are assigned by chance to ... effect caused by treatment. Small Cell Lung Cancer: One of the two main categories of lung cancer; ...

  11. Lung Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  12. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  13. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  14. Cancer Genes in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    El-Telbany, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent “oncogenic drivers” in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug

  15. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard M; Sanchez, Rolando

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. More than 80% of these deaths are attributed to tobacco use, and primary prevention can effectively reduce the cancer burden. The National Lung Screening Trial showed that low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening could reduce lung cancer mortality in high-risk patients by 20% compared with chest radiography. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual LDCT screening for persons aged 55 to 80 years with a 30-pack-year smoking history, either currently smoking or having quit within 15 years. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a risk factor for lung cancer. Atomic bomb radiation, radiation therapy , imaging tests , and radon are sources of radiation exposure: Atomic bomb radiation: Being exposed to radiation after an atomic ...

  17. Immunotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moundhri, M.; O'Brien, M.; Souberbielle, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    More research and new treatment options are needed in all stages of lung cancer. To this end immunotherapy needs a revival in view of recent improved technologies and greater understanding of the underlying biology. In this review we discuss mechanisms of tumour immunotherapy, non-specific, specific and adoptive, with particular reference to a direct therapeutic action on all subtypes of lung cancer. PMID:9703271

  18. Screening for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  19. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  20. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  1. Lung cancer in patients with lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, D; Baamonde, C; Illana, J; Arango, E; Carrasco, G; Moreno, P; Algar, F J; Alvarez, A; Cerezo, F; Santos, F; Vaquero, J M; Redel, J; Salvatierra, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the incidence of lung cancer in patients after lung transplantation (LT). We performed an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on data from 340 patients undergoing lung transplantation between October 1993 and December 2010. We collected data about the donors, recipients, intra- and postoperative periods, and survivals. We identified 9 (2.6%) patients who developed lung cancer after LT. Their average age was 56 ± 9.3 years (range, 18-63). All cases were men with 8/9 (88.8%) having received a single lung transplant. All cancers developed in the native lung. The indications for transplantation were: emphysema type chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 5), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 3), or cystic fibrosis (n = 1); 77% of them were former smokers. All of the COPD patient were affected. The interval from transplantation to diagnosis was 53.3 ± 12 months (range 24-86). Survival after cancer diagnosis was 49.3 ± 6.3 (range = 0-180) months. LT was associated with a relatively high incidence of lung cancer, particularly in the native lung. In our series, lung cancer was related more to patients with emphysema-type COPD and a history of smoking. We believe that these patients should be closely followed to establish the diagnosis and apply early treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  3. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  4. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  5. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, I.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is well known as a diagnostic chameleon and can resemble malignancy. In thorax TB can be manifested as pulmonary infiltrates and/or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In low incident countries with high incidence of lung cancer and varying clinical presentations, TB often gets misdiagnosed with the result of delayed treatment start and unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy. PMID:26744652

  7. Pain management in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  8. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0177 TITLE: Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Katerina Politi...CONTRACT NUMBER Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0177 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Phenotypic changes have been observed in EGFR mutant lung cancers that become resistant to targeted

  9. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  10. American Cancer Society lung cancer screening guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A; Church, Timothy R; Ettinger, David S; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K; LaMonte, Samuel J; Michaelson, James S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M D; Brawley, Otis W; Smith, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  11. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  12. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  13. Lung cancer in younger patients.

    PubMed

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. To assess the age differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours, a significantly higher proportion of the younger patients presented with advanced stage disease (p = 0.0392). Combined modality therapy was more common in younger patients (p = 0.0009), while chemotherapy appeared less prevalent among the elderly (p = 0.0015). Lung cancer in younger patients comprises a distinct clinicopathological entity with more frequent advanced stage disease and a significantly greater proportion with a family history of cancer. Implementing genetic background assessments and considering lung cancer as a possible diagnosis in younger, symptomatic patients, is of paramount importance. none. The study was approved by the -Danish Data Protection Agency.

  14. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trials

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trials that will examine tumor tissue from patients with certain types of early-stage, completely resected non-small cell lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and assign patients with these gene mutations to treatment trials testing post-surgical use of drugs targeted against these mutations.

  15. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  16. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shimizu, H

    1977-12-01

    The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and the volume of traffic as indicated by auto exhaust concentration was examined; the results, though suggestive, did not yield consistent evidence of the association between them. Traffic jams in Nagoya began 15 years ago, a period that may not be long enough to provide definitive data on the incidence of lung cancer. The high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was observed in cities with a population of less than 1 million and guns (rural areas) along the coast, although those in the metropolitan areas with populations of more than 1 million were average. The SMR did not correlate with various socioeconomic conditions and industrial air pollution. Meteorologic or geologic conditions and ocean currents were not associated with SMR of lung cancer by city and gun. The population of a gun or of some cities was not large enough to be statistically significant, and the mortality rate of lung cancer was not always stable.

  17. Polonium and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  18. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  19. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomic biomarkers in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M D; Nogal, A; Molina-Pinelo, S; Carnero, A; Paz-Ares, L

    2013-09-01

    The correct understanding of tumour development relies on the comprehensive study of proteins. They are the main orchestrators of vital processes, such as signalling pathways, which drive the carcinogenic process. Proteomic technologies can be applied to cancer research to detect differential protein expression and to assess different responses to treatment. Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death in the world. Mostly diagnosed at late stages of the disease, lung cancer has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates at 15 %. The use of different proteomic techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), isotope labelling (ICAT, SILAC, iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry may yield new knowledge on the underlying biology of lung cancer and also allow the development of new early detection tests and the identification of changes in the cancer protein network that are associated with prognosis and drug resistance.

  3. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  4. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients’ prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. Methods: In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Result: Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. Conclusion: The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27741117

  5. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  8. Impacts of Exercise on Prognostic Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  10. Lung Cancer in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the HAART era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is 2–4 times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Since pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies for this population frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. PMID:21802373

  11. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  13. Risk factors of Lung Cancer in nonsmoker.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nahid; Bansal, Jeena Gupta

    Generally, the cause of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco smoking. But many of the new lung cancer cases have been reported in nonsmokers. Apart from smoking; air pollution, environmental exposure, mutations, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms are known to be associated with lung cancer. Improper diet, alcohol consumption, marijuana smoking, estrogen, infections with human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, and Epstein-Barr virus are suggested to be linked with lung cancer but clear evidences to ascertain their relation is not available. This article provides a comprehensive review of various risk factors and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for increasing the incidence of lung cancer. The pathologic, histologic, and genetic differences exist with lung cancer among smokers and nonsmokers. A better understanding of the risk factors, differences in pathology and molecular features of lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers and the mode of action of various carcinogens will facilitate the prevention and management of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  15. Lung Cancer-Specific Circular RNAs as Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0239 TITLE: Lung Cancer-Specific Circular RNAs as Biomarkers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yin-Yuan Mo CONTRACTING...Specific Circular RNAs as Biomarkers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0239 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yin-Yuan Mo Betty...14. ABSTRACT The major goal of this application is to determine whether lung cancer cells differentially express circular RNAs such that these

  16. Electrochemical treatment of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Y.L.; Xue, F.Z.; Ge, B.S.

    1997-03-01

    A pilot study of electrochemical treatment (ECT) as a therapy for 386 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer was undertaken. There were 103 stage 2 cases, 89 stage 3a cases, 122 stage 3b cases, and 72 stage 4 cases. Two ECT methods were used. For peripherally located lung cancer, platinum electrodes were inserted transcutaneously into the tumor under x-ray or CT guidance. For central type lung cancer or for those inoperable during thoracotomy, electrodes were inserted intraoperatively directly into the cancer. Voltage was 6--8 V, current was 40--100 mA, and electric charge was 100 coulombs per cm of tumor diameter.more » The number of electrodes was determined from the size of cancer mass, because the diameter of effective area around each electrode is approximately 3 cm. The short-term (6 months after ECT) results of the 386 lung cancer cases were: complete response (CR), 25.6% (99/386); partial response (PR), 46.4% (179/386); no change (NC), 15.3% (59/386); and progressive disease (PD), 12.7% (49/386). The total effective rate (CR + PR) was 72% (278/386). The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 86.3% (333/386), 58.8% (227/386), and 29.5% (114/386), respectively. The main complication was traumatic pneumothorax, with an incidence rate of 14.8% (57/386). These clinical results show that ECT is simple, safe, effective, and minimally traumatic. ECT provides an alternative method for treating lung cancers that are conventionally inoperable, that are not responsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or that cannot be resected after thoracotomy. Long-term survival rates suggest that ECT warrants further investigation.« less

  17. Thyroid function in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, J G; Stack, B H R; Burt, R W; Ratcliffe, W A; Spilg, W G S; Cuthbert, J; Kennedy, R S

    1978-01-01

    Thyroid function was assessed at the time of initial diagnosis in 204 patients with lung cancer and compared with that of age and sex-matched patients with non-malignant lung disease. Abnormalities in thyroid function were found in 67 patients (33%). The most prevalent abnormality was a low T3 concentration; this was not associated with other clinical or biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism, but the short-term prognosis of these patients was worse than that of matched patients with lung cancer having normal T3 concentrations. Primary hypothyroidism occurred in three patients, low T4 concentrations and free thyroxine index (FTI) with normal thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations in four patients, and moderately raised TSH with normal thyroid hormone concentrations in six patients; nine patients had a raised FTI with or without raised T4 concentration as the sole abnormality. Overall, the pattern of thyroid hormone metabolism in lung cancer was a tendency towards reduced T3 concentrations with significantly increased T4/T3 ratios and modestly increased 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) concentrations. The altered T4/T3 ratio was particularly noticeable in patients with anaplastic tumours of small (“oat cell”) and large cell types, but was not apparently related to detectable extrathoracic metastases. These data suggest that thyroid hormone metabolism is altered in patients with lung cancer by decreased 5′-monodeiodination of T4. The resulting low T3 concentrations and altered T4/T3 ratio may be partly responsible for the reduced ratio of androsterone to aetiocholanolone observed in lung cancer, which is known to be a poor prognostic sign. PMID:620266

  18. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2018 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  19. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TG4010 and Nivolumab in Patients With Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. [Current treatment concepts of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, F; Engelhardt, M; Rawluk, J; Mertelsmann, R; Passlick, B; Wäsch, R

    2011-09-01

    Lung cancer occurs with a median age of 69 years. The main cause is cigarette smoking. For both genders lung cancer is the third-most frequent tumor in Germany. While in an operable tumor stage 30-80% of the patients can reach long-term survival, the prognosis in the metastasised stage is unfavourable with a 5-year overall survival rate of 6% for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 18% for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer is subject of intense research to improve the outcome. This article gives an overview of current treatment options. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    PubMed

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  3. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  5. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  6. The evolution of lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Neal W; Loewen, Gregory M; Klippenstein, Donald L; Litwin, Alan M; Anderson, Timothy M

    2003-12-01

    In the 1970s, four trials failed to demonstrate any mortality reduction using a combination of chest X-ray (CXR) and/or sputum cytology. The recent early lung cancer action project (ELCAP) demonstrated that modern screening is capable of detecting Stage I lung cancers. Bronchial epithelial changes leading up to cancers are now being understood to include histologic changes and genetic alterations. Emerging molecular markers detected in sputum and serum show promise in the future of lung cancer screening.

  7. Shifting Lung Cancer Burden in the US

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute confirmed that lung cancer incidence among younger non-Hispanic whites and Hispanic whites born since the mid-1960s is higher in women than men.

  8. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  9. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Lung cancer: biology and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Omer; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation. PMID:26297204

  11. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive Radiation for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of lung cancer radiotherapy are intra/inter-fraction tumor/organ anatomy/motion changes and the need to spare surrounding critical structures. Evolving radiotherapy technologies, such as four-dimensional (4D) image-based motion management, daily on-board imaging and adaptive radiotherapy based on volumetric images over the course of radiotherapy, have enabled us to deliver higher dose to target while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. The image-guided radiotherapy adapted to changes of motion and anatomy has made the radiotherapy more precise and allowed ablative dose delivered to the target using novel treatment approaches such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and proton therapy in lung cancer, techniques used to be considered very sensitive to motion change. Future clinical trials using real time tracking and biological adaptive radiotherapy based on functional images are proposed. PMID:20814539

  13. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  14. Vaccine Therapy and Sargramostim With or Without Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-28

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  15. Molecular Biology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Sinkam, Serge Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Based on recent bench and clinical research, the treatment of lung cancer has been refined, with treatments allocated according to histology and specific molecular features. For example, targeting mutations such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been particularly successful as a treatment modality, demonstrating response rates in selected patients with adenocarcinoma tumors harboring EGFR mutations that are significantly higher than those for conventional chemotherapy. However, the development of new targeted therapies is, in part, highly dependent on an improved understanding of the molecular underpinnings of tumor initiation and progression, knowledge of the role of molecular aberrations in disease progression, and the development of highly reproducible platforms for high-throughput biomarker discovery and testing. In this article, we review clinically relevant research directed toward understanding the biology of lung cancer. The clinical purposes of this research are (1) to identify susceptibility variants and field molecular alterations that will promote the early detection of tumors and (2) to identify tumor molecular alterations that serve as therapeutic targets, prognostic biomarkers, or predictors of tumor response. We focus on research developments in the understanding of lung cancer somatic DNA mutations, chromosomal aberrations, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment, and how they can advance diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23649444

  16. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer can ... The anatomy of the lungs and basics about lung cancer Treatment for lung cancer, including taking part in ...

  17. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J.; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R.; Dougall, William

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRasG12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRasG12D-driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRasG12D-driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. PMID:29118048

  19. Overall environmental quality and lung cancer survival

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers in the United States. While individual environmental exposures have been associated with lung cancer incidence, the impact of cumulative environmental exposures on survival is not understood. We used the U.S. Environment...

  20. Contralateral pulmonary metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onuigbo, Wilson I. B.

    1974-01-01

    Onuigbo, W. I. B. (1974).Thorax, 29, 132-133. Contralateral pulmonary metastases in lung cancer. It has long been known that lung cancer may attack many organs and yet spare the opposite lung. In 100 cases of this tumour studied at necropsy, only 22 showed contralateral pulmonary spread. Contralateral deposits are generally small and may be related to damaged tissues. Although tissue unsuitability is supposed to underlie the limitation of metastases in recipient organs, this does not apply to the contralateral lung. Since lung tissue is readily accessible to bloodborne cancer cells, research should be directed towards explaining the paradoxical paucity of the metastases. PMID:4825544

  1. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  2. Metabolic Signaling and Therapy of Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    this grant is to decipher molecular mechanisms by which glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) promotes lung cancer cell metabolism and...PGAM1 in regulation of lung cancer metabolism; molecular mechanisms underlying PGAM1 activation in lung cancer; PGAM1 inhibitor as novel therapy to...leukemia cells from human patients with minimal toxicity. Therefore, the current funded proposal focuses to decipher molecular mechanisms by which

  3. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  4. Frequency of breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use articles in women's magazines from 1987 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Kyle J; Wilson, Philip K; Napolitano, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of articles in women's magazines that address breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use from 1987-2003 and to ascertain whether the annual number of articles reflected corresponding cancer mortality rates from breast cancer and lung cancer and the number of female smokers throughout this time period. We reviewed 13 women's magazines published in the United States from 1987-2003 using the search terms breast cancer, lung cancer, smoking, and tobacco. We reviewed the abstracts or entire articles to determine relevance. A total of 1044 articles addressed breast cancer, lung cancer, or tobacco use: 681 articles related to breast cancer, 47 related to lung cancer, and 316 related to tobacco use. The greater number of breast cancer articles compared to lung cancer articles was statistically significant (P value < .0001). The greater number of breast cancer articles compared to lung cancer articles combined with tobacco use articles was also statistically significant (P = .0012). The annual number breast cancer articles compared to the breast cancer mortality rate demonstrated a negative relationship. The annual number of lung cancer articles compared to the lung cancer mortality rate demonstrated no relationship. The annual number of tobacco use articles compared to the annual number of female smokers demonstrated no relationship. Breast cancer was more frequently represented than lung cancer or tobacco use in women's magazines from 1987-2003 despite the increase in lung cancer mortality, a decrease in breast cancer mortality, and an insignificant change in the number of female smokers.

  5. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  6. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  7. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    PubMed

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  8. Enhanced Quitline Intervention in Smoking Cessation for Patients With Non-Metastatic Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tobacco Use Disorder

  9. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"180","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Lung and Upper Aerodigestive

  10. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  11. Lung cancer in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Keith; Makinson, Alain; Thaler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is emerging as a leading cause of death in HIV-infected persons. This review will discuss the latest scientific evidence regarding the mechanisms driving lung cancer risk in HIV infection, the clinical presentation of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons and recent data regarding the outcomes, treatment and prevention of lung cancer in this group. Increased risk of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons is primarily due to higher smoking rates, but emerging evidence also implicates immunosuppression and inflammatory processes. Lung cancer outcomes may be worse in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral era, but this may stem, in part, from treatment disparities. Early detection of lung cancer using chest computed tomography (CT) is being increasingly adopted for smokers in the general population, and recent studies suggest that it may be safe and efficacious in HIV-infected smokers. Lung cancer is an important complication associated with chronic HIV infection. It is associated with unique HIV-related causal mechanisms, and may be associated with worse outcomes in some HIV-infected persons. Smoking cessation and early cancer detection with chest CT are likely to benefit HIV-infected smokers.

  12. Scientific Advances in Lung Cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Anne S; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Bunn, Paul A; Carbone, David P; Warren, Graham W; Bai, Chunxue; de Koning, Harry J; Yousaf-Khan, A Uraujh; McWilliams, Annette; Tsao, Ming Sound; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Asamura, Hisao; Van Schil, Paul E; Darling, Gail E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Gomez, Daniel R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Zimmermann, Stefan; Peters, Solange; Ignatius Ou, Sai-Hong; Reungwetwattana, Thanyanan; Jänne, Pasi A; Mok, Tony S; Wakelee, Heather A; Pirker, Robert; Mazières, Julien; Brahmer, Julie R; Zhou, Yang; Herbst, Roy S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Redman, Mary W; Wynes, Murry W; Gandara, David R; Kelly, Ronan J; Hirsch, Fred R; Pass, Harvey I

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a major global health problem; the disease is diagnosed in more than 1.6 million new patients each year. However, significant progress is underway in both the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Lung cancer therapy has now emerged as a "role model" for precision cancer medicine, with several important therapeutic breakthroughs occurring during 2015. These advances have occurred primarily in the immunotherapy field and in treatments directed against tumors harboring specific oncogenic drivers. Our knowledge about molecular mechanisms for oncogene-driven tumors and about resistance to targeted therapies has increased quickly over the past year. As a result, several regulatory approvals of new agents that significantly improve survival and quality of life for patients with lung cancer who have advanced disease have occurred. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has gathered experts in different areas of lung cancer research and management to summarize the most significant scientific advancements related to prevention and therapy of lung cancer during the past year. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung Cancer: One Disease or Many.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy D; Jia, Peilin; Aldrich, Melinda C; Zhao, Zhongming

    2018-06-05

    Lung cancer is classified as a single entity comprised of multiple histological subtypes. But how similar are these subtypes on a genetic level? This paper aims to address this question through a concise overview of germline and somatic differences between small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma. We reveal the weak overlap found between these 3 lung cancer subtypes using published data from one of the largest germline genetic studies on lung cancer to date and somatic mutation data from Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). These data indicate that these 3 subtypes share very little with each other at the genetic level. At the germline SNP level, only 24 independent SNPs from 2 chromosomes were shared across all 3 subtypes. We also demonstrate that only 30 unique cancer-specific mutations overlap the 3 subtypes from COSMIC, and that this is fewer than overlapping mutations chosen at random. Finally, we show that only 3 somatic mutational signatures are shared between these 3 subtypes. This paper highlights that these 3 lung cancer subtypes may be distinct diseases at the genetic level. In the era of precision medicine, we feel that these genomic differences will be of utmost importance in the choice of lung cancer therapy in the future. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  16. Saudi lung cancer management guidelines 2017

    PubMed Central

    Jazieh, Abdul Rahman; Al Kattan, Khaled; Bamousa, Ahmed; Al Olayan, Ashwaq; Abdelwarith, Ahmed; Ansari, Jawaher; Al Twairqi, Abdullah; Al Fayea, Turki; Al Saleh, Khalid; Al Husaini, Hamed; Abdelhafiez, Nafisa; Mahrous, Mervat; Faris, Medhat; Al Omair, Ameen; Hebshi, Adnan; Al Shehri, Salem; Al Dayel, Foad; Bamefleh, Hanaa; Khalbuss, Walid; Al Ghanem, Sarah; Loutfi, Shukri; Khankan, Azzam; Al Rujaib, Meshael; Al Ghamdi, Majed; Ibrahim, Nagwa; Swied, Abdulmonem; Al Kayait, Mohammad; Datario, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer management is getting more complex due to the rapid advances in all aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic options. Developing guidelines is critical to help practitioners provide standard of care. METHODS: The Saudi Lung Cancer Guidelines Committee (SLCGC) multidisciplinary members from different specialties and from various regions and healthcare sectors of the country reviewed and updated all lung cancer guidelines with appropriate labeling of level of evidence. Supporting documents to help healthcare professionals were developed. RESULTS: Detailed lung cancer management guidelines were finalized with appropriate resources for systemic therapy and short reviews highlighting important issues. Stage based disease management recommendation were included. A summary explanation for complex topics were included in addition to tables of approved systemic therapy. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary lung cancer guidelines was developed and will be disseminated across the country. PMID:29118855

  17. Saudi lung cancer management guidelines 2017.

    PubMed

    Jazieh, Abdul Rahman; Al Kattan, Khaled; Bamousa, Ahmed; Al Olayan, Ashwaq; Abdelwarith, Ahmed; Ansari, Jawaher; Al Twairqi, Abdullah; Al Fayea, Turki; Al Saleh, Khalid; Al Husaini, Hamed; Abdelhafiez, Nafisa; Mahrous, Mervat; Faris, Medhat; Al Omair, Ameen; Hebshi, Adnan; Al Shehri, Salem; Al Dayel, Foad; Bamefleh, Hanaa; Khalbuss, Walid; Al Ghanem, Sarah; Loutfi, Shukri; Khankan, Azzam; Al Rujaib, Meshael; Al Ghamdi, Majed; Ibrahim, Nagwa; Swied, Abdulmonem; Al Kayait, Mohammad; Datario, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer management is getting more complex due to the rapid advances in all aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic options. Developing guidelines is critical to help practitioners provide standard of care. The Saudi Lung Cancer Guidelines Committee (SLCGC) multidisciplinary members from different specialties and from various regions and healthcare sectors of the country reviewed and updated all lung cancer guidelines with appropriate labeling of level of evidence. Supporting documents to help healthcare professionals were developed. Detailed lung cancer management guidelines were finalized with appropriate resources for systemic therapy and short reviews highlighting important issues. Stage based disease management recommendation were included. A summary explanation for complex topics were included in addition to tables of approved systemic therapy. A multidisciplinary lung cancer guidelines was developed and will be disseminated across the country.

  18. Drug delivery and nanodetection in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Badrzadeh, Fariba; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Badrzadeh, Kazem; Valizadeh, Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the most widespread type of cancer worldwide, and is responsible for more deaths than other types of cancer. Lung cancer remains the chief cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women worldwide, and is increasingly common in women. Each year, the number of deaths from lung cancer is greater than the number due to breast and colorectal cancer combined. Lung cancer accounted for 13% (1.6 million) of the total cases and 18% (1.4 million) of the deaths in 2008. In Iran, lung cancer is one of the five leading tumors. Among females, it was the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and engineering involved in the design, characterization, and application of materials and devices whose smallest functional organization in at least one dimension is on the nanometer scale, i.e. one billionth of a meter. It is an exciting multidisciplinary field that involves the design and engineering of nano objects or nanotools with diameters less than 500 nanometers (nm), and it is one of the most interesting fields of the 21st century. Nanotechnology also offers the ability to detect diseases, such as tumors, much earlier than ever imaginable. This article presents nano devices for lung cancer detection and drug delivery systems.

  19. Biomass fuels and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei-Yen; Seow, Adeline

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that about 2.4 billion people around the world, or about 40% of the world's population, depend on biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, crop residue) to meet their energy needs for cooking and heating. The burden is especially high in Asia. Studies suggest that levels of pollutants including particulate matter <10 µm and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indoors in homes where biomass fuels are used far exceed levels recommended as safe. While in vitro and in vivo studies in animal models suggest that wood smoke emission extracts are mutagenic and carcinogenic, epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. In this review, we discuss possible carcinogenic mechanisms of action of biomass fuel emissions, summarize the biological evidence for carcinogenesis, and review the epidemiologic evidence in humans of biomass fuel emissions as a risk factor for lung cancer. Finally, we highlight some issues relevant for interpreting the epidemiologic evidence for the relationship between biomass fuel exposure and lung cancer: these include methodologic considerations and recognition of possible effect modification by genetic susceptibility, smoking status, age of exposure and histologic type. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. [Concurrent chemoradiation in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Françoise

    2005-12-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation has become for the 15 last years the standard treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, either as a definite therapy in non resectable tumors, or in a neoadjuvant setting in potentially resectable tumors. Associating sequential and concurrent schedules, by administering chemotherapy before or after concurrent chemoradiation, has been recently investigated, but the best sequence remains a matter of controversy. Increasing local control and survival after definite chemoradiation seems possible not only by using optimized radiation fractionation schedules and escalated total doses, but also by associating more convenient and less toxic chemotherapy agents at the right cytotoxic or radio-sensitizing dose. Moreover, recent data have suggested that surgery following induction chemoradiation is feasible and effective in selected patients without mediastinal nodes involvement, if a complete resection can be performed. In patients with localized small cell lung cancer, early concurrent chemoradiation with platinium and etoposide has been recognized as the state-of-the-art treatment. The increasing number of ongoing trials including modern radiation schedules combined with newer chemotherapy agents shows that chemoradiation is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies in thoracic oncology.

  1. Profile of lung cancer in kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Basmy, Amani

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most frequent site in females, worldwide. This study is the first to explore the profile of lung cancer in Kuwait. Cases of primary lung cancer (Kuwaiti) in Kuwait cancer Registry (KCR) were grouped in 4 periods (10 years each) from 1970-2009. Epidemiological measures; age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), Standardized rate ratio (SRR) and Cumulative risk and Forecasting to year 2020-2029 used for analysis. Between years, 2000-2009 lung cancer ranked the 4th and the 9th most frequent cancer in males and females respectively. M:F ratio 1:3. Mean age at diagnosis (95%CI) was 65.2 (63.9-66.4) years. The estimated risk of developing lung cancer before the age of 75 years in males is 1.8% (1/56), and 0.6 (1/167) in females. The ASIR for male cases was 11.7, 17.1, 17.0, 14.0 cases/100,000 population in the seventies, eighties, nineties and in 2000-2009 respectively. Female ASIR was 2.3, 8.4, 5.1, 4.4 cases/100,000 population in the same duration. Lung cancer is the leading cause cancer death in males 168 (14.2%) and the fifth cause of death due to cancer in females accounting for 6.1% of all cancer deaths. The ASMR (95%CI) was 8.1 (6.6-10.0) deaths/100,000 population and 2.8 (1.3-4.3) deaths/100,000 population in males and females respectively. The estimated Mortality to incidence Ratio was 0.6. The incidence of lung cancer between years 2000-2009 is not different from that reported in the seventies. KCR is expecting the number of lung cancer cases to increase.

  2. Study of Ponatinib in Patients With Lung Cancer Preselected Using Different Candidate Predictive Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  3. The Impact of the Cancer Genome Atlas on Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeremy Tzu-Huai; Lee, Yee-Ming; Huang, R. Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has profiled over 10,000 samples derived from 33 types of cancer to date, with the goal of improving our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and advancing our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. This review focuses on lung cancer as it is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in both men and women. Particularly, non-small cell lung cancers (including lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma) were evaluated. Our goal is to demonstrate the impact of TCGA on lung cancer research under four themes: namely, diagnostic markers, disease progression markers, novel therapeutic targets, and novel tools. Examples were given related to DNA mutation, copy number variation, mRNA, and microRNA expression along with methylation profiling. PMID:26318634

  4. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  5. Evaluation of the Role of Invadopodia in Lung Cancer Cell Growth and Invasion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    NSCLC cell lines. We obtained eight such lines: H1975 and H1650 ( non - smoker , mutant EGFr); H1395 and H1573 ( non - smoker , wildtype EGFr); H23 and H1792...Invadopodia are actin-based cellular protrusions found in many invasive cancer cell types. Non small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are highly invasive and...Abstract: Invadopodia are actin-based cellular protrusions found in many invasive cancer cell types. Non small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are highly

  6. Lung Cancer and Lung Injury: The Dual Role of Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Goldkorn, Tzipora; Chung, Samuel; Filosto, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play key roles in cancer, yet our current understanding of sphingolipid function in lung cancer is limited to a few key players. The best characterized of these are sphingosine-1-phoshate and ceramide which are described for their opposing roles in cell fate. However, because sphingolipids as a whole are readily interconverted by a complex enzymatic machinery, no single sphingolipid appears to have exactly one role. Instead, the roles of specific sphingolipids appear to be context specific as demonstrated by findings that ceramide-1-phosphate has both proliferative and apoptotic effects depending on its concentration. Therefore, we present herein several years of research on ceramide, a sphingolipid linked to apoptotic signaling, that is emerging in cancer research for its potential roles in proliferation and cell-to-cell communication via exosomes. Ceramide is a well-studied sphingolipid in both normal and pathological conditions ranging from skin development to lung cancer. Interestingly, several groups have previously reported its increased levels in emphysema patients who are smokers, a patient subpopulation greatly susceptible to lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms through which cigarette smoke (CS) and ceramide accumulation lead to lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specifically, are unknown. Interestingly, recent studies clearly establish that two signaling pathways are activated during CS exposure in the lung airway. One centers on the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2), an enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide. The other pathway focuses on the oncogenic EGF receptor (EGFR), which becomes aberrantly activated but not degraded, leading to prolonged proliferative signaling. Recent studies show that these two signaling pathways may actually converge and integrate. Specifically, Goldkorn et al. demonstrated that during CS exposure, EGFR is favorably co-localized in ceramide-enriched regions of the

  7. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  8. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  9. Mutational analysis of multiple lung cancers: Discrimination between primary and metastatic lung cancers by genomic profile.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Hirotsu, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Nakagomi, Takahiro; Shikata, Daichi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Oyama, Toshio; Amemiya, Kenji; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Omata, Masao

    2017-05-09

    In cases of multiple lung cancers, individual tumors may represent either a primary lung cancer or both primary and metastatic lung cancers. Treatment selection varies depending on such features, and this discrimination is critically important in predicting prognosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and validity of mutation analysis as a means of determining whether multiple lung cancers are primary or metastatic in nature. The study involved 12 patients who underwent surgery in our department for multiple lung cancers between July 2014 and March 2016. Tumor cells were collected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the primary lesions by using laser capture microdissection, and targeted sequencing of 53 lung cancer-related genes was performed. In surgically treated patients with multiple lung cancers, the driver mutation profile differed among the individual tumors. Meanwhile, in a case of a solitary lung tumor that appeared after surgery for double primary lung cancers, gene mutation analysis using a bronchoscopic biopsy sample revealed a gene mutation profile consistent with the surgically resected specimen, thus demonstrating that the tumor in this case was metastatic. In cases of multiple lung cancers, the comparison of driver mutation profiles clarifies the clonal origin of the tumors and enables discrimination between primary and metastatic tumors.

  10. Lung cancer disparities and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung

    2017-07-01

    African-Americans, as historically disadvantaged minorities, have more advanced stages of cancer when diagnosed, lower survival rates, and lower rates of accessing timely care than do Caucasians. Lung cancer incidence and mortality, in particular, are high among African-Americans. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recently released an evidence-based lung cancer screening technology called low-dose computerized tomography. High-risk African-Americans might benefit greatly from such screening but not many are aware of this technology. Public health nurses can play a key role in increasing awareness of the technology among African-American communities and encouraging qualified African-Americans to obtain screening. This study discusses issues with lung cancer and smoking among African-Americans, a recently released evidence-based lung cancer screening technology, and implications for public health nurses to enhance uptake of the new screening technology among high-risk African-Americans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W; Kompelli, Anvesh R; Moufarrej, Youmna E; Alexander, Jonathan S; Herrera, Guillermo A; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

  12. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  13. Missed lung cancer: when, where, and why?

    PubMed Central

    del Ciello, Annemilia; Franchi, Paola; Contegiacomo, Andrea; Cicchetti, Giuseppe; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Larici, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Missed lung cancer is a source of concern among radiologists and an important medicolegal challenge. In 90% of the cases, errors in diagnosis of lung cancer occur on chest radiographs. It may be challenging for radiologists to distinguish a lung lesion from bones, pulmonary vessels, mediastinal structures, and other complex anatomical structures on chest radiographs. Nevertheless, lung cancer can also be overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scans, regardless of the context, either if a clinical or radiologic suspect exists or for other reasons. Awareness of the possible causes of overlooking a pulmonary lesion can give radiologists a chance to reduce the occurrence of this eventuality. Various factors contribute to a misdiagnosis of lung cancer on chest radiographs and on CT, often very similar in nature to each other. Observer error is the most significant one and comprises scanning error, recognition error, decision-making error, and satisfaction of search. Tumor characteristics such as lesion size, conspicuity, and location are also crucial in this context. Even technical aspects can contribute to the probability of skipping lung cancer, including image quality and patient positioning and movement. Albeit it is hard to remove missed lung cancer completely, strategies to reduce observer error and methods to improve technique and automated detection may be valuable in reducing its likelihood. PMID:28206951

  14. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    ... do develop lung cancer. Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link ... LoCicero, MD, private practice specializing in Hematology and Medical Oncology, Longsteet Cancer Center, Gainesville, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... second most commonly diagnosed cancer, after breast cancer , accounting for about one-quarter of all cancer diagnoses. ... cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, accounting for an estimated 27 percent of all cancer ...

  16. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  17. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Moysich, Kirsten B; Menezes, Ravi J; Ronsani, Adrienne; Swede, Helen; Reid, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael; Falkner, Karen L; Loewen, Gregory M; Bepler, Gerold

    2002-11-26

    Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41-0.78). Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day x years of use) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.

  18. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Moysich, Kirsten B; Menezes, Ravi J; Ronsani, Adrienne; Swede, Helen; Reid, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael; Falkner, Karen L; Loewen, Gregory M; Bepler, Gerold

    2002-01-01

    Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78). Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. PMID:12453317

  19. Oral bisphosphonate use and lung cancer incidence among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Tao, M H; Chen, S; Freudenheim, J L; Cauley, J A; Johnson, K C; Mai, X; Sarto, G E; Wakelee, H; Boffetta, P; Wactawski-Wende, J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Bisphosphonates are common medications for the treatment of osteoporosis in older populations. Several studies, including the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have found inverse associations of bisphosphonate use with risk of breast and endometrial cancer, but little is known about its association with other common malignancies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of bisphosphonate use on the incidence of lung cancer in the WHI. Patients and methods The association between oral bisphosphonate use and lung cancer risk was examined in 151 432 postmenopausal women enrolled into the WHI in 1993–1998. At baseline and during follow-up, participants completed an inventory of regularly used medications including bisphosphonates. Results After a mean follow-up of 13.3 years, 2511 women were diagnosed with incident lung cancer. There was no evidence of a difference in lung cancer incidence between oral bisphosphonate users and never users (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence intervals, 0.80–1.04; P = 0.16). However, an inverse association was observed among those who were never smokers (hazard ratio = 0.57, 95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.84; P < 0.01). Conclusion In this large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, oral bisphosphonate use was associated with significantly lower lung cancer risk among never smokers, suggesting bisphosphonates may have a protective effect against lung cancer. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:29617712

  20. Cigarette smoke radioactivity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; White, Celia; Sayre, James; Norman, Amos

    2012-01-01

    To determine the tobacco industry's policy and action with respect to radioactive polonium 210 ((210)Po) in cigarette smoke and to assess the long-term risk of lung cancer caused by alpha particle deposits in the lungs of regular smokers. Analysis of major tobacco industries' internal secret documents on cigarette radioactivity made available online by the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. The documents show that the industry was well aware of the presence of a radioactive substance in tobacco as early as 1959. Furthermore, the industry was not only cognizant of the potential "cancerous growth" in the lungs of regular smokers but also did quantitative radiobiological calculations to estimate the long-term (25 years) lung radiation absorption dose (rad) of ionizing alpha particles emitted from the cigarette smoke. Our own calculations of lung rad of alpha particles match closely the rad estimated by the industry. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the industry's and our estimate of long-term lung rad of alpha particles causes 120-138 lung cancer deaths per year per 1,000 regular smokers. Acid wash was discovered in 1980 to be highly effectively in removing (210)Po from the tobacco leaves; however, the industry avoided its use for concerns that acid media would ionize nicotine converting it into a poorly absorbable form into the brain of smokers thus depriving them of the much sought after instant "nicotine kick" sensation. The evidence of lung cancer risk caused by cigarette smoke radioactivity is compelling enough to warrant its removal.

  1. Lung cancer: diagnosis, treatment principles, and screening.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Kelly M; Mott, Timothy F

    2015-02-15

    Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest radiography. If a likely alternative diagnosis is not identified, computed tomography and possibly positron emission tomography should be performed. If suspicion for lung cancer is high, a diagnostic evaluation is warranted. The diagnostic evaluation has three simultaneous steps (tissue diagnosis, staging, and functional evaluation), all of which affect treatment planning and determination of prognosis. The least invasive method possible should be used. The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient with lung cancer require a team of specialists, including a pulmonologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, pathologist, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon. Non-small cell lung cancer specimens are tested for various mutations, which, if present, can be treated with new targeted molecular therapies. The family physician should remain involved in the patient's care to ensure that the values and wishes of the patient and family are considered and, if necessary, to coordinate end-of-life care. Early palliative care improves quality of life and may prolong survival. Family physicians should concentrate on early recognition of lung cancer, as well as prevention by encouraging tobacco cessation at every visit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography in high-risk patients. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening. Whether to screen high-risk patients should be a shared decision between the physician and patient.

  2. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment.

  3. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  4. Targeting Metabolic Survival Pathways in Lung Cancer via Combination Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    B1, non-small cell lung cancer, glutamine metabolism, biguanides 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF...combination therapy (months 15-16) Task 5. In vivo testing of biguanide and glutamine metabolism inhibitors in xenograft models of LKB1-proficient and...combination therapies in xenograft mice (months 12-15) IACUC and ACURO approval have been granted for in vivo xenograft studies, which will commence in

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update *

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Ferreira, Paula Pratti Rodrigues; de Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Neves, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Gadia, Rafael; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique. PMID:26398758

  6. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  7. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to customizing therapies based on the molecular characteristics of patients’ tumors. Some of these targeted regimens have already been integrated into the treatment arsenal for lung cancer and others are still being studied in clinical trials, including several being conducted by researchers at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research.

  8. Sirolimus and Auranofin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-28

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. HIV-Associated Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiderlen, Til R; Siehl, Jan; Hentrich, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role. Currently, no established preventive screening is available, making smoking cessation the most promising preventive measure. Treatment protocols and standards are the same as for the general population. Notably, immuno-oncology will also become standard of care in a significant subset of HIV-infected patients with LC. As drug interactions and hematological toxicity must be taken into account, a multidisciplinary approach should include a physician experienced in the treatment of HIV. Only limited data is available on novel targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors in the setting of HIV. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Anatomical thoracoscopic segmentectomy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Yoichi; Shimizu, Kimihiro

    2014-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer has seen considerable progress. A segmentectomy is less invasive than a lobectomy as it preserves lung parenchyma. The preservation of pulmonary function can reduce complications. The combination of a thoracoscopic approach with a segmentectomy should be less invasive, and retrospective studies have shown that the thoracoscopic approach is safe and feasible due to the lower postoperative mortality and complication rates as compared to an open thoracotomy. The validity of a segmentectomy for ground-glass-opacity-type lung cancer has been demonstrated, and it has also been evaluated for small, predominantly solid, lung cancers. Two prospective studies of segmentectomy versus lobectomy for ≤2-cm non-small-cell lung cancer are now underway (CALGB 140503 and JCOG0802/WJTOG4607L) and should clarify the role of segmentectomy. Regarding thoracoscopic segmentectomy, few retrospective studies have reported the oncological outcome for lung cancer and there is inadequate evidence regarding the long-term oncological outcome, although the perioperative complication rate and duration of hospital stay seem to be non-inferior to those of an open approach. For preoperative simulation, three-dimensional multidetector computed tomography (3D-CT) is essential for performing an atypical thoracoscopic segmentectomy safely. Preoperative 3D-CT angiography and bronchography (3D-CTAB) enable accurate identification of the venous branches in the affected segment and the intersegmental vein. This review describes the surgical and oncological outcomes, utility of 3D-CTAB, and surgical techniques and procedure used for a thoracoscopic segmentectomy.

  11. Alectinib Approved for ALK+ Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The FDA has approved a third ALK inhibitor, alectinib, for advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. Two phase II studies show that patients who have become resistant to crizotinib respond well to alectinib; the drug is also effective against brain metastases, which are common in this disease subtype. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Alessia; D’Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications. PMID:29780635

  13. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Bandoh, Shuji; Tadokoro, Akira; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations remote from the site of the primary tumor or metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer can impair various organ functions and include neurologic, endocrine, dermatologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, and ophthalmological syndromes, as well as glomerulopathy and coagulopathy (Trousseau’s syndrome). The histological type of lung cancer is generally dependent on the associated syndrome, the two most common of which are humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy in squamous cell carcinoma and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in small cell lung cancer. The symptoms often precede the diagnosis of the associated lung cancer, especially when the symptoms are neurologic or dermatologic. The proposed mechanisms of paraneoplastic processes include the aberrant release of humoral mediators, such as hormones and hormone-like peptides, cytokines, and antibodies. Treating the underlying cancer is generally the most effective therapy for paraneoplastic syndromes, and treatment soon after symptom onset appears to offer the best potential for symptom improvement. In this article, we review the diagnosis, potential mechanisms, and treatments of a wide variety of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer. PMID:25114839

  14. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Liguori, Alessia; D'Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications.

  15. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    PubMed

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  16. Molecular understanding of lung cancers-A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chinnappan Ravinder; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is considered to be the most common cancer in the world. The purpose of this paper is to review scientific evidence, particularly epidemiologic evidence of overall lung cancer burden in the world. And molecular understanding of lung cancer at various levels by dominant and suppressor oncogenes. PMID:25183110

  17. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  18. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  19. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  20. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  1. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  2. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  3. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  4. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  5. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  6. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  7. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  8. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  9. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  10. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  11. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  12. Lung Cancer Risk in Painters: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Neela; Merletti, Franco; Steenland, Nelson Kyle; Altieri, Andrea; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Objective We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the association between occupation as a painter and the incidence or mortality from lung cancer. Data sources PubMed and the reference lists of pertinent publications were searched and reviewed. For the meta-analysis, we used data from 47 independent cohort, record linkage, and case–control studies (from a total of 74 reports), including > 11,000 incident cases or deaths from lung cancer among painters. Data extraction Three authors independently abstracted data and assessed study quality. Data synthesis The summary relative risk (meta-RR, random effects) for lung cancer in painters was 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29–1.41; 47 studies] and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.21–1.51; 27 studies) after controlling for smoking. The relative risk was higher in never-smokers (meta-RR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.09–3.67; 3 studies) and persisted when restricted to studies that adjusted for other occupational exposures (meta-RR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.04; 5 studies). The results remained robust when stratified by study design, sex, and study location and are therefore unlikely due to chance or bias. Furthermore, exposure–response analyses suggested that the risk increased with duration of employment. Conclusion These results support the conclusion that occupational exposures in painters are causally associated with the risk of lung cancer. PMID:20064777

  13. Silica exposure, silicosis, and lung cancer: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, P A; Sluis-Cremer, G K; Hnizdo, E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of the association between lung cancer and silicosis and silica dust have been inconclusive; some showing positive association and some showing none. The present study matched 231 cases of lung cancer with 318 controls by year of birth. Subjects were selected from the necropsy records of the National Centre for Occupational Health. Data on intensity and duration of exposure to silica dust were obtained from personnel records. Presence or absence of lung cancer and the presence and severity of silicosis of the parenchyma, pleura, and hilar glands were documented from necropsy reports. Smoking data were abstracted from records of routine examinations. No case-control differences were noted for any of the exposure indicators including cumulative dust exposure, total dusty shifts, weighted average intensity of exposure, total underground shifts, and shifts in high dust. Similarly, no association was found between lung cancer and the presence or severity of silicosis and any site. Stratified analyses showed neither significant nor suggestive trends when case-control comparisons for silicosis were examined by level of dust exposure or smoking. Reasons for disparity between these results and those of some other studies may include concomitant exposures to radon daughters, asbestos, diesel emissions, and cigarette smoking; idiosyncracies of the compensation process; and the possibility of a threshold in the relation(s). PMID:2155648

  14. Lung and stomach cancer associations with groundwater radon in North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Kyle P; Serre, Marc L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The risk of indoor air radon for lung cancer is well studied, but the risks of groundwater radon for both lung and stomach cancer are much less studied, and with mixed results. Methods: Geomasked and geocoded stomach and lung cancer cases in North Carolina from 1999 to 2009 were obtained from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Models for the association with groundwater radon and multiple confounders were implemented at two scales: (i) an ecological model estimating cancer incidence rates at the census tract level; and (ii) a case-only logistic model estimating the odds that individual cancer cases are members of local cancer clusters. Results: For the lung cancer incidence rate model, groundwater radon is associated with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.06] for every 100 Bq/l increase in census tract averaged concentration. For the cluster membership models, groundwater radon exposure results in an odds ratio for lung cancer of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.23) and for stomach cancer of 1.24 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.49), which means groundwater radon, after controlling for multiple confounders and spatial auto-correlation, increases the odds that lung and stomach cancer cases are members of their respective cancer clusters. Conclusion: Our study provides epidemiological evidence of a positive association between groundwater radon exposure and lung cancer incidence rates. The cluster membership model results find groundwater radon increases the odds that both lung and stomach cancer cases occur within their respective cancer clusters. The results corroborate previous biokinetic and mortality studies that groundwater radon is associated with increased risk for lung and stomach cancer. PMID:27639278

  15. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-08

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emory University: High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Dataset for Lung Cancer-Associated Genes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    To discover novel PPI signaling hubs for lung cancer, CTD2 Center at Emory utilized large-scale genomics datasets and literature to compile a set of lung cancer-associated genes. A library of expression vectors were generated for these genes and utilized for detecting pairwise PPIs with cell lysate-based TR-FRET assays in high-throughput screening format. Read the abstract.

  18. Radiologic Errors in Patients With Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, John V.; Friedman, Paul J.

    1981-01-01

    Some 20 percent to 50 percent of detectable malignant lesions are missed or misdiagnosed at the time of their first radiologic appearance. These errors can result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, which may affect a patient's survival. Use of moderately high (130 to 150) kilovolt peak films, awareness of portions of the lung where lesions are often missed (such as lung apices and paramediastinal and hilar areas), careful comparison of current roentgenograms with those taken previously and the use of an independent second observer can help to minimize the rate of radiologic diagnostic errors in patients with lung cancer. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7257363

  19. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Cancer.gov

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  20. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  3. Lung cancer risk from radon in Ontario, Canada: how many lung cancers can we prevent?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily; Aker, Amira; Kim, JinHee; Li, Ye; Brand, Kevin; Copes, Ray

    2013-11-01

    To calculate the burden of lung cancer illness due to radon for all thirty-six health units in Ontario and determine the number of radon-attributable lung cancer deaths that could be prevented. We calculated the population attributable risk percent, excess life-time risk ratio, life-years lost, the number of lung cancer deaths due to radon, and the number of deaths that could be prevented if all homes above various cut-points were effectively reduced to background levels. It is estimated that 13.6 % (95 % CI 11.0, 16.7) of lung cancer deaths in Ontario are attributable to radon, corresponding to 847 (95 % CI 686, 1,039) lung cancer deaths each year, approximately 84 % of these in ever-smokers. If all homes above 200 Bq/m(3), the current Canadian guideline, were remediated to background levels, it is estimated that 91 lung cancer deaths could be prevented each year, 233 if remediation was performed at 100 Bq/m(3). There was important variation across health units. Radon is an important contributor to lung cancer deaths in Ontario. A large portion of radon-attributable lung cancer deaths are from exposures below the current Canadian guideline, suggesting interventions that install effective radon-preventive measures into buildings at build may be a good alternative population prevention strategy to testing and remediation. For some health units, testing and remediation may also prevent a portion of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Regional attributable risk estimates can help with local public health resource allocation and decision making.

  4. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    PubMed

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  5. Aromatase inhibitors in human lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Olga K; Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Fishbein, Michael C; Goodglick, Lee; Garban, Hermes J; Dubinett, Steven M; Pietras, Richard J

    2005-12-15

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. It is a highly lethal disease in women and men, and new treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies implicated a role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in lung cancer progression, and this steroidal growth-stimulatory pathway may be promoted by tumor expression and activity of aromatase, an estrogen synthase. We found expression of aromatase transcripts and protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells using reverse transcription-PCR and Western immunoblots, respectively. Aromatase staining by immunohistochemistry was detected in 86% of archival NSCLC tumor specimens from the clinic. Further, biological activity of aromatase was determined in NSCLC tumors using radiolabeled substrate assays as well as measure of estradiol product using ELISA. Significant activity of aromatase occurred in human NSCLC tumors, with enhanced levels in tumor cells compared with that in nearby normal cells. Lung tumor aromatase activity was inhibited by anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, and treatment of tumor cells in vitro with anastrozole led to significant suppression of tumor cell growth. Similarly, among ovariectomized nude mice with A549 lung tumor xenografts, administration of anastrozole by p.o. gavage for 21 days elicited pronounced inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. These findings show that aromatase is present and biologically active in human NSCLCs and that tumor growth can be down-regulated by specific inhibition of aromatase. This work may lead to development of new treatment options for patients afflicted with NSCLC.

  6. [Paraneoplastic syndromes. Associated with lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco Javier; Chávez-Mac Gregor, Mariana; Green-Renner, Dan; Green-Schneeweiss, León

    2003-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are disorders of host organ function occurring at a site remote from the primary tumor and its metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with primary lung cancer are not uncommon, have diverse initial manifestations, and epitomize the systemic nature of human malignant disease. The spectrum of clinical features in patients with paraneoplastic syndromes is very wide. Although diagnosis is often one of exclusion, improved understanding of the pathogenesis involved in some of these syndromes has provided another means of recognizing these disorders and perhaps treating affected patients. In this update, we review paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer, potential mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  7. Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-16

    Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  8. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  10. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. S0536: Cetuximab, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-29

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2018 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  15. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  16. Occupation, Gender, Race, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Sania; Wolpert, Beverly; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Shields, Peter G.; Jones, Raymond; Harris, Curtis C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between occupation and lung cancer by gender and race. Methods We used data from the Maryland Lung Cancer Study of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a multicenter case control study, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of NSCLC in different occupations. Results After adjusting for smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and other covariates, NSCLC ORs among women but not men were elevated in clerical-sales, service, and transportation-material handling occupations; ORs were significantly increased in all three categories (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.07 [1.44 to 11.48]; 5.15 [1.62 to 16.34]; 7.82 [1.08 to 56.25], respectively), among black women, but only in transportation-material handling occupations (OR [95% confidence interval[: 3.43 [1.02 to 11.50]) among white women. Conclusions Women, especially black women, in certain occupations had increased NSCLC ORs. PMID:18849762

  17. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.

    PubMed

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  18. Expression of pleiotrophin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Q; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a kind of heparin binding growth factor closely related to tumor progression. This study aimed to discuss the significance of the expression of PTN in benign and malignant lung cancer tissues, especially small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer samples were collected for study and lung tissue samples with benign lesions were taken as controls. The expression of PTN was detected using tissue chip combined with the immunohistochemical method, and the differences of small cell lung cancer with non-small cell lung cancer and benign lesion tissue were compared. It was found that PTN expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and membrane of cells; PTN expression in the lung cancer group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), and PTN expression in the small cell cancer group was higher than that in the squamous carcinoma group and glandular cancer group (p < 0.05). In addition, PTN expression quantity in patients with lung cancer were in close correlation with TNM staging, pathological type and tumor differentiation degree (p < 0.05). PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PTN is most likely to be a new tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  19. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  20. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week's duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival.

  1. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognosis of Lung Cancer: Heredity or Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    former/never smoker), the primary lung cancer risk factor (Table 1). More blacks smoked menthol cigarettes compared with whites. More whites self...Unknown 5 Smoking status at cohort entry Current 253 (72.5) 102 (68.9) Former 75 (21.5) 40 (27.0) Never 21 (6.0) 6 (4.1) Smokes (or smoked) menthol

  3. Targeted Magnetic Hyperthermia for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques an d the disco very of new molecularl y targeted therapies , lung cancer (specifically, non-small...vibrating sample magneto metry) and heating rates. The effect of MH on overall tumor cell kill was determined in A549 cells (NSCLCs) based on the amou nt of

  4. Lung Cancer Risk Models for Screening (R package: lcrisks)

    Cancer.gov

    In both the absence and presence of screening, the R package lcrisks, calculates individual risks of lung cancer and lung cancer death based on covariates: age, education, sex, race, smoking intensity/duration/quit-years, Body Mass Index, family history of lung-cancer, and self-reported emphysema. In the presence of CT screening akin to the NLST (3 yearly screens, 5 years of follow-up), it uses the covariates to estimate risk of false-positive CT screen as well as the reduction in risk of lung cancer death and increase in risk of lung cancer screening.

  5. HIV Infection in the Etiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Gregory D.; Merlo, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV have an elevated risk of lung cancer, but whether the increase simply reflects a higher smoking prevalence continues to be debated. This review summarizes existing data on the association of HIV infection and lung cancer, with particular attention to study design and adjustment for cigarette smoking. Potential mechanisms by which HIV infection may lead to lung cancer are discussed. Finally, irrespective of causality and mechanisms, lung cancer represents an important and growing problem confronting HIV-infected patients and their providers. Substantial efforts are needed to promote smoking cessation and to control lung cancer among HIV-infected populations. PMID:21653536

  6. Lung Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Lung Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or

  9. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  10. Deaths in Canada from lung cancer due to involuntary smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, D T; Collishaw, N E; Kirkbride, J; Mao, Y

    1987-01-01

    Recently published evidence indicates that involuntary smoking causes an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Information was compiled on the proportion of people who had never smoked among victims of lung cancer, the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers married to smokers and the prevalence of such exposure. On the basis of these data we estimate that 50 to 60 of the deaths from lung cancer in Canada in 1985 among people who had never smoked were caused by spousal smoking; about 90% occurred in women. The total number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke from spouses and other sources (mainly the workplace) was derived by applying estimated age- and sex-specific rates of death from lung cancer attributable to such exposure to the population of Canadians who have never smoked; about 330 deaths from lung cancer annually are attributable to such exposure. PMID:3567810

  11. Smoking, p53 Mutation, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Don L.; Byers, Lauren A.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    This issue marks the 50th Anniversary of the release of the U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health. Perhaps no other singular event has done more to highlight the effects of smoking on the development of cancer. Tobacco exposure is the leading cause of cancers involving the oral cavity, conductive airways and the lung. Owing to the many carcinogens in tobacco smoke, smoking-related malignancies have a high genome-wide burden of mutations, including in the gene encoding for p53. The p53 protein is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancer, responsible for a range of critical cellular functions that are compromised by the presence of a mutation. Herein we review the epidemiologic connection between tobacco exposure and cancer, the molecular basis of p53 mutation in lung cancer, and the normal molecular and cellular roles of p53 that are abrogated during lung tumor development and progression as defined by in vitro and in vivo studies. We also consider the therapeutic potential of targeting mutant p53 in a clinical setting based upon the cellular role of mutant p53 and data from genetic murine models. PMID:24442106

  12. Role of acetylcholinesterase in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Hui-Jun; Wu, Ren-Pei; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ling-Juan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in catalytic hydrolysis of cholinergic neurotransmitters. Intensive research has proven the involvement of this protein in novel functions, such as cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. In addition, several recent studies have indicated that acetylcholinesterase is potentially a marker and regulator of apoptosis. Importantly, AChE is also a promising tumor suppressor. In this review, we briefly summarize the involvement of AChE in apoptosis and cancer, focusing on the role of AChE in lung cancer, as well as the therapeutic consideration of AChE for cancer therapy. PMID:26273392

  13. Air pollution affects lung cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Cockburn, Myles; Shu, Yu-Hsiang; Deng, Huiyu; Lurmann, Frederick W; Liu, Lihua; Gilliland, Frank D

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been associated with increased lung cancer incidence and mortality, but due to the high case fatality rate, little is known about the impacts of air pollution exposures on survival after diagnosis. This study aimed to determine whether ambient air pollutant exposures are associated with the survival of patients with lung cancer. Participants were 352 053 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer during 1988-2009 in California, ascertained by the California Cancer Registry. Average residential ambient air pollutant concentrations were estimated for each participant's follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs relating air pollutant exposures to all-cause mortality overall and stratified by stage (localised only, regional and distant site) and histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and others) at diagnosis, adjusting for potential individual and area-level confounders. Adjusting for histology and other potential confounders, the HRs associated with 1 SD increases in NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 for patients with localised stage at diagnosis were 1.30 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.32), 1.04 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.05), 1.26 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.28) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.41), respectively. Adjusted HRs were smaller in later stages and varied by histological type within stage (p<0.01, except O3). The largest associations were for patients with early-stage non-small cell cancers, particularly adenocarcinomas. These epidemiological findings support the hypothesis that air pollution exposures after lung cancer diagnosis shorten survival. Future studies should evaluate the impacts of exposure reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Air Pollution Affects Lung Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Sandrah P; Cockburn, Myles; Shu, Yu-Hsiang; Deng, Huiyu; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Liu, Lihua; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been associated with increased lung cancer incidence and mortality but, due to the high case fatality rate, little is known about the impacts of air pollution exposures on survival after diagnosis. This study aimed to determine whether ambient air pollutant exposures are associated with lung cancer patient survival. Methods Participants were 352,053 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer during 1988–2009 in California, ascertained by the California Cancer Registry. Average residential ambient air pollutant concentrations were estimated for each participant’s follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) relating air pollutant exposures to all-cause mortality overall and stratified by stage (localized only, regional, and distant site) and histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and others) at diagnosis, adjusting for potential individual and area-level confounders. Results Adjusting for histology and other potential confounders, the HR associated with 1 standard deviation increases in NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 for patients with localized stage at diagnosis were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.28–1.32), 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02–1.05), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.25–1.28), and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.35–1.41), respectively. Adjusted HR were smaller in later stages, and varied by histological type within stage (p < 0.01, except O3). The largest associations were for patients with early stage non-small cell cancers, particularly adenocarcinomas. Conclusions These epidemiological findings support the hypothesis that air pollution exposures after lung cancer diagnosis shorten survival. Future studies should evaluate the impacts of exposure reduction. PMID:27491839

  15. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prevention and management of lung cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qun-Ying; Wu, Guo-Ming; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Liang-An; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Jing; Gong, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the incidence of lung cancer has grown rapidly, resulting in a large social and economic burden. Several researchers have devoted their studies to lung cancer and have demonstrated that there are many risk factors for lung cancer in China, including tobacco use, environmental pollution, food, genetics, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the lung cancer incidence is still growing rapidly in China, and there is an even higher incidence among the younger generation. One explanation may be the triple-neglect situation, in which medical policies that neglect prevention, diagnosis, and supportive care have increased patients' mortality and reduced their quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of prevention and early diagnosis not only by focusing more attention on treatment but also by drawing more attention to supportive care for patients with lung cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... You have many issues to cope with. . . Your oncology team along with family and friends are available ... Therapy Answers www.rtanswers.org ABOUT THE RADIATION ONCOLOGY TEAM Radiation oncologists are cancer doctors who also ...

  19. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  20. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M. Dawn; Woll, Penella J.; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66–1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63–1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67–1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75–4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85–3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. PMID:24947688

  1. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Jett, James; Stone, Emily; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-04-01

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer (such as parallel chronic tobacco use). Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the delta-9-tetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. US lung cancer trends by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Check, David P; Caporaso, Neil E; Travis, William D; Devesa, Susan S

    2014-09-15

    Lung cancer incidence rates overall are declining in the United States. This study investigated the trends by histologic type and demographic characteristics. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program rates of microscopically confirmed lung cancer overall and squamous cell, small cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell, other, and unspecified carcinomas among US whites and blacks diagnosed from 1977 to 2010 and white non-Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and white Hispanics diagnosed from 1992 to 2010 were analyzed by sex and age. Squamous and small cell carcinoma rates declined since the 1990s, although less rapidly among females than males. Adenocarcinoma rates decreased among males and only through 2005, after which they then rose during 2006 to 2010 among every racial/ethnic/sex group; rates for unspecified type declined. Male/female rate ratios declined among whites and blacks more than among other groups. Recent rates among young females were higher than among males for adenocarcinoma among all racial/ethnic groups and for other specified carcinomas among whites. US lung cancer trends vary by sex, histologic type, racial/ethnic group, and age, reflecting historical cigarette smoking rates, duration, cessation, cigarette composition, and exposure to other carcinogens. Substantial excesses among males have diminished and higher rates of adenocarcinoma among young females have emerged as rates among males declined more rapidly. The recognition of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangements that occur primarily in adenocarcinomas are the primary basis for the molecular revolution that has transformed lung cancer diagnosis and treatment over the past decade, and these changes have affected recent type-specific trends. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  3. Role of natural killer cells in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Ozge Nur; Öztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Erman, Baran; Erus, Suat; Tanju, Serhan; Dilege, Şükrü

    2018-06-01

    One of the key immune cells involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer is natural killer (NK) cells and these cells are novel targets for therapeutic applications in lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on lung cancer pathogenesis with a focus on the interaction between NK cells and smoking, how these factors are related to the pathogenesis of lung cancer and how NK cell-based immunotherapy effect lung cancer survival. The relevant literature from PubMed and Medline databases is reviewed in this article. The cytolytic potential of NK cells are reduced in lung cancer and increasing evidence suggests that improving NK cell functioning may induce tumor regression. Recent clinical trials on NK cell-based novel therapies such as cytokines including interleukin (IL)-15, IL-12 and IL-2, NK-92 cell lines and allogenic NK cell immunotherapy showed promising results with less adverse effects on the lung cancer survival. The NK cell targeting strategy has not yet been approved for lung cancer treatment. More clinical studies focusing on the role of NK cells in lung cancer pathogenesis are warranted to develop novel NK cell-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Lung cancer in shipbuilding and related industries in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, M S; Stedman, R B

    1979-09-01

    The relationship between shipbuilding and related industries and risk of fatal lung cancer (1960-1975) is described for selected Louisiana parishes. Deaths from lung cancer were matched to deaths not caused by cancer. Shipbuilders had a significantly increased risk (greater than twofold) of dying of lung cancer as compared with other causes. The risk of dying of lung cancer in related occupations (seamen and longshoremen) was also increased. Information on laterality of lung cancer was not supportive of particulate substances contributing to causality due to the large number of unspecified cases. The preponderance of deaths appears to be occurring in men with a greater number of years of exposure to this industry and in those aged 20 to 34 years in 1940. These common occupations in Louisiana could contribute to the high rate of lung cancer.

  5. Danshen improves survival of patients with advanced lung cancer and targeting the relationship between macrophages and lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Yuan; Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kuan, Feng-Che; Lin, Yin-Yin; Lin, Yu-Shih; Shu, Li-Hsin; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Liu, Hung Te; Lu, Ming-Chu; Lung, Jthau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hui Kuan; Lee, Kuan-Der; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (danshen) is widely used in the treatment of numerous cancers. However, its clinical effort and mechanism in the treatment of advanced lung cancer are unclear. In our study, the in vivo protective effort of danshen in patients with advanced lung cancer were validated using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We observed in vitro that dihydroisotanshinone I (DT), a bioactive compound in danshen, exerts anticancer effects through many pathways. First, 10 μM DT substantially inhibited the migration ability of lung cancer cells in both macrophage and macrophage/lung cancer direct mixed coculture media. Second, 10 μM DT repressed the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the protein expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2), and the mRNA levels of STAT3-related genes, including chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). In addition, 10 μM DT suppressed the macrophage recruitment ability of lung cancer cells by reducing CCL2 secretion from both macrophages and lung cancer cells. Third, 20 μM DT induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, DT treatment significantly inhibited the final tumor volume in a xenograft nude mouse model. In conclusion, danshen exerts protective efforts in patients with advanced lung cancer. These effects can be attributed to DT-mediated interruption of the cross talk between lung cancer cells and macrophages and blocking of lung cancer cell proliferation. PMID:29207614

  6. Racing Against Lung Cancer: Imaging Tools Help Patient in Cancer Fight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Against Lung Cancer Follow us Racing Against Lung Cancer Imaging tools help patient in cancer fight Photo: Courtesy of Ted Simon In early ... primary care doctor. The diagnosis? Stage 4 lung cancer—advanced cancer that had already spread to some ...

  7. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  8. ALK mutation and inhibition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tri; Gerber, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of precision medicine in non-small cell lung cancer has remarkably altered the direction of research and improved clinical outcomes. The identification of molecular subsets with differential response to targeted therapies began with the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor mutated tumors in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Emboldened by unprecedented response rates to kinase inhibitors seen in that subset, the oncologic community searched for other molecular subsets featuring oncogene addiction. An early result of this search was the discovery of NSCLC driven by activating rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. In an astoundingly brief period following the recognition of ALK-positive NSCLC, details of the biology, clinicopathologic features, development of targeted inhibitors, mechanisms of therapeutic resistance, and new generations of treatment were elucidated. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathologic features, diagnostic approach, treatment options, resistance mechanisms, and future research areas for ALK-positive NSCLC. PMID:27637426

  9. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  10. Docetaxel, Cisplatin, Pegfilgrastim, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB, II, or IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Was Completely Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-19

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  13. Meta-markers for the differential diagnosis of lung cancer and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-In; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Sung, Hye-Jin; Na, Sang-Su; Hwang, Jaesung; Kim, Yongdai; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-10-04

    Misdiagnosis of lung cancer remains a serious problem due to the difficulty of distinguishing lung cancer from other respiratory lung diseases. As a result, the development of serum-based differential diagnostic biomarkers is in high demand. In this study, 198 clinical serum samples from non-cancer lung disease and lung cancer patients were analyzed using nLC-MRM-MS for the levels of seven lung cancer biomarker candidates. When the candidates were assessed individually, only SERPINEA4 showed statistically significant changes in the serum levels. The MRM results and clinical information were analyzed using a logistic regression analysis to select model for the best 'meta-marker', or combination of biomarkers for differential diagnosis. Also, under consideration of statistical interaction, variables having low significance as a single factor but statistically influencing on meta-marker model were selected. Using this probabilistic classification, the best meta-marker was determined to be made up of two proteins SERPINA4 and PON1 with age factor. This meta-marker showed an enhanced differential diagnostic capability (AUC=0.915) for distinguishing the two patient groups. Our results suggest that a statistical model can determine optimal meta-markers, which may have better specificity and sensitivity than a single biomarker and thus improve the differential diagnosis of lung cancer and lung disease patients. Diagnosing lung cancer commonly involves the use of radiographic methods. However, an imaging-based diagnosis may fail to differentiate lung cancer from non-cancerous lung disease. In this study, we examined several serum proteins in the sera of 198 lung cancer and non-cancerous lung disease patients by multiple-reaction monitoring. We then used a combination of variables to generate a meta-marker model that is useful as a differential diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  17. Chapter 12: Yale lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Holford, Theodore R; Ebisu, Keita; McKay, Lisa; Oh, Cheongeun; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-07-01

    The age-period-cohort model is known to provide an excellent description of the temporal trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality. This analytic approach is extended to include the contribution of carcinogenesis models for smoking. Usefulness of this strategy is that it offers a way to temporally calibrate a model that is fitted to population data and it can be readily adopted for the consideration of many different models. In addition, it provides diagnostics that can suggest temporal limitations of a particular carcinogenesis model in describing population rates. Alternative carcinogenesis models can be embedded within this framework. The two-stage clonal expansion model is implemented here. The model was used to estimate the impact of tobacco control after dissemination of knowledge of the harmful effects of cigarette smoking by comparing the observed number of lung cancer deaths to those expected if there had been no control compared to an ideal of complete control in 1965. Results indicate that 35.2% and 26.5% of lung cancer deaths that could have been avoided actually were for males and females, respectively. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Lung cancer among women in north-east China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Williams, A. H.; Dai, X. D.; Blot, W.; Xu, Z. Y.; Sun, X. W.; Xiao, H. P.; Stone, B. J.; Yu, S. F.; Feng, Y. P.; Ershow, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer involving interviews with 965 female patients and 959 controls in Shenyang and Harbin, two industrial cities which have among the highest rates of lung cancer in China, revealed that cigarette smoking is the main causal factor and accounted for about 35% of the tumours among women. Although the amount smoked was low (the cases averaged eight cigarettes per day), the percentage of smokers among women over age 50 in these cities was nearly double the national average. Air pollution from coal burning stoves was implicated, as risks of lung cancer increased in proportion to years of exposure to 'Kang' and other heating devices indigenous to the region. In addition, the number of meals cooked by deep frying and the frequency of smokiness during cooking were associated with risk of lung cancer. More cases than controls reported workplace exposures to coal dust and to smoke from burning fuel. Elevated risks were observed for smelter workers and decreased risks for textile workers. Prior chronic bronchitis/emphysema, pneumonia, and recent tuberculosis contributed significantly to lung cancer risk, as did a history of tuberculosis and lung cancer in family members. Higher intake of carotene-rich vegetables was not protective against lung cancer in this population. The findings were qualitatively similar across the major cell types of lung cancer, except that the associations with smoking and previous lung diseases were stronger for squamous/oat cell cancers than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:2257230

  19. Association between overall environmental quality and lung cancer survival

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung cancer remains one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers in the United States. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the impact of cumulative environmental exposures on survival is not well understood. To address this...

  20. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Cancer.gov

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  1. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to

  2. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  3. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    PubMed

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  5. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  6. Fibronectin gene polymorphism in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, K; Gminski, J; Francuz, T; Syzdol, M; Polanska, D; Machalski, M; Brulinski, K; Magiera-Molendowska, H

    2001-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a glycoprotein component of connective tissue. It is involved in cancer progression. FN plays a role in non-neoplasmatic lung pathology in which fibronectin gene polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been studied. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency of two of fibronectin RFLPs: genotypes AB, AA, BB (HaeIII) and CD, CC, DD (MspI) in patients with lung cancer. The studied group consisted of 63 patients with squamous cell lung cancer and 53 controls without any malignant or proliferative disease. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes between lung cancer patients and controls.

  7. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  8. Inactivation of LLC1 gene in nonsmall cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyeong-Man; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Chowdhuri, Sinchita R.; Player, Audrey; Hames, Megan; Fukuoka, Junya; Meerzaman, Daoud; Dracheva, Tatiana; Sun, Zhifu; Yang, Ping; Jen, Jin

    2007-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression studies led us to identify a previously unknown gene, c20orf85, that is present in the normal lung epithelium, but absent or downregulated in most primary non-small cell lung cancers and lung cancer cell lines. We named this gene LLC1 for Low in Lung Cancer 1. LLC1 is located on chromosome 20q13.3 and has a 70% GC content in the promoter region. It has 4 exons and encodes a protein containing 137 amino acids. By in situ hybridization, we observed that LLC1 message is localized in normal lung bronchial epithelial cells, but absent in 13 of 14 lung adenocarcinoma and 9 out of 10 lung squamous carcinoma samples. Methylation at CpG sites of the LLC1 promoter was frequently observed in lung cancer cell lines and in a fraction of primary lung cancer tissues. Treatment with 5-aza deoxycytidine resulted in a reduced methylation of the LLC1 promoter concomitant with the increase of LLC1 expression. These results suggest that inactivation of LLC1 by means of promoter methylation is a frequent event in nonsmall cell lung cancer and may play a role in lung tumorigenesis. PMID:17304513

  9. From the lab - Noninvasive Lung Cancer Testing on the Horizon | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Testing on the Horizon Follow us Noninvasive Lung Cancer Testing on the Horizon A team of scientists, ... the nose and lung samples of patients with lung cancer. Studies have shown that the activity of certain ...

  10. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  11. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, P.A.; Archana, S.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S.K.; Shashidhar, H.P.; Sunitha, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients. PMID:23168702

  12. Occupational lung cancer in US women, 1984-1998.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cynthia F; Sullivan, Patricia A; Li, Jia; Walker, James T

    2011-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in US women, accounting for 72,130 deaths in 2006. In addition to smoking cessation, further reduction of the burden of lung cancer mortality can be made by preventing exposure to occupational lung carcinogens. Data for occupational exposures and health outcomes of US working women are limited. Population-based mortality data for 4,570,711 women who died between 1984 and 1998 in 27 US States were used to evaluate lung cancer proportionate mortality over time by the usual occupation and industry reported on death certificates. Lung cancer proportionate mortality ratios were adjusted for smoking, using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Analyses revealed that 194,382 white, 18,225 Black and 1,515 Hispanic women died 1984-1998 with lung cancer reported as the underlying cause of death. Following adjustment for smoking, significant excess proportionate lung cancer mortality was observed among US women working in the US manufacturing; transportation; retail trade; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; and nursing/personal care industries. Women employed in precision production, technical, managerial, professional specialty, and administrative occupations experienced some of the highest significantly excess proportionate lung cancer mortality during 1984-1998. The results of our study point to significantly elevated risks for lung cancer after adjustment for smoking among women in several occupations and industries. Because 6-17% of lung cancer in US males is attributable to known exposures to occupational carcinogens, and since synergistic interactions between cigarette smoke and other occupational lung carcinogens have been noted, it is important to continue research into the effects of occupational exposures on working men and women. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Urothelial bladder cancer with cavitary lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Anil; Lee, Jason; Born, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tends to remain superficial; however, in 5% to 20% of cases, it progresses to muscle invasion and, more rarely, can metastasize. TCC of the bladder primarily spreads via regional lymphatics. The most common sites of distant metastases of TCC are the liver, lung, mediastinum and bone. Long-term survival of patients with metastatic bladder cancer is rare. Patterns of pulmonary metastasis include multiple nodules, a solitary mass or interstitial micronodule. When multiple nodules are present, they are round and well-circumscribed, without calcification or cavitation. An unusual case of rapidly metastatic TCC to the lung causing large cavitary masses and nodules is presented. Imaging performed after the patient began chemotherapy revealed widespread necrosis of the metastatic cavitary masses causing moderate volume hemoptysis. PMID:21766082

  14. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical

  15. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  16. Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J; Dockery, Douglas W; Speizer, Frank E

    2004-11-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Key words: diesel exhaust, lung cancer, occupational exposure.

  17. Lung Cancer Occurrence in Never-Smokers: An Analysis of 13 Cohorts and 22 Cancer Registry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thun, Michael J; Hannan, Lindsay M; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Boffetta, Paolo; Buring, Julie E; Feskanich, Diane; Flanders, W. Dana; Jee, Sun Ha; Katanoda, Kota; Kolonel, Laurence N; Lee, I-Min; Marugame, Tomomi; Palmer, Julie R; Riboli, Elio; Sobue, Tomotaka; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wilkens, Lynne R; Samet, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Background Better information on lung cancer occurrence in lifelong nonsmokers is needed to understand gender and racial disparities and to examine how factors other than active smoking influence risk in different time periods and geographic regions. Methods and Findings We pooled information on lung cancer incidence and/or death rates among self-reported never-smokers from 13 large cohort studies, representing over 630,000 and 1.8 million persons for incidence and mortality, respectively. We also abstracted population-based data for women from 22 cancer registries and ten countries in time periods and geographic regions where few women smoked. Our main findings were: (1) Men had higher death rates from lung cancer than women in all age and racial groups studied; (2) male and female incidence rates were similar when standardized across all ages 40+ y, albeit with some variation by age; (3) African Americans and Asians living in Korea and Japan (but not in the US) had higher death rates from lung cancer than individuals of European descent; (4) no temporal trends were seen when comparing incidence and death rates among US women age 40–69 y during the 1930s to contemporary populations where few women smoke, or in temporal comparisons of never-smokers in two large American Cancer Society cohorts from 1959 to 2004; and (5) lung cancer incidence rates were higher and more variable among women in East Asia than in other geographic areas with low female smoking. Conclusions These comprehensive analyses support claims that the death rate from lung cancer among never-smokers is higher in men than in women, and in African Americans and Asians residing in Asia than in individuals of European descent, but contradict assertions that risk is increasing or that women have a higher incidence rate than men. Further research is needed on the high and variable lung cancer rates among women in Pacific Rim countries. PMID:18788891

  18. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Haley L; Tripathi, Satyendra C; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R; St John, Lisa S; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M; Roth, Jack A; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L; Heymach, John V; Swisher, Stephen G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2017-04-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these reinvigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAMs were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTLs from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTLs specific for serine proteases-induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(4); 319-29. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Impacts of lung and tumor volumes on lung dosimetry for nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weijie; Jia, Jing; Cao, Ruifen; Song, Jing; Hu, Liqin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of lung and tumor volumes on normal lung dosimetry in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT), and single full-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancers (NSCLC). All plans were designed to deliver a total dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions to PTV for the 32 NSCLC patients with various total (bilateral) lung volumes, planning target volumes (PTVs), and PTV locations. The ratio of the lung volume (total lung volume excluding the PTV volume) to the PTV volume (LTR) was evaluated to represent the impacts in three steps. (a) The least squares method was used to fit mean lung doses (MLDs) to PTVs or LTRs with power-law function in the population cohort (N = 32). (b) The population cohort was divided into three groups by LTRs based on first step and then by PTVs, respectively. The MLDs were compared among the three techniques in each LTR group (LG) and each PTV group (PG). (c) The power-law correlation was tested by using the adaptive radiation therapy (ART) planning data of individual patients in the individual cohort (N = 4). Different curves of power-law function with high R 2 values were observed between averaged LTRs and averaged MLDs for 3DCRT, ssIMRT, and VMAT, respectively. In the individual cohort, high R 2 values of fitting curves were also observed in individual patients in ART, although the trend was highly patient-specific. There was a more obvious correlation between LTR and MLD than that between PTV and MLD. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Interpretation of lung cancer study outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Diego; Abbate, Marida; Bidoli, Paolo; Pelizzoni, Davide; Canova, Stefania

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. However, in the last few years we observed an important acceleration in drug development due to oncogenic driver tumors discovery. Sharing and putting together preclinical data from benchmark and data from clinical research is the scientific paradigm that allows real breakthrough in clinical practice in this field, but only a few targeted agents are worthy and practice changing. The clinical research and proper use of statistical methodology are the pillars to continue to achieve important goals like improvement of overall survival. A good medical oncologist should be able to critically read a scientific paper and move from the observed outcomes into clinical perspective. Despite clinical improvements, sometimes the union of promising targeted agents and optimistic expectations misrepresent the reality and the value of clinical research. In this article, we try to analyze the meaning of statistical assumptions from clinical trials, especially in lung cancer, through a critical review of the concept of value-based medicine. We also attempt to give the reader some practical tools to weigh scientific value of literature reports.

  1. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Less-known forces are involved in the etiology of lung cancer and have relevant implications for providers in ameliorating care. The purpose of this article is to discuss theories of causation of lung cancer using historical analyses of the evolution of the disease and incorporating related explanations integrating the relationships of science, nursing, medicine, and society. Literature from 160 years was searched and Thagard’s model of causation networks was used to exhibit how nursing and medicine were significant influences in lung cancer causation theory. Disease causation interfaces with sociological norms of behavior to form habits and rates of health behavior. Historically, nursing was detrimentally manipulated by the tobacco industry, engaging in harmful smoking behaviors, thus negatively affecting patient care. Understanding the underlying history behind lung cancer causation may empower nurses to play an active role in a patient’s health. PMID:28462309

  3. Microscopic FTIR studies of lung cancer cells in pleural fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Wang, H C; Huang, Y J

    1997-10-01

    Structural changes associated with lung cancer and tuberculous cells in pleural fluid were studied by microscopic FTIR spectroscopy. Infrared spectra demonstrate significant spectral differences between normal, lung cancer and tuberculous cells. The ratio of the peak intensities of the 1030 and 1080 cm-1 bands (originated mainly in glycogen and phosphodiester groups of nucleic acids) differs greatly between normal and lung cancer samples. Such findings prompt the consideration that recording infrared spectra from lung cancer and tuberculous cells may be of diagnostic value. Since measurements of IR spectra of lung cancer cells in the pleural fluid can be a very rapid inexpensive process, our finding warrant exploration of this possibility in the investigation of the mechanism whereby the environmental pollution related cancers develop.

  4. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Components Necessary for High-Quality Lung Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Charles A.; Arenberg, Douglas; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

  6. Lung cancer biology: a genetic and genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, M

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer in most western countries and, as tobacco consumption is not significantly decreasing worldwide, will remain so in the coming decades. Thus, in addition to preventing uptake and encouraging cessation of the smoking habit, it is important to invest in understanding the biology of this type of cancer. Of particular interest are the recent efforts directed towards characterising the entire set of gene alterations in lung cancer. The present review describes the catalogue of known genetic alterations in lung cancer, their biological role and their use in clinical management.

  7. Blockade of Tumor-Expressed PD-1 promotes lung cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shisuo; McCall, Neal; Park, Kyewon; Guan, Qing; Fontina, Paolo; Ertel, Adam; Zhan, Tingting; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is the standard of care for treating many patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet mechanisms of treatment failure are emerging. We present a case of NSCLC, who rapidly progressed during a trial (NCT02318771) combining palliative radiotherapy and pembrolizumab. Planned tumor biopsy demonstrated PD-1 expression by NSCLC cells. We validated this observation by detecting PD-1 transcript in lung cancer cells and by co-localizing PD-1 and lung cancer-specific markers in resected lung cancer tissues. We further investigated the biological role of cancer-intrinsic PD-1 in a mouse lung cancer cell line, M109. Knockout or antibody blockade of PD-1 enhanced M109 viability in-vitro, while PD-1 overexpression and exposure to recombinant PD-L1 diminished viability. PD-1 blockade accelerated growth of M109-xenograft tumors with increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis in immune-deficient mice. This represents a first-time report of NSCLC-intrinsic PD-1 expression and a potential mechanism by which PD-1 blockade may promote cancer growth. PMID:29632720

  8. Directed therapies in lung cancer: new hope?

    PubMed

    Parente Lamelas, Isaura; Abal Arca, José; Fírvida Pérez, José Luis

    2012-10-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is a serious health problem due to its high incidence and mortality. Surgery is the most effective therapeutic strategy in this type of tumor, but in recent years new drugs are being investigated that target specific components of the tumor cells, improving survival in patients with advanced disease and relapse. We present a review of individualized treatments in LC, particularly therapies that inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it; International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld.; Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried outmore » on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  11. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition ofmore » cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC

  12. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  13. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao1966@sina.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved inmore » the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.« less

  14. Radon and lung cancer: assessing and mitigating the risk.

    PubMed

    Choi, Humberto; Mazzone, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. Its progenies emit alpha particles capable of causing tissue damage. Radon exposure is estimated to be the second most common cause of lung cancer in the United States. Management of patients with a history of radon exposure should involve a lung cancer specialist. Copyright© 2014 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  15. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An...Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...August 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2013 – 31 July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized

  16. Current and Prospective Protein Biomarkers of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zamay, Tatiana N.; Zamay, Galina S.; Kolovskaya, Olga S.; Zukov, Ruslan A.; Petrova, Marina M.; Gargaun, Ana; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Due to the great diversity in the molecular-biological features of lung cancer histological types, detection is impossible without knowledge of the nature and origin of malignant cells, which release certain protein biomarkers into the bloodstream. To date, different panels of biomarkers are used for screening. Unfortunately, a uniform serum biomarker composition capable of distinguishing lung cancer types is yet to be discovered. As such, histological analyses of tumor biopsies and immunohistochemistry are the most frequently used methods for establishing correct diagnoses. Here, we discuss the recent advances in conventional and prospective aptamer based strategies for biomarker discovery. Aptamers like artificial antibodies can serve as molecular recognition elements for isolation detection and search of novel tumor-associated markers. Here we will describe how these small synthetic single stranded oligonucleotides can be used for lung cancer biomarker discovery and utilized for accurate diagnosis and targeted therapy. Furthermore, we describe the most frequently used in-clinic and novel lung cancer biomarkers, which suggest to have the ability of differentiating between histological types of lung cancer and defining metastasis rate. PMID:29137182

  17. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  18. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Gulin Ucmak

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-(18F)-flouro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has emerged as a useful tool in the clinical work-up of lung cancer. This review article provides an overview of applications of PET in diagnosis, staging, treatment response evaluation, radiotherapy planning, recurrence assessment and prognostication of lung cancer. PMID:24914421

  19. Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Primary Lung Cancer Mimicking Benign Entities.

    PubMed

    Snoeckx, Annemie; Dendooven, Amélie; Carp, Laurens; Desbuquoit, Damien; Spinhoven, Maarten J; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive. Whereas 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography is the cornerstone in staging of lung cancer, its role in diagnosis of these uncommon manifestations is less straightforward since benign entities can present with increased 18 F-FDG-uptake and, on the other hand, a number of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations do not exhibit increased uptake. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for both lesion detection and characterization. In this pictorial review we present the wide imaging spectrum of CT-findings as well as radiologic-pathologic correlation of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations. Knowledge of the many faces of lung cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary approach in these cases is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lung Cancer Assistant: a hybrid clinical decision support application for lung cancer care.

    PubMed

    Sesen, M Berkan; Peake, Michael D; Banares-Alcantara, Rene; Tse, Donald; Kadir, Timor; Stanley, Roz; Gleeson, Fergus; Brady, Michael

    2014-09-06

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are becoming the model of care for cancer patients worldwide. While MDTs have improved the quality of cancer care, the meetings impose substantial time pressure on the members, who generally attend several such MDTs. We describe Lung Cancer Assistant (LCA), a clinical decision support (CDS) prototype designed to assist the experts in the treatment selection decisions in the lung cancer MDTs. A novel feature of LCA is its ability to provide rule-based and probabilistic decision support within a single platform. The guideline-based CDS is based on clinical guideline rules, while the probabilistic CDS is based on a Bayesian network trained on the English Lung Cancer Audit Database (LUCADA). We assess rule-based and probabilistic recommendations based on their concordances with the treatments recorded in LUCADA. Our results reveal that the guideline rule-based recommendations perform well in simulating the recorded treatments with exact and partial concordance rates of 0.57 and 0.79, respectively. On the other hand, the exact and partial concordance rates achieved with probabilistic results are relatively poorer with 0.27 and 0.76. However, probabilistic decision support fulfils a complementary role in providing accurate survival estimations. Compared to recorded treatments, both CDS approaches promote higher resection rates and multimodality treatments.

  1. CANCER OF THE LUNG IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ottoman, Richard E.; Stein, Justin J.

    1960-01-01

    Cancer of the lung in women has the same signs and symptoms as in men, but the disease seems to advance more rapidly. Of 35 female patients, half were under radiation therapy (for inoperable tumor) within four months after the first manifestation. In three of the five who had no symptoms, the cancer when diagnosed was inoperable. Scalene node biopsy confirmed metastasis in nine of the eleven cases in which it was used, and this procedure should be used after diagnosis whenever metastasis is not evident. Of the 35 women, two received only chemotherapy, 32 radiotherapy. Only four were alive at the time of report—one without evidence of disease at 20 months, one with symptoms of disease at 11 months, two under chemotherapy at two months, For 29 who received palliative or radical irradiation to the primary tumor site, the median survival time was 26 weeks. PMID:14429438

  2. Paraneoplastic syndromes related to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mary T

    2010-06-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are defined as signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations that are remote from the primary tumor site or metastases. Many cancers are associated with PNSs; however, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most prevalent. In SCLC, the systems primarily affected by PNSs include the endocrine system, the neurologic system, and the integumental system. This article provides an overview of primary disorders and classical syndromes, as well as symptom management associated with each system. PNSs are rare, and the best approach is to treat the underlying tumor. Therefore, oncology nurses and other healthcare practitioners should be familiar with PNSs so that they can take prompt and proper courses of action, potentially leading to positive outcomes for patients.

  3. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Haley L.; Tripathi, Satyendra C.; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R.; St. John, Lisa S.; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M.; Roth, Jack A.; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L.; Heymach, John V.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Bernantchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these re-invigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAM were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTL from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTL specific for serine proteases–induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. PMID:28254787

  4. Serum biochemical markers in lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, R. W.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Stack, B. H.; Cuthbert, J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Corker, C. S.; Franchimont, P.; Spilg, W. G.; Stimson, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated serum levels of 5 potential tumour-associated antigens was determined in patients with lung cancer sampled at the time of initial presentation, using age- and sex-matched patients with benign lung disease as controls. Elevated levels (greater than upper 95th centile of controls) were found as follows: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 17%; pregnancy-associated alpha-macroglobulin (PAM), 16%; casein 14%; human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) 6%; alpha-foetoprotein (AFP), 1.5%. The prevalence of elevated CEA levels (but not other markers) was higher in patients with evidence of extra-thoracic tumour spread (23%) mainly due to anaplastic tumours and adenocarcinomas. A degree of concordance of elevated marker levels occurred with CEA, HCG, casein and AFP, but there was a striking discordance of elevated CEA and PAM levels. Simultaneous assays of CEA and PAM will detect the majority of patients with elevations of any of the markers studied, and are likely to be the most useful biochemical markers in following the response of lung tumours to therapy. PMID:77672

  5. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  6. Survival in patients with metachronous second primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Duc; Choi, Humberto; Chevalier, Cory; Zell, Katrina; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Mazzone, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Four to 10% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer subsequently develop a metachronous second primary lung cancer. The decision to perform surveillance or screening imaging for patients with potentially cured lung cancer must take into account the outcomes expected when detecting metachronous second primaries. To assess potential survival differences between patients with metachronous second primary lung cancer compared to matched patients with first primary lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lung cancer at the Cleveland Clinic (2006-2010). Metachronous second primary lung cancer was defined as lung cancer diagnosed after a 4-year, disease-free interval from the first lung cancer, or if there were two different histologic subtypes diagnosed at different times. Patients with first primary lung cancer diagnosed in the same time period served as control subjects. Propensity score matching was performed using age, sex, smoking history, histologic subtype, and collaborative stage, with a 1:3 case-control ratio. Survival analyses were performed by Cox proportional hazards modeling and Kaplan-Meier estimates. Forty-four patients met criteria for having a metachronous second primary lung cancer. There were no statistically significant differences between case subjects and control subjects in prognostic variables. The median survival time and 2-year overall survival rate for the metachronous second primary group, compared with control subjects, were as follows: 11.8 versus 18.4 months (P = 0.18) and 31.0 versus 40.9% (P = 0.28). The survival difference was largest in those with stage I metachronous second primaries (median survival time, 26.8 vs. 60.4 mo, P = 0.09; 2-year overall survival, 56.3 vs. 71.2%, P = 0.28). Patients with stage I metachronous second primary lung cancer may have worse survival than those who present with a first primary lung cancer. This could influence the benefit-risk balance of screening the high-risk cohort with

  7. [Strategies for lung cancer with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Nobuhiro; Kishimoto, Koji; Suehiro, Shouichi; Oda, Teiji; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2015-04-01

    For lung cancer surgery which merged ischemic heart disease to need coronary artery treatments, the strategy is demanded on the timing of each treatment. Our department conforms to American College of Chest Physicians( ACCP) guideline and treatment strategies are decided as follows. 1) If right heart load has already occurred, we choose limited surgery for lung cancer. 2) Two-stage surgery is performed with principle. Coronary artery treatment is given priority to against left main trunk disease and unstable angina. 3) Simultaneous surgery is chosen for lung cancer more than stage II or lung cancer pressing neighboring organ and vessel not to be able to wait coronary artery treatments. Since 2007, we performed 4 simultaneous surgeries and experienced 3 pneumonia cases, 1 patient died in 5 months. We must decide a strategy in consideration of progress of the lung cancer and cardiac urgency.

  8. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cancer is urgently needed. Biosensor-based techniques have been recently recommended as a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of lung tumor markers. This paper reviews the recent development in screening and biosensor-based techniques for early lung cancer detection. PMID:29065541

  9. Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Meuwissen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    To date a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) mouse models have been developed that mimic human lung cancer. Chemically induced or spontaneous lung cancer in susceptible inbred strains has been widely used, but the more recent genetically engineered somatic mouse models recapitulate much better the genotype-phenotype correlations found in human lung cancer. Additionally, improved orthotopic transplantation of primary human cancer tissue fragments or cells into lungs of immune-compromised mice can be valuable tools for preclinical research such as antitumor drug tests. Here we give a short overview of most somatic mouse models for lung cancer that are currently in use. We accompany each different model with a description of its practical use and application for all major lung tumor types, as well as the intratracheal injection or direct injection of fresh or freeze-thawed tumor cells or tumor cell lines into lung parenchyma of recipient mice. All here presented somatic mouse models are based on the ability to (in) activate specific alleles at a time, and in a tissue-specific cell type, of choice. This spatial-temporal controlled induction of genetic lesions allows the selective introduction of main genetic lesions in an adult mouse lung as found in human lung cancer. The resulting conditional somatic mouse models can be used as versatile powerful tools in basic lung cancer research and preclinical translational studies alike. These distinctively advanced lung cancer models permit us to investigate initiation (cell of origin) and progression of lung cancer, along with response and resistance to drug therapy. Cre/lox or FLP/frt recombinase-mediated methods are now well-used techniques to develop tissue-restricted lung cancer in mice with tumor-suppressor gene and/or oncogene (in)activation. Intranasal or intratracheal administration of engineered adenovirus-Cre or lentivirus-Cre has been optimized for introducing Cre

  10. Severity of pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer: analysis using quantitative lobar emphysema scoring

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kyungsoo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Ho Cheol; Ha, Ji Young; Park, Sung Eun; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Bo Hwa; Cho, Soo Buem; Moon, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between lobar severity of emphysema and lung cancer using automated lobe segmentation and emphysema quantification methods. This study included 78 patients (74 males and 4 females; mean age of 72 years) with the following conditions: pathologically proven lung cancer, available chest computed tomographic (CT) scans for lobe segmentation, and quantitative scoring of emphysema. The relationship between emphysema and lung cancer was analyzed using quantitative emphysema scoring of each pulmonary lobe. The most common location of cancer was the left upper lobe (LUL) (n = 28), followed by the right upper lobe (RUL) (n = 27), left lower lobe (LLL) (n = 13), right lower lobe (RLL) (n = 9), and right middle lobe (RML) (n = 1). Emphysema ratio was the highest in LUL, followed by that in RUL, LLL, RML, and RLL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that upper lobes (odds ratio: 1.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–3.11, P = 0.048) and lobes with emphysema ratio ranked the 1st or the 2nd (odds ratio: 2.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.48–4.15, P < 0.001) were significantly and independently associated with lung cancer development. In emphysema patients, lung cancer has a tendency to develop in lobes with more severe emphysema. PMID:27902611

  11. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Banat, G-Andre; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weigert, Andreas; Olesch, Catherine; Ebel, Katharina; Stiewe, Thorsten; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Fink, Ludger; Savai, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+), cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+), T-helper cells (CD4+), B cells (CD20+), macrophages (CD68+), mast cells (CD117+), mononuclear cells (CD11c+), plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+), B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+) and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+) compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells) in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition. PMID:26413839

  12. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  13. Squamous cell lung cancer in a male with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Skowroński, Marcin; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Halicka, Anna; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent and representing major public health issues. They share common risk factors and clinical manifestations. It is also suggested that TB predicts raised lung cancer risk likely related to chronic inflammation in the lungs. However, it does not seem to influence the clinical course of lung cancer provided that it is properly treated. We present a case report of a 57-year old male with concurrent TB and lung cancer. He was diagnosed with positive sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and subsequent culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Besides, his comorbid conditions were chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Later while on anti-tuberculous treatment (ATT) squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. Due to poor general condition the patient was not fit for either surgery or radical chemo- and radiotherapy. He was transferred to hospice for palliative therapy. We want to emphasize that both TB and lung cancer should be actively sought for in patients with either disorder. In addition, there is no doubt that these patients with lung cancer and with good response to TB treatment should be promptly considered for appropriate anticancer therapy.

  14. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Lung cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. An interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Rubbert-Roth, A; Zander, T; Kneitz, C; Baerwald, C; Wirtz, H; Witt, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is a frequently occurring disease, particularly in the elderly; however, within the last 10 years the pharmaceutical treatment of lung cancer has been significantly improved. Due to a better understanding of the pathophysiological events and the identification of molecular subgroups of lung tumors, new therapeutic drugs have been developed that significantly prolong survival of patients with the respective molecular pattern. In particular immunotherapeutic agents, such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death 1 (PD1) antibodies have shown promising clinical results in a subgroup of lung cancer patients. Due to the high incidence of both lung cancer and rheumatic diseases they often occur together, which necessitates an interdisciplinary management. The success of improved therapy of lung cancer has led to a greater focus on the treatment of comorbidities; however, interventions into the immune system by immune checkpoint inhibitors can lead to new challenges when an autoimmune disease is simultaneously present. The possibility of an effective screening for lung cancer in the future also presents the prospect of an improvement in mortality, which raises the question of the optimal monitoring of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) under immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this review is to discuss the interaction between lung cancer and RA with respect to the currently available data.

  16. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In thismore » study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.« less

  18. Mig6 Puts the Brakes on Mutant EGFR-Driven Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. These cancers are often induced by mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), resulting in constitutive activation of the protein’s tyrosine kinase domain. Lung cancers expressing these EGFR mutants are initially sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, but often

  19. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Aditya Navile; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Prasanth; Selvaluxmy, Ganesarajah; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Sundersingh, Shirley; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46%) were positive. Results Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS) was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries. PMID:29094084

  20. Psychosocial needs of older cancer patients: a pilot study abstract.

    PubMed

    Houldin, A D; Wasserbauer, N

    1996-08-01

    Approximately 50% of all cancers occur in persons aged 65 and over (American Cancer Society, 1994). However, the special psychological problems of these patients have been inadequately addressed (Massie & Holland, 1989). The psychosocial needs of older cancer patients were surveyed in this pilot study. Two-thirds of the older adults surveyed experienced concerns or problems. Almost 50% of the sample did not receive adequate assistance in dealing with their emotional needs and 69% did not receive sufficient spiritual support. Older cancer patients experience psychosocial distress and may benefit from professional assistance in dealing with these concerns.

  1. Immune system alterations in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Grilli, M; Carughi, S; Puzzolante, F; De Cata, A; La Viola, M; Giuliani, A; Urbano, N; Tarquini, R; Perfetto, F

    2003-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the defense against neoplastic disease and immune responses show temporal changes related to circadian variations of antibodies, total lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and cell mediated immune responses. In this study we evaluate. lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum levels in peripheral blood samples collected at four-hour intervals for 24-hours starting at 06.00 h from ten healthy subjects aged 65-79 years (mean age +/- s.e. 67.28 +/- 3.11) and from ten subjects suffering from untreated non small cell lung cancer aged 65-78 years (mean age +/- s.e. 68.57 +/- 1.81). Areas under the curve, mean diurnal levels (mean of 06.00-10.00-14.00 h) and mean nocturnal levels (mean of 18.00-22.00-02.00 h) were calculated, and the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluate. When we compared AUC values there was a decrease in CD8bright (T suppressor subset) and an increase in CD16 (natural killer cells) and of IL-2 serum levels in cancer patients. When we compared mean diurnal levels, CD8 (T suppressor/cytotoxic subset) and CD8bright levels were lower, and CD16 levels were higher in cancer patients. When we compared mean nocturnal levels, CD16 and CD25 (T and B activated lymphocytes with expression of the a chain of IL-2 receptor) levels were higher, while CD8, CD8bright, CD20 (total B-cells), TcRd1 (epitope of the constant domain of d chain of T-cell receptor 1) and dTcS1 (epitope of the variable domain of d chain of T-cell receptor1) levels were lower in cancer patients. A clear circadian rhythm was validated for the time-qualified changes in CD4, CD20, HLA-DR with acrophase at night, and CD8, CD8 bright, CD8 dim, CD16, TcRd1 and dTcS1 with acrophase in the morning in the control group. A clear circadian rhythm was validated for the time-qualified changes in CD4 with acrophase at night, in the group of cancer patients. Results obtained in our study show that lung cancer is associated with anomalies of

  2. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  3. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; White, N W; Chan-Yeung, M M

    2004-09-01

    In industrialised countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of etiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning, or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective while preserved food and fatty food are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papilloma virus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organisations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco.

  4. Liquid biopsy for early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins. However, none of these biomarkers have yet been adopted in routine clinical practice and studies are ongoing to confirm or not the usefulness and practical interest in routine early diagnosis and screening for lung cancers. Several potential circulating biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer exist. When coupled to thoracic imaging, these biomarkers must give diagnosis of a totally resectable lung cancer and potentially provide new recommendations for surveillance by imagery of high-risk populations without a detectable nodule. Optimization of the specificity and sensitivity of the detection methods as well as standardization of the techniques is essential before considering for daily practice a liquid biopsy as an early diagnostic tool, or possibly as a predictive test, of lung cancer.

  5. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullapudi, Nandita; Ye, Bin; Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D; Spivack, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents.

  6. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  7. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. Methods A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940–2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Results Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure–response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m3 Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20–25 years. Conclusions These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m3 Cd. PMID:22271639

  8. EGFR and Ras regulate DDX59 during lung cancer development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Zhang, Hanyin; Chen, Dan; Ding, Peikun; Yuan, Yunchang; Zhang, Yandong

    2018-02-05

    Oncogenes EGFR and ras are frequently mutated and activated in human lung cancers. In this report, we found that both EGFR and Ras signaling can upregulate RNA helicase DDX59 in lung cancer cells. DDX59 can be induced through the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway after EGFR or Ras activation. Inhibitors for Ras/Raf/MAP pathway significantly decreased DDX59 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Through immunohistochemistry, we found that DDX59 protein expression correlated with Ras and EGFR mutation status in human lung adenocarcinoma. Finally, through a xenograft nude mice model, we demonstrated that DDX59 is pivotal for EGFR mutated lung cancer cell growth in vivo. Our study identified a novel protein downstream of Ras and EGFR, which may serve as a potential therapeutic drug target for lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiologic characteristics of compensated occupational lung cancers among Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung Sook

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of occupational lung cancer is important to establish policies that prevent carcinogen exposure and to compensate workers exposed to lung carcinogens. This study analyzed the characteristics of occupational lung cancers in workers who were compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Law between 1994 and 2011. A total of 179 occupational lung cancers were compensated. The main carcinogenic exposure was asbestos, followed by crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium. The mean exposure duration and latency were 19.8 and 23.2 yr. The most common industry was manufacturing, followed by construction and transportation. The most common occupation was maintenance and repair, followed by foundry work, welding, painting, and spinning or weaving. Although asbestos was predominant carcinogen, the proportion of these cases was relatively low compared to other developed countries. Proper surveillance system is needed to monitor occupational lung cancer and improve prevention measures.

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  11. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  12. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  13. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. Patients and methods. Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. Results. We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. Conclusion. Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF. PMID:23412843

  14. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  15. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. PMID:25593996

  16. Lung cancer stem cells and implications for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Ze-hong; White, James; Zhang, Lin-bo

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most dreaded of all cancers because of the higher mortality rates associated with it worldwide. The various subtypes of lung cancer respond differently to a particular treatment regime, which makes the therapeutic interventions all the more complicated. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is based primarily on the clinical and experimental observations that indicate the existence of a subpopulation of cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate as well as show increased resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. They are considered as the factors responsible for the cases of tumor relapse. The CSCs may have significant role in the development of lung tumorigenesis based on the identification of the CSCs which respond during injury. The properties of multi-potency and self-renewal are shared in common by the lung CSCs with the normal pluripotent stem cells which can be isolated using the similar markers. This review deals with the origin and characteristics of the lung cancer stem cells. The role of different markers used to isolate lung CSCs like CD44, ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase), CD133 and ABCG2 (ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2) have been discussed in detail. Analysis of the developmental signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, hedgehog in the regulation and maintenance of the lung CSCs have been done. Finally, before targeting the lung CSC biomarkers for potential therapeutics, challenges faced in lung cancer stem cell research need to be taken into account. With the accepted notion that the CSCs are to blame for cancer relapse and drug resistance, targeting them can be an important aspect of lung cancer therapy in the future.

  17. Cell-surface marker discovery for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Allison S.; Khalil, Farah K.; Welsh, Eric A.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Enkemann, Steven A.; Davis, Andrea; Zhou, Jun-Min; Boulware, David C.; Kim, Jongphil; Haura, Eric B.; Morse, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Novel lung cancer targeted therapeutic and molecular imaging agents are needed to improve outcomes and enable personalized care. Since these agents typically cannot cross the plasma membrane while carrying cytotoxic payload or imaging contrast, discovery of cell-surface targets is a necessary initial step. Herein, we report the discovery and characterization of lung cancer cell-surface markers for use in development of targeted agents. To identify putative cell-surface markers, existing microarray gene expression data from patient specimens were analyzed to select markers with differential expression in lung cancer compared to normal lung. Greater than 200 putative cell-surface markers were identified as being overexpressed in lung cancers. Ten cell-surface markers (CA9, CA12, CXorf61, DSG3, FAT2, GPR87, KISS1R, LYPD3, SLC7A11 and TMPRSS4) were selected based on differential mRNA expression in lung tumors vs. non-neoplastic lung samples and other normal tissues, and other considerations involving known biology and targeting moieties. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and scoring of patient tumor and normal tissue samples. As further validation, marker expression was determined in lung cancer cell lines using microarray data and Kaplan–Meier survival analyses were performed for each of the markers using patient clinical data. High expression for six of the markers (CA9, CA12, CXorf61, GPR87, LYPD3, and SLC7A11) was significantly associated with worse survival. These markers should be useful for the development of novel targeted imaging probes or therapeutics for use in personalized care of lung cancer patients. PMID:29371917

  18. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims we identified 597 patients age ≥65 with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart or lung) prior to cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Results Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (p=0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (p<0.05) while lung transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and non-transplant patients. Conclusions Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than non-transplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these two groups. PMID:25839704

  19. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  20. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W...CONTRACT NUMBER Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 5c...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) has become a new standard of care for early stage lung

  1. Primary lung cancer coexisting with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Y; Varol, U; Unlu, M; Kayaalp, I; Ayranci, A; Dereli, M S; Guclu, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity is a clinical problem that presents a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. To clarify the clinical and survival characteristics of cases with both lung cancer and active pulmonary TB. From 2008 to 2013, 3350 TB patients admitted to the TB Department of the Chest Diseases Hospital of Izmir, Turkey, were evaluated. In 38 (1.1%) male patients, lung cancer and TB were found to coexist. Almost all of the patients were diagnosed at Stage III (n = 14, 36.8%) or IV (n = 17, 44.7%) lung cancer, whereas four (10.6%) had Stage II and three (7.9%) had Stage I disease. Squamous cell lung cancer was the predominant histology (n = 23, 60.7%). The median overall survival among patients was 13.4 months (95%CI 8.09-18.8). One-year survival rates for patients with Stages I, II, III and IV were respectively 100%, 75%, 57% and 40%. The present study demonstrates that lung cancer combined with active pulmonary TB most frequently presents as squamous cell carcinoma, with a male predominance. The overall survival of lung cancer patients did not change even with concomitant active TB.

  2. Lung cancer in HIV infected patients: facts, questions and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cadranel, J; Garfield, D; Lavolé, A; Wislez, M; Milleron, B; Mayaud, C

    2006-01-01

    AIDS related mortality has fallen sharply in industrialised countries since 1996 following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. This has been accompanied by an increase in the proportion of deaths attributable to non‐AIDS defining solid tumours, especially lung cancer. The risk of developing lung cancer seems to be higher in HIV infected subjects than in the general population of the same age, partly because the former tend more frequently to be smokers and, especially, intravenous drug users. The carcinogenic role of the antiretroviral nucleoside drugs and their interaction with smoking needs to be examined. Interestingly, there is no clear relationship between the degree of immunosuppression and the risk of lung cancer, so the reason for the increased risk is unknown. The mean age of HIV infected patients at the time of lung cancer diagnosis is 45 years and most are symptomatic. Lung cancer is diagnosed when locally advanced or metastatic (stage III–IV) in 75–90% of cases, similar to patients with unknown HIV status. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The prognosis is worse in HIV infected patients than in the general lung cancer population. Efficacy and toxicity data for chemotherapy and radiation therapy are few and imprecise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for localised disease in patients with adequate pulmonary function and general good health, regardless of immune status. Prospective clinical trials are needed to define the optimal detection and treatment strategies for lung cancer in HIV infected patients. PMID:17071836

  3. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer using exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-An; Li, Mingxiao; Knipp, Ralph J; Nantz, Michael H; Bousamra, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is a key factor for increasing the survival rates of lung cancer patients. The analysis of exhaled breath is promising as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of lung cancer. We demonstrate the quantitative analysis of carbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and identification of lung cancer VOC markers in exhaled breath using unique silicon microreactor technology. The microreactor consists of thousands of micropillars coated with an ammonium aminooxy salt for capture of carbonyl VOCs in exhaled breath by means of oximation reactions. Captured aminooxy-VOC adducts are analyzed by nanoelectrospray Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). The concentrations of 2-butanone, 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) in the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients (n = 97) were significantly higher than in the exhaled breath of healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls (n = 88) and patients with benign pulmonary nodules (n = 32). The concentration of 2-butanone in exhaled breath of patients (n = 51) with stages II though IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was significantly higher than in exhaled breath of patients with stage I (n = 34). The carbonyl VOC profile in exhaled breath determined using this new silicon microreactor technology provides for the noninvasive detection of lung cancer. PMID:24402867

  4. Relationships between lung cancer incidences and air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shihong; Wang, Yaru; Wang, Jianpei; Chen, Jun

    2017-07-20

    Statistics on lung cancer incidences and air pollutants show a strong correlation between air pollutant concentrations and pulmonary diseases. And environmental effects on lung cancer incidences remain highly unknown and uncertain in China. This study aims to measure the relationships between different air pollutants and lung cancer incidences in Tianjin. One thusand five hundred patients across 27 districts in Tianjin were studied for lung cancer incidences. The patients had come into contact with various air pollutants such as PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3. These pollutants were measured daily and were published via a Geographic Information System across the 27 districts of Tianjin. The air pollutant compositions of environments the patients lived in were determined using the nearest air monitoring station to the patient. And we used rough set theory to measure the relationships between different air pollutants and lung cancer incidences. Different air pollutants and combinations of pollutants impacted lung cancer incidences differently across different districts, sexes, and lung cancer types in Tianjin. Based on data analysis and interpretation, rough set theory provided data relationships that were objective and interpretable. The method is simple, general, and efficient, and lays the foundation for further applications in other cities.

  5. Epidemiology of lung cancer prognosis: quantity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is very heterogeneous in its clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment response; and like other diseases, the prognosis consists of two essential facets: survival and quality of life (QOL). Lung cancer survival is mostly determined by disease stage and treatment modality, and the 5-Year survival rate has been in a plateau of 15% for three decades. QOL is focused on life aspects that are affected by health conditions and medical interventions; the balance of physical functioning and suffering from treatment side effects has long been a concern of care providers as well as patients. Obviously needed are easily measurable biologic markers to stratify patients before treatment for optimal results in survival and QOL and to monitor treatment responses and toxicities. Targeted therapies toward the mechanisms of tumor development, growth, and metastasis are promising and actively translated into clinical practice. Long-term lung cancer (LTLC) survivors are people who are alive 5 Years after the diagnosis. Knowledge about the health and QOL in LTLC survivors is limited because outcome research in lung cancer has been focused mainly on short-term survival. The independent or combined effects of lung cancer treatment, aging, smoking and drinking, comorbid conditions, and psychosocial factors likely cause late effects, including organ malfunction, chronic fatigue, pain, or premature death among lung cancer survivors. New knowledge to be gained should help lung cancer survivors, their healthcare providers, and their caregivers by providing evidence for establishing clinical recommendations to enhance their long-term survival and health-related QOL.

  6. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times/week = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times/week = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Lung cancer treatment rates and the role of the lung cancer nurse specialist: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Judy; McDonnell, Ann; Borthwick, Diana; White, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study examines how the Lung Cancer Nurse Specialist (LCNS) role operates and why they may be able to increase access to treatment. Setting 4 Hospital NHS Foundation Trusts in England. Design A multiple case study design using semistructured interviews, observation and Framework Analysis techniques. Participants Four LCNSs, comprised the ‘cases’. Twenty four clinicians who worked with the LCNS participated in individual interviews. Six LCNSs took part in a group interview and 60 lung cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) members and co-ordinators were observed in the MDT meeting. Results The LCNS is crucial within the MDT and can act as a catalyst to patient access to treatment. The study identified the clinical activity (assessment, managing symptoms, psychological support and information provision) and role characteristics that can facilitate treatment access. These characteristics are the LCNS's presence across the patient pathway, acting as the ‘hub’ of the MDT, maintaining a holistic patient focus and working to an advanced level of practice. The findings indicate how factors may have a cumulative impact on treatment access. Conclusions If UK patient with lung cancer survival rates are to improve in line with comparable countries, we need to employ every advantage. This study demonstrates how the LCNS role may open doors to positive patient outcomes, including treatment. Further research is required to explore patients’ experiences, decision-making and attitudes to treatment. PMID:26685023

  8. Anetumab Ravtansine and Atezolizumab in Treating Participants With Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-12

    Mesothelin Positive; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7

  9. 78 FR 40485 - Lung Cancer Patient-Focused Drug Development; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... patients' perspectives for the two main types of lung cancer (small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer) on..., because of lung cancer? (Examples may include sleeping through the night, climbing stairs, household...] Lung Cancer Patient-Focused Drug Development; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. Silica, compensated silicosis, and lung cancer in Western Australian goldminers

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, N. H.; Musk, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Silica has recently been reclassified as carcinogenic to humans based largely on the observed increase in rates of lung cancer in subjects with silicosis. Other recent reviews have arrived at different conclusions as to whether silicosis or silica itself is carcinogenic. This study aims to examine exposure-response relations between exposure to silica and subsequent silicosis and lung cancer in a cohort of goldminers. METHODS: 2,297 goldminers from Kalgoorlie in Western Australia were examined in 1961, 1974, and 1975. Data were collected on respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and employment history. Subjects were followed up to the end of 1993. Survival analyses for lung cancer mortality and incidence of compensated silicosis were performed with age and year matched conditional logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: 89% of the cohort were traced to the end of 1993. 84% of the men had smoked at some time and 66% were current smokers. 1386 deaths occurred during the follow up period, 138 from lung cancer, and 631 subjects were compensated for silicosis. A strong effect of smoking on mortality from lung cancer, and a smaller effect on the incidence of compensated silicosis was found. There was a strong effect of duration and intensity of exposure on the incidence of silicosis. The risk of mortality from lung cancer increased after compensation for silicosis. Of all direct measures of exposure to silica, only log cumulative exposure was significantly related to incidence of lung cancer, but this effect disappeared once the onset of silicosis was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of silicosis was clearly related to exposure to silica and the onset of silicosis conferred a significant increase in risk for subsequent lung cancer, but there was no evidence that exposure to silica caused lung cancer in the absence of silicosis.   PMID:9624278

  11. A Review of Lung Cancer Research in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kan, C S; Chan, K M J

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  12. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  13. Advances in immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Reckamp, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    In most patients, lung cancer presents as advanced disease with metastases to lymph nodes and/or distant organs, and survival is poor. Lung cancer is also a highly immune-suppressing malignancy with numerous methods to evade antitumor immune responses, including deficiencies in antigen processing and presentation, release of immunomodulatory cytokines, and inhibition of T-cell activation. Advances in understanding the complex interactions of the immune system and cancer have led to novel therapies that promote T-cell activation at the tumor site, resulting in prolonged clinical benefit. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically programmed death receptor 1 pathway antibodies, have demonstrated impressively durable responses and improved survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This article will review the recent progress made in immunotherapy for lung cancer with data from trials evaluating programmed death receptor 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 monoclonal antibodies in addition to cancer vaccines. The review will focus on studies that have been published and the latest randomized trials exploring immune therapy in lung cancer. These results form the framework for a new direction in the treatment of lung cancer toward immunotherapy.

  14. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer the three most common cancers are: Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than ... cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common ...

  15. Surgical and survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Okumura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ayuko; Nakashima, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tomoaki

    2017-05-26

    Intratumoral lung abscess is a secondary lung abscess that is considered to be fatal. Therefore, surgical procedures, although high-risk, have sometimes been performed for intratumoral lung abscesses. However, no studies have examined the surgical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical and survival outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. Eleven consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, who had undergone pulmonary resection at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015, were retrospectively analysed. The post-operative prognoses were investigated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Ten of 11 patients were male and one patient was female. The median age was 64 (range, 52-80) years. Histopathologically, 4 patients had Stage IIA, 2 patients had Stage IIB, 2 patients had Stage IIIA, and 3 patients had Stage IV tumors. The median operative time was 346 min and the median amount of bleeding was 1327 mL. The post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 63.6% and 0.0%, respectively. Recurrence of respiratory infections, including lung abscesses, was not observed in all patients. The median post-operative observation period was 16.1 (range, 1.3-114.5) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.3%. No pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative prognostic factors were identified in the univariate analyses. Surgical procedures for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, although high-risk, led to satisfactory post-operative mortality rates and acceptable prognoses.

  16. Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Ajay A.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K.; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A.; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. Methods We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Results Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39–0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 – 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Impact This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:26809277

  17. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  18. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Cancer After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berastegui, C; LaPorta, R; López-Meseguer, M; Romero, L; Gómez-Ollés, S; Riera, J; Monforte, V; Sáez, B; Bravo, C; Roman, A; Ussetti, P

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is the third most common cause of death among lung transplant (LT) recipients who survive for more than 1 year. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors for cancer after LT in a Spanish cohort. The epidemiology and risk factors for cancer were retrospectively analyzed in LT recipients from 2 cities in Spain, Madrid and Barcelona. Of the 1353 LT patients initially included in the study, 125 (9.2%) developed cancer after a mean of 3.7 years. This frequency was 5-fold higher than in the general population. The most prevalent tumors were skin cancer (32%), lymphoproliferative disease (18%), and lung cancer (16.5%). In 4 patients, lung cancer was diagnosed on the day of the operation. The risk of cancer increased with age >55 year (hazard ratio [HR] 2.89 [1.64-5.09]; P < .001), in men (HR 2.8 [1.4-5.6]; P = .004), and in heavy smokers (>20 pack-years) (HR 2.94 [1.64-5.27]; P < .001). Other factors such as sun exposure were not found to be risk factors. In conclusion, prevalence of cancer is high in LT recipients in a Mediterranean country. Skin tumors, lymphoproliferative disease, and lung cancer are the most prevalent cancers. Age, male sex, and smoking were the main risk factors for cancer in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 <90% of the predicted value was HR = 2.19 (95%CI: 1.04-4.61) in the subjects whose time since spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  20. GM2-activator protein: a new biomarker for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Potprommanee, Laddawan; Ma, Haou-Tzong; Shank, Lalida; Juan, Yi-Hsiu; Liao, Wei-Yu; Chen, Shui-Tein; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer are needed. A recent study demonstrated that urinary GM2-activator protein (GM2AP) level was increased in lung cancer patients. This study aims to validate the potential application of GM2AP as a biomarker for diagnosis of lung cancer. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 189 participants (133 patients for treatment naive lung cancer, 26 healthy volunteers for urine, and 30 healthy volunteers for serum). GM2AP level was detected by Western blotting and quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The GM2AP expression in tumors and nontumor parts of lung tissues from 143 nonsmall cell lung cancers was detected by immunohistochemical stains. There was an 8.11 ± 1.36 folds increase in urine and a 5.41 ± 0.73 folds increase in serum level of GM2AP in lung cancer patients compared with healthy volunteers (p < 0.0001), achieving a 0.89 AUC value in urine and 0.90 AUC value in serum for the receiver-operating characteristic curves. Both serum and urine levels of GM2AP correlated significantly with pathology stages (urine, p = 0.009; serum, p < 0.0001). Using immunohistochemical, positive expression of GM2AP was found at 83.9% of nonsmall cell lung cancers patients and none in normal tissue. The GM2AP expression was significantly correlated with pathology stage (p = 0.0001). Patients with higher GM2AP expression had shorter overall survival (p = 0.045) and disease-free survival (p = 0.049) than lower GM2AP expression. Moreover, the multivariate analysis suggested GM2AP as an independent predictors of disease-free survival and overall survival. Our study demonstrates that GM2AP might serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

  1. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, p<0.01) and 0.676 (95% CI=0.565-0.772), respectively. The number of vessels attached to a nodule was significantly higher in the lung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, E.A.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjectsmore » (0.6%), and 2,459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1,000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first 5 years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios (HRs) ranging 6.7-13) but remained strong 5-9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis.« less

  3. [Motivations and obstacles to occupational disease claims in lung cancer patients: an exploratory psychosocial study].

    PubMed

    Britel, Manon; Pérol, Olivia; Blois Da Conceiçao, Stéphanie; Ficty, Manon; Brunet, Houria; Avrillon, Virginie; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-10-02

    The proportion of lung cancers with an occupational origin has been estimated to be between 10 and 20%. They are largely under-reported, as 60% are not compensated as occupational disease. Although most patients are not familiar with the process of compensation, other factors could explain this under-reporting. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that could impact patients with occupational lung cancer to claim for compensation. We conducted a case study involving semi-structured interviews with eight lung cancer patients enrolled in a cohort designed to systematically screen occupational exposures and propose claims for compensation to work-related cancer patients. Seven interviewed patients were familiar with occupational cancers, but most of them did not believe that past exposure could be related to their current disease. Patients associated compensation claims with a long and complex procedure for an abstract purpose. Several patients expressed a certain attachment to their employers. Interviewed patients often considered compensation claims to be a grievance procedure against the employers whom they did not consider to be responsible for their disease. Lung cancer is itself an obstacle to compensation considering the aggressive treatments and related adverse events, the poor medium-term prognosis and the predominant role of smoking in the etiology of the disease. Patients mentioned the financial compensation and the role of healthcare professionals as key elements to motivate them to claim for compensation.

  4. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases: their functional role in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Neha; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Rajitha, Balney; Lammata, Saipriya; Jella, Kishore Kumar; Buchwald, Zachary S; Lakka, Sajani S; Ali, Arif N

    2017-08-01

    Lung malignancy is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths globally and is frequently related to long-term tobacco smoking. Recent studies reveal that the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is extremely high in lung tumors compared with non-malignant lung tissue. MMPs are zinc-dependent proteases and are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Several investigations have shown that MMPs manipulate the activity of non-ECM molecules, including cytokines, growth factors and receptors that control the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we have summarized and critically reviewed the published works on the role of MMPs in non-small-cell lung cancer. We have also explored the structure of MMPs, their various types and roles in lung cancer metastasis including invasion, migration and angiogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects. PMID:22619512

  7. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    PubMed

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L; van Beek, Edwin J R; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3-4mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60-90% for lesions of 5-8mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience with multi-center, multi-vendor and multi-platform implementation of this technology. All of the required prerequisites have now been achieved to allow for a dedicated prospective large scale MRI based lung cancer screening trial to investigate the outcomes from using MRI rather than CT for lung cancer screening. This is driven by the hypothesis that MRI would reach a similarly high sensitivity for the detection of early lung cancer with fewer false positive exams (better specificity) than LDCT. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the potential role of lung MRI for the early

  8. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  9. KRAS: Reasons for optimism in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C R; Jamal-Hanjani, M; Forster, M; Blackhall, F

    2018-06-09

    Despite being the most frequent gain-of-function genetic alteration in human cancer, KRAS mutation has to date offered only limited potential as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. Results from the phase III SELECT-1 trial in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recently added to a number of historical and more contemporary disappointments in targeting KRAS mutant disease, including farnesyl transferase inhibition and synthetic lethality partners such as STK33. This narrative review uses the context of these previous failures to demonstrate how the knowledge gained from these experiences can be used as a platform for exciting advances in NSCLC on the horizon. It now seems clear that mutational subtype (most commonly G12C) of individual mutations is of greater relevance than the categorical evaluation of KRAS mutation presence or otherwise. A number of direct small molecules targeted to these subtypes are in development and have shown promising biological activity, with some in the late stages of preclinical validation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, K.; Dixon, Kate

    2005-11-01

    The Yorkshire Laser Centre has been engaged in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) since 1990. In this article we present our experience highlighting the lesson learnt. 280 bronchoscopic PDT treatments have been carried out in 160 patients divided in 2 groups. Group A: (Nr 144) with advanced inoperable disease and Group E (Nr 16) with early stage cancer. PDT method was intravenous administration of 2mg/kg bw of Photofrin followed by bronchoscopic illumination of 630nm laser light. There was no procedure-related mortality. A total of 9 cases of photosensitivity (skin burn) occurred in the series (5.6% of patients). Every patient in both groups expressed their total satisfaction to treatment. Group A: Symptom relief was achieved in all. This was matched by improvement in significant bronchial opening (58.1%). Survival was 9.6 months (mean).This was greater in patients with better performance status and lower stage of disease. Group E: Every patient had a complete response to treatment. Survival in this group was 75.4 months (mean). We conclude that bronchoscopic PDT is indicated in both advanced and early stage lung cancer. In the former it provides symptomatic relief in all and survival benefit in some; in the latter it achieves long survival and potential cure.

  11. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Kenneth R

    2003-02-01

    Smoking prevention and cessation remain the primary methods of reducing the incidence of lung cancer. The limited success of efforts towards smoking cessation have led to increasing interest in the role of nutrition in lung cancer prevention. One class of nutrients that has attracted attention as potential chemopreventive agents is the carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, due to their antioxidant properties. In vitro, carotenoids exert antioxidant functions and inhibit carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation, inhibit plasma membrane lipid oxidation, and cause upregulated expression of connexin 43. These in vitro results suggest that carotenoids have intrinsic cancer chemopreventive action in humans. Many cohort and case-control study data have shown an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer, although several more recent studies have cast doubt on these findings. Different effects of various dietary nutrients on lung cancer risk have been observed. Several prospective intervention trials were undertaken to examine the effect of supplementation on the risk of lung cancer. Some of these studies demonstrated an increased incidence and mortality from lung cancer in those receiving supplementation. Many hypotheses have emerged as to the reasons for these findings. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  13. Impact of Lung Cancer Screening Results on Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Christine D.; Riley, Thomas L.; Cunningham, Christopher R.; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening programs may provide opportunities to reduce smoking rates among participants. This study evaluates the impact of lung cancer screening results on smoking cessation. Methods Data from Lung Screening Study participants in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; 2002–2009) were used to prepare multivariable longitudinal regression models predicting annual smoking cessation in those who were current smokers at study entry (n = 15489, excluding those developing lung cancer in follow-up). The associations of lung cancer screening results on smoking cessation over the trial period were analyzed. All hypothesis testing used two sided P values. Results In adjusted analyses, smoking cessation was strongly associated with the amount of abnormality observed in the previous year’s screening (P < .0001). Compared with those with a normal screen, individuals were less likely to be smokers if their previous year’s screen had a major abnormality that was not suspicious for lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.722 to 0.912; P < .001), was suspicious for lung cancer but stable from previous screens (OR = 0.785; 95% CI = 0.706 to 0.872; P < .001), or was suspicious for lung cancer and was new or changed from the previous screen (OR = 0.663; 95% CI = 0.607 to 0.724; P < .001). Differences in smoking prevalence were present up to 5 years after the last screen. Conclusions Smoking cessation is statistically significantly associated with screen-detected abnormality. Integration of effective smoking cessation programs within screening programs should lead to further reduction in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24872540

  14. Surgical Management of Lung Cancer Involving the Chest Wall.

    PubMed

    Lanuti, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of chest wall invasion by non-small cell lung cancer is < 10% in published surgical series. The role of radiation or chemotherapy around the complete resection of lung cancer invading the chest wall, excluding the superior sulcus of the chest, is poorly defined. Survival of patients with lung cancer invading the chest wall is dependent on lymph node involvement and completeness of en-bloc resection. In some patients harboring T3N0 disease, 5-year survival in excess of 50% can be achieved. Offering en-bloc resection of lung cancer invading chest wall to patients with T3N1 or T3N2 disease is controversial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hippocampal-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren; Kong, Wei; Shang, Jun; Zhe, Hong; Wang, Yan-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20% to 40% of lung cancer patients. Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has long been considered the treatment of choice for many patients with lung cancer, because of its wide availability, ease of delivery, and effectiveness in prolonging survival. However, WBRT is also associated with several side effects, such as decline in memory and other cognitive functions. There exists significant preclinical and clinical evidence that radiation-induced injury to the hippocampus correlates with neurocognitive decline of patients who receive WBRT. Technological advances in treatment planning and delivery facilitate the use of hippocampal-sparing (HS) WBRT as prophylactic cranial irradiation or the primary treatment modality for lung cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of the safety profile, techniques for hippocampus-sparing, and the clinical evidence of HS-WBRT for lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  17. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  18. Spontaneous haemothorax: an unusual presentation of primary lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, S. H.; Cheng, Y. J.; Kao, E. L.; Chai, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    An unusual case of spontaneous haemothorax caused by a subpleural primary lung cancer is reported. Tumour invasion of the pulmonary vessels and visceral pleura was the possible cause. Images PMID:8296269

  19. National Working Group Meeting on ALK diagnostics in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Wendy; Fox, Stephen; O'Toole, Sandra; Morey, Adrienne; Frances, Glenn; Pavlakis, Nick; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Dettrick, Andrew; Leong, Trishe; Rathi, Vivek; Spagnolo, Dominic; Hemmings, Chris; Singh, Mahendra; Moffat, David; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Wilner, Keith; Buller, Richard; Pitman Lowenthal, Susan; Arifeen, Shams; Binko, Justin; Alam, Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    The global landscape of molecular testing is rapidly changing, with the recent publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines and the ALK Atlas. The IASLC/CAP guidelines recommend that tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) be tested for ALK rearrangements in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The spur for this recommendation is the availability of novel therapies that target these rearrangements. This article is based on coverage of a Pfizer-sponsored National Working Group Meeting on ALK Diagnostics in Lung Cancer, held around the 15th World Lung Cancer Conference, in Sydney on October 31, 2013. It is based on the presentations given by the authors at the meeting and the discussion that ensued. The content for this article was discussed and agreed on by the authors. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed. PMID:26380181

  1. ALCHEMIST: Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those mol

  2. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  3. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  4. [Criteria of the molecular pathology testing of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József

    2014-06-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer the tissue obtained is a key issue since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era cytology is considered equal to biopsy however, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Moreover, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue, as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance, which information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorithms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary.

  5. Minimal requirements for the molecular testing of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Popper, Helmut H; Tímár, József; Ryska, Ales; Olszewski, Wlodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer, it is a key issue of the tissue obtained since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era, cytology considered equal to biopsy. However, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Besides, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance whose information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorythms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary.

  6. Preferential elevation of Prx I and Trx expression in lung cancer cells following hypoxia and in human lung cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Chae, H Z; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y H; Hwangs, T S; Park, E M; Park, Y M

    2003-10-01

    Transient/chronic microenvironmental hypoxia that exists within a majority of solid tumors has been suggested to have a profound influence on tumor growth and therapeutic outcome. Since the functions of novel antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and II, have been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, it was of our special interest to probe a possible role of Prx I and II in the context of hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Since both Prx I and II use thioredoxin (Trx) as an electron donor and Trx is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), we investigated the regulation of Trx and TrxR as well as Prx expression following hypoxia. Here we show a dynamic change of glutathione homeostasis in lung cancer A549 cells and an up-regulation of Prx I and Trx following hypoxia. Western blot analysis of 10 human lung cancer and paired normal lung tissues also revealed an elevated expression of Prx I and Trx proteins in lung cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lung cancer tissues confirmed an augmented Prx I and Trx expression in cancer cells with respect to the parenchymal cells in adjacent normal lung tissue. Based on these results, we suggest that the redox changes in lung tumor microenvironment could have acted as a trigger for the up-regulation of Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells. Although the clinical significance of our finding awaits more rigorous future study, preferential augmentation of the Prx I and Trx in lung cancer cells may well represent an attempt of cancer cells to manipulate a dynamic redox change in tumor microenvironment in a manner that is beneficial for their proliferation and malignant progression.

  7. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The majority of the tumors (13 of 17) arose in patients with pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Supportive care during chemotherapy for lung cancer in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Müller, Veronika; Tamási, Lilla; Gálffy, Gabriella; Losonczy, György

    2012-09-01

    Active oncotherapy, combination chemotherapy of lung cancer is accompanied with many side effects which may impair patients' quality of life and compromise the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Most side effects of chemotherapy are preventable or treatable with optimal supportive care which enhances success in patient care and treatment. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important conditions that may be associated with combined chemotherapy of lung cancer from the practical point of view.

  9. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    available to the research community. Similarly, any cell lines generated in our studies will also be shared. The EGFR transgenic mouse models used in...Lines and Transgenic Mice Active Completed – May 31, 2015 NIH/NCI R01CA121210 Overcoming Acquired Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung Cancer...Active Active Labrecque Foundation Not Applicable A Translational Pilot Study on Serum Biomarkers of Lung Cancer Using Transgenic Mouse Models of

  10. Risk-based lung cancer screening may prevent more deaths than current U.S. guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    A study from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) offers new evidence that individualized lung cancer risk-based screening may be more effective at preventing lung cancer deaths than current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) screening criteria.

  11. Multilevel Opportunities to Address Lung Cancer Stigma across the Cancer Control Continuum.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Studts, Jamie L; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2018-05-22

    The public health imperative to reduce the burden of lung cancer has seen unprecedented progress in recent years. Realizing fully the advances in lung cancer treatment and control requires attention to potential barriers in their momentum and implementation. In this analysis, we present and evaluate the argument that stigma is a highly significant barrier to fulfilling the clinical promise of advanced care and reduced lung cancer burden. This evaluation of lung cancer stigma is based on a multilevel perspective that incorporates the individual, persons in their immediate environment, the healthcare system, and the larger societal structure which shapes perceptions and decisions. We also consider current interventions and interventional needs within and across aspects of the lung cancer continuum, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Current evidence suggests that stigma detrimentally impacts psychosocial, communication, and behavioral outcomes over the entire lung cancer control continuum and across multiple levels. Interventional efforts to alleviate stigma in the context of lung cancer show promise, yet more work is needed to evaluate their impact. Understanding and addressing the multi-level role of stigma is a crucial area for future study in order to realize the full benefits offered by lung cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Coordinated, interdisciplinary, and well-conceptualized efforts have the potential to reduce the barrier of stigma in the context of lung cancer and facilitate demonstrable improvements in clinical care and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Forensic evaluation of STR typing reliability in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Yongguo; Zhu, Shisheng; Ma, Ruoxiang; Zhao, Minzhu; Li, Jianbo

    2018-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STR) analysis is the gold standard method in the forensics field for personal identification and paternity testing. In cancerous tissues, STR markers are gaining attention, with some studies showing increased instability. Lung cancer, which is one of the most commonmalignancies, has become the most lethal among all cancers. In certain situations, lung cancer tissues may be the only resource available for forensic analysis. Therefore, evaluating the reliability of STR markers in lung cancer tissues is required to avoid false exclusions. In this study, 75 lung cancer tissue samples were examined to evaluate the reliability of various STR markers. Out of the 75 examined samples, 24 of the cancerous samples (32%) showed genetic alterations on at least one STR loci, totaling 55 times. The most common type of STR variation was a partial loss of heterozygosity, with the D5S818 loci having the highest variation frequency and no alterations detected on the D2S441 and Penta E loci. Moreover, STR variation frequencies were shown to increase with an increased patient age and increased clinical and pathological characteristics, thus an older patient with an advanced stage of progression exhibited a higher variation frequency. Overall, this study provides forensic scientists with further insight into STR analysis relating to lung cancer tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    PubMed

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  14. Assessment of volume reduction effect after lung lobectomy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Junichi; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Kobayashi, Taiga; Kunihiro, Yoshie; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-07-01

    Lung lobectomy results in an unexpected improvement of the remaining lung function in some patients with moderate-to-severe emphysema. Because the lung function is the main limiting factor for therapeutic decision making in patients with lung cancer, it may be advantageous to identify patients who may benefit from the volume reduction effect, particularly those with a poor functional reserve. We measured the regional distribution of the emphysematous lung and normal lung using quantitative computed tomography in 84 patients undergoing lung lobectomy for cancer between January 2010 and December 2012. The volume reduction effect was diagnosed using a combination of radiologic and spirometric parameters. Eight patients (10%) were favorably affected by the volume reduction effect. The forced expiratory volume in one second increased postoperatively in these eight patients, whereas the forced vital capacity was unchanged, thus resulting in an improvement of the airflow obstruction postoperatively. This improvement was not due to a compensatory expansion of the remaining lung but was associated with a relative decrease in the forced end-expiratory lung volume. According to a multivariate analysis, airflow obstruction and the forced end-expiratory lung volume were independent predictors of the volume reduction effect. A combined assessment using spirometry and quantitative computed tomography helped to characterize the respiratory dynamics underlying the volume reduction effect, thus leading to the identification of novel predictors of a volume reduction effect after lobectomy for cancer. Verification of our results by a large-scale prospective study may help to extend the indications for lobectomy in patients with oncologically resectable lung cancer who have a marginal pulmonary function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lung cancer following bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for severe emphysema: a case and its management.

    PubMed

    Tummino, Celine; Maldonado, Fabien; Laroumagne, Sophie; Astoul, Philippe; Dutau, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves has been suggested as a potentially safer alternative to surgery in selected cases. Complications of this technique include pneumothoraces, pneumonia, COPD exacerbations, hemoptysis, and valve migrations. We report the case of a male patient who developed a parenchymal mass in the treated lobe after valve insertion. Due to severe emphysema, transthoracic needle aspiration was not feasible. Removal of the valves was mandatory to perform transbronchialbiopsies which revealed a non-small cell primary lung cancer. This first description illustrates the potential risk of lung cancer development following bronchoscopic lung volume reduction and highlights the different approach to diagnosis and management of indeterminate peripheral lung lesions needed in this context. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Lung abscess which needed to be distinguished from lung cancer; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Misumi, Yuki; Hida, Naoya; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sachiko

    2011-12-01

    Differential diagnosis of lung abscess from lung cancer is sometimes difficult. In February 2009, a 57-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of bloody sputum. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 2.5 cm nodule with pleural indentation, spicula and vascular involvement in the right S(3). Bronchofiberscope could not establish a definitive diagnosis. Blood test showed no abnormality. Three months later, progression of the nodule to the adjacent middle lobe was demonstrated by follow-up CT, and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed isotope accumulation in the nodule and hilar lymph node. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. The diagnosis of possible lung cancer was made by needle biopsy, and the patient underwent right upper lobectomy and partial resection of middle lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final pathological diagnosis was lung abscess. Lung abscess must be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis when abnormal shadow suspected of lung cancer is observed.

  17. Two Cases of Lung Cancer in Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron and steel foundry workers are exposed to various toxic and carcinogenic substances including crystalline silica, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Studies have been conducted on lung cancer in iron and steel founding workers and the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries; however, the concentration of crystalline silica and cases of lung cancer in a single foundry has never been reported in Korea. Therefore, the authors report two cases of lung cancer and concentration of crystalline silica by the X-ray diffraction method. Case presentation A 55-year-old blasting and grinding worker who worked in a foundry for 33 years was diagnosed with lung cancer. Another 64-year-old forklift driver who worked in foundries for 39 years was also diagnosed with lung cancer. Shot blast operatives were exposed to the highest level of respirable quartz (0.412 mg/m3), and a forklift driver was exposed to 0.223 mg/m3. Conclusions The lung cancer of the two workers is very likely due to occupationally related exposure given their occupational history, the level of exposure to crystalline silica, and epidemiologic evidence. Further studies on the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries and techniques to reduce the crystalline silica concentration are required. PMID:24472520

  18. Multifactorial Analysis of Mortality in Screening Detected Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Digumarthy, Subba R; De Man, Ruben; Canellas, Rodrigo; Otrakji, Alexi; Wang, Ge; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that severity of coronary artery calcification (CAC), emphysema, muscle mass, and fat attenuation can help predict mortality in patients with lung cancer participating in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Following regulatory approval from the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS), all patients diagnosed with lung cancer at the time of the screening study were identified. These subjects were classified into two groups: survivors and nonsurvivors at the conclusion of the NLST trial. These groups were matched based on their age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, lung cancer stage, and survival time. CAC, emphysema, muscle mass, and subcutaneous fat attenuation were quantified on baseline low-dose chest CT (LDCT) for all patients in both groups. Nonsurvivor group had significantly greater CAC, decreased muscle mass, and higher fat attenuation compared to the survivor group ( p < 0.01). No significant difference in severity of emphysema was noted between the two groups ( p > 0.1). We thus conclude that it is possible to create a quantitative prediction model for lung cancer mortality for subjects with lung cancer detected on screening low-dose CT (LDCT).

  19. Radon and lung cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, E S; Kelly, A E; Teutsch, S M; Thacker, S B; Garbe, P L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cost-effectiveness of general and targeted strategies for residential radon testing and mitigation in the United States. METHODS: A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing radon-associated deaths from lung cancer. RESULTS: For a radon threshold of 4 pCi/L, the estimated costs to prevent 1 lung cancer death are about $3 million (154 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $480,000 per life-year saved, based on universal radon screening and mitigation, and about $2 million (104 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $330,000 per life-year saved, if testing and mitigation are confined to geographic areas at high risk for radon exposure. For mitigation undertaken after a single screening test and after a second confirmatory test, the estimated costs are about $920,000 and $520,000, respectively, to prevent a lung cancer death with universal screening and $130,000 and $80,000 per life-year for high risk screening. The numbers of preventable lung cancer deaths are 811 and 527 for universal and targeted approaches, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest possible alternatives to current recommendations. PMID:10076484

  20. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Verena; Marconett, Crystal N; Shi, Jianxin; Hua, Xing; Wheeler, William; Yang, Chenchen; Song, Lei; Dale, Anders M; Laplana, Marina; Risch, Angela; Witoelar, Aree; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Wang, Yunpeng; Djurovic, Srdjan; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Dorine; Aben, Katja K; McKay, James; Hung, Rayjean J; Bikeböller, Heike; Stevens, Victoria L; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Han, Younghun; Wei, Yongyue; Panadero, Maria Angeles; Mayordomo, Jose I; Christiani, David C; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Andreassen, Ole A; Houlston, Richard; Amos, Christopher I; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Mills, Ian G; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160 lung cancer case patients and 16 838 control subjects) and cardiovascular disease risk factors (blood lipids from 188 577 subjects, type 2 diabetes from 148 821 subjects, body mass index from 123 865 subjects, and smoking phenotypes from 74 053 subjects). We found that 6p22.1 (rs6904596, ZNF184) was associated with both lung cancer (P = 5.50x10(-6)) and blood triglycerides (P = 1.39x10(-5)). We replicated the association in 6097 lung cancer case patients and 204 657 control subjects (P = 2.40 × 10(-4)) and in 71 113 subjects with triglycerides data (P = .01). rs6904596 reached genome-wide significance in lung cancer meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.21 ,: Pcombined = 5.20x10(-9)). The large sample size provided by the lipid GWAS data and the shared genetic risk factors between the two traits contributed to the uncovering of a hitherto unidentified genetic locus for lung cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  1. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru; Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on amore » side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.« less

  2. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-12

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  3. Significance of coexistent granulomatous inflammation and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dagaonkar, Rucha S; Choong, Caroline V; Asmat, Atasha Binti; Ahmed, Dokeu Basheer A; Chopra, Akhil; Lim, Albert Y H; Tai, Dessmon Y H; Kor, Ai Ching; Goh, Soon Keng; Abisheganaden, John; Verma, Akash

    2017-01-01

    Aims Coexistence of lung cancer and granulomatous inflammation in the same patient confuses clinicians. We aimed to document the prevalence, clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis in patients with coexisting granulomatous inflammation undergoing curative lung resection for lung cancer, in a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country. Methods An observational cohort study of patients with lung cancer undergoing curative resection between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary centre in Singapore. Results One hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent lung resection for cancer, out of which 19 (14.9%) had coexistent granulomatous inflammation in the resected specimen. Median age was 68 years and 58.2% were males. Overall median (range) survival was 451 (22–2452) days. Eighteen (14%) patients died at median duration of 271 days after surgery. The postsurgery median survival for those alive was 494 (29–2452) days in the whole group. Subgroup analysis did not reveal any differences in age, gender, location of cancer, radiological features, type of cancer, chemotherapy, history of TB or survival in patients with or without coexistent granulomatous inflammation. Conclusions Incidental detection of granulomatous inflammation in patients undergoing lung resection for cancer, even in a TB-endemic country, may not require any intervention. Such findings may be due to either mycobacterial infection in the past or ‘sarcoid reaction’ to cancer. Although all patients should have their resected specimen sent for acid-fast bacilli culture and followed up until the culture results are reported, the initiation of the management of such patients as per existing lung cancer management guidelines does not affect their outcome adversely. PMID:27646525

  4. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Beliefs About Lung Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J.; Nelson, Judith E.; Powell, Charles A.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R.; Keller, Steven M.; Smith, Cardinale B.; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Results: Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups (P > .05), whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread (P = .008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups (P ≤ .02). No significant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis (P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care (P ≤ .02). Conclusions: Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes. PMID:22700777

  6. Computed Tomography Screening for Lung Cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT versus chest radiography reduced lung cancer mortality by 16% to 20%. More recently, a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of CT screening for lung cancer versus no screening in the NLST was performed. The CEA conformed to the reference-case recommendations of the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine, including the use of the societal perspective and an annual discount rate of 3%. The CEA was based on several important assumptions. In this paper, I review the methods and assumptions used to obtain the base case estimate of $81,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In addition, I show how this estimate varied widely among different subsets and when some of the base case assumptions were changed and speculate on the cost-effectiveness of CT screening for lung cancer outside the NLST. PMID:25635704

  7. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model. Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells. PMID:26396176

  8. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  9. Lung Cancer: Posttreatment Imaging: Radiation Therapy and Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Benveniste, Marcelo F; Welsh, James; Viswanathan, Chitra; Shroff, Girish S; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Carter, Brett W; Marom, Edith M

    2018-05-01

    In this review, we discuss the different radiation delivery techniques available to treat non-small cell lung cancer, typical radiologic manifestations of conventional radiotherapy, and different patterns of lung injury and temporal evolution of the newer radiotherapy techniques. More sophisticated techniques include intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, proton therapy, and respiration-correlated computed tomography or 4-dimensional computed tomography for radiotherapy planning. Knowledge of the radiation treatment plan and technique, the completion date of radiotherapy, and the temporal evolution of radiation-induced lung injury is important to identify expected manifestations of radiation-induced lung injury and differentiate them from tumor recurrence or infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Brain abscess mimicking lung cancer metastases; a case report.

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Ono, Katsuichiro; Ozaki, Shinji; Kimura, Fumiaki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman came to us because of staggering, fever, dysarthria, and appetite loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple masses with surrounding edema. Chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated a mass-like lesion in the left lung and left pleural effusion. Lung cancer and multiple brain metastases were suspected. However, the brain lesions demonstrated a high intensity through diffusion-weighted MRI. The finding was an important key to differentiate brain abscesses from lung cancer metastases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A reevaluation of CD22 expression in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pop, Laurentiu M; Barman, Stephen; Shao, Chunli; Poe, Jonathan C; Venturi, Guglielmo M; Shelton, John M; Pop, Iliodora V; Gerber, David E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiao-yun; Behrens, Carmen; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Richardson, James A; Minna, John D; Tedder, Thomas F; Vitetta, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    CD22 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by mature B cells. It inhibits signal transduction by the B-cell receptor and its coreceptor CD19. Recent reports indicate that most human lung cancer cells and cell lines express CD22, making it an important new therapeutic target for lung cancer. The objective of our studies was to independently validate these results with the goal of testing the efficacy of our CD22 immunotoxins on lung cancer cell lines. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we found that levels of CD22 mRNA in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines were 200 to 60,000-fold lower than those observed in the human CD22(+) Burkitt lymphoma cells, Daudi. Using flow cytometry with a panel of CD22 monoclonal antibodies and Western blot analyses, we could not detect surface or intracellular expression of CD22 protein in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. In addition, the in vitro proliferation of the lung tumor cell lines was not affected by either CD22 antibodies or our highly potent anti-CD22 immunotoxin. In contrast, CD22(+) Daudi cells expressed high levels of CD22 mRNA and protein, and were sensitive to our CD22 immunotoxin. Importantly, primary non-small cell lung cancers from more than 250 patient specimens did not express detectable levels of CD22 protein as assessed by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that CD22 is not expressed at measurable levels on the surface of lung cancer cells, and that these cells cannot be killed by anti-CD22 immunotoxins.

  13. MicroRNAs – Important Molecules in Lung Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many physiological processes ensuring the cellular homeostasis of human cells. Alterations of the miRNA expression have increasingly been associated with pathophysiologic changes of cancer cells making miRNAs currently to one of the most analyzed molecules in cancer research. Here, we provide an overview of miRNAs in lung cancer. Specifically, we address biological functions of miRNAs in lung cancer cells, miRNA signatures generated from tumor tissue and from patients’ body fluids, the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer, and its role as therapeutic target. PMID:22303398

  14. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  15. Docetaxel With Either Cetuximab or Bortezomib as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  16. Causes of death of patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Larry; Saunders, Rachel; Knollmann, Friedrich D

    2012-12-01

    The causes of death for patients with lung cancer are inadequately described. To categorize the immediate and contributing causes of death for patients with lung cancer. The autopsies from 100 patients who died of lung cancer between 1990 and February 2011 were analyzed. Tumor burden was judged the immediate cause of death in 30 cases, including 26 cases of extensive metastases and 4 cases with wholly or primarily lung tumor burden (causing respiratory failure). Infection was the immediate cause of death for 20 patients, including 8 with sepsis and 12 with pneumonia. Complications of metastatic disease were the immediate causes of death in 18 cases, including 6 cases of hemopericardium from pericardial metastases, 3 from myocardial metastases, 3 from liver metastases, and 3 from brain metastases. Other immediate causes of death were pulmonary hemorrhage (12 cases), pulmonary embolism (10 cases, 2 tumor emboli), and pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage (7 cases). From a functional (pathophysiologic) perspective, respiratory failure could be regarded as the immediate cause of death (or mechanism of death) in 38 cases, usually because of a combination of lung conditions, including emphysema, airway obstruction, pneumonia, hemorrhage, embolism, resection, and lung injury in addition to the tumor. For 94 of the 100 patients, there were contributing causes of death, with an average of 2.5 contributing causes and up to 6 contributing causes of death. The numerous and complex ways lung cancer kills patients pose a challenge for efforts to extend and improve their lives.

  17. Lung cancer: Incidence and survival in Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Lachgar, A; Tazi, M A; Afif, M; Er-Raki, A; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, but epidemiologic data from developing countries are lacking. This article reports lung cancer incidence and survival in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. All lung cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed using data provided by the Rabat Cancer Registry. The standardized rate was reported using age adjustment with respect to the world standard population, and the observed survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred fifty-one cases were registered (314 males and 37 females), aged 27-90 years (median, 59 years). The most common pathological type was adenocarcinoma (40.2%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31.9%); the majority of cases were diagnosed at stage IV (52%). The age-standardized incidence rate was 25.1 and 2.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively, and the overall observed survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 31.7% and 3.4%, respectively. The clinical stage of disease was the only independent predictor of survival. The survival rate of lung cancer in Rabat is very poor. This finding explains the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and to improve diagnostic and therapeutic facilities for lung cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Incidence of lung cancer among shipyard welders investigated for siderosis.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, T E; Lang rd, S; Andersen, A

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among 428 shipyard welders exposed for more than ten years to welding fumes was investigated. The welders were examined for siderosis by the Directorate of Labor Inspection in 1975. The present study was a follow-up based on historical information from the Norwegian registry of dust-exposed workers. Twenty-three welders with siderosis, and 156 welders working at the same shipyards as the siderosis cases were studied as sub-cohorts. There was no loss on follow-up. The observation period was 1976 through 1992. There were 32 cases of cancer from all causes vs 41.3 expected. A nonsignificant excess of lung cancer was observed; 10 cases vs 6.5 expected. The incidence of lung cancer was highest for the welders with more than 30 years since first exposure (7 cases vs 4.1 expected). The sub-cohort of welders with siderosis had no case of lung cancer vs 0.5 expected. These welders were assumed to have experienced high exposure levels for welding fumes. The morbidity of cancer from all causes was low for this small group of blue-collar workers, but the incidence of lung cancer was slightly increased. The increase was not attributable to welders with siderosis. Smoking and asbestos exposure are potential confounders.

  19. Differentially expressed genes in nonsmall cell lung cancer: expression profiling of cancer-related genes in squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Eeva; Anttila, Sisko; Seppänen, Jouni K; Karjalainen, Antti; Edgren, Henrik; Lindström, Irmeli; Salovaara, Reijo; Nissén, Anna-Maria; Salo, Jarmo; Mattson, Karin; Hollmén, Jaakko; Knuutila, Sakari; Wikman, Harriet

    2004-03-01

    The expression patterns of cancer-related genes in 13 cases of squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) were characterized and compared with those in normal lung tissue and 13 adenocarcinomas (AC), the other major type of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). cDNA array was used to screen the gene expression levels and the array results were verified using a real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty-nine percent of the 25 most upregulated and the 25 most downregulated genes were common to SCC and AC. Of these genes, DSP, HMGA1 (alias HMGIY), TIMP1, MIF, CCNB1, TN, MMP11, and MMP12 were upregulated and COPEB (alias CPBP), TYROBP, BENE, BMPR2, SOCS3, TIMP3, CAV1, and CAV2 were downregulated. The expression levels of several genes from distinct protein families (cytokeratins and hemidesmosomal proteins) were markedly increased in SCC compared with AC and normal lung. In addition, several genes, overexpressed in SCC, such as HMGA1, CDK4, IGFBP3, MMP9, MMP11, MMP12, and MMP14, fell into distinct chromosomal loci, which we have detected as gained regions on the basis of comparative genomic hybridization data. Our study revealed new candidate genes involved in NSCLC.

  20. GTI-2040 and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Metastatic, or Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Other Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Evaluation of Biomarkers Predictive of Benefit from the PD-1 Inhibitor MK-3475 in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Immunotherapies inhibiting the Programmed Death -1 (PD-1) axis can result in dramatic responses and durable...9. Appendices……………………………………………………………14 4 1. INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, resulting in more...than 160,000 deaths each year. The majority of patients with lung cancer have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and present with disease at an

  2. Comprehensive Analysis of the Incidence and Survival Patterns of Lung Cancer by Histologies, Including Rare Subtypes, in the Era of Molecular Medicine and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeffrey.S.; Chen, Li-Tzong; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsiao, Sheng-Yen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Yu, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and has the highest cancer mortality rate. A worldwide increasing trend of lung adenocarcinoma has been noted. In addition, the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and the introduction of EGFR inhibitors to successfully treat EGFR mutated non–small cell lung cancers are breakthroughs for lung cancer treatment. The current study evaluated the incidence and survival of lung cancer using data collected by the Taiwan Cancer Registry between 1996 and 2008. The results showed that the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer was adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer in Taiwan increased significantly from 1996 to 2008. An increased incidence was observed for adenocarcinoma, particularly for women, with an annual percentage change of 5.9, whereas the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma decreased. Among the subtypes of lung cancer, the most rapid increase occurred in neuroendocrine tumors with an annual percentage change of 15.5. From 1996–1999 to 2005–2008, the 1-year survival of adenocarcinoma increased by 10% for men, whereas the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of adenocarcinoma for women increased by 18%, 11%, and 5%, respectively. Overall, the incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Taiwan, although the trends were variable by subtype. The introduction of targeted therapies was associated with a significantly improved survival for lung adenocarcinoma in Taiwan; however, more studies are needed to explain the rising incidence of lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it is important to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of the various subtypes of lung cancer to develop novel therapeutic agents. PMID:26091466

  3. Lung cancer, brucellosis and tuberculosis: remarkable togetherness

    PubMed Central

    Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Erboy, Fatma; Arvas, Gulhan; Aslan, Turan

    2013-01-01

    A 68 years old male farmer referred with cough, expectorating sputum, intermittant fever, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia persisting for two weeks. There was a history of 80 packs each year of smoking and he was still an active smoker. Pneumonectomy was performed because of pulmonary epidermoid cancer and he received chemotherapy. He was diagnosed lung tuberculosis and using anti-tuberculous treatment for 4 months. He had a weight loss of 8 kg in last month. His body tempereature was 38.5 °C. Heart rate was 100/min. ESR was 51mm/h and CRP was 5.6 mg/dL. There was no proliferation in blood and sputum cultures. Three sputum specimens were examined and AFB wasn't detected. Fibronodular infiltration was seen in right lower zone of chest X-ray. In thorax CT, fibronodular densities were seen in lower lobe anterior and posterior segments. Brucella melitensis was isolated in blood culture. Second bronchoscopy was performed with suspect of brucellosis pneumonia. Brucella tube agglutination test was positive at titer 1/320 in the bronchial lavage fluid and 1/640 in concurrent serum sample. In cases with chronic cough or pneumonia which is irresponsive to nonspecific antibiotherapy, respiratory brucellosis must be rememberred in endemic areas.

  4. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in men and women.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pintos, Javier; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Danieli, Coraline; Richardson, Lesley; Bourbonnais, Robert; Gauvin, Lise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that recreational physical activities (PA) may reduce lung cancer risk, there is little evidence concerning the possible role of a potentially more important source of PA, namely occupational PA. We investigated both recreational and lifetime occupational PA in relation to lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (N CASES  = 727; N CONTROLS  = 1,351). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), separately for men and women, adjusting for smoking, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both sexes, increasing recreational PA was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (OR MEN  = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.92; OR WOMEN  = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles). For occupational PA, no association was observed among women, while increasing occupational PA was associated with increased risk among men (OR MEN  = 1.96, 95% CI 1.27-3.01). ORs were not modified by occupational lung carcinogen exposure, body mass index, and smoking level; results were similar across lung cancer histological types. Our results support the previous findings for recreational PA and lung cancer risk. Unexpectedly, our findings suggest a positive association for occupational PA; this requires replication and more detailed investigation.

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Lung Metastasis from Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Lee, Paul C.; Port, Jeffrey L.; Altorki, Nasser K.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2008-01-01

    Background While extensive research has explored the impact of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. Methods We performed a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. Results We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39/53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144/301) of patients without lung metastases (p=0.001) (summary OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology). Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR 1.89, 95%CI 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR 4.71, 95%CI 1.20-18.5) but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95%CI 0.27-1.60) was associated with lung metastasis. Compared to the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR 2.35, 95%CI 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.42-1.83) Conclusions Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship appears to be site-specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome. PMID:18843013

  7. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  8. [Occupational lung cancer. A comparison between humans and experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Adachi, S; Takemoto, K

    1987-09-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that the respiratory tract is one of the most sensitive organs to environmental carcinogens. Nevertheless there is little evidence to determine the relationship between a specific environmental carcinogen and a cell type of lung cancer, because the cell types of lung cancer and their relative frequencies are highly complex compared with those of other organs and tissues. In the present paper, occupational lung-cancer characteristics, which are the clearest in the relation between cause and effect in human lung cancers, were reviewed in comparison with the results of animal experiments concerned with occupational lung carcinogens. Through accumulation of histopathological examinations of the lung cancer cases, the following relationships between cause and cell type were conjectured: chromium and squamous cell carcinoma; asbestos and adenocarcinoma; nickel and squamous cell carcinoma; beryllium and small cell carcinoma; bis (chloromethyl) ether and small cell carcinoma; mustard gas and squamous cell or small cell carcinoma; vinyl chloride and large cell or adenocarcinoma; radionuclides and small cell carcinoma. The relation pertaining to arsenic, benzotrichloride and tar could not be conjectured because of insufficient cases and information in the histological diagnosis. On the other hand, the carcinogenicity of these substances in occupational exposure has been confirmed by animal experiments administered intratracheally or by inhalation studies under relatively higher concentration. As a result of recent refinements of inhalation study, all-day and life-span exposure to extremely low concentrations, such as microgram/m3 orders, of certain substances has been possible. The characteristics of lung tumors occurring in these animals are rather different from those of human. For example, in mouse, almost all of the malignant lung tumors developed by carcinogens are adenocarcinomas and it is rare to find the

  9. Skin metastases from lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pajaziti, Laura; Hapçiu, Syzana Rexhepi; Dobruna, Shkendije; Hoxha, Naim; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Pajaziti, Artina

    2015-04-11

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies, with high mortality rates. It can metastasize in almost all organs, but more often invades hilar nodes, liver, adrenal glands, bones and brain. There are various data on the incidence of lung cancer metastases in the skin. In 1-12% of patients with lung cancer are developed skin metastases. Metastases in the skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Forty-five years old Albanian male, smoker, was admitted to our department with multiple nodules localized in the skin of the head, neck, back and chest. The nodules measuring 5-15 millimeters in greatest dimension were round and skin-colored, with telangiectasias, firm and tender. They appeared in an eruptive form about two weeks before being admitted at our hospital. In addition, the patient exhibited signs of weight loss, anorexia and fatigue. Excisional biopsy was performed to one of the lesions. Histopathology confirmed metastatic nature of the lesion namely, malignant tumor of neuroendocrine phenotype consistent with small-cell carcinoma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed an expansive process in the 7(th) segment of the left lung, left hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a suspicious initial secondary deposit in the left adrenal gland. The patient was referred to the department of oncology for further treatment. After the third cycle of chemotherapy, the magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases. The patient passed away four months after the diagnosis of lung cancer first presented with skin metastases. Metastases in skin may be the first sign of lung cancer. Although rare appearing, we should raise suspicion in cases of atypical lesions in the skin not only of the smokers, but also of the non-smokers. Skin metastases from small-cell lung carcinoma are a poor prognostic indicator. The appearance of multiple skin metastases with other internal metastases shorten the survival time.

  10. Tobacco Cessation May Improve Lung Cancer Patient Survival.

    PubMed

    Dobson Amato, Katharine A; Hyland, Andrew; Reed, Robert; Mahoney, Martin C; Marshall, James; Giovino, Gary; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Zevon, Michael A; Cummings, K Michael; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Singh, Anurag K; Chen, Hongbin; Warren, Graham W; Reid, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This study characterizes tobacco cessation patterns and the association of cessation with survival among lung cancer patients at Roswell Park Cancer Institute: an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Lung cancer patients presenting at this institution were screened with a standardized tobacco assessment, and those who had used tobacco within the past 30 days were automatically referred to a telephone-based cessation service. Demographic, clinical information, and self-reported tobacco use at last contact were obtained via electronic medical records and the Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry for all lung cancer patients referred to the service between October 2010 and October 2012. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether tobacco cessation and other factors were associated with lung cancer survival through May 2014. Calls were attempted to 313 of 388 lung cancer patients referred to the cessation service. Eighty percent of patients (250 of 313) were successfully contacted and participated in at least one telephone-based cessation call; 40.8% (102 of 250) of persons contacted reported having quit at the last contact. After controlling for age, pack year history, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, time between diagnosis and last contact, tumor histology, and clinical stage, a statistically significant increase in survival was associated with quitting compared with continued tobacco use at last contact (HR = 1.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.82) with a median 9 month improvement in overall survival. Tobacco cessation among lung cancer patients after diagnosis may increase overall survival.

  11. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  12. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for

  13. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad A.; Barger, Jennifer F.; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A.; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells. PMID:27363026

  14. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad A; Barger, Jennifer F; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-08-23

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells.

  15. Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Alavanja, M C; Hock, E T; Loy, T S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The causes of lung cancer among nonsmokers are not clearly understood. To further evaluate the relation between passive smoke exposure and lung cancer in nonsmoking women, we conducted a population-based, case-control study. METHODS. Case patients (n = 618), identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1986 through 1991, included 432 lifetime nonsmokers and 186 ex-smokers who had stopped at least 15 years before diagnosis or who had smoked for less than 1 pack-year. Control subjects (n = 1402) were selected from driver's license and Medicare files. RESULTS. No increased risk of lung cancer was associated with childhood passive smoke exposure. Adulthood analyses showed an increased lung cancer risk for lifetime nonsmokers with exposure of more than 40 pack-years from all household members (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.8) or from spouses only (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.7). When the time-weighted product of pack-years and average hours exposed per day was considered, a 30% excess risk was shown at the highest quartile of exposure among lifetime nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Ours and other recent studies suggest a small but consistent increased risk of lung cancer from passive smoking. Comprehensive actions to limit smoking in public places and worksites are well-advised. PMID:1443304

  16. The Microenvironment of Lung Cancer and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vivek; El Rayes, Tina; Narula, Navneet; McGraw, Timothy E; Altorki, Nasser K; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a milieu that enables tumor cells to acquire the hallmarks of cancer. The TME is heterogeneous in composition and consists of cellular components, growth factors, proteases, and extracellular matrix. Concerted interactions between genetically altered tumor cells and genetically stable intratumoral stromal cells result in an "activated/reprogramed" stroma that promotes carcinogenesis by contributing to inflammation, immune suppression, therapeutic resistance, and generating premetastatic niches that support the initiation and establishment of distant metastasis. The lungs present a unique milieu in which tumors progress in collusion with the TME, as evidenced by regions of aberrant angiogenesis, acidosis and hypoxia. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and pulmonary disorders in lung cancer patients such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema, constitute comorbid conditions and are independent risk factors for lung cancer. The TME also contributes to immune suppression, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and diminishes efficacy of chemotherapies. Thus, the TME has begun to emerge as the "Achilles heel" of the disease, and constitutes an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. Drugs targeting the components of the TME are making their way into clinical trials. Here, we will focus on recent advances and emerging concepts regarding the intriguing role of the TME in lung cancer progression, and discuss future directions in the context of novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  17. PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Banno, Asoka; Reddy, Raju C

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPAR α , PPAR β / δ , and PPAR γ , display distinct biological activities and varied influences on lung cancer biology. PPAR α activation generally inhibits tumorigenesis through its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Activated PPAR γ is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, regulating several functions of cancer cells and controlling the tumor microenvironment. Unlike PPAR α and PPAR γ , whether PPAR β / δ activation is anti- or protumorigenic or even inconsequential currently remains an open question that requires additional investigation. This review of current literature emphasizes the multifaceted effects of PPAR agonists in lung cancer and discusses how they may be applied as novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.

  18. Ganoderma lucidum targeting lung cancer signaling: A review.

    PubMed

    Gill, Balraj Singh; Navgeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer causes huge mortality to population, and pharmaceutical companies require new drugs as an alternative either synthetic or natural targeting lung cancer. The conventional therapies cause side effects, and therefore, natural products are used as a therapeutic candidate in lung cancer. Chemical diversity among natural products highlights the impact of evolution and survival of fittest. One such neglected natural product is Ganoderma lucidum used for promoting health and longevity for a longer time. The major bioconstituents of G. lucidum are mainly terpenes, polysaccharides, and proteins, which were explored for various activities ranging from apoptosis to autophagy. The bioconstituents of G. lucidum activate plasma membrane receptors and initiate various downstream signaling leading to nuclear factor-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin in cancer. The bioconstituents regulate the expression of various genes involved in cell cycle, immune response, apoptosis, and autophagy in lung cancer. This review highlights the inextricable role of G. lucidum and its bioconstituents in lung cancer signaling for the first time.

  19. Continued family smoking after lung cancer diagnosis: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Robinson, Carole A; Sullivan, Kelli M; Smith, Michelle L

    2009-05-01

    To explore the influence of lung cancer diagnosis on interpersonal dynamics in families in which one or more members continue to smoke following diagnosis. Descriptive, qualitative. Three cancer care sites in western Canada. 16 participants from 8 family dyads. Patients with lung cancer receiving treatment and immediate family members were recruited to participate in individual or conjoint semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcribed interviews. Intrafamily interaction patterns, smoking and smoking cessation, lung cancer diagnosis. Following diagnosis, patients with lung cancer experienced considerable distress as they struggled to understand family members' continued smoking. Patient orientations to family members who smoked included preserving relationships (maintaining harmony and connection with family members took priority over directly intervening with smokers) and risking relationships (patients repeatedly confronted family members about continued smoking to influence their cessation despite the impact on relationships). Neither pattern was successful in engaging relatives in smoking reduction or cessation, and the risking relationships approach resulted in conflict and strained family relationships. The findings provide additional support for examining family dynamics related to tobacco reduction and cessation as well as directions for future research. Nurses should encourage tobacco reduction as a supportive intervention for patients with lung cancer and their families to eliminate smoking-related distress.

  20. Predictors of lung cancer among former asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2015-09-01

    Despite extensive literature concerning the risk of lung cancer incidence among asbestos workers there is still lack of data specifying the association between the level of exposure and the frequency of cancer occurrence. The aim of the analysis was to assess the influence of smoking and selected factors related to occupational exposure on the risk of the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to asbestos dust in the past. The assessment was performed based on the case-control studies carried out within a cohort including 7,374 former workers of asbestos processing plants, examined over the years 2000-2013. Analysis of the material was based on the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusted for cigarette smoking, cumulative exposure, branch and time since last exposure. During the survey period there were 165 cases of lung cancer. Among the individuals who smoked, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was twice as high in the persons smoking more than 20 pack-years (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.45-3.46) than it was in the case of the non-smokers. Analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer in the group with the highest exposure was two times higher in comparison with the low cumulative asbestos exposure (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25). The risk continued to increase until 30 years after cessation of asbestos exposure and started to decline many years after the last exposure. Influence of the mentioned above characteristics is particularly visible for tumors located in the lower parts of the lungs. Our findings confirm the strong evidence that the lung cancer risk is associated with asbestos exposure and it increases along with the increasing exposure. A strategy of smoking cessation among the individuals exposed to asbestos dust would potentially have health promoting effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung cancer prevalence associated with radon exposure in Norwegian homes.

    PubMed

    Hassfjell, Christina Søyland; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Standring, William J F; Tretli, Steinar

    2017-08-22

    Radioactive radon gas is generated from uranium and thorium in underlying rocks and seeps into buildings. The gas and its decay products emit carcinogenic radiation and are regarded as the second most important risk factor for lung cancer after active tobacco smoking. The average radon concentration in Norwegian homes is higher than in most other Western countries. From a health and cost perspective, it is important to be able to quantify the risk of lung cancer posed by radon exposure. We estimated the radon-related risk of lung cancer in Norway based on risk estimates from the largest pooled analysis of European case-control studies, combined with the hitherto largest set of data on radon concentration measurements in Norwegian homes. Based on these estimates, we calculate that radon is a contributory factor in 12 % of all cases of lung cancer annually, assuming an average radon concentration of 88 Bq/m3 in Norwegian homes. For 2015, this accounted for 373 cases of lung cancer, with an approximate 95 % confidence interval of 145 – 682. Radon most likely contributes to a considerable number of cases of lung cancer. Since most cases of radon-associated lung cancer involve smokers or former smokers, a reduction of the radon concentration in homes could be a key measure to reduce the risk, especially for persons who are unable to quit smoking. The uncertainty in the estimated number of radon-associated cases can be reduced through a new national radon mapping study with an improved design.

  2. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (< 50 copies/ml) for a mean duration of 4.0 y. All but 1 patient were current or former heavy smokers (mean 42 package y). The median estimated overall survival was 1.08 y, with a 2-y overall survival of 24%. The prognosis did not improve during the observation time. A limited lung cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  3. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    PubMed

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  4. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2017-03-15

    With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  5. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  6. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer - Role of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Sacha I

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA species that have been implicated in the control of many fundamental cellular and physiological processes such as cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Some miRNAs have been categorized as "oncomiRs" as opposed to "tumor suppressor miRs." This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in the lung cancer carcinogenesis and their potential as diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive markers.

  7. Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Heidi; Kennedy, Deborah; Fergusson, Dean; Fernandes, Rochelle; Cooley, Kieran; Seely, Andrew; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Seely, Dugald

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies. Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serum<106 ng/mL), but increase risk of lung cancers in those with higher selenium (≥121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61–1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70–3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79–1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy. Conclusions Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad

  8. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  9. Involvement of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F.; Guo, Yongli; Korc, Murray; Kauppinen, Sakari; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression. Expression profiles of specific miRNAs have improved cancer diagnosis and classification and even provided prognostic information in many human cancers, including lung cancer. Tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs were uncovered in lung carcinogenesis. The biological functions of these miRNAs in lung cancer were recently validated in well characterized cellular, murine transgenic as well as transplantable lung cancer models and in human paired normal-malignant lung tissue banks and tissue arrays. Tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs that were identified in lung cancer will be reviewed here. Emphasis is placed on highlighting those functionally validated miRNAs that are not only biomarkers of lung carcinogenesis, but also candidate pharmacologic targets. How these miRNA findings advance an understanding of lung cancer biology and could improve lung cancer therapy are discussed in this article. PMID:21420030

  10. Pre- and post- transplantation lung cancer in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pricopi, Ciprian; Rivera, Caroline; Varnous, Shaida; Arame, Alex; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Heart transplantation after lung cancer surgery can be questionable because of the high risk of cancer recurrence. We report the results of two patients. The first underwent right lobectomy in 2008 for pT1N0 adenocarcinoma, heart-transplantation in 2010, and surgery for synchronous adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma in 2012. The second underwent left segmentectomy for pT1aN0 adenosquamous carcinoma and transplantation in 1995 and then surgery for pT1aN1 adenocarcinoma in 2013. Posttransplantation lung cancer histologic analysis results were different in both cases, demonstrating the absence of metastatic recurrence. Thus, early stage lung cancer might not be a contraindication to heart transplantation, nor are long delays be necessary before registering on a waiting list. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of peptide deformylase in breast, colon, and lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Harsharan; Chikara, Shireen; Gehring, Drew; Yildirim, Tuba; Menon, Jyotsana; Reindl, Katie M

    2013-07-01

    Human mitochondrial peptide deformylase (PDF) has been proposed as a novel cancer therapeutic target. However, very little is known about its expression and regulation in human tissues. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of PDF in cancerous tissues and to identify mechanisms that regulate its expression. The mRNA expression levels of PDF and methionine aminopeptidase 1D (MAP1D), an enzyme involved in a related pathway with PDF, were determined using tissue panels containing cDNA from patients with various types of cancer (breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovarian, prostate, or thyroid) and human cell lines. Protein levels of PDF were also determined in 2 colon cancer patients via western blotting. Colon cancer cells were treated with inhibitors of ERK, Akt, and mTOR signaling pathways and the resulting effects on PDF and MAP1D mRNA levels were determined by qPCR for colon and lung cancer cell lines. Finally, the effects of a PDF inhibitor, actinonin, on the proliferation of breast, colon, and prostate cell lines were determined using the CyQUANT assay. PDF and MAP1D mRNA levels were elevated in cancer cell lines compared to non-cancer lines. PDF mRNA levels were significantly increased in breast, colon, and lung cancer samples while MAP1D mRNA levels were increased in just colon cancers. The expression of PDF and MAP1D varied with stage in these cancers. Further, PDF protein expression was elevated in colon cancer tissue samples. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK, but not PI3K or mTOR, pathway reduced the expression of PDF and MAP1D in both colon and lung cancer cell lines. Further, inhibition of PDF with actinonin resulted in greater reduction of breast, colon, and prostate cancer cell proliferation than non-cancer cell lines. This is the first report showing that PDF is over-expressed in breast, colon, and lung cancers, and the first evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway plays a role in regulating the expression of PDF and MAP1D. The over

  12. Overexpression of peptide deformylase in breast, colon, and lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human mitochondrial peptide deformylase (PDF) has been proposed as a novel cancer therapeutic target. However, very little is known about its expression and regulation in human tissues. The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of PDF in cancerous tissues and to identify mechanisms that regulate its expression. Methods The mRNA expression levels of PDF and methionine aminopeptidase 1D (MAP1D), an enzyme involved in a related pathway with PDF, were determined using tissue panels containing cDNA from patients with various types of cancer (breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovarian, prostate, or thyroid) and human cell lines. Protein levels of PDF were also determined in 2 colon cancer patients via western blotting. Colon cancer cells were treated with inhibitors of ERK, Akt, and mTOR signaling pathways and the resulting effects on PDF and MAP1D mRNA levels were determined by qPCR for colon and lung cancer cell lines. Finally, the effects of a PDF inhibitor, actinonin, on the proliferation of breast, colon, and prostate cell lines were determined using the CyQUANT assay. Results PDF and MAP1D mRNA levels were elevated in cancer cell lines compared to non-cancer lines. PDF mRNA levels were significantly increased in breast, colon, and lung cancer samples while MAP1D mRNA levels were increased in just colon cancers. The expression of PDF and MAP1D varied with stage in these cancers. Further, PDF protein expression was elevated in colon cancer tissue samples. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK, but not PI3K or mTOR, pathway reduced the expression of PDF and MAP1D in both colon and lung cancer cell lines. Further, inhibition of PDF with actinonin resulted in greater reduction of breast, colon, and prostate cancer cell proliferation than non-cancer cell lines. Conclusions This is the first report showing that PDF is over-expressed in breast, colon, and lung cancers, and the first evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway plays a role in regulating the

  13. Instillation and Fixation Methods Useful in Mouse Lung Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Mock, Jason; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-08-31

    The ability to instill live agents, cells, or chemicals directly into the lung without injuring or killing the mice is an important tool in lung cancer research. Although there are a number of methods that have been published showing how to intubate mice for pulmonary function measurements, none are without potential problems for rapid tracheal instillation in large cohorts of mice. In the present paper, a simple and quick method is described that enables an investigator to carry out such instillations in an efficient manner. The method does not require any special tools or lighting and can be learned with very little practice. It involves anesthetizing a mouse, making a small incision in the neck to visualize the trachea, and then inserting an intravenous catheter directly. The small incision is quickly closed with tissue adhesive, and the mice are allowed to recover. A skilled student or technician can do instillations at an average rate of 2 min/mouse. Once the cancer is established, there is frequently a need for quantitative histologic analysis of the lungs. Traditionally pathologists usually do not bother to standardize lung inflation during fixation, and analyses are often based on a scoring system that can be quite subjective. While this may sometime be sufficiently adequate for gross estimates of the size of a lung tumor, any proper stereological quantification of lung structure or cells requires a reproducible fixation procedure and subsequent lung volume measurement. Here we describe simple reliable procedures for both fixing the lungs under pressure and then accurately measuring the fixed lung volume. The only requirement is a laboratory balance that is accurate over a range of 1 mg-300 g. The procedures presented here thus could greatly improve the ability to create, treat, and analyze lung cancers in mice.

  14. Is cancer history really an exclusion criterion for clinical trial of lung cancer? Influence of gastrointestinal tract cancer history on the outcomes of lung cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aokage, Keiju; Okada, Morihito; Suzuki, Kenji; Nomura, Shogo; Suzuki, Shigeki; Tsubokawa, Norifumi; Mimae, Takahiro; Hattori, Aritoshi; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Tsuboi, Masahiro

    2017-02-15

    Exclusion of patients with a history of other cancer treatment except in situ situation has been considered to be inevitable for clinical trials investigating survival outcome. However, there have been few reports confirming these influences on surgical outcome of lung cancer patients ever. Multi-institutional, individual data from patients with non–small cell lung cancer resected between 2000 and 2013 were collected. The patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of gastrointestinal tract cancer (GI group) and those without any history (non-GI group). We compared the outcomes with well-matched groups using propensity scoring to minimize bias related to the nonrandomness. The influence of gastrointestinal tract cancer stage, disease-free interval, and treatment method for gastrointestinal tract cancer on the surgical outcome of non–small cell lung cancer was examined. We analyzed 196 patients in the GI group and 3732 in the non-GI group. In unmatched cohort, multivariate analyses showed that a history of gastrointestinal tract cancer did not affect overall survival or recurrence-free survival. Independent predictors of poor prognosis included older age, male sex, high carcinoembryonic antigen levels and advanced clinical stage of non–small cell lung cancer. The two groups in the matched cohort demonstrated equivalent overall survival and recurrence-free survival, even in patients with clinical stage I. Gastrointestinal tract cancer stage, disease-free interval and treatment method for gastrointestinal tract cancer were not associated with outcomes. History of early gastrointestinal tract cancer completely resected is not always necessary for exclusion criteria in clinical trial of lung cancer.

  15. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  16. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer: an unproven association.

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1995-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer associated with diesel exhaust has been calculated from 14 case-control or cohort studies. We evaluated the findings from these studies to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to implicate diesel exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Four studies found increased risks associated with long-term exposure, although two of the four studies were based on the same cohort of railroad workers. Six studies were inconclusive due to missing information on smoking habits, internal inconsistencies, or inadequate characterization of diesel exposure. Four studies found no statistically significant associations. It can be concluded that short-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust (< 20 years) does not have a causative role in human lung cancer. There is statistical but not causal evidence that long-term exposure to diesel exhaust (> 20 years) increases the risk of lung cancer for locomotive engineers, brakemen, and diesel engine mechanics. There is inconsistent evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry. There is no evidence for a joint effect of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoking on lung cancer risk. Using common criteria for determining causal associations, the epidemiologic evidence is insufficient to establish diesel engine exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Images p812-a PMID:7498093

  17. Lung abscess mimicking lung cancer developed around staples in a patient with permanent tracheostoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Aoki, Masaya; Suzuki, Soichi; Umehara, Tadashi; Harada, Aya; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old male with a tracheostoma due to hypopharyngeal cancer was admitted because his chest computed tomography (CT) showed a small nodule in the right middle lobe. Following a partial resection of the right middle lobe, histopathological diagnosis of the resected sample was that of organizing pneumonia. Eleven months later, chest CT showed a mass with pleural indentation and spiculation in the right middle lobe. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed significant accumulation in the middle lobe tumor mass shadow. The abnormal chest shadow that had developed around surgical staples suggested inadequate resection and tumor recurrence. As the abnormal radiological shadow was enlarging, middle lobectomy was carried out. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a lung abscess without malignant features. This is a unique case of lung abscess mimicking lung cancer which developed around staples used during partial resection of the lung.

  18. Tobacco Cessation May Improve Lung Cancer Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dobson Amato, Katharine A.; Hyland, Andrew; Reed, Robert; Mahoney, Martin C.; Marshall, James; Giovino, Gary; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Zevon, Michael A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Singh, Anurag K.; Chen, Hongbin; Warren, Graham W.; Reid, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study characterizes tobacco cessation patterns and the association of cessation with survival among lung cancer patients at Roswell Park Cancer Institute: an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Methods Lung cancer patients presenting at this institution were screened with a standardized tobacco assessment, and those who had used tobacco within the past 30 days were automatically referred to a telephone-based cessation service. Demographic, clinical information and self-reported tobacco use at last contact were obtained via electronic medical records and the RPCI tumor registry for all lung cancer patients referred to the service between October 2010 and October 2012. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether tobacco cessation and other factors were associated with lung cancer survival through May 2014. Results Calls were attempted to 313 of 388 lung cancer patients referred to the cessation service. Eighty percent of patients (250/313) were successfully contacted and participated in at least one telephone-based cessation call; 40.8% (102/250) of persons contacted reported having quit at the last contact. After controlling for age, pack year history, sex, ECOG performance status, time between diagnosis and last contact, tumor histology, and clinical stage, a statistically significant increase in survival was associated with quitting compared to continued tobacco use at last contact (HR=1.79; 95% CI: 1.14-2.82) with a median 9 month improvement in overall survival. Conclusions Tobacco cessation among lung cancer patients after diagnosis may increase overall survival. PMID:26102442

  19. [Epidemiological study of lung cancer in Portugal (2000/2002)].

    PubMed

    Parente, Bárbara; Queiroga, H; Teixeira, E; Sotto-Mayor, R; Barata, F; Sousa, A; Melo, M J; João, F; Neveda, R; Cunha, J; Fernandes, A; Manuel, M; Cardoso, T; Ferreira, L; Nogueira, F; Duarte, J; Semedo, E; Brito, U; Pimentel, F; Barros, S; Costa, F; Almodôvar, T; Araújo, A

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer death in the world. Five-year survival is about 15%, without any change to this picture envisaged. It is the 3rd most prevalent type of cancer in Portugal and the primary cause of cancer death. 85% of lung cancer cases are attributable to smoking. One study performed in Portugal for 3 years (2000/2002) by the Lung Oncology Work Committee of the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology in 22 Hospitals showed that of a total of 4396 patients with lung cancer, 81.8% were male and 18.2% were female, with a mean age of 64.49 +/- 11.28 years. About 70% of patients were smokers or former smokers, with 50.3% of patients presenting with performance status (Zubrod) 1. Histologically, 37.5% were adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous carcinoma in 30.5% of cases, and small cell lung cancer in 12.5%; neuroendocrine carcinoma presented in 1.4% of cases; non small cell lung cancer in 10.5%; mixed carcinoma in 0.7%; large cell carcinoma in 2.3%; and others/not specified in 4.6% of cases. Staging (known in 4097 patients), showed 113 patients in stage IA (2.8%)and 250 patients in stage IB (6.1%); only 0.8% in stage IIA and 4.5% in stage IIB; 9.1% in stage IIIA and 29.9% in stage IIIB; 46.9% were already in stage IV by the time of diagnosis. The first therapeutic option was known in 3855 patients. Surgery was performed in 8.2% and 21.8% of cases were treated with combined therapies (surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy); chemotherapy alone was first choice in 43.7% of patients and in 20.3% only best support therapy was chosen.

  20. Treatment of Lung Cancer in Medically Compromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Feliciano, Josephine Louella

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes for patients with lung cancer have been improved substantially through the integration of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy for patients with early-stage disease. Meanwhile, advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms have substantially advanced our treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer through the introduction of targeted therapies, immune approaches, improvements in chemotherapy, and better supportive care. However, the majority of these advances have occurred among patients with good functional status, normal organ function, and with the social and economic support systems to be able to benefit most from these treatments. The aim of this article is to bring greater attention to management of lung cancer in patients who are medically compromised, which remains a major barrier to care delivery. Impaired performance status is associated with poor outcomes and correlates with the high prevalence of cachexia among patients with advanced lung cancer. CT imaging is emerging as a research tool to quantify muscle loss in patients with cancer, and new therapeutics are on the horizon that may provide important adjunctive therapy in the future. The benefits of cancer therapy for patients with organ failure are poorly understood because of their exclusion from clinical trials. The availability of targeted therapy and immunotherapy may provide alternatives that may be easier to deliver in this population, but clinical trials of these new agents in this population are vital. Patients with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by lung cancer because of higher rates of tobacco addiction and the impact of socioeconomic status on delay in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. For all patients who are medically compromised with lung cancer, multidisciplinary approaches are particularly needed to evaluate these patients and to incorporate rapidly changing therapeutics to improve outcomes.

  1. Lung cancers diagnosed at annual CT screening: volume doubling times.

    PubMed

    Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Yip, Rowena; Reeves, Anthony P; Farooqi, Ali; Xu, Dongming; Smith, James P; Libby, Daniel M; Pasmantier, Mark W; Miettinen, Olli S

    2012-05-01

    To empirically address the distribution of the volume doubling time (VDT) of lung cancers diagnosed in repeat annual rounds of computed tomographic (CT) screening in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP), first and foremost with respect to rates of tumor growth but also in terms of cell types. All CT screenings in I-ELCAP from 1993 to 2009 were performed according to HIPAA-compliant protocols approved by the institutional review boards of the collaborating institutions. All instances of first diagnosis of primary lung cancer after a negative screening result 7-18 months earlier were identified, with symptom-prompted diagnoses included. Lesion diameter was calculated by using the measured length and width of each cancer at the time when the nodule was first identified for further work-up and at the time of the most recent prior screening, 7-18 months earlier. The length and width were measured a second time for each cancer, and the geometric mean of the two calculated diameters was used to calculate the VDT. The χ(2) statistic was used to compare the VDT distributions. The median VDT for 111 cancers was 98 days (interquartile range, 108). For 56 (50%) cancers it was less than 100 days, and for three (3%) cancers it was more than 400 days. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent cell type (50%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), small cell carcinoma (19%), and others (12%). Lung cancers manifesting as subsolid nodules had significantly longer VDTs than those manifesting as solid nodules (P < .0001). Lung cancers diagnosed in annual repeat rounds of CT screening, as manifest by the VDT and cell-type distributions, are similar to those diagnosed in the absence of screening.

  2. The genetics and biology of KRAS in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Peter M. K.; To, Minh D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutational activation of KRAS is a common oncogenic event in lung cancer and other epithelial cancer types. Efforts to develop therapies that counteract the oncogenic effects of mutant KRAS have been largely unsuccessful, and cancers driven by mutant KRAS remain among the most refractory to available treatments. Studies undertaken over the past decades have produced a wealth of information regarding the clinical relevance of KRAS mutations in lung cancer. Mutant Kras-driven mouse models of cancer, together with cellular and molecular studies, have provided a deeper appreciation for the complex functions of KRAS in tumorigenesis. However, a much more thorough understanding of these complexities is needed before clinically effective therapies targeting mutant KRAS-driven cancers can be achieved. PMID:22776234

  3. Validity of breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses in administrative databases: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Iosief; Giovannini, Gianni; Serraino, Diego; Fusco, Mario; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-03-18

    Breast, lung and colorectal cancers constitute the most common cancers worldwide and their epidemiology, related health outcomes and quality indicators can be studied using administrative healthcare databases. To constitute a reliable source for research, administrative healthcare databases need to be validated. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision codes to identify breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses in administrative healthcare databases. This review protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. We will search the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library, using appropriate search strategies. We will include validation studies that used administrative data to identify breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses or studies that evaluated the validity of breast, lung and colorectal cancer codes in administrative data. The following inclusion criteria will be used: (1) the presence of a reference standard case definition for the disease of interest; (2) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, positive predictive values, etc) and (3) the use of data source from an administrative database. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will assess quality using a checklist based on the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD) criteria. Ethics approval is not required. We will submit results of this study to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results will serve as a guide to identify appropriate case definitions and algorithms of breast, lung and colorectal cancers for researchers involved in validating administrative healthcare databases as well as for outcome research on these conditions that used administrative

  4. The role of LKB1 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2011-09-01

    In humans, the LKB1 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 19, which is frequently deleted in lung tumors. Unlike most cancers of sporadic origin, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nearly half of the tumors harbor somatic and homozygous inactivating mutations in LKB1. In NSCLC, LKB1 inactivation strongly predominates in adenocarcinomas from smokers and coexists with mutations at other important cancer genes, including KRAS and TP53. Remarkably, LKB1 alterations frequently occur simultaneously with inactivation at another important tumor suppressor gene, BRG1 (also called SMARCA4), which is also located on chromosome 19p. The present review considers the frequency and pattern of LKB1 mutations in lung cancer and the distinct biological pathways in which the LKB1 protein is involved in the development of this type of cancer. Finally, the possible clinical applications in cancer management, especially in lung cancer treatment, associated with the presence of absence of LKB1 are discussed.

  5. Early Palliative Care With Standard Care or Standard Care Alone in Improving Quality of Life of Patients With Incurable Lung or Non-colorectal Gastrointestinal Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-19

    Liver Cancer; Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Malignant Mesothelioma; Pancreatic Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  6. Prognostic impact of EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with family history of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Cho, Min Seong; Nam, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Kyeng-Won; Ryu, Jeong-Seon

    2017-01-01

    A family history can be a valuable tool in the era of precision medicine. Although a few studies have described an association of family history of lung cancer with EGFR activating mutation, their impact on survival of lung cancer patients is unclear. The study included consecutive 829 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who received analysis of EGFR mutation in a prospective lung cancer cohort. Family history of lung cancer was obtained by face-to-face interviews at the time of diagnosis. An association of EGFR activating mutation with a family history of lung cancer in first-degree relatives was evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analysis, and its association with survival was estimated with Cox's proportional hazards model. Seventy five (9.0%) patients had family history of lung cancer. The EGFR mutation was commonly observed in patients with positive family history compared to those with no family history (46.7% v 31.3%, χ2 p = 0.007). The family history was significantly associated with the EGFR mutation (aOR and 95% CI: 2.01 and 1.18-3.60, p = 0.011). Patients with the positive family history survived longer compared to those without (MST, 17.9 v 13.0 months, log-rank p = 0.037). The presence of the EGFR mutation was associated with better survival in patients without the family history (aHR and 95% CI: 0.72 and 0.57-0.90, p = 0.005). However, this prognostic impact was not observed in patients with the positive family history (aHR and 95% CI: 1.01 and 0.50-2.36, p = 0.832). In comparison to patients without the family history, EGFR activating mutation was common, and it did not affect prognosis in patients with positive family history.

  7. Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer in Swedish iron miners.

    PubMed Central

    Darby, S C; Radford, E P; Whitley, E

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented on the risks of cancers other than lung cancer in a cohort of iron miners from northern Sweden occupationally exposed to elevated levels of the radioactive gas radon. Compared with rates for the four northernmost counties of Sweden, mortality was increased for all cancers other than lung cancer (ratio of observed to expected deaths 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.41), stomach cancer (ratio of observed to expected deaths 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.98), and rectal cancer (ratio of observed to expected deaths 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.31). Despite these overall increases, mortality was not significantly associated with cumulative exposure to radon, either for all cancers other than lung cancer or for any site of cancer other than lung cancer individually. However, the data from this cohort on its own have limited power; and for several sites of cancer the data in this study would be consistent with a radon-related increase. Further study of cancers other than lung cancer in populations exposed to radon is required. PMID:7614946

  8. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) as a novel diagnostic marker for lung cancer-related malignant effusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyeun; Park, Myung Jae; Choi, Sue In; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Yeub; In, Kwang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) is a novel protein that plays an important role in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Recently, Romo1 has been suggested to have diagnostic and prognostic potential in lung cancer. However, there is no data on the diagnostic value of Romo1 level in malignant pleural effusion. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of Romo1 in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusion in lung cancer patients. Pleural fluid Romo1 level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between lung cancer-associated malignant effusion (n = 53; 29 adenocarcinomas and 24 squamous cell carcinomas) and benign pleural effusions (n = 91; 31 tuberculous pleurisy, 30 parapneumonic effusion, and 30 transudate). The discriminative power of Romo1 for lung cancer-associated malignant effusion was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and compared with those of other tumor markers. Median Romo1 level in lung cancer-associated malignant effusion was 99.3 ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that in benign pleural effusions (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff value of Romo1 to discriminate lung cancer-associated malignant effusion from benign effusions was 67.0 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 84.1%. The area under the curve was 0.837 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.750–0.886), which was significantly better than that of cytokeratin 19 fragments (P < 0.001). Pleural fluid Romo1 could discriminate lung cancer from benign diseases with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest a diagnostic potential of Romo1 for lung cancer-associated malignant effusion. PMID:28121949

  9. Impact of COPD and emphysema on survival of patients with lung cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Hua; Guan, Wei-Jie; Liu, Qi; Wang, Hua-Qi; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Both COPD and emphysema are associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer, but the impacts of these comorbidities on lung cancer prognosis are still unclear. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify whether the presence of these comorbidities indicates poor survival in patients with lung cancer. A comprehensive search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ASCO Abstracts and Cochrane library for articles published before 1 June 2015. Papers referenced by the obtained articles were also reviewed. Main outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with lung cancer. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Of 58 full texts reviewed, 26 met our inclusion criteria that were derived from 21 and seven studies examining the impacts of COPD and emphysema on survival of lung cancer, respectively. Meta-analyses revealed that concomitant COPD was associated with poorer OS (HR, 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10-1.25, n = 20), which was independent of tumour staging, diagnostic criteria of COPD or location, and DFS (HR, 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04-2.23, n = 6) with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 78%). The presence of emphysema in patients with lung cancer predicted worse OS (HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.25-2.22, n = 7), but not poorer DFS. The presence of COPD and emphysema are robust predictors of poor survival in patients with lung cancer. Early detection of these diseases should be taken into account for lung cancer surveillance and management. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Is Genetic Background Important in Lung Cancer Survival?

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Linda S.; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Wiklund, Fredrik; Czene, Kamila

    2009-01-01

    Background In lung cancer, a patient's survival is poor with a wide variation in survival within the stage of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the familial concordance in lung cancer survival by means of analyses of pairs with different degrees of familial relationships. Methods Our population-based Swedish family database included three million families and over 58 100 lung cancer patients. We modelled the proband (parent, sibling, spouse) survival utilizing a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model adjusting for possible confounders of survival. Subsequently, the survival in proband's relative (child, sibling, spouse) was analysed with a Cox model. Findings By use of Cox modelling with 5 years follow-up, we noted a decreased hazard ratio for death in children with good parental survival (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.99), compared to those with poor parental survival. Also for siblings, a very strong protective effect was seen (HR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.030 to 0.65). Finally, in spouses no correlation in survival was found. Interpretation Our findings suggest that genetic factors are important in lung cancer survival. In a clinical setting, information on prognosis in a relative may be vital in foreseeing the survival in an individual newly diagnosed with lung cancer. Future molecular studies enhancing the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and pathways are needed. PMID:19478952

  11. Angiotensin receptor blockers: are they related to lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Gowtham Adamane; Mann, Joshua R.; Shoaibi, Azza; Pai, Sachin G.; Bottai, Matteo; Sutton, Shawn Scott; Haddock, Kathlyn Sue; Bennett, Charles Lee; Hebert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used antihypertensive medication with several other additional proven benefits. Recent controversy on association of lung cancer and other solid malignancy with the use of ARBs is concerning, although the follow-up studies have shown no such association. Methods We used data from the Department of Veterans Affairs electronic medical record system and registries to conduct a retrospective cohort study that compared first-time ARB users with nonusers in 1:15 ratio, after balancing for many baseline differences using inverse probability of treatment weights. We conducted time-to-event survival analyses on the weighted cohort. Results Of the 1 229 902 patients in the analytic cohort, 346 (0.44%) of the 78 075 treated individuals had a newly incident lung cancer and 6577 (0.57%) of 1 151 826 nontreated individuals were diagnosed with lung cancer. On double robust regression, the weighted hazard ratio was 0.74 (0.67–0.83, P<0.0001), suggesting a lung cancer reduction effect with ARB use. There was no difference in rates by ARB subtype. Conclusion In this large nationwide cohort of United States Veterans, we found no evidence to support any concern of increased risk of lung cancer among new users of ARBs compared with nonusers. Our findings were consistent with a protective effect of ARBs. PMID:23822929

  12. [Small-cell lung cancer: epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Pešek, Miloš; Mužík, Jan

    Authors present actual overview of information on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This highly aggressive type of lung cancer is diagnosed in 14.8 % of Czech lung cancer patients. Vast majority of those patients (87 %) suffer from advanced and metastatic disease in the time of diagnosis. In this issue are presented prognostic factors, staging diagnostic procedures and therapeutic recommendations. The backbone of actual SCLC treatment is combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy and less frequently, carefully in selected cases, surgical procedures. SCLC should be have as chemosensitive, chemoresistent or chemorefractory disease. Actual cytostatic combinations used in 1st line treatment, different schedules of chemoradiotherapy, drugs used in second line treatment and schedules and timing of prophylactic brain irradiation are presented. In near future, perspectively, there are some promissible data on antitumour immunotherapy based on anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1/PE-L1 antibodies also in SCLC patients.Key words: cancer immunotherapy - concomitant chemoradiotherapy - chemotherapy - chest radiotherapy - lung resections - prophylactic brain irradiation - small cell lung cancer.

  13. Study on expression of CDH4 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhupeng; Su, Dan; Ying, Lisha; Yu, Guangmao; Mao, Weimin

    2017-01-17

    The human CDH4 gene, which encodes the R-cadherin protein, has an important role in cell migration and cell adhesion, sorting, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor genesis. This study analyzed the relationship of CDH4 mRNA expression with lung cancer. Real time PCR was applied to detect CDH4 mRNA transcription in 142 paired cases of lung cancer and noncancerous regions. No correlation was identified between CDH4 mRNA expression and gender, age, lymphnode metastasis, TNM stage, family history, smoking state, drinking state (P > 0.05), but grade and histotype (P < 0.05). The relative CDH4 mRNA value was remarkably decreased in lung cancer tissues compared with noncancerous tissues (P = 0.001). We found that CDH4 mRNA expression was associated with grade and histotype. What is more, the relative CDH4 mRNA value was decreased in the lung cancer tissues. Our results suggested that CDH4 might be a putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in lung cancer.

  14. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P < .05) for atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  15. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Muhammad; Ayyadurai, Puvanalingam; Thanha, Luong; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-09-01

    Multiple primary lung cancer may present in synchronous or metachronous form. Synchronous multiple primary lung cancer is defined as multiple lung lesions that develop at the same time, whereas metachronous multiple primary lung cancer describes multiple lung lesions that develop at different times, typically following treatment of the primary lung cancer. Patients with previously treated lung cancer are at risk for developing metachronous lung cancer, but with the success of computed tomography and positron emission tomography, the ability to detect both synchronous and metachronous lung cancer has increased. We present a case of a 63-year-old Hispanic man who came to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain, dry cough, and weight loss. He had recently been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the right upper lobe, with a poorly differentiated carcinoma favoring squamous cell cancer based on bronchoalveolar lavage of the right lower lobe for which treatment was started. Later, bronchoscopy incidentally revealed the patient to have an endobronchial lesion that turned out to be mixed small and large cell neuroendocrine lung cancer. Our patient had triple synchronous primary lung cancers that histologically were variant primary cancers. Triple synchronous primary lung cancer management continues to be a challenge. Our patient's case suggests that multiple primary lung cancers may still occur at a greater rate than can be detected by high-resolution computed tomography.

  16. Mitochondrial catalase suppresses naturally occurring lung cancer in old mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xuang; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Morton, John; Carter, Katrina; Fatemi, Sy; Rabinovitch, Peter; Ladiges, Warren C

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is generally difficult to detect until the late stages of disease, when it is much more difficult to treat because of the more aggressive and invasive behavior. Advanced lung cancer is much more common in older adults making it even more challenging to treat. Adenocarcinoma belongs to a category of non-small cell lung cancers, which comprise up to 40% of all lung cancers, and about half of these have an activating K-ras mutation. Because treatment relapses are common, more effective unconventional treatment and prevention methods are needed. In this regard, the antioxidant enzyme catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) has been shown to delay aging and cancer in mice, and the progression of transgenic oncogene and syngeneic tumors was suppressed, helping support the notion that attenuation of mitochondria-generated hydrogen peroxide signaling is associated with an antitumor effect. In order to determine if mCAT has any effect on naturally occurring lung cancer of the adenocarcinoma type in old mice, the tumor incidence and progression were examined in the lungs of old mCAT transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice with a CB6F1 (Balb/c X C57BL/6) background. CB6F1 mice with a WT genotype were found to have a high incidence of adenomas at 24 months of age, which progressed to adenocarcinomas at 32 months of age. CB6F1 mice with the mCAT genotype had significantly reduced incidence and severity of lung tumors at both ages. Fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of old mCAT mice, but not WT mice, were shown to secrete soluble factors that inhibited lung tumor cell growth suggesting that stromal fibroblasts play a role in mediating the antitumor effects of mCAT. The aged CB6F1 mouse, with its high incidence of K-ras mutant lung cancer, is an excellent model to further study the anticancer potential of mitochondria-targeted therapy.

  17. Mitochondrial catalase suppresses naturally occurring lung cancer in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xuang; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Morton, John; Carter, Katrina; Fatemi, Sy; Rabinovitch, Peter; Ladiges, Warren C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is generally difficult to detect until the late stages of disease, when it is much more difficult to treat because of the more aggressive and invasive behavior. Advanced lung cancer is much more common in older adults making it even more challenging to treat. Adenocarcinoma belongs to a category of non-small cell lung cancers, which comprise up to 40% of all lung cancers, and about half of these have an activating K-ras mutation. Because treatment relapses are common, more effective unconventional treatment and prevention methods are needed. In this regard, the antioxidant enzyme catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) has been shown to delay aging and cancer in mice, and the progression of transgenic oncogene and syngeneic tumors was suppressed, helping support the notion that attenuation of mitochondria-generated hydrogen peroxide signaling is associated with an antitumor effect. In order to determine if mCAT has any effect on naturally occurring lung cancer of the adenocarcinoma type in old mice, the tumor incidence and progression were examined in the lungs of old mCAT transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice with a CB6F1 (Balb/c X C57BL/6) background. CB6F1 mice with a WT genotype were found to have a high incidence of adenomas at 24 months of age, which progressed to adenocarcinomas at 32 months of age. CB6F1 mice with the mCAT genotype had significantly reduced incidence and severity of lung tumors at both ages. Fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of old mCAT mice, but not WT mice, were shown to secrete soluble factors that inhibited lung tumor cell growth suggesting that stromal fibroblasts play a role in mediating the antitumor effects of mCAT. The aged CB6F1 mouse, with its high incidence of K-ras mutant lung cancer, is an excellent model to further study the anticancer potential of mitochondria-targeted therapy. PMID:26400209

  18. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-25

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  19. Pollutional haze as a potential cause of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuefei; Liu, Hongbing; Song, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Along with fast economic growth over the past few decades, the world is faced with cumulatively serious environmental pollution and now is paying increased attention to pollutional haze. In the last few years, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have provided compelling evidences that inhalation of pollutional haze could be linked to several adverse health effects. Since the respiratory tract is the crucial passageway of entry of pollutional haze, the lung is the main affected organ. Therefore, here, we reviewed some of the important information around long-term exposure to pollutional haze and lung cancer, as well as highlight important roles of pollutional haze in human lung carcinogenesis, providing evidence for pollutional haze acting as another risk factor for lung cancer.

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk; Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University; Andersen, Claus E.

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) formore » lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.« less

  1. Interest in internet lung cancer support among rural cardiothoracic patients.

    PubMed

    Quin, Jacquelyn; Stams, Victor; Phelps, Beth; Boley, Theresa; Hazelrigg, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    The Internet may provide an alternative option for rural lung cancer patients who lack access to on-site cancer support; however, Internet access and use among rural patients is unknown. An anonymous waiting-room survey was administered to all outpatient cardiothoracic surgery patients over 3 mo. Survey questions included age, gender, and diagnosis, possession of a home computer and Internet service, estimated Internet use, and use of the Internet for health information. Patients with known or suspected lung cancer were asked to indicate their interest in on-site and Internet cancer support. There were 597 returned surveys (response rate 96%). The mean age was 64.6 y (SE 0.55), and 58% were men. Diagnoses included known or possible lung cancer (15.4%), lung disease (9.5%), heart disease (30.4%), other diagnoses (13.9%), and undetermined (30.6%). There were 343 patients (57.4%) with a home computer and 299 (50.1%) with home Internet service. Average Internet use was 8.5 h per wk (n = 298), and 225 patients used the Internet for health information. Of the 92 patients with lung cancer, 10 indicated interest in on-site support services while 37 expressed interest in Internet-based support. Based on survey results, a slight majority of rural patients have a home computer and Internet access. Internet use for health information appears relatively common. Overall interest for support services among lung cancer patients appears modest with a greater interest in Internet-based services compared with on-site support. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Abscess of residual lobe after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ligabue, Tommaso; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Abscess of the residual lobe after lobectomy is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Between January 1975 and December 2006, 1,460 patients underwent elective pulmonary lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer at our institution. Abscess of the residual lung parenchyma occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases (4 bilobectomies and 1 lobectomy). Postoperative chest radiography showed incomplete expansion and consolidation of residual lung parenchyma. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed persistent bronchial occlusion from purulent secretions and/or bronchial collapse. Computed tomography in 3 patients demonstrated lung abscess foci. Surgical treatment included completion right pneumonectomy in 3 patients and a middle lobectomy in one. Complications after repeat thoracotomy comprised contralateral pneumonia and sepsis in 1 patient. Residual lobar abscess after lobectomy should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, leukocytosis, bronchial obstruction and lung consolidation despite antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy and bronchoscopy. Computed tomography is mandatory for early diagnosis. Surgical resection of the affected lobe is recommended.

  4. Identification of Immunogenic Targets for Lung Cancer Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    quantitative proteomic analysis to identify proteins overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines compared with normal lung epithelial...Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution...Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  5. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler-Heil, R; Hussain, M; Hofmann, W

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM(-1). If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas.

  6. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Self defense instead of offense - Immunotherapy in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Moldvay, Judit; Ostoros, Gyula

    2016-03-02

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and also in Hungary, therefore new therapeutic strategies are of great importance. Among immunotherapeutic approaches immune checkpoint inhibition appears to be the most promising. Recent studies have shown efficacy of immunotherapy, especially in squamous cell lung cancer, which is a big step forward in the treatment of this histological subtype. Unlike in the molecularly targeted therapies, the patient selection method has not yet been developed, although some studies indicate the predictive value of tumor cell PD-L1 immunopositivity, especially in lung adenocarcinoma. Introduction of immunotherapy carries challenge for clinicians regarding the radiological assessment of therapeutic efficiency as well as the management of side effects of new profile. The favorable results of recent studies, however, provide hope in this malignancy still presenting a major therapeutic challenge.

  8. Choroidal metastasis in disseminated lung cancer: frequency and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kreusel, Klaus-Martin; Wiegel, Thomas; Stange, Marit; Bornfeld, Norbert; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Foerster, Michael H

    2002-09-01

    To determine frequency, risk factors, and benefit of a prospective screening for intraocular metastasis in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Consecutive observational case series. An ophthalmologic screening was performed on 84 consecutive patients suffering from metastatic lung cancer. Medical history and disease stage were evaluated in regard to the risk for intraocular metastasis. In six patients (7.1%) choroidal metastasis (CM) was detected. Choroidal metastasis was present only when at least two other organ system were affected by metastasis (P =.03). The choroid was the sixth common site of organ metastasis. Mean remaining life span in patients with CM was 1.9 (0.2-5.9) months. Choroidal metastasis is common in advanced metastatic lung cancer. However, due to the short survival of affected individuals, a systematic screening of at-risk patients for CM seems to be of limited benefit.

  9. Imaging Heterogeneity in Lung Cancer: Techniques, Applications, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Usman; Siddique, Muhammad Musib; Mclean, Emma; Goh, Vicky; Cook, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    Texture analysis involves the mathematic processing of medical images to derive sets of numeric quantities that measure heterogeneity. Studies on lung cancer have shown that texture analysis may have a role in characterizing tumors and predicting patient outcome. This article outlines the mathematic basis of and the most recent literature on texture analysis in lung cancer imaging. We also describe the challenges facing the clinical implementation of texture analysis. Texture analysis of lung cancer images has been applied successfully to FDG PET and CT scans. Different texture parameters have been shown to be predictive of the nature of disease and of patient outcome. In general, it appears that more heterogeneous tumors on imaging tend to be more aggressive and to be associated with poorer outcomes and that tumor heterogeneity on imaging decreases with treatment. Despite these promising results, there is a large variation in the reported data and strengths of association.

  10. HOUSEHOLD STOVE IMPROVEMENTS AND REDUCTION OF LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUANWEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rural Xuanwei County, lung cancer rates are among China's highest. For household heating and cooking, residents traditionally used unvented indoor firepits, which generate very high indoor air pollution concentrations. Unvented "smoky" coal burning is a major lung cancer ris...

  11. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  12. Which risk models perform best in selecting ever-smokers for lung cancer screening?

    Cancer.gov

    A new analysis by scientists at NCI evaluates nine different individualized lung cancer risk prediction models based on their selections of ever-smokers for computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening.

  13. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Small cell lung cancer treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, laser therapy, targeted therapy, and palliative care. Get detailed treatment information for newly diagnosed and recurrent small cell lung cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  14. Postoperative Management of Multiple Primary Cancers Associated with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Fumihiro; Yamazaki, Koji; Miura, Naoko; Katsura, Masakazu; Oku, Yuka; Takeo, Sadanori; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-06-01

    Modern treatment for primary cancers has improved survival. Therefore, increased numbers of patients with multiple primary cancers (MPC) associated with lung cancer may be expected. The aim of the present study was to report MPC associated with lung cancer and discuss patients' characteristics and postoperative management. Overall, 973 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were retrospectively studied. NSCLC with MPC was observed in 148 patients (15.2%). MPC comprised 24 synchronous (2.5%) and 124 metachronous (12.7%) diseases. Of the 124 metachronous patients, NSCLC was detected before cancers were detected in other organs (lung cancer first (LCF)) in 25 (20.2%) patients and subsequently in other organs after treatment (other organs, primary cancer-first (OCF)) in 99 (79.8%) patients. MPC was significantly associated with advanced age (p<0.0001) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p=0.0040). The leading sites of MPC in patients with synchronous tumors and those with OCF were the digestive organs. In contrast, the leading site of MPC in patients with LCF was the lung. In the latter, at least two primary lung cancers were detected within 5 years as well as 5 years after surgery for the treatment of the first detected lung cancer, while primary cancers of other organs were detected within 5 years. Advanced age and COPD may represent a high-risk of MPCs. Therefore, we recommend careful follow-up to detect MPC in the lung as well as the digestive organs beyond 5 years after treatment of the first cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. NYU Lung Cancer Biomarker Center — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    A. SPECIFIC AIMS 1. To develop and prospectively follow a large cohort at high-risk for lung cancer. Individuals are recruited to one of two different study groups: The Screening Cohort includes people with and without increased risk for lung cancer. The Rule-Out Lung Cancer Patient Group is recruited from patients referred for evaluation of suspicious nodules. All individuals answer a questionnaire, obtain PFTs, chest CT scan, sputum induction and phlebotomy. For patients undergoing lung resections or biopsies, tissue samples are collected and banked. Individuals are recruited for research bronchoscopy. All participants are then followed prospectively. The specimens obtained are banked and used for biomarker discovery and validation studies. 2. To identify and validate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer, and to describe preneoplastic cellular changes and lesions. Biomarker studies include DNA adducts, DNA methylation, protein markers, and other collaborations. Preneoplasia studies include: fluorescence and Superdimension bronchoscopies to obtain biopsies of preneoplastic lesions and biomarker studies in individuals with preneoplasias.

  16. Inhalable Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Hyperthermia in Lung Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott; Panyam, Jayanth

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer (specifically, non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Poor response rates and survival with current treatments clearly indicate the urgent need for developing an effective means to treat NSCLC. Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive approach for tumor ablation, and is based on heat generation by magnetic materials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. However, inadequate delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to tumor cells can result in sub-lethal temperature change and induce resistance while non-targeted delivery of these particles to the healthy tissues can result in toxicity. In our studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of tumor-targeted SPIO nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia of lung cancer. EGFR-targeted, inhalable SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for targeting lung tumor cells as well as for magnetic hyperthermia-mediated antitumor efficacy in a mouse orthotopic model of NSCLC. Our results show that EGFR targeting enhances tumor retention of SPIO nanoparticles. Further, magnetic hyperthermia treatment using targeted SPIO nanoparticles resulted in significant inhibition of in vivo lung tumor growth. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential for developing an effective anticancer treatment modality for the treatment of NSCLC based on targeted magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:23591395

  17. Inhalable magnetic nanoparticles for targeted hyperthermia in lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Wiedmann, Timothy S; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer (specifically, non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Poor response rates and survival with current treatments clearly indicate the urgent need for developing an effective means to treat NSCLC. Magnetic hyperthermia is a non-invasive approach for tumor ablation, and is based on heat generation by magnetic materials, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. However, inadequate delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to tumor cells can result in sub-lethal temperature change and induce resistance while non-targeted delivery of these particles to the healthy tissues can result in toxicity. In our studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of tumor-targeted SPIO nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia of lung cancer. EGFR-targeted, inhalable SPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized for targeting lung tumor cells as well as for magnetic hyperthermia-mediated antitumor efficacy in a mouse orthotopic model of NSCLC. Our results show that EGFR targeting enhances tumor retention of SPIO nanoparticles. Further, magnetic hyperthermia treatment using targeted SPIO nanoparticles resulted in significant inhibition of in vivo lung tumor growth. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential for developing an effective anticancer treatment modality for the treatment of NSCLC based on targeted magnetic hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manchado, Eusebio; Weissmueller, Susann; Morris, John P.; Chen, Chi-Chao; Wullenkord, Ramona; Lujambio, Amaia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Poirier, John T.; Gainor, Justin F.; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Rudin, Charles M.; Rosen, Neal; Lowe, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma represents a major goal of clinical oncology. KRAS itself has proven difficult to inhibit, and the effectiveness of agents that target key KRAS effectors has been thwarted by activation of compensatory or parallel pathways that limit their efficacy as single agents. Here we take a systematic approach towards identifying combination targets for trametinib, an FDA-approved MEK inhibitor that acts downstream of KRAS to suppress signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Informed by a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, we show that trametinib provokes a compensatory response involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) that leads to signaling rebound and adaptive drug resistance. As a consequence, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FGFR1 in combination with trametinib enhances tumor cell death in vitro and in vivo. This compensatory response shows distinct specificities – it is dominated by FGFR1 in KRAS mutant lung and pancreatic cancer cells, but is not activated or involves other mechanisms in KRAS wild-type lung and KRAS-mutant colon cancer cells. Importantly, KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells and patient tumors treated with trametinib show an increase in FRS2 phosphorylation, a biomarker of FGFR activation; this increase is abolished by FGFR1 inhibition and correlates with sensitivity to trametinib and FGFR inhibitor combinations. These results demonstrate that FGFR1 can mediate adaptive resistance to trametinib and validate a combinatorial approach for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer. PMID:27338794

  19. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  20. Cognitive and brain structural changes in a lung cancer population.

    PubMed

    Simó, Marta; Root, James C; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Ahles, Tim; Navarro, Arturo; Cardenal, Felipe; Bruna, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined structural brain changes specifically associated with chemotherapy in a lung cancer population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in brain structure between small-cell lung cancer patients (C+) following chemotherapy, non-small-cell lung cancer patients (C-) before chemotherapy and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-eight small-cell lung cancer patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and a structural magnetic resonance imaging, including T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to examine gray matter density and white matter (WM) integrity, respectively, 1 month following completion of platinum-based chemotherapy. This group was compared with 20 age and education-matched non-small-cell lung cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy and 20 HC. Both C+ and C- groups exhibited cognitive impairment compared with the HC group. The C+ group performed significantly worse than HC in verbal fluency and visuospatial subtests; C- performed significantly worse than both C+ and HC in verbal memory. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed lower gray matter density in the insula and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, and left anterior cingulate cortex in C+ compared with HC. Diffusion tensor imaging indices showed focal decreased WM integrity in left cingulum and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the C+ group and more widespread decreased integrity in the C- group compared with the HC group. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients exhibit cognitive impairment before and after chemotherapy. Before the treatment, C- showed verbal memory deficits as well as a widespread WM damage. Following treatment, the C+ group performed exhibited lower visuospatial and verbal fluency abilities, together with structural gray matter and WM differences in bilateral regions integrating the paralimbic system.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Lung Cancer Screening in Canada.

    PubMed

    Goffin, John R; Flanagan, William M; Miller, Anthony B; Fitzgerald, Natalie R; Memon, Saima; Wolfson, Michael C; Evans, William K

    2015-09-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial supports screening for lung cancer among smokers using low-dose computed tomographic (LDCT) scans. The cost-effectiveness of screening in a publically funded health care system remains a concern. To assess the cost-effectiveness of LDCT scan screening for lung cancer within the Canadian health care system. The Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM) simulated individual lives within the Canadian population from 2014 to 2034, incorporating cancer risk, disease management, outcome, and cost data. Smokers and former smokers eligible for lung cancer screening (30 pack-year smoking history, ages 55-74 years, for the reference scenario) were modeled, and performance parameters were calibrated to the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). The reference screening scenario assumes annual scans to age 75 years, 60% participation by 10 years, 70% adherence to screening, and unchanged smoking rates. The CRMM outputs are aggregated, and costs (2008 Canadian dollars) and life-years are discounted 3% annually. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Compared with no screening, the reference scenario saved 51,000 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CaD $52,000/QALY. If smoking history is modeled for 20 or 40 pack-years, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of CaD $62,000 and CaD $43,000/QALY, respectively, were generated. Changes in participation rates altered life years saved but not the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is sensitive to changes in adherence. An adjunct smoking cessation program improving the quit rate by 22.5% improves the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to CaD $24,000/QALY. Lung cancer screening with LDCT appears cost-effective in the publicly funded Canadian health care system. An adjunct smoking cessation program has the potential to improve outcomes.

  2. Exosomes as a liquid biopsy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhuoan; Qin, Wenxin; Jiang, Liyan

    2018-02-01

    In lung cancer and other malignancies, the so-called "liquid biopsy" is quickly moving into clinical practice. Its full potential has not yet been fully identified, but the "liquid biopsy" is no longer a promise but has become a reality that allows for better treatment selection and monitoring of lung cancer. This emerging field has significant potential to make up for the limitations of the traditional tissue-derived biomaterials. Exosomes are spherical nano-sized vesicles with a diameter of 40-100 nm and a density of 1.13-1.19 g/ml. In both physiological and pathological conditions, exosomes can be released by different cell types, including immune cells, stem cells and tumor cells. These small molecules may serve as promising biomarkers in lung cancer "liquid biopsy" as they can be easily obtained from most body fluids. In addition, the lipid bilayer of exosomes allows for stable cargoes which are relatively hard to degrade. Furthermore, the composition of exosomes reflects that of their parental cells, suggesting that exosomes are potential surrogates of the original cells and, therefore, are useful for understanding cell biology. Previous studies have demonstrated that exosomes play important roles in cell-to-cell communication. Moreover, tumor-derived exosomes are evolved in tumor-specific biological process, including tumor proliferation and progression. Recently, a growing number of studies has focused on exosomal cargo and their use in lung cancer genesis and progression. In addition, their utility as lung cancer diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers have also been studied. The current review primarily summaries lung cancer-related exosomal biomarkers that have recently been identified and discusses their potential in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung cancer, proximity to industry, and poverty in northeast England.

    PubMed Central

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Phillimore, P; Moffatt, S; Bhopal, R; Foy, C; Dunn, C; Tate, J

    1998-01-01

    This study assesses whether deprived populations living close to industry experience greater mortality from lung cancer than populations with comparable socioeconomic characteristics living farther away. Mortality data, census data, a postal survey of living circumstances, historic and contemporary data on air quality and a historic land-use survey were used. Analysis was based on two conurbations in England, Teesside and Sunderland. Housing estates in Teesside were selected based on socioeconomic criteria and distinguished by proximity to steel and chemical industries; they were grouped into three zones: near (A), intermediate (B), and farther (C), with a single zone in Sunderland. We included 14,962 deaths in 27 estates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for lung cancer [International Classification of Diseases #9 (ICD-9) 162] and cancers other than lung (ICD-9 140-239, excluding 162), and sex ratios were calculated. Mortality from lung cancer was well above national levels in all zones. For men, a weak gradient corresponding with proximity to industry at younger ages reversed at older ages. In women 0-64 years of age, stronger gradients in lung cancer mortality corresponded with proximity to industry across zones A, B, and C (SMR = 393, 251, 242, respectively). Overall rates in Teesside were higher than Sunderland rates for women aged 0-64 years (SMR = 287 vs. 185) and 65-74 years (SMR = 190 vs. 157). The association between raised lung cancer mortality and proximity to industry in women under 75 years of age could not be explained by smoking, occupation, socioeconomic factors, or artifact. Explanations for differences between men and women may include gender-specific occupational experiences and smoking patterns. Our judgment is that the observed gradient in women points to a role for industrial air pollution. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9485483

  4. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W. Loo, Jr., M.D., Ph.D CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Stanford University Stanford, CA...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) has become a new standard of care for early

  5. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W. Loo, Jr., M.D., Ph.D CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Leland Stanford Junior University...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) has become a new standard

  6. Bronchoscopy in the investigation of outpatients with hemoptysis at a lung cancer clinic.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Parniya; Bredin, Emily; Henry, Michael T; Khan, Kashif A; Plant, Barry J; Murphy, Desmond M; Kennedy, Marcus P

    2018-06-01

    In the investigation of lung cancer, current practice in many healthcare systems would support bronchoscopy regardless of CT findings in patients with hemoptysis. We sought to identify the cause, the diagnostic yield of CT and bronchoscopy and the requirement for bronchoscopy in at risk patients with hemoptysis with a normal CT scan through our rapid access lung cancer clinic (RALC). Initially, a chart review was performed on all patients with hemoptysis (2011-2012) and thereafter a prospective analysis was performed (2013-2016). Our analysis represents the largest study to date in outpatients with hemoptysis. In our retrospective study, 155 patients reported hemoptysis. Causes were lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (47%) and lung cancer (16%). Our prospective study included 182 patients. The causes of hemoptysis were RTIs (50%) and lung cancer (18%). There were no false negative CT-scans for lung cancer. 47/57 present with lung cancer underwent bronchoscopy and 43/47 were positive for lung cancer (92%). Patients with hemoptysis and lung cancer have a higher stage of malignancy with a predominance of squamous cell lung carcinoma. Smoking status, the duration of hemoptysis or description of hemoptysis were not predictive of lung cancer however lung cancer was not identified in patients age <50. One sixth of patients presenting with hemoptysis to our lung cancer clinic had lung cancer. No patient identified with cancer related haemoptysis had a CT negative for lung cancer and a combination of bronchoscopy plus endobronchial ultrasound trans-bronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in those patients with a CT suspicious of lung cancer is 92% sensitive for lung cancer causing hemoptysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Model for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In the U.S. lung cancer remains the most deadly cancer type with less than one in five patients alive five years after diagnosis. The majority of lung cancer deaths are due to tobacco smoke, and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) subtype of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking. Researchers have identified a number of mutations in lung SCC tumors but have failed to

  8. The regional association between bronchiectasis and lung cancer in chest CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Wook; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Jin, Kwang-Nam; Lee, Jung-Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Park, Sung Soo; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-11-15

    Limited studies have examined the association between lung cancer and bronchiectasis (BE). This study evaluated the regional association between BE and lung cancer by analyzing the lobar location of lung cancer in patients with underlying BE. This clustered multi-level study enrolled patients who had underlying BE and were newly diagnosed with lung cancer between January 1, 2010 and May 30, 2013 in two referral hospitals in South Korea. By analyzing the presence of lung cancer and underlying BE as event variables at the level of lung lobes on chest computed tomography (CT), we evaluated the association of BE and lung cancer by the locations of the diseases. Eighty-one patients with BE and combined lung cancer were enrolled. Within 486 lung lobes of the patients, combined BE and lung cancer in the same lobe was found in 11 lobes (2.3 %). Using the general estimating equation assuming BE as a risk factor of lung cancer, the results indicated that the prevalence of lung cancer was significantly lower in the lobes with pre-existing BE (β = -1.09, p-value = 0.001). Regionally, pre-existing BE was associated with a lower risk of the occurrence of lung cancer in the same lobe.

  9. Lung cancer pathogenesis associated with wood smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Javier; Martinez, Luis M; Sánchez, Therasa T; Ramirez, Alejandra; Iturria, Cecilia; González-Avila, Georgina

    2005-07-01

    Tobacco is considered the most important cause of lung cancer, but other factors could also be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of the present work was to establish an association between wood smoke exposure and lung cancer pathogenesis, and to analyze the effects of wood smoke on p53 and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein expression. Blood samples were obtained from 62 lung cancer patients, 9 COPD patients, and 9 control subjects. Of the 62 lung cancer patients, 23 were tobacco smokers (lung cancer associated with tobacco [LCT] group), 24 were exposed to wood smoke (lung cancer associated with wood smoke [LCW] group), and 15 could not be included in these groups. Western blot assays were performed to identify the presence of p53, phospho-p53, and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) isoforms in plasma samples. Densitometric analysis was used to determine the intensity of p53, phospho-p53, and MDM2 bands. Approximately 38.7% of the lung cancer patients examined had an association with wood smoke exposure, most of them women living in rural areas. Adenocarcinoma was present in 46.7% of these patients. The p53 and phospho-p53 proteins were significantly increased in LCW samples (56,536.8 +/- 4,629 densitometry units [DU] and 58,244.8 +/- 7,492 DU, respectively [+/- SD]), in comparison with the other groups. The 57-kD MDM2 isoform plasma concentration was very high in LCW and LCT samples (75,696.4 +/- 11,979 DU and 78,551.7 +/- 11,548 DU, respectively). MDM2-p53 complexes were present in a high concentration in control and COPD subjects. This allows p53 degradation and explains the low concentrations of p53 found in these groups. MDM2-phospho-p53 complexes were observed in COPD but not in the other samples. This correlates with the low concentration of p53 observed in the COPD group (13,657 +/- 2,012 DU), and could explain the different clinic evolution of this smoker population in comparison with the LCT subjects. This study suggests that there is a possible

  10. A review of clinical practice guidelines for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are important evidence-based resources to guide complex clinical decision making. However, it is challenging for health professionals to keep abreast available guidelines and to know how and where to access relevant guidelines. This review examines currently available guidelines for lung cancer published in the English language. Important key features are listed for each identified guideline. The methodology, approaches to dissemination and implementation, and associated resources are summarised. General challenges in the area of guideline development are highlighted. The potential to collaborate more widely across lung cancer guideline developers by sharing literature searches and assessments is discussed. PMID:24163752

  11. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham; Fløtten, Øystein; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Ashraf, Haseem; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Friesland, Signe; Koyi, Hirsh; Ek, Lars; Nyrén, Sven; Bergman, Per; Jekunen, Antti; Nieminen, Eeva-Maija; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2017-10-01

    We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation of such a program.

  12. STUDIES ON LUNG INJURIES FOLLOWING ROENTGEN TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, H.; Arai, T.

    1960-01-01

    Of 102 cases of breast cancer treated by x rays, 46 (45%) showed rcentgenographic evidence of lung flbrosis. A special chest phantom was constructed to measure the dose distribution within the lungs. The highest dose in the lung, by McWhirter's technique of radiation, was 150-160% of the surface. The parts of the lung where the tlssue received the highest dose were the upper, anterior, and outside parts of the radiated lung. This result was the same as indicated in the roentgenographic study. The lung radiation reaction was parallel to the skin reaction. The age had no relation to the fibrosis,more » but 4 cases, who had marked tuberculous calcification in their lung fields, seemed to have a tendency to produce considerable fibrosis by radiation. The sympton of pneumonitis was generally slight, and the general condition of the patients was not greatly influenced as a rule. The functional lung test showed almost normal results in the cases of grade I and grade II, but considerable injury in the cases of grade III, independent of their subjective symptoms. (Abstr. Japan Med., 1: No. 10, 1961)« less

  13. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  14. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration and lipoprotein electrophoresis pattern in patients with small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, K; Gminski, J; Stajszczyk, M; Wojakowski, W; Goss, M; Machalski, M; Telega, A; Brulinski, K; Magiera-Molendowska, H

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that people with low level of total cholesterol have a greater risk of death due to cancer, predominantly lung cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum level of LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein electrophoresis pattern in patients with small cell lung cancer and their dependence on clinical stage of the neoplasm. The studied group consisted of 34 patients with newly diagnosed small cell lung cancer and 39 healthy controls. Fasting level of LDL cholesterol was analyzed and lipoprotein electrophoresis was performed. There were no statistically significant differences of evaluated serum lipid parameters between lung cancer patients and controls, and between the clinical stages of small cell lung cancer.

  15. Overexpression of TRIM25 in Lung Cancer Regulates Tumor Cell Progression.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Cui, He; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although great efforts and progressions have been made in the study of the lung cancer in the recent decades, the mechanism of lung cancer formation remains elusive. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in lung cancer processes have to be identified. Tripartite motif-containing 25 has been associated with ovarian and breast cancer and is thought to positively promote cell growth by targeting the cell cycle. However, whether tripartite motif-containing 25 has a function in lung cancer development remains unknown. In this study, we found that tripartite motif-containing 25 was overexpressed in human lung cancer tissues. Expression of tripartite motif-containing 25 in lung cancer cells is important for cell proliferation and migration. Knockdown of tripartite motif-containing 25 markedly reduced proliferation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and reduced migration of lung cancer cells in vitro Meanwhile, tripartite motif-containing 25 silencing also increased the sensitivity of doxorubicin and significantly increased death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells by doxorubicin were achieved with knockdown of tripartite motif-containing 25. We also observed that tripartite motif-containing 25 formed a complex with p53 and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) in both human lung cancer tissues and in lung cancer cells and tripartite motif-containing 25 silencing increased the expression of p53. These results provide evidence that tripartite motif-containing 25 contributes to the pathogenesis of lung cancer probably by promoting proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells. Therefore, targeting tripartite motif-containing 25 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for lung cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Protective effect of selenium on lung cancer in smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, L; Brune, D; Nordberg, I G; Wester, P O

    1985-01-01

    A possible protective effect of selenium against lung cancer has been indicated in recent studies. Workers in copper smelters are exposed to a combination of airborne selenium and carcinogens. In this study lung tissue concentrations of selenium, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lanthanum, and lead from 76 dead copper smelter workers were compared with those of 15 controls from a rural area and 10 controls from an urban area. The mean exposure time for the dead workers was 31.2 years, and the mean retirement time after the end of exposure 7.2 years. Lung cancer appeared in the workers with the lowest selenium lung tissue levels (selenium median value 71 micrograms/kg wet weight), as compared with both the controls (rural group, median value 110; urban group, median value 136) and other causes of death among the workers (median value 158). The quotient between the metals and selenium was used for comparison: a high quotient indicating a low protective effect of selenium and vice versa. The median values of the quotients between antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lanthanum, lead, chromium, and cobalt versus selenium were all numerically higher among the cases of lung cancer, the first five significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in 28 of the 35 comparisons between the lung cancer group and all other groups of smelter workers and controls. The different lung metal concentrations for each person were weighted according to their carcinogenic potency (Crx4 + Asx3 + Cdx2 + Sbx1 + Cox1 + Lax1 + Pbx1) against their corresponding selenium concentrations. From these calculations the protective effect of selenium was even more pronounced. PMID:4041390

  17. A deep learning method for early screening of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.

  18. Epidemic of Lung Cancer in Patients With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Winstone, Tiffany A.; Man, S. F. Paul; Hull, Mark; Montaner, Julio S.

    2013-01-01

    The survival of patients with HIV infection has improved dramatically over the past 20 years, largely owing to a significant reduction in opportunistic infections and AIDs-defining malignancies, such as lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. However, with improved survival, patients with HIV are experiencing morbidity and mortality from other (non-AIDs-defining) complications, such as solid organ malignancies. Of these, the leading cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population is lung cancer, accounting for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths and 10% of all non-HIV-related deaths. Importantly, the average age of onset of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population is 25 to 30 years earlier than that in the general population and at lower exposure to cigarette smoke. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population and discusses some of the important risk factors and pathways that may enhance the risk of lung cancer in this population. PMID:23381313

  19. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  20. Non-small cell lung cancer therapy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; Rossi, Antonio; Maione, Paolo; Schettino, Clorinda; Bareschino, Maria Anna; Palazzolo, Giovanni; Zeppa, Rosario; Ambrosio, Rita; Barbato, Valentina; Sacco, Paola Claudia

    2011-05-01

    To date, lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with the majority of lung cancers arising in the elderly. As a consequence, we can expect an increase in the number of older lung cancer patients considered suitable for chemotherapy in the near future. Elderly patients often have comorbid conditions and progressive physiologic reduction of organ function, which can make the selection of proper treatment daunting. Some patients will be able to tolerate chemotherapy as well as their younger counterparts, whereas others will experience severe toxicity and require treatment modifications. Thus, a major issue is effectively selecting patients suitable for standard or attenuated therapy. A comprehensive geriatric assessment performed at baseline is a useful tool that can help select the best treatment regimen to be administered to elderly patients. Until now, few trials have specifically focused on elderly patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly those with advanced disease; prospective elderly-specific studies in early stages are still lacking. High priority should be given to evaluating the role of new targeted therapies. Unfortunately, to date, clinical trials that include functional status and comorbidity as part of the geriatric assessment are rare. Future trials, specifically in the elderly population, should include these kinds of evaluations. The most recent therapies for the treatment of elderly patients with NSCLC will be discussed here.

  1. Risk factors associated with treatment refusal in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suh, Won Na; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Han, Yeji; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Su Hwan; Ryu, Yon Ju; Lee, Jin Hwa; Shim, Sung Shine; Kim, Yookyung; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is increasing with longer life expectancy. Refusal of active treatment for cancer is prone to cause patients to experience more severe symptoms and shorten survival. The purpose of this study was to define the factors related to refusal or abandonment of active therapy in lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 617 patients from medical records from 2010 to 2014. Two groups were formed: 149 patients who refused anti-cancer treatment and allowed only palliative care were classified into the non-treatment group, while the remaining 468 who received anti-cancer treatment were classified into the treatment group. The groups differed significantly in age, employment, relationship status, number of offspring, educational status, body mass index, presence of chest and systemic symptoms, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, and tumor node metastasis stage ( P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.13), educational status lower than high school (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.2-3.2), no history of surgery (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.4-3.7), body mass index < 18.5 (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.3-4.7), and a high Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 3 or 4 (OR 5.02, 95% CI 2.3-10.8) were significant factors for refusal of cancer treatment. Individual factors, such as old age, low educational status, low weight, and poor performance status can influence refusal of cancer treatment in patients with lung cancer, and should be considered prior to consultation with patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kiminezhadmalaie, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

  3. Mind-mapping for lung cancer: Towards a personalized therapeutics approach

    PubMed Central

    Mollberg, N; Surati, M; Demchuk, C; Fathi, R; Salama, AK; Husain, AN; Hensing, T; Salgia, R

    2011-01-01

    There will be over 220,000 people diagnosed with lung cancer and over 160,000 dying of lung cancer this year alone in the United States. In order to arrive at better control, prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutics for lung cancer, we must be able to personalize the approach towards lung cancer. Mind-mapping has existed for centuries for physicians to properly think about various “flows” of personalized medicine. We include here the epidemiology, diagnosis, histology, and treatment of lung cancer—specifically, non-small cell lung cancer. As we have new molecular signatures for lung cancer, this is further detailed. This review is not meant to be a comprehensive review, but rather its purpose is to highlight important aspects of lung cancer diagnosis, management, and personalized treatment options. PMID:21337123

  4. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, E L; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among males at the rate of 74.9/100,000/year and among females at the rate of 28.5. However, in the younger cohorts, the lung cancer death rate is decreasing in both men and women. In this overview we discuss the steeper increase during recent decades of lung adenocarcinoma incidence compared with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. In 1950, the ratio of these two major types of lung cancer in males was about 1:18; today it is about 1:1.2-1.4. This overview discusses two concepts that are regarded as contributors to this change in the histological types of lung cancer. One factor is the decrease in average nicotine and tar delivery of cigarettes from about 2.7 and 38 mg in 1955 to 1.0 and 13.5 mg in 1993, respectively. Other major factors for the reduced emission of smoke relate to changes in the composition of the cigarette tobacco blend and general acceptance of cigarettes with filter tips; the latter constitute 97% of all cigarettes currently sold. However, smokers of low-yield cigarettes compensate for the low delivery of nicotine by inhaling the smoke more deeply and by smoking more intensely; such smokers may be taking up to 5 puffs/min with puff volumes up to 55 ml. Under these conditions, the peripheral lung is exposed to increased amounts of smoke carcinogens that are suspected to lead to lung adenocarcinoma. Among the important changes in the composition of the tobacco blend of the U.S. cigarette is a significant increase in nitrate content (0.5% to 1.2-1.5%), which raises

  5. Lung Cancer and Elemental Carbon Exposure in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust has been considered to be a probable lung carcinogen based on studies of occupationally exposed workers. Efforts to define lung cancer risk in these studies have been limited in part by lack of quantitative exposure estimates. Objective: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess lung cancer mortality risk among U.S. trucking industry workers. Elemental carbon (EC) was used as a surrogate of exposure to engine exhaust from diesel vehicles, traffic, and loading dock operations. Methods: Work records were available for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. A statistical model based on a national exposure assessment was used to estimate historical work-related exposures to EC. Lung cancer mortality was ascertained through the year 2000, and associations with cumulative and average EC were estimated using proportional hazards models. Results: Duration of employment was inversely associated with lung cancer risk consistent with a healthy worker survivor effect and a cohort composed of prevalent hires. After adjusting for employment duration, we noted a suggestion of a linear exposure–response relationship. For each 1,000-µg/m3 months of cumulative EC, based on a 5-year exposure lag, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.15] with a similar association for a 10-year exposure lag [HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.20)]. Average exposure was not associated with relative risk. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality in trucking industry workers increased in association with cumulative exposure to EC after adjusting for negative confounding by employment duration. PMID:22739103

  6. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aftab, Blake T.; Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John; Rudin, Charles M.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hales, Russell K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of KrasG12D-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radio-sensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23182391

  7. Hedgehog pathway inhibition radiosensitizes non-small cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T; Aftab, Blake T; Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M; Wong, John; Rudin, Charles M; Tran, Phuoc T; Hales, Russell K

    2013-05-01

    Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras(G12D)-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntagmore » and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.« less

  9. Inhaled uranium ore dust and lung cancer risk in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, R E; Jackson, J S; Heinmiller, B

    1999-02-01

    Using a nose-only inhalation system, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 4.2 h d(-1), 5 days per week for 65 weeks to one of two concentrations of natural uranium ore dust aerosol (44% U, 50 mg m(-3) and 19 mg m(-3)) without significant radon content. After inhalation exposure ceased, the rats were allowed to live for their natural lifetime. Lung uranium burdens, measured at the time of death of each animal, declined exponentially after dust inhalation ceased, and the rate of decline was independent of the initial lung burden. Lymph node specific burdens ranged from 1 to 60 fold greater than the specific lung burden in the same animal. No lymph node tumors were observed. The frequency of primary malignant lung tumors was 0.016, 0.175 and 0.328 and primary non-malignant lung tumors 0.016, 0.135 and 0.131 in the control, low and high aerosol exposed groups, respectively. There was no difference in tumor latency between the groups. Absorbed dose to the lung was calculated for each animal in the study. The average doses for all the animals exposed to the low and high dust aerosol concentrations were 0.87 Gy and 1.64 Gy respectively, resulting in an average risk of malignant lung tumors of about 0.20 tumors per animal per Gy in both groups. The frequency of primary lung tumors was also calculated as a function of dose increment for both exposed groups individually and combined. The data indicate that, in spite of the above result, lung tumor frequency was not directly proportional to dose. However, when malignant lung tumor frequency was calculated as a function of dose rate (as measured by the lung burden at the end of dust inhalation) a direct linear relationship was seen (p < 0.01) suggesting dose rate may be a more important determinant of lung cancer risk than dose. Conversely, non-malignant lung tumors were significantly correlated with low lung burdens (p = 0.01). We conclude that chronic inhalation of natur