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Sample records for abstract mismatch negativity

  1. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  2. Preattentive extraction of abstract feature conjunctions from auditory stimulation as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, P; Simola, J; Jaramillo, M; Näätänen, R; Winkler, I

    2001-03-01

    Brain mechanisms extracting invariant information from varying auditory inputs were studied using the mismatch-negativity (MMN) brain response. We wished to determine whether the preattentive sound-analysis mechanisms, reflected by MMN, are capable of extracting invariant relationships based on abstract conjunctions between two sound features. The standard stimuli varied over a large range in frequency and intensity dimensions following the rule that the higher the frequency, the louder the intensity. The occasional deviant stimuli violated this frequency-intensity relationship and elicited an MMN. The results demonstrate that preattentive processing of auditory stimuli extends to unexpectedly complex relationships between the stimulus features.

  3. Visual mismatch negativity indicates automatic, task-independent detection of artistic image composition in abstract artworks.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Claudia; Kovács, Gyula; Amado, Catarina; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Redies, Christoph

    2018-05-06

    In complex abstract art, image composition (i.e., the artist's deliberate arrangement of pictorial elements) is an important aesthetic feature. We investigated whether the human brain detects image composition in abstract artworks automatically (i.e., independently of the experimental task). To this aim, we studied whether a group of 20 original artworks elicited a visual mismatch negativity when contrasted with a group of 20 images that were composed of the same pictorial elements as the originals, but in shuffled arrangements, which destroy artistic composition. We used a passive oddball paradigm with parallel electroencephalogram recordings to investigate the detection of image type-specific properties. We observed significant deviant-standard differences for the shuffled and original images, respectively. Furthermore, for both types of images, differences in amplitudes correlated with the behavioral ratings of the images. In conclusion, we show that the human brain can detect composition-related image properties in visual artworks in an automatic fashion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laryngeal Features Are Phonetically Abstract: Mismatch Negativity Evidence from Arabic, English, and Russian

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Kevin T.; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Al Kaabi, Meera; Almeida, Diogo

    2017-01-01

    Many theories of phonology assume that the sound structure of language is made up of distinctive features, but there is considerable debate about how much articulatory detail distinctive features encode in long-term memory. Laryngeal features such as voicing provide a unique window into this question: while many languages have two-way contrasts that can be given a simple binary feature account [±VOICE], the precise articulatory details underlying these contrasts can vary significantly across languages. Here, we investigate a series of two-way voicing contrasts in English, Arabic, and Russian, three languages that implement their voicing contrasts very differently at the articulatory-phonetic level. In three event-related potential experiments contrasting English, Arabic, and Russian fricatives along with Russian stops, we observe a consistent pattern of asymmetric mismatch negativity (MMN) effects that is compatible with an articulatorily abstract and cross-linguistically uniform way of marking two-way voicing contrasts, as opposed to an articulatorily precise and cross-linguistically diverse way of encoding them. Regardless of whether a language is theorized to encode [VOICE] over [SPREAD GLOTTIS], the data is consistent with a universal marking of the [SPREAD GLOTTIS] feature. PMID:28555118

  5. Visual mismatch negativity and categorization.

    PubMed

    Czigler, István

    2014-07-01

    Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component of event-related potentials is elicited by stimuli violating the category rule of stimulus sequences, even if such stimuli are outside the focus of attention. Category-related vMMN emerges to colors, and color-related vMMN is sensitive to language-related effects. A higher-order perceptual category, bilateral symmetry is also represented in the memory processes underlying vMMN. As a relatively large body of research shows, violating the emotional category of human faces elicits vMMN. Another face-related category sensitive to the violation of regular presentation is gender. Finally, vMMN was elicited to the laterality of hands. As results on category-related vMMN show, stimulus representation in the non-conscious change detection system is fairly complex, and it is not restricted to the registration of elementary perceptual regularities.

  6. Mismatch Negativity in Children with Autism and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michelle A.; Gomes, Hilary; Gravel, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism are often characterized as having abnormalities in auditory processing. This study examined automatic and active processing of simple auditory stimuli in children using a component of event related potentials, the mismatch negativity (MMN). Amplitude of MMN in children with autism was significantly smaller than in children…

  7. Combined ICA-LORETA analysis of mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Marco-Pallarés, J; Grau, C; Ruffini, G

    2005-04-01

    A major challenge for neuroscience is to map accurately the spatiotemporal patterns of activity of the large neuronal populations that are believed to underlie computing in the human brain. To study a specific example, we selected the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain wave (an event-related potential, ERP) because it gives an electrophysiological index of a "primitive intelligence" capable of detecting changes, even abstract ones, in a regular auditory pattern. ERPs have a temporal resolution of milliseconds but appear to result from mixed neuronal contributions whose spatial location is not fully understood. Thus, it is important to separate these sources in space and time. To tackle this problem, a two-step approach was designed combining the independent component analysis (ICA) and low-resolution tomography (LORETA) algorithms. Here we implement this approach to analyze the subsecond spatiotemporal dynamics of MMN cerebral sources using trial-by-trial experimental data. We show evidence that a cerebral computation mechanism underlies MMN. This mechanism is mediated by the orchestrated activity of several spatially distributed brain sources located in the temporal, frontal, and parietal areas, which activate at distinct time intervals and are grouped in six main statistically independent components.

  8. The mechanisms and meaning of the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Yonatan I

    2014-07-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a pre-attentive auditory event-related potential (ERP) component that is elicited by a change in a repetitive acoustic pattern. It is obtained by subtracting responses evoked by frequent 'standard' sounds from responses evoked by infrequent 'deviant' sounds that differ from the standards along some acoustic dimension, e.g., frequency, intensity, or duration, or abstract feature. The MMN has been attributed to neural generators within the temporal and frontal lobes. The mechanisms and meaning of the MMN continue to be debated. Two dominant explanations for the MMN have been proposed. According to the "neural adaptation" hypothesis, repeated presentation of the standards results in adapted (i.e., attenuated) responses of feature-selective neurons in auditory cortex. Rare deviant sounds activate neurons that are less adapted than those stimulated by the frequent standard sounds, and thus elicit a larger 'obligatory' response, which yields the MMN following the subtraction procedure. In contrast, according to the "sensory memory" hypothesis, the MMN is a 'novel' (non-obligatory) ERP component that reflects a deviation between properties of an incoming sound and those of a neural 'memory trace' established by the preceding standard sounds. Here, we provide a selective review of studies which are relevant to the controversy between proponents of these two interpretations of the MMN. We also present preliminary neurophysiological data from monkey auditory cortex with potential implications for the debate. We conclude that the mechanisms and meaning of the MMN are still unresolved and offer remarks on how to make progress on these important issues.

  9. Mismatch Negativity with Visual-only and Audiovisual Speech

    PubMed Central

    Ponton, Curtis W.; Bernstein, Lynne E.; Auer, Edward T.

    2009-01-01

    The functional organization of cortical speech processing is thought to be hierarchical, increasing in complexity and proceeding from primary sensory areas centrifugally. The current study used the mismatch negativity (MMN) obtained with electrophysiology (EEG) to investigate the early latency period of visual speech processing under both visual-only (VO) and audiovisual (AV) conditions. Current density reconstruction (CDR) methods were used to model the cortical MMN generator locations. MMNs were obtained with VO and AV speech stimuli at early latencies (approximately 82-87 ms peak in time waveforms relative to the acoustic onset) and in regions of the right lateral temporal and parietal cortices. Latencies were consistent with bottom-up processing of the visible stimuli. We suggest that a visual pathway extracts phonetic cues from visible speech, and that previously reported effects of AV speech in classical early auditory areas, given later reported latencies, could be attributable to modulatory feedback from visual phonetic processing. PMID:19404730

  10. The mismatch negativity: A review of underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Marta I.; Kilner, James M.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response to violations of a rule, established by a sequence of sensory stimuli (typically in the auditory domain) [Näätänen R. Attention and brain function. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1992]. The MMN reflects the brain’s ability to perform automatic comparisons between consecutive stimuli and provides an electrophysiological index of sensory learning and perceptual accuracy. Although the MMN has been studied extensively, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the MMN are not well understood. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the generation of the MMN; amongst these accounts, the “adaptation hypothesis” and the “model adjustment hypothesis” have received the most attention. This paper presents a review of studies that focus on neuronal mechanisms underlying the MMN generation, discusses the two major explanatory hypotheses, and proposes predictive coding as a general framework that attempts to unify both. PMID:19181570

  11. Sensory memory during physiological aging indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    PubMed

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Pirulli, Cornelia; Brignani, Debora; Maioli, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Physiological aging affects early sensory-perceptual processes. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate changes in auditory sensory memory in physiological aging using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm as index. The MMN is a marker recorded through the electroencephalogram and is used to evaluate the integrity of the memory system. We adopted a new, faster paradigm to look for differences between 3 groups of subjects of different ages (young, middle age and older adults) as a function of short or long intervals between stimuli. We found that older adults did not show MMN at long interval condition and that the duration of MMN varied according to the participants' age. The current study provides electrophysiological evidence supporting the theory that the encoding of stimuli is preserved during normal aging, whereas the maintenance of sensory memory is impaired. Considering the advantage offered by the MMN paradigm used here, these data might be a useful reference point for the assessment of auditory sensory memory in pathological aging (e.g., in neurodegenerative diseases). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arithmetic mismatch negativity and numerical magnitude processing in number matching.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Fang; Szücs, Dénes

    2011-08-11

    This study examined the relationship of the arithmetic mismatch negativity (AMN) and the semantic evaluation of numerical magnitude. The first question was whether the AMN was sensitive to the incongruity in numerical information per se, or rather, to the violation of strategic expectations. The second question was whether the numerical distance effect could appear independently of the AMN. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants decided whether two digits were matching or non-matching in terms of physical similarity. The AMN was enhanced in matching trials presented infrequently relative to non-matching trials presented frequently. The numerical distance effect was found over posterior sites during a 92 ms long interval (236-328 ms) but appeared independently of the AMN. It was not the incongruity in numerical information per se, but rather, the violation of strategic expectations that elicited the AMN. The numerical distance effect might only temporally coincide with the AMN and did not form an inherent part of it.

  13. Modelling Trial-by-Trial Changes in the Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Lieder, Falk; Daunizeau, Jean; Garrido, Marta I.; Friston, Karl J.; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a differential brain response to violations of learned regularities. It has been used to demonstrate that the brain learns the statistical structure of its environment and predicts future sensory inputs. However, the algorithmic nature of these computations and the underlying neurobiological implementation remain controversial. This article introduces a mathematical framework with which competing ideas about the computational quantities indexed by MMN responses can be formalized and tested against single-trial EEG data. This framework was applied to five major theories of the MMN, comparing their ability to explain trial-by-trial changes in MMN amplitude. Three of these theories (predictive coding, model adjustment, and novelty detection) were formalized by linking the MMN to different manifestations of the same computational mechanism: approximate Bayesian inference according to the free-energy principle. We thereby propose a unifying view on three distinct theories of the MMN. The relative plausibility of each theory was assessed against empirical single-trial MMN amplitudes acquired from eight healthy volunteers in a roving oddball experiment. Models based on the free-energy principle provided more plausible explanations of trial-by-trial changes in MMN amplitude than models representing the two more traditional theories (change detection and adaptation). Our results suggest that the MMN reflects approximate Bayesian learning of sensory regularities, and that the MMN-generating process adjusts a probabilistic model of the environment according to prediction errors. PMID:23436989

  14. Mismatch Negativity (MMN) as an Index of Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Näätänen, Risto; Sussman, Elyse S.; Salisbury, Dean; Shafer, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Cognition is often affected in a variety of neuropsychiatric, neurological, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The neural discriminative response, reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetoencephalographic equivalent (MMNm), has been used as a tool to study a variety of disorders involving auditory cognition. MMN/MMNm is an involuntary brain response to auditory change or, more generally, to pattern regularity violation. For a number of disorders, MMN/MMNm amplitude to sound deviance has been shown to be attenuated or the peak-latency of the component prolonged compared to controls. This general finding suggests that while not serving as a specific marker to any particular disorder, MMN may be useful for understanding factors of cognition in various disorders, and has potential to serve as an indicator of risk. This review presents a brief history of the MMN, followed by a description of how MMN has been used to index auditory processing capability in a range of neuropsychiatric, neurological, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Finally, we suggest future directions for research to further enhance our understanding of the neural substrate of deviance detection that could lead to improvements in the use of MMN as a clinical tool. PMID:24838819

  15. Chronic effects of cannabis use on the auditory mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Lisa-Marie; Broyd, Samantha J; Croft, Rodney; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Johnstone, Stuart; Murray, Robin; Solowij, Nadia

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis use is associated with the development of psychotic symptoms and increased risk for schizophrenia. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain event-related potential marker of change detection thought to index glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission, which is known to be deficient in schizophrenia. This study examined auditory MMN in otherwise healthy chronic cannabis users compared with nonuser control subjects. Forty-two chronic cannabis users and 44 nonuser healthy control subjects completed a multi-feature MMN paradigm, which included duration, frequency, and intensity deviants (deviants 6%; standards 82%). The MMN was compared between users and control subjects as well as between long- and short-term users and age- and gender-matched control subjects. Associations between MMN, cannabis use measures, and symptoms were examined. The MMN amplitude was significantly reduced to frequency but not duration or intensity deviants in overall cannabis users relative to control subjects. Frequency MMN was similarly attenuated in short- and long-term users relative to control subjects. Long-term users also exhibited reduced duration MMN relative to control subjects and short-term users and this was correlated with increased duration of exposure to cannabis and increased psychotic-like experiences during intoxication. In short-term users, a younger age of onset of regular cannabis use and greater frequency of use were associated with greater psychotic-like experiences and symptomatic distress. These results suggest impaired sensory memory that might reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction in chronic cannabis users. The pattern of MMN alterations in cannabis users differed from that typically observed in patients with schizophrenia, indicating overlapping but distinct underlying pathology. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the real world: attention debates in auditory mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyungmi; Park, Jin Young

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to address the potential for the auditory mismatch negativity (aMMN) to be used in applied event-related potential (ERP) studies by determining whether the aMMN would be an attention-dependent ERP component and could be differently modulated across visual tasks or virtual reality (VR) stimuli with different visual properties and visual complexity levels. A total of 80 participants, aged 19-36 years, were assigned to either a reading-task (21 men and 19 women) or a VR-task (22 men and 18 women) group. Two visual-task groups of healthy young adults were matched in age, sex, and handedness. All participants were instructed to focus only on the given visual tasks and ignore auditory change detection. While participants in the reading-task group read text slides, those in the VR-task group viewed three 360° VR videos in a random order and rated how visually complex the given virtual environment was immediately after each VR video ended. Inconsistent with the finding of a partial significant difference in perceived visual complexity in terms of brightness of virtual environments, both visual properties of distance and brightness showed no significant differences in the modulation of aMMN amplitudes. A further analysis was carried out to compare elicited aMMN amplitudes of a typical MMN task and an applied VR task. No significant difference in the aMMN amplitudes was found across the two groups who completed visual tasks with different visual-task demands. In conclusion, the aMMN is a reliable ERP marker of preattentive cognitive processing for auditory deviance detection.

  17. Neural mechanisms of mismatch negativity dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Sehatpour, P; Hoptman, M J; Lakatos, P; Dias, E C; Kantrowitz, J T; Martinez, A M; Javitt, D C

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls. rsfcMRI was obtained from a subsample of 38 patients and 23 controls. As expected, schizophrenia patients showed highly significant, large effect size (P=0.0004, d=1.0) deficits in MMN generation across deviant types. In ERSP analyses, responses to deviants occurred primarily the theta (4-7 Hz) frequency range consistent with distributed corticocortical processing, whereas responses to standards occurred primarily in alpha (8-12 Hz) range consistent with known frequencies of thalamocortical activation. Independent deficits in schizophrenia were observed in both the theta response to deviants (P=0.021) and the alpha-response to standards (P=0.003). At the single-trial level, differential patterns of response were observed for frequency vs duration/intensity deviants, along with At the network level, MMN deficits engaged canonical somatomotor, ventral attention and default networks, with a differential pattern of engagement across deviant types (P<0.0001). Findings indicate that deficits in thalamocortical, as well as corticocortical, connectivity contribute to auditory dysfunction in schizophrenia. In addition, differences in ERSP and rsfcMRI profiles across deviant types suggest potential differential engagement of underlying generator mechanisms.

  18. Auditory Evoked Potential Mismatch Negativity in Normal-Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwade, Laura Flach; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Sleifer, Pricila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Mismatch Negativity (MMN) corresponds to a response of the central auditory nervous system. Objective  The objective of this study is to analyze MMN latencies and amplitudes in normal-hearing adults and compare the results between ears, gender and hand dominance. Methods  This is a cross-sectional study. Forty subjects participated, 20 women and 20 men, aged 18 to 29 years and having normal auditory thresholds. A frequency of 1000Hz (standard stimuli) and 2000Hz (deviant stimuli) was used to evoked the MMN. Results  Mean latencies in the right ear were 169.4ms and 175.3ms in the left ear, with mean amplitudes of 4.6µV in the right ear and 4.2µV in the left ear. There was no statistically significant difference between ears. The comparison of latencies between genders showed a statistically significant difference for the right ear, being higher in the men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between ears for both right-handed and left-handed group. However, the results indicated that the latency of the right ear was significantly higher for the left handers than the right handers. We also found a significant result for the latency of the left ear, which was higher for the right handers. Conclusion  It was possible to obtain references of values for the MMN. There are no differences in the MMN latencies and amplitudes between the ears. Regarding gender, the male group presented higher latencies in relation to the female group in the right ear. Some results indicate that there is a significant statistical difference of the MMN between right- and left-handed individuals. PMID:28680490

  19. Effect of EEG Referencing Methods on Auditory Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Yatin; Peter, Varghese; Sharma, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have consistently been used in the investigation of auditory and cognitive processing in the research and clinical laboratories. There is currently no consensus on the choice of appropriate reference for auditory ERPs. The most commonly used references in auditory ERP research are the mathematically linked-mastoids (LM) and average referencing (AVG). Since LM and AVG referencing procedures do not solve the issue of electrically-neutral reference, Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) was developed to create a neutral reference for EEG recordings. The aim of the current research is to compare the influence of the reference on amplitude and latency of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) as a function of magnitude of frequency deviance across three commonly used electrode montages (16, 32, and 64-channel) using REST, LM, and AVG reference procedures. The current study was designed to determine if the three reference methods capture the variation in amplitude and latency of MMN with the deviance magnitude. We recorded MMN from 12 normal hearing young adults in an auditory oddball paradigm with 1,000 Hz pure tone as standard and 1,030, 1,100, and 1,200 Hz as small, medium and large frequency deviants, respectively. The EEG data recorded to these sounds was re-referenced using REST, LM, and AVG methods across 16-, 32-, and 64-channel EEG electrode montages. Results revealed that while the latency of MMN decreased with increment in frequency of deviant sounds, no effect of frequency deviance was present for amplitude of MMN. There was no effect of referencing procedure on the experimental effect tested. The amplitude of MMN was largest when the ERP was computed using LM referencing and the REST referencing produced the largest amplitude of MMN for 64-channel montage. There was no effect of electrode-montage on AVG referencing induced ERPs. Contrary to our predictions, the results suggest that the auditory MMN elicited

  20. Investigating a memory-based account of negative priming: support for selection-feature mismatch.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, P A; Joordens, S

    2000-08-01

    Using typical and modified negative priming tasks, the selection-feature mismatch account of negative priming was tested. In the modified task, participants performed selections on the basis of a semantic feature (e.g., referent size). This procedure has been shown to enhance negative priming (P. A. MacDonald, S. Joordens, & K. N. Seergobin, 1999). Across 3 experiments, negative priming occurred only when the repeated item mismatched in terms of the feature used as the basis for selections. When the repeated item was congruent on the selection feature across the prime and probe displays, positive priming arose. This pattern of results appeared in both the ignored- and the attended-repetition conditions. Negative priming does not result from previously ignoring an item. These findings strongly support the selection-feature mismatch account of negative priming and refute both the distractor inhibition and the episodic-retrieval explanations.

  1. Abnormal Complex Auditory Pattern Analysis in Schizophrenia Reflected in an Absent Missing Stimulus Mismatch Negativity.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G

    2016-11-01

    The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation. Whether persons with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the complex MMN is unknown. Fourteen schizophrenia participants and 16 matched healthy underwent EEG recording while listening to 400 groups of 6 tones 330 ms apart, separated by 800 ms. Occasional deviant groups were missing the 4th or 6th tone (50 groups each). Healthy participants generated a robust response to a missing but expected tone. The schizophrenia group was significantly impaired in activating the missing stimulus MMN, generating no significant activity at all. Schizophrenia affects the ability of "primitive sensory intelligence" and pre-attentive perceptual mechanisms to form implicit groups in the auditory environment. Importantly, this deficit must relate to abnormalities in abstract complex pattern analysis rather than sensory problems in the disorder. The results indicate a deficit in parsing of the complex auditory scene which likely impacts negatively on successful social navigation in schizophrenia. Knowledge of the location and circuit architecture underlying the true novelty-related MMN and its pathophysiology in schizophrenia will help target future interventions.

  2. Discrimination of stress in speech and music: a mismatch negativity (MMN) study.

    PubMed

    Peter, Varghese; McArthur, Genevieve; Thompson, William Forde

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if duration-related stress in speech and music is processed in a similar way in the brain. To this end, we tested 20 adults for their abstract mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials to two duration-related stress patterns: stress on the first syllable or note (long-short), and stress on the second syllable or note (short-long). A significant MMN was elicited for both speech and music except for the short-long speech stimulus. The long-short stimuli elicited larger MMN amplitudes for speech and music compared to short-long stimuli. An extra negativity-the late discriminative negativity (LDN)-was observed only for music. The larger MMN amplitude for long-short stimuli might be due to the familiarity of the stress pattern in speech and music. The presence of LDN for music may reflect greater long-term memory transfer for music stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Regional Differences in the Listener's Phonemic Inventory Affect Semantic Processing: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Using the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, we examined how Standard French and Southern French speakers access the meaning of words ending in /e/ or /[epsilon]/ vowels which are contrastive in Standard French but not in Southern French. In Standard French speakers, there was a significant difference in the amplitude of the brain response after…

  4. Can Mismatch Negativity Be Linked to Synaptic Processes? A Glutamatergic Approach to Deviance Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework to elucidate the neurophysiological underpinnings of deviance detection as reflected by mismatch negativity. A six-step model of the information processing necessary for deviance detection is proposed. In this model, predictive coding of learned regularities is realized by means of long-term…

  5. Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Tones and Speech Sounds: Changed Topographical Distribution in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    This study used the event-related brain potential mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate preconscious discrimination of harmonically rich tones (differing in duration) and consonant-vowel syllables (differing in the initial consonant) in aphasia. Eighteen Norwegian aphasic patients, examined on average 3 months after brain injury, were compared…

  6. Impaired prefrontal synaptic gain in people with psychosis and their relatives during the mismatch negativity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rick A.; Díez, Álvaro; Constante, Miguel; Dutt, Anirban; Hall, Mei‐Hua; Maestro Carbayo, Amparo; McDonald, Colm; Petrella, Sabrina; Schulze, Katja; Shaikh, Madiha; Walshe, Muriel; Friston, Karl; Pinotsis, Dimitris; Bramon, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mismatch negativity (MMN) evoked potential, a preattentive brain response to a discriminable change in auditory stimulation, is significantly reduced in psychosis. Glutamatergic theories of psychosis propose that hypofunction of NMDA receptors (on pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons) causes a loss of synaptic gain control. We measured changes in neuronal effective connectivity underlying the MMN using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), where the gain (excitability) of superficial pyramidal cells is explicitly parameterised. EEG data were obtained during a MMN task—for 24 patients with psychosis, 25 of their first‐degree unaffected relatives, and 35 controls—and DCM was used to estimate the excitability (modeled as self‐inhibition) of (source‐specific) superficial pyramidal populations. The MMN sources, based on previous research, included primary and secondary auditory cortices, and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Both patients with psychosis and unaffected relatives (to a lesser degree) showed increased excitability in right inferior frontal gyrus across task conditions, compared to controls. Furthermore, in the same region, both patients and their relatives showed a reversal of the normal response to deviant stimuli; that is, a decrease in excitability in comparison to standard conditions. Our results suggest that psychosis and genetic risk for the illness are associated with both context‐dependent (condition‐specific) and context‐independent abnormalities of the excitability of superficial pyramidal cell populations in the MMN paradigm. These abnormalities could relate to NMDA receptor hypofunction on both pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons, and appear to be linked to the genetic aetiology of the illness, thereby constituting potential endophenotypes for psychosis. Hum Brain Mapp 37:351–365, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26503033

  7. Meta-analysis of mismatch negativity to simple versus complex deviants in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Avissar, Michael; Xie, Shanghong; Vail, Blair; Lopez-Calderon, Javier; Wang, Yuanjia; Javitt, Daniel C

    2018-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been studied extensively since the early 1990s, with the vast majority of studies using simple auditory oddball task deviants that vary in a single acoustic dimension such as pitch or duration. There has been a growing interest in using more complex deviants that violate more abstract rules to probe higher order cognitive deficits. It is still unclear how sensory processing deficits compare to and contribute to higher order cognitive dysfunction, which can be investigated with later attention-dependent auditory event-related potential (ERP) components such as a subcomponent of P300, P3b. In this meta-analysis, we compared MMN deficits in SCZ using simple deviants to more complex deviants. We also pooled studies that measured MMN and P3b in the same study sample and examined the relationship between MMN and P3b deficits within study samples. Our analysis reveals that, to date, studies using simple deviants demonstrate larger deficits than those using complex deviants, with effect sizes in the range of moderate to large. The difference in effect sizes between deviant types was reduced significantly when accounting for magnitude of MMN measured in healthy controls. P3b deficits, while large, were only modestly greater than MMN deficits (d=0.21). Taken together, our findings suggest that MMN to simple deviants may still be optimal as a biomarker for SCZ and that sensory processing dysfunction contributes significantly to MMN deficit and disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurophysiological evidence for whole form retrieval of complex derived words: a mismatch negativity study

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Complex words can be seen as combinations of elementary units, decomposable into stems and affixes according to morphological rules. Alternatively, complex forms may be stored as single lexical entries and accessed as whole forms. This study uses an event-related potential brain response capable of indexing both whole-form retrieval and combinatorial processing, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), to investigate early brain activity elicited by morphologically complex derived words in German. We presented complex words consisting of stems “sicher” (secure), or “sauber” (clean) combined with abstract nominalizing derivational affixes -heit or -keit, to form either congruent derived words: “Sicherheit” (security) and “Sauberkeit” (cleanliness), or incongruent derived pseudowords: *“Sicherkeit”, and *“Sauberheit”. Using this orthogonal design, it was possible to record brain responses for -heit and -keit in both congruent and incongruent contexts, therefore balancing acoustic variance. Previous research has shown that incongruent combinations of symbols elicit a stronger MMN than congruent combinations, but that single words or constructions stored as whole forms elicit a stronger MMN than pseudowords or non-existent constructions. We found that congruent derived words elicited a stronger MMN than incongruent derived words, beginning about 150 ms after perception of the critical morpheme. This pattern of results is consistent with whole-form storage of morphologically complex derived words as lexical units, or mini-constructions. Using distributed source localization methods, the MMN enhancement for well-formed derivationally complex words appeared to be most prominent in the left inferior anterior-temporal, bilateral superior parietal and bilateral post-central, supra-marginal areas. In addition, neurophysiological results reflected the frequency of derived forms, thus providing further converging evidence for whole form storage and against a

  9. Neurophysiological evidence for whole form retrieval of complex derived words: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeff; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Complex words can be seen as combinations of elementary units, decomposable into stems and affixes according to morphological rules. Alternatively, complex forms may be stored as single lexical entries and accessed as whole forms. This study uses an event-related potential brain response capable of indexing both whole-form retrieval and combinatorial processing, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), to investigate early brain activity elicited by morphologically complex derived words in German. We presented complex words consisting of stems "sicher" (secure), or "sauber" (clean) combined with abstract nominalizing derivational affixes -heit or -keit, to form either congruent derived words: "Sicherheit" (security) and "Sauberkeit" (cleanliness), or incongruent derived pseudowords: *"Sicherkeit", and *"Sauberheit". Using this orthogonal design, it was possible to record brain responses for -heit and -keit in both congruent and incongruent contexts, therefore balancing acoustic variance. Previous research has shown that incongruent combinations of symbols elicit a stronger MMN than congruent combinations, but that single words or constructions stored as whole forms elicit a stronger MMN than pseudowords or non-existent constructions. We found that congruent derived words elicited a stronger MMN than incongruent derived words, beginning about 150 ms after perception of the critical morpheme. This pattern of results is consistent with whole-form storage of morphologically complex derived words as lexical units, or mini-constructions. Using distributed source localization methods, the MMN enhancement for well-formed derivationally complex words appeared to be most prominent in the left inferior anterior-temporal, bilateral superior parietal and bilateral post-central, supra-marginal areas. In addition, neurophysiological results reflected the frequency of derived forms, thus providing further converging evidence for whole form storage and against a combinatorial mechanism.

  10. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Tomohiro; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Seo, Tomonori; Suzuki, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC) subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J). Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  11. LORETA Current Source Density for Duration Mismatch Negativity and Neuropsychological Assessment in Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Miyanishi, Tomohiro; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Seo, Tomonori; Suzuki, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. Methods Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC) subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J). Results Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. Conclusions This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. PMID:23577204

  12. Unconscious improvement in foreign language learning using mismatch negativity neurofeedback: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Kashioka, Hideki; Naruse, Yasushi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Ando, Hideyuki; Maeda, Taro

    2017-01-01

    When people learn foreign languages, they find it difficult to perceive speech sounds that are nonexistent in their native language, and extensive training is consequently necessary. Our previous studies have shown that by using neurofeedback based on the mismatch negativity event-related brain potential, participants could unconsciously achieve learning in the auditory discrimination of pure tones that could not be consciously discriminated without the neurofeedback. Here, we examined whether mismatch negativity neurofeedback is effective for helping someone to perceive new speech sounds in foreign language learning. We developed a task for training native Japanese speakers to discriminate between 'l' and 'r' sounds in English, as they usually cannot discriminate between these two sounds. Without participants attending to auditory stimuli or being aware of the nature of the experiment, neurofeedback training helped them to achieve significant improvement in unconscious auditory discrimination and recognition of the target words 'light' and 'right'. There was also improvement in the recognition of other words containing 'l' and 'r' (e.g., 'blight' and 'bright'), even though these words had not been presented during training. This method could be used to facilitate foreign language learning and can be extended to other fields of auditory and clinical research and even other senses.

  13. Unconscious improvement in foreign language learning using mismatch negativity neurofeedback: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Kashioka, Hideki; Naruse, Yasushi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Ando, Hideyuki; Maeda, Taro

    2017-01-01

    When people learn foreign languages, they find it difficult to perceive speech sounds that are nonexistent in their native language, and extensive training is consequently necessary. Our previous studies have shown that by using neurofeedback based on the mismatch negativity event-related brain potential, participants could unconsciously achieve learning in the auditory discrimination of pure tones that could not be consciously discriminated without the neurofeedback. Here, we examined whether mismatch negativity neurofeedback is effective for helping someone to perceive new speech sounds in foreign language learning. We developed a task for training native Japanese speakers to discriminate between ‘l’ and ‘r’ sounds in English, as they usually cannot discriminate between these two sounds. Without participants attending to auditory stimuli or being aware of the nature of the experiment, neurofeedback training helped them to achieve significant improvement in unconscious auditory discrimination and recognition of the target words ‘light’ and ‘right’. There was also improvement in the recognition of other words containing ‘l’ and ‘r’ (e.g., ‘blight’ and ‘bright’), even though these words had not been presented during training. This method could be used to facilitate foreign language learning and can be extended to other fields of auditory and clinical research and even other senses. PMID:28617861

  14. Fast vigilance decrement in closed head injury patients as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    PubMed

    Kaipio, M L; Novitski, N; Tervaniemi, M; Alho, K; Ohman, J; Salonen, O; Näätänen, R

    2001-05-25

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured from 24 chronic closed head injury (CHI) patients and 18 age- and education-matched controls. The oddball paradigm was applied while subjects were watching a silent movie. The standard (p=0.8) sound of 75 ms duration had a basic frequency of 500 Hz with harmonic partials of 1000 Hz and 1500 Hz, whereas these frequencies for the pitch deviant were each 10% higher. The frequencies of the duration deviant matched with those of the standard but was 25 ms in duration. The MMN (mismatch negativity), generated by the brain's automatic auditory change-detector mechanism, was elicited by both deviants. No significant differences in the MMN latency or amplitude for either pitch or duration deviants were found between the groups. However, the MMN amplitude for the pitch deviant decreased in the patient group during the experiment considerably faster than in controls, suggesting a faster vigilance decrement in the patients.

  15. Auditory sensory memory and language abilities in former late talkers: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Grossheinrich, Nicola; Kademann, Stefanie; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Juergen; Von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated whether (a) a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory is found in late talking children and (b) whether deficits of sensory memory are linked to persistent difficulties in language acquisition. Former late talkers and children without delayed language development were examined at the age of 4 years and 7 months using mismatch negativity (MMN) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 2000 ms. Additionally, short-term memory, language skills, and nonverbal intelligence were assessed. MMN mean amplitude was reduced for the ISI of 2000 ms in former late talking children both with and without persistent language deficits. In summary, our findings suggest that late talkers are characterized by a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory. However, deficits in auditory sensory memory are not sufficient for persistent language difficulties and may be compensated for by some children.

  16. Changes in room acoustics elicit a Mismatch Negativity in the absence of overall interaural intensity differences.

    PubMed

    Frey, Johannes Daniel; Wendt, Mike; Löw, Andreas; Möller, Stephan; Zölzer, Udo; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e.g., frequency, duration, sound pressure, and sound source location) as constant as possible. In the first experiment, each standard and deviant stimulus consisted of sequences of three short sounds derived from sinusoidal tones, resulting in three onsets during each stimulus. Deviant stimuli elicited a Mismatch Negativity (MMN) as well as two additional negative deflections corresponding to the three onset peaks. In the second experiment, only one sound was used; the stimuli were otherwise identical to the ones used in the first experiment. Again, an MMN was observed, followed by an additional negative deflection. These results provide further support for the hypothesis of automatic detection of unattended changes in room acoustics, extending previous work by demonstrating the elicitation of an MMN by changes in room acoustics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mismatch Negativity: An Indicator of Perception of Regularities in Music

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xide; Liu, Tao; Gao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews music research using Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN is a deviation-specific component of auditory event-related potential (EPR), which detects a deviation between a sound and an internal representation (e.g., memory trace). Recent studies have expanded the notion and the paradigms of MMN to higher-order music processing such as those involving short melodies, harmony chord, and music syntax. In this vein, we firstly reviewed the evolution of MMN from sound to music and then mainly compared the differences of MMN features between musicians and nonmusicians, followed by the discussion of the potential roles of the training effect and the natural exposure in MMN. Since MMN can serve as an index of neural plasticity, it thus can be widely used in clinical and other applied areas, such as detecting music preference in newborns or assessing wholeness of central auditory system of hearing illness. Finally, we pointed out some open questions and further directions. Current music perception research using MMN has mainly focused on relatively low hierarchical structure of music perception. To fully understand the neural substrates underlying processing of regularities in music, it is important and beneficial to combine MMN with other experimental paradigms such as early right-anterior negativity (ERAN). PMID:26504352

  18. The Mismatch Negativity: An Indicator of Perception of Regularities in Music.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xide; Liu, Tao; Gao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews music research using Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN is a deviation-specific component of auditory event-related potential (EPR), which detects a deviation between a sound and an internal representation (e.g., memory trace). Recent studies have expanded the notion and the paradigms of MMN to higher-order music processing such as those involving short melodies, harmony chord, and music syntax. In this vein, we firstly reviewed the evolution of MMN from sound to music and then mainly compared the differences of MMN features between musicians and nonmusicians, followed by the discussion of the potential roles of the training effect and the natural exposure in MMN. Since MMN can serve as an index of neural plasticity, it thus can be widely used in clinical and other applied areas, such as detecting music preference in newborns or assessing wholeness of central auditory system of hearing illness. Finally, we pointed out some open questions and further directions. Current music perception research using MMN has mainly focused on relatively low hierarchical structure of music perception. To fully understand the neural substrates underlying processing of regularities in music, it is important and beneficial to combine MMN with other experimental paradigms such as early right-anterior negativity (ERAN).

  19. Finding the missing stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN): Emitted MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2011-01-01

    Deviations from repetitive auditory stimuli evoke a mismatch negativity (MMN). Counter-intuitively, omissions of repetitive stimuli do not. Violations of patterns reflecting complex rules also evoke MMN. To detect a MMN to missing stimuli, we developed an auditory gestalt task using one stimulus. Groups of 6 pips (50 msec duration, 330 msec stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), 400 trials), were presented with an inter-trial interval (ITI) of 750 msec while subjects (n=16) watched a silent video. Occasional deviant groups had missing 4th or 6th tones (50 trials each). Missing stimuli evoked a MMN (p<.05). The missing 4th (−0.8 uV, p <.01) and the missing 6th stimuli (−1.1 uV, p <.05) were more negative than standard 6th stimuli (0.3 uV). MMN can be elicited by a missing stimulus at long SOAs by violation of a gestalt grouping rule. Homogenous stimulus streams appear to differ in the relative weighting of omissions than strongly patterned streams. PMID:22221004

  20. Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2016-10-01

    Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mismatch Negativity in Han Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanbing; Ll, Xianbin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Chuanyue

    2017-10-25

    Previous meta-analysis revealed that mismatch negativity(MMN) amplitude decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Cohen's d, d about 1), leading to the possibility of mismatch negativity being used as a biomarker for schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reliably changed in Chinese patients. It is necessary to carry out a meta-analysis on MMN of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. To investigate whether MMN could be used as a biomarker for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials on MMN in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients published before May 8, 2017, by searching the Chinese language databases CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP Data and PubMed. The effects of MMN deficits were evaluated for MMN amplitude by calculating standard mean difference (SMDs) between schizophrenia patient groups and healthy control groups. A total of 11 studies were included in the analysis. The total quality of all the studies were more than 6 as evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis of data from these studies had a pooled sample of 432 patients with schizophrenia and 392 healthy controls. There exists significant MMN deficit in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls (Cohen's d =1.004). When studies were excluded due to heterogeneity, the pooled effect size of the MMN differences between the patient group and healthy controls dropped to 0.79 (Cohen's d =0.79). Subgroup analysis showed that MMN amplitude deficits of schizophrenia over three years had the pooled effect size of 0.95, and less than three years had the pooled effect size of 0.77. Publication bias conducted via Egger regression test ( t = 1.83; p = 0.101), suggested that there was no publication bias. The effect size of MMN amplitude between Chinese patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls is consistent with other meta-analyses published on this topic, suggesting that Han Chinese

  2. Mismatch Negativity and P3a in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Behavioral Correlates and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Yi-Ling; Hsieh, Ming Hsien; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2018-01-01

    In a sample of 37 adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 35 typically-developing controls (TDC), we investigated sensory symptoms by clinical measures, and Mismatch Negativity and P3a component at Fz with the frequency and duration oddball paradigms of event-related potentials. Results showed that compared to TDC, ASD…

  3. Effects of physiological aging on mismatch negativity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hsu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-11-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a promising window on how the functional integrity of auditory sensory memory and change discrimination is modulated by age and relevant clinical conditions. However, the effects of aging on MMN have remained somewhat elusive, particularly at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). We performed a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed MMN studies that had targeted both young and elderly adults to estimate the mean effect size. Nine studies, consisting of 29 individual investigations, were included and the final total study population consisted of 182 young and 165 elderly subjects. The effects of different deviant types and duration of ISIs on the effect size were assessed. The overall mean effect size was 0.63 (95% CI at 0.43-0.82). The effect sizes for long ISI (>2s, effect size 0.68, 95% CI at 0.31-1.06) and short ISI (<2s, effect size 0.61, 95% CI at 0.39-0.84) were both considered moderate. A further analysis showed a prominent aging-related decrease in MMN responses to duration and frequency changes at short ISIs. It was also interesting to note that the effect size was about 25% larger for duration deviant condition compared to the frequency deviant condition. In conclusion, a reduced MMN response to duration and frequency deviants is a robust feature among the aged adults, which suggests that there has been a decline in the functional integrity of central auditory processing in this population. © 2013.

  4. Mismatch negativity to the patient's own name in chronic disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengmin; Di, Haibo; Yan, Xiaodan; Yu, Senming; Yu, Dan; Laureys, Steven; Weng, Xuchu

    2008-12-19

    Previous studies implicated potential value of mismatch negativity (MMN) in predicting recovery of consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We have adopted a novel MMN evoked by subject's own name (SON), a self-referential stimulus thought to be powerful in evoking residual brain activity, and examined the correlation between the MMN and recovery of consciousness in patients with chronic (>1 month) DOC. Twelve patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls were investigated. The patients were diagnosed as coma (n=4), vegetative state (VS, n=6), and minimally conscious state (MCS, n=2), mainly based on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. The SON-evoked MMN (SON-MMN) was present in seven patients. Critically, the presence of SON-MMN was significantly correlated with recovery of consciousness. While four of the five patients (three VS and two coma) showing SON-MMN changed to MCS 3 months later, the rest of the patients (three VS and two coma) without SON-MMN failed to show any clinical improvement. Our study thus illustrates that the subject's own name is effective in evoking MMN in patients with DOC, and that SON-MMN has potential prognostic values in predicting recovery of consciousness.

  5. Auditory mismatch negativity deficits in long-term heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Della, Beate; Norra, Christine; Uhl, Idun; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2010-09-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential indicating auditory sensory memory and information processing. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic cannabis use is associated with deficient MMN generation. MMN was investigated in age- and gender-matched chronic cannabis users (n = 30) and nonuser controls (n = 30). The cannabis users were divided into two groups according to duration and quantity of cannabis consumption. The MMNs resulting from a pseudorandomized sequence of 2 × 900 auditory stimuli were recorded by 32-channel EEG. The standard stimuli were 1,000 Hz, 80 dB SPL and 90 ms duration. The deviant stimuli differed in duration (50 ms) or frequency (1,200 Hz). There were no significant differences in MMN values between cannabis users and nonuser controls in both deviance conditions. With regard to subgroups, reduced amplitudes of frequency MMN at frontal electrodes were found in long-term (≥8 years of use) and heavy (≥15 joints/week) users compared to short-term and light users. The results indicate that chronic cannabis use may cause a specific impairment of auditory information processing. In particular, duration and quantity of cannabis use could be identified as important factors of deficient MMN generation.

  6. Mismatch negativity results from bilateral asymmetric dipole sources in the frontal and temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Jemel, Boutheina; Achenbach, Christiane; Müller, Bernhard W; Röpcke, Bernd; Oades, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) reflecting auditory change detection (mismatch negativity, MMN) registers automatic selective processing of a deviant sound with respect to a working memory template resulting from a series of standard sounds. Controversy remains whether MMN can be generated in the frontal as well as the temporal cortex. Our aim was to see if frontal as well as temporal lobe dipoles could explain MMN recorded after pitch-deviants (Pd-MMN) and duration deviants (Dd-MMN). EEG recordings were taken from 32 sites in 14 healthy subjects during a passive 3-tone oddball presented during a simple visual discrimination and an active auditory discrimination condition. Both conditions were repeated after one month. The Pd-MMN was larger, peaked earlier and correlated better between sessions than the Dd-MMN. Two dipoles in the auditory cortex and two in the frontal lobe (left cingulate and right inferior frontal cortex) were found to be similarly placed for Pd- and Dd-MMN, and were well replicated on retest. This study confirms interactions between activity generated in the frontal and auditory temporal cortices in automatic attention-like processes that resemble initial brain imaging reports of unconscious visual change detection. The lack of interference between sessions shows that the situation is likely to be sensitive to treatment or illness effects on fronto-temporal interactions involving repeated measures.

  7. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p < 0.01). Reduced right temporal MMN was significantly associated with poorer verbal learning (r = 0.496; p < 0.01) and reduced left temporal MMN was significantly associated with increased self-reported disability (r = -0.419; p < 0.05). These results indicate that patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  8. Equivalent mismatch negativity deficits across deviant types in early illness schizophrenia-spectrum patients.

    PubMed

    Hay, Rachel A; Roach, Brian J; Srihari, Vinod H; Woods, Scott W; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2015-02-01

    Neurophysiological abnormalities in auditory deviance processing, as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN), have been observed across the course of schizophrenia. Studies in early schizophrenia patients have typically shown varying degrees of MMN amplitude reduction for different deviant types, suggesting that different auditory deviants are uniquely processed and may be differentially affected by duration of illness. To explore this further, we examined the MMN response to 4 auditory deviants (duration, frequency, duration+frequency "double deviant", and intensity) in 24 schizophrenia-spectrum patients early in the illness (ESZ) and 21 healthy controls. ESZ showed significantly reduced MMN relative to healthy controls for all deviant types (p<0.05), with no significant interaction with deviant type. No correlations with clinical symptoms were present (all ps>0.05). These findings support the conclusion that neurophysiological mechanisms underlying processing of auditory deviants are compromised early in illness, and these deficiencies are not specific to the type of deviant presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A neuronal model of predictive coding accounting for the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Wacongne, Catherine; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-03-14

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to index the activation of specialized neural networks for active prediction and deviance detection. However, a detailed neuronal model of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the MMN is still lacking, and its computational foundations remain debated. We propose here a detailed neuronal model of auditory cortex, based on predictive coding, that accounts for the critical features of MMN. The model is entirely composed of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons interconnected in a layered cortical architecture with distinct input, predictive, and prediction error units. A spike-timing dependent learning rule, relying upon NMDA receptor synaptic transmission, allows the network to adjust its internal predictions and use a memory of the recent past inputs to anticipate on future stimuli based on transition statistics. We demonstrate that this simple architecture can account for the major empirical properties of the MMN. These include a frequency-dependent response to rare deviants, a response to unexpected repeats in alternating sequences (ABABAA…), a lack of consideration of the global sequence context, a response to sound omission, and a sensitivity of the MMN to NMDA receptor antagonists. Novel predictions are presented, and a new magnetoencephalography experiment in healthy human subjects is presented that validates our key hypothesis: the MMN results from active cortical prediction rather than passive synaptic habituation.

  10. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  11. A meta-analysis of mismatch negativity in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chan, Pei-Ying S; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-26

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an optimal neurophysiological signal to assess the integrity of auditory sensory memory and involuntary attention switch. The generation of MMN is independent of overt behavioral requirements, concentration or motivation, and thus serves as a suitable tool to study the perceptual function in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). It remains unclear whether ADHD children showed altered MMN responses. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed MMN studies that had targeted both typically developed and ADHD children to examine the pooled effect size. The published articles between 1990 and 2014 were searched in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, and CINAHL. The mean effect size and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Six studies, consisting of 10 individual investigations, were included in the final analysis. A significant effect size of 0.28 was found (p=0.028, 95% CI at 0.03-0.53). These results were also free from publication bias or heterogeneity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis results suggest ADHD children demonstrated a reduced MMN amplitude compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude as a biomarker of sensory memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lindín, Mónica; Correa, Kenia; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that changes in some event-related potential (ERP) parameters associated with controlled processing of stimuli could be used as biomarkers of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, data regarding the suitability of ERP components associated with automatic and involuntary processing of stimuli for this purpose are not conclusive. In the present study, we studied the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI (age range: 50–87 years). An auditory-visual attention-distraction task, in two evaluations separated by an interval of between 18 and 24 months, was used. In both evaluations, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the aMCI adults than in the control adults. In the first evaluation, such differences were observed for the subgroup of adults between 50 and 64 years of age, but not for the subgroup of 65 years and over. In the aMCI adults, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the second evaluation than in the first evaluation, but no significant changes were observed in the control adult group. The MMN amplitude was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI, in both the first and second evaluation. PMID:24312051

  13. Rapid Extraction of Lexical Tone Phonology in Chinese Characters: A Visual Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Background In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage. PMID:23437235

  14. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Broyd, Samantha J.; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H.; Croft, Rodney J.; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Michie, Patricia T.; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2) a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating) were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation) may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process. PMID:27019754

  15. Automatic processing of pragmatic information in the human brain: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Tao; Chen, Feiyan

    2018-05-23

    Language comprehension involves pragmatic information processing, which allows world knowledge to influence the interpretation of a sentence. This study explored whether pragmatic information can be automatically processed during spoken sentence comprehension. The experiment adopted the mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to capture the neurophysiological indicators of automatic processing of spoken sentences. Pragmatically incorrect ('Foxes have wings') and correct ('Butterflies have wings') sentences were used as the experimental stimuli. In condition 1, the pragmatically correct sentence was the deviant and the pragmatically incorrect sentence was the standard stimulus, whereas the opposite case was presented in condition 2. The experimental results showed that, compared with the condition that the pragmatically correct sentence is the deviant stimulus, when the condition that the pragmatically incorrect sentence is the deviant stimulus MMN effects were induced within 60-120 and 220-260 ms. The results indicated that the human brain can monitor for incorrect pragmatic information in the inattentive state and can automatically process pragmatic information at the beginning of spoken sentence comprehension.

  16. Alteration of Duration Mismatch Negativity Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Left Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hirokazu; Shiga, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is generated by a comparison between an incoming sound and the memory trace of preceding sounds stored in sensory memory without any attention to the sound. N100 (N1) is associated with the afferent response to sound onset and reflects early analysis of stimulus characteristics. MMN generators are present in the temporal and frontal lobe, and N1 generators are present in the temporal lobe. The parietal lobe is involved in MMN generation elicited by a change in duration. The anatomical network connecting these areas, lateralization, and the effect of the side of ear stimulation on MMN remain unknown. Thus, we studied the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left parietal lobe on MMN and N1 in 10 healthy subjects. Low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobe decreased the amplitude of MMN following right ear sound stimulation, but the amplitude was unaffected with left ear sound stimulation. We observed no significant changes in the amplitude of N1 or the latency of MMN or N1. These results suggest that low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobe modulates the detection of early auditory changes in duration in healthy subjects. Stimulation that is contralateral to the side of the ear experiencing sound may affect the generation of duration MMN more than ipsilateral stimulation. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  17. Abnormal frequency discrimination in children with SLI as indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    PubMed

    Rinker, Tanja; Kohls, Gregor; Richter, Cathrin; Maas, Verena; Schulz, Eberhard; Schecker, Michael

    2007-02-14

    For several decades, the aetiology of specific language impairment (SLI) has been associated with a central auditory processing deficit disrupting the normal language development of affected children. One important aspect for language acquisition is the discrimination of different acoustic features, such as frequency information. Concerning SLI, studies to date that examined frequency discrimination abilities have been contradictory. We hypothesized that an auditory processing deficit in children with SLI depends on the frequency range and the difference between the tones used. Using a passive mismatch negativity (MMN)-design, 13 boys with SLI and 13 age- and IQ-matched controls (7-11 years) were tested with two sine tones of different frequency (700Hz versus 750Hz). Reversed hemispheric activity between groups indicated abnormal processing in SLI. In a second time window, MMN2 was absent for the children with SLI. It can therefore be assumed that a frequency discrimination deficit in children with SLI becomes particularly apparent for tones below 750Hz and for a frequency difference of 50Hz. This finding may have important implications for future research and integration of various research approaches.

  18. The effect of deviance predictability on mismatch negativity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Magdalena; Kärgel, Christian; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2016-03-23

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an electrophysiological index of prediction error processing and recently has been considered an endophenotype marker in schizophrenia. While the prediction error is a core concept in the MMN generation, predictability of deviance occurrence has rarely been assessed in MMN research and in schizophrenia patients. We investigated the MMN to 12% temporally predictable or unpredictable duration decrement deviant stimuli in two runs in 29 healthy controls and 31 schizophrenia patients. We analyzed MMN amplitudes and latencies and its associations with clinical symptoms at electrode Fz. With a stimulus onset asynchronicity of 500 ms in the regular predictable condition, a deviant occurred every 4s while it varied randomly in the unpredictable condition. In the random condition we found diminished MMN amplitudes in patients which normalized in the regular deviance condition, resulting in an analysis of variance main effect of predictability and a predictability x group interaction. Deviance predictability did not affect the MMN of control subjects and we found no relevant results with regard to MMN latencies. Our results indicate that MMN amplitudes in patients normalize to the level of the control subjects in the case of a temporally fixed regular deviant. In schizophrenia patients the detection of deviance is basically intact. However, the temporal uncertainty of deviance occurrence may be of substantial relevance to the highly replicated MMN deficit in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early integration of vowel and pitch processing: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Lidji, Pascale; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Kolinsky, Régine; Moreau, Patricia; Connolly, John F; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-04-01

    Several studies have explored the processing specificity of music and speech, but only a few have addressed the processing autonomy of their fundamental components: pitch and phonemes. Here, we examined the additivity of the mismatch negativity (MMN) indexing the early interactions between vowels and pitch when sung. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants heard frequent sung vowels and rare stimuli deviating in pitch only, in vowel only, or in both pitch and vowel. The task was to watch a silent movie while ignoring the sounds. All three types of deviants elicited both an MMN and a P3a ERP component. The observed MMNs were of similar amplitude for the three types of deviants and the P3a was larger for double deviants. The MMNs to deviance in vowel and deviance in pitch were not additive. The underadditivity of the MMN responses suggests that vowel and pitch differences are processed by interacting neural networks. The results indicate that vowel and pitch are processed as integrated units, even at a pre-attentive level. Music-processing specificity thus rests on more complex dimensions of music and speech. 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mismatch Negativity in Recent-Onset and Chronic Schizophrenia: A Current Source Density Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fulham, W. Ross; Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Rasser, Paul E.; Todd, Juanita; Johnston, Patrick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Schall, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential elicited by deviant auditory stimuli. It is presumed to index pre-attentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MMN amplitude is smaller in groups of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We compared duration-deviant MMN in 16 recent-onset and 19 chronic schizophrenia patients versus age- and sex-matched controls. Reduced frontal MMN was found in both patient groups, involved reduced hemispheric asymmetry, and was correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and negative symptom ratings. A cortically-constrained LORETA analysis, incorporating anatomical data from each individual's MRI, was performed to generate a current source density model of the MMN response over time. This model suggested MMN generation within a temporal, parietal and frontal network, which was right hemisphere dominant only in controls. An exploratory analysis revealed reduced CSD in patients in superior and middle temporal cortex, inferior and superior parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and superior and middle frontal cortex. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed. For the early phase of the MMN, patients had reduced bilateral temporal and parietal response and no lateralisation in frontal ROIs. For late MMN, patients had reduced bilateral parietal response and no lateralisation in temporal ROIs. In patients, correlations revealed a link between GAF and the MMN response in parietal cortex. In controls, the frontal response onset was 17 ms later than the temporal and parietal response. In patients, onset latency of the MMN response was delayed in secondary, but not primary, auditory cortex. However amplitude reductions were observed in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. These latency delays may indicate relatively intact information processing upstream of the primary auditory cortex, but impaired primary auditory cortex or cortico-cortical or

  1. Mismatch negativity as a potential neurobiological marker of early-stage Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shixiang; Yan, Chang; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yao, Haiqian; Jiang, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Liming

    2017-04-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD). Thirty patients (15 P-AD patients and 15 P-VD patients) and 30 age-matched controls were recruited to undergo electrophysiological recordings during the presentation of an auditory deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm that was used to elicit genuine MMN responses. We show that over the frontal-central area, the mean amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced in both the P-AD (p=0.017) and P-VD groups (p=0.013) compared with controls. The MMN peak latency in P-VD patients was significantly shorter than in controls (p=0.027). No MMN response differences between the P-AD and P-VD were found in either the frontal-central or the temporal areas. These results indicate that P-AD and P-VD patients exhibit impaired pre-attentive information processing mechanisms as revealed by the frontal-central area MMN response, which is associated with sensory memory and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The sound of music: differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-06-01

    Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style/genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, rock/pop) and in non-musicians. Jazz and classical musicians scored higher in the musical aptitude test than band musicians and non-musicians, especially with regards to tonal abilities. These results were extended by the MMN findings: jazz musicians had larger MMN-amplitude than all other experimental groups across the six different sound features, indicating a greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. In particular, we found enhanced processing of pith and sliding up to pitches in jazz musicians only. Furthermore, we observed a more frontal MMN to pitch and location compared to the other deviants in jazz musicians and left lateralization of the MMN to timbre in classical musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style/genre of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in a musical context. Musicians' brain is hence shaped by the type of training, musical style/genre, and listening experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of an NMDA antagonist on the auditory mismatch negativity response to transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Baddeley, Ashley; Knott, Verner

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a weak constant current to alter cortical excitability and activity temporarily. tDCS-induced increases in neuronal excitability and performance improvements have been observed following anodal stimulation of brain regions associated with visual and motor functions, but relatively little research has been conducted with respect to auditory processing. Recently, pilot study results indicate that anodal tDCS can increase auditory deviance detection, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases auditory processing, as measured by a brain-based event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN). As evidence has shown that tDCS lasting effects may be dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity, the current study investigated the use of dextromethorphan (DMO), an NMDA antagonist, to assess possible modulation of tDCS's effects on both MMN and working memory performance. The study, conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, involved four laboratory test sessions within a randomised, placebo and sham-controlled crossover design that compared pre- and post-anodal tDCS over the auditory cortex (2 mA for 20 minutes to excite cortical activity temporarily and locally) and sham stimulation (i.e. device is turned off) during both DMO (50 mL) and placebo administration. Anodal tDCS increased MMN amplitudes with placebo administration. Significant increases were not seen with sham stimulation or with anodal stimulation during DMO administration. With sham stimulation (i.e. no stimulation), DMO decreased MMN amplitudes. Findings from this study contribute to the understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating tDCS sensory and memory improvements.

  4. Acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory evoked mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik; Nadulski, Thomas; Stadelmann, Andreas M; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2007-12-01

    Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) have often been found in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient auditory information processing and working memory. Cannabis-induced psychotic states may resemble schizophrenia. Currently, there are discussions focusing on the close relationship between cannabis, the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic system, and the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. This study investigated the effects of cannabis on MMN amplitude in 22 healthy volunteers (age 28+/-6 years, 11 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The MMNs resulting from 1000 auditory stimuli were recorded by 32 channel EEG. The standard stimuli were 1000 Hz, 80 dB SPL, and 100 ms duration. The deviant stimuli differed in frequency (1500 Hz). Significantly greater MMN amplitude values at central electrodes were found under cannabis extract, but not under Delta(9)-THC. There were no significant differences between MMN amplitudes at frontal electrodes. MMN amplitudes at central electrodes were significantly correlated with 11-OH-THC concentration, the most important psychoactive metabolite of Delta(9)-THC. Since the main difference between Delta(9)-THC and standardized cannabis extract is CBD, which seems to have neuroprotective and anti-psychotic properties, it can be speculated whether the greater MMN amplitude that may imply higher cortical activation and cognitive performance is related to the positive effects of CBD. This effect may be relevant for auditory cortex activity in particular because only MMN amplitudes at the central, but not at the frontal electrodes were enhanced under cannabis.

  5. Visual Task Demands and the Auditory Mismatch Negativity: An Empirical Study and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Stefan; Szychowska, Malina; Nilsson, Mats E.

    2016-01-01

    Because the auditory system is particularly useful in monitoring the environment, previous research has examined whether task-irrelevant, auditory distracters are processed even if subjects focus their attention on visual stimuli. This research suggests that attentionally demanding visual tasks decrease the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) to simultaneously presented auditory distractors. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load decreased detection sensitivity of simultaneous tones, we used a similar task (n = 28) to determine if high visual perceptual load would reduce the auditory MMN. Results suggested that perceptual load did not decrease the MMN. At face value, these nonsignificant findings may suggest that effects of perceptual load on the MMN are smaller than those of other demanding visual tasks. If so, effect sizes should differ systematically between the present and previous studies. We conducted a selective meta-analysis of published studies in which the MMN was derived from the EEG, the visual task demands were continuous and varied between high and low within the same task, and the task-irrelevant tones were presented in a typical oddball paradigm simultaneously with the visual stimuli. Because the meta-analysis suggested that the present (null) findings did not differ systematically from previous findings, the available evidence was combined. Results of this meta-analysis confirmed that demanding visual tasks reduce the MMN to auditory distracters. However, because the meta-analysis was based on small studies and because of the risk for publication biases, future studies should be preregistered with large samples (n > 150) to provide confirmatory evidence for the results of the present meta-analysis. These future studies should also use control conditions that reduce confounding effects of neural adaptation, and use load manipulations that are defined independently from their effects on the MMN. PMID:26741815

  6. Gender differences in lateralization of mismatch negativity in dichotic listening tasks.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Satoru; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Mimura, Masaru; Shinoda, Junko; Itoh, Kenji; Homma, Ikuo; Kamijima, Kunitoshi

    2008-04-01

    With the aim of investigating gender differences in the functional lateralization subserving preattentive processing of language stimuli, we compared auditory mismatch negativities (MMNs) using dichotic listening tasks. Forty-four healthy volunteers, including 23 males and 21 females, participated in the study. MMNs generated by pure-tone and phonetic stimuli were compared, to check for the existence of language-specific gender differences in lateralization. Both EEG amplitude and scalp current density (SCD) data were analyzed. With phonetic MMNs, EEG findings revealed significantly larger amplitude in females than males, especially in the right hemisphere, while SCD findings revealed left hemisphere dominance and contralateral dominance in males alone. With pure-tone MMNs, no significant gender differences in hemispheric lateralization appeared in either EEG or SCD findings. While males exhibited left-lateralized activation with phonetic MMNs, females exhibited more bilateral activity. Further, the contralateral dominance of the SCD distribution associated with the ear receiving deviant stimuli in males indicated that ipsilateral input as well as interhemispheric transfer across the corpus callosum to the ipsilateral side was more suppressed in males than in females. The findings of the present study suggest that functional lateralization subserving preattentive detection of phonetic change differs between the genders. These results underscore the significance of considering the gender differences in the study of MMN, especially when phonetic stimulus is adopted. Moreover, they support the view of Voyer and Flight [Voyer, D., Flight, J., 2001. Gender differences in laterality on a dichotic task: the influence of report strategies. Cortex 37, 345-362.] in that the gender difference in hemispheric lateralization of language function is observed in a well-managed-attention condition, which fits the condition adopted in the MMN measurement; subjects are required to

  7. Mismatch negativity to acoustical illusion of beat: how and where the change detection takes place?

    PubMed

    Chakalov, Ivan; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Wollbrink, Andreas; Pantev, Christo

    2014-10-15

    In case of binaural presentation of two tones with slightly different frequencies the structures of brainstem can no longer follow the interaural time differences (ITD) resulting in an illusionary perception of beat corresponding to frequency difference between the two prime tones. Hence, the beat-frequency does not exist in the prime tones presented to either ear. This study used binaural beats to explore the nature of acoustic deviance detection in humans by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Recent research suggests that the auditory change detection is a multistage process. To test this, we employed 26 Hz-binaural beats in a classical oddball paradigm. However, the prime tones (250 Hz and 276 Hz) were switched between the ears in the case of the deviant-beat. Consequently, when the deviant is presented, the cochleae and auditory nerves receive a "new afferent", although the standards and the deviants are heard identical (26 Hz-beats). This allowed us to explore the contribution of auditory periphery to change detection process, and furthermore, to evaluate its influence on beats-related auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs). LORETA-source current density estimates of the evoked fields in a typical mismatch negativity time-window (MMN) and the subsequent difference-ASSRs were determined and compared. The results revealed an MMN generated by a complex neural network including the right parietal lobe and the left middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, difference-ASSR was generated in the paracentral gyrus. Additionally, psychophysical measures showed no perceptual difference between the standard- and deviant-beats when isolated by noise. These results suggest that the auditory periphery has an important contribution to novelty detection already at sub-cortical level. Overall, the present findings support the notion of hierarchically organized acoustic novelty detection system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Localizing pre-attentive auditory memory-based comparison: magnetic mismatch negativity to pitch change.

    PubMed

    Maess, Burkhard; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich; Friederici, Angela D

    2007-08-15

    Changes in the pitch of repetitive sounds elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the event-related brain potential (ERP). There exist two alternative accounts for this index of automatic change detection: (1) A sensorial, non-comparator account according to which ERPs in oddball sequences are affected by differential refractory states of frequency-specific afferent cortical neurons. (2) A cognitive, comparator account stating that MMN reflects the outcome of a memory comparison between a neuronal model of the frequently presented standard sound with the sensory memory representation of the changed sound. Using a condition controlling for refractoriness effects, the two contributions to MMN can be disentangled. The present study used whole-head MEG to further elucidate the sensorial and cognitive contributions to frequency MMN. Results replicated ERP findings that MMN to pitch change is a compound of the activity of a sensorial, non-comparator mechanism and a cognitive, comparator mechanism which could be separated in time. The sensorial part of frequency MMN consisting of spatially dipolar patterns was maximal in the late N1 range (105-125 ms), while the cognitive part peaked in the late MMN-range (170-200 ms). Spatial principal component analyses revealed that the early part of the traditionally measured MMN (deviant minus standard) is mainly due to the sensorial mechanism while the later mainly due to the cognitive mechanism. Inverse modeling revealed sources for both MMN contributions in the gyrus temporales transversus, bilaterally. These MEG results suggest temporally distinct but spatially overlapping activities of non-comparator-based and comparator-based mechanisms of automatic frequency change detection in auditory cortex.

  9. Inequality across consonantal contrasts in speech perception: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Sonia A; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2013-06-01

    The precise structure of speech sound representations is still a matter of debate. In the present neurobiological study, we compared predictions about differential sensitivity to speech contrasts between models that assume full specification of all phonological information in the mental lexicon with those assuming sparse representations (only contrastive or otherwise not predictable information is stored). In a passive oddball paradigm, we studied the contrast sensitivity as reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) response to changes in the manner of articulation, as well as place of articulation of consonants in intervocalic positions of nonwords (manner of articulation: [edi ~ eni], [ezi ~ eni]; place of articulation: [edi ~ egi]). Models that assume full specification of all phonological information in the mental lexicon posit equal MMNs within each contrast (symmetric MMNs), that is, changes from standard [edi] to deviant [eni] elicit a similar MMN response as changes from standard [eni] to deviant [edi]. In contrast, models that assume sparse representations predict that only the [ezi] ~ [eni] reversals will evoke symmetric MMNs because of their conflicting fully specified manner features. Asymmetric MMNs are predicted, however, for the reversals of [edi] ~ [eni] and [edi] ~ [egi] because either a manner or place property in each pair is not fully specified in the mental lexicon. Our results show a pattern of symmetric and asymmetric MMNs that is in line with predictions of the featurally underspecified lexicon model that assumes sparse phonological representations. We conclude that the brain refers to underspecified phonological representations during speech perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. First-impression bias effects on mismatch negativity to auditory spatial deviants.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kaitlin; Provost, Alexander; Todd, Juanita

    2018-04-01

    Internal models of regularities in the world serve to facilitate perception as redundant input can be predicted and neural resources conserved for that which is new or unexpected. In the auditory system, this is reflected in an evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is elicited by the violation of an established regularity to signal the inaccuracy of the current model and direct resources to the unexpected event. Prevailing accounts suggest that MMN amplitude will increase with stability in regularity; however, observations of first-impression bias contradict stability effects. If tones rotate probabilities as a rare deviant (p = .125) and common standard (p = .875), MMN elicited to the initial deviant tone reaches maximal amplitude faster than MMN to the first standard when later encountered as deviant-a differential pattern that persists throughout rotations. Sensory inference is therefore biased by longer-term contextual information beyond local probability statistics. Using the same multicontext sequence structure, we examined whether this bias generalizes to MMN elicited by spatial sound cues using monaural sounds (n = 19, right first deviant and n = 22, left first deviant) and binaural sounds (n = 19, right first deviant). The characteristic differential modulation of MMN to the two tones was observed in two of three groups, providing partial support for the generalization of first-impression bias to spatially deviant sounds. We discuss possible explanations for its absence when the initial deviant was delivered monaurally to the right ear. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Mismatch negativity (MMN) reveals inefficient auditory ventral stream function in chronic auditory comprehension impairments.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Cloutman, Lauren; Keidel, James L; Sage, Karen; Drakesmith, Mark; Welbourne, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Auditory discrimination is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and thought to be causatively related to the language comprehension impairment which characterises the condition. This study used mismatch negativity (MMN) to investigate the neural responses corresponding to successful and impaired auditory discrimination in WA. Behavioural auditory discrimination thresholds of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables and pure tones (PTs) were measured in WA (n = 7) and control (n = 7) participants. Threshold results were used to develop multiple deviant MMN oddball paradigms containing deviants which were either perceptibly or non-perceptibly different from the standard stimuli. MMN analysis investigated differences associated with group, condition and perceptibility as well as the relationship between MMN responses and comprehension (within which behavioural auditory discrimination profiles were examined). MMN waveforms were observable to both perceptible and non-perceptible auditory changes. Perceptibility was only distinguished by MMN amplitude in the PT condition. The WA group could be distinguished from controls by an increase in MMN response latency to CVC stimuli change. Correlation analyses displayed a relationship between behavioural CVC discrimination and MMN amplitude in the control group, where greater amplitude corresponded to better discrimination. The WA group displayed the inverse effect; both discrimination accuracy and auditory comprehension scores were reduced with increased MMN amplitude. In the WA group, a further correlation was observed between the lateralisation of MMN response and CVC discrimination accuracy; the greater the bilateral involvement the better the discrimination accuracy. The results from this study provide further evidence for the nature of auditory comprehension impairment in WA and indicate that the auditory discrimination deficit is grounded in a reduced ability to engage in efficient hierarchical

  12. Mismatch Negativity Encoding of Prediction Errors Predicts S-ketamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Kometer, Michael; Csomor, Philipp A; Stephan, Klaas E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT2AR, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled design, S-ketamine and psilocybin, respectively, were administrated to two groups of healthy subjects. Psychological alterations were assessed using a revised version of the Altered States of Consciousness (ASC-R) questionnaire. As an index of PE, we computed changes in MMN amplitudes as a function of the number of preceding standards (MMN memory trace effect) during a roving paradigm. S-ketamine, but not psilocybin, disrupted PE processing as expressed by a frontally disrupted MMN memory trace effect. Although both drugs produced positive-like symptoms, the extent of PE processing under placebo only correlated significantly with the severity of cognitive impairments induced by S-ketamine. Our results suggest that the NMDAR, but not the 5-HT2AR system, is implicated in PE processing during the MMN paradigm, and that aberrant PE signaling may contribute to the formation of cognitive impairments. The assessment of the MMN memory trace in schizophrenia may allow detecting early phases of the illness and might also serve to assess the efficacy of novel pharmacological treatments, in particular of cognitive impairments. PMID:22030715

  13. Memantine Effects On Sensorimotor Gating and Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Chronic Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Bhakta, Savita; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Talledo, Jo A; Balvaneda, Bryan; Light, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic psychotic disorders (CPD) exhibit deficient sensorimotor gating (measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle) and mismatch negativity (MMN). In healthy subjects (HS), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists like memantine and ketamine increase PPI, and under some conditions, memantine enhances MMN; these findings present a challenge to understanding the basis for deficient PPI and MMN in psychotic disorders, as reduced NMDA activity is implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Here we assessed for the first time the effects of memantine on PPI and MMN in CPD subjects. Baseline PPI was measured in HS and patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, depressed type. Subjects (total n=84) were then tested twice, in a double-blind crossover design, comparing either: (1) placebo vs 10 mg of memantine or (2) placebo vs 20 mg memantine. Tests included measures of acoustic startle magnitude and habituation, PPI, MMN, autonomic indices, and subjective self-rating scales. Memantine (20 mg) significantly enhanced PPI in CPD subjects, and enhanced MMN across subject groups. These effects on PPI were age dependent and most evident in older CPD patients, whereas those on MMN were most evident in younger subjects. The lower dose (10 mg) either had no detectable effect or tended to degrade these measures. The NMDA antagonist, memantine, has dose-dependent effects on preconscious, automatic measures of sensorimotor gating and auditory sensory processing that are associated with enhanced cognition and function in CPD patients. Ongoing studies will determine whether these memantine-induced changes predict acute pro-cognitive or otherwise clinically beneficial effects in CPD patients. PMID:26062785

  14. Memantine Effects On Sensorimotor Gating and Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Chronic Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Bhakta, Savita; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Talledo, Jo A; Balvaneda, Bryan; Light, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic psychotic disorders (CPD) exhibit deficient sensorimotor gating (measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle) and mismatch negativity (MMN). In healthy subjects (HS), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists like memantine and ketamine increase PPI, and under some conditions, memantine enhances MMN; these findings present a challenge to understanding the basis for deficient PPI and MMN in psychotic disorders, as reduced NMDA activity is implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Here we assessed for the first time the effects of memantine on PPI and MMN in CPD subjects. Baseline PPI was measured in HS and patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, depressed type. Subjects (total n=84) were then tested twice, in a double-blind crossover design, comparing either: (1) placebo vs 10 mg of memantine or (2) placebo vs 20 mg memantine. Tests included measures of acoustic startle magnitude and habituation, PPI, MMN, autonomic indices, and subjective self-rating scales. Memantine (20 mg) significantly enhanced PPI in CPD subjects, and enhanced MMN across subject groups. These effects on PPI were age dependent and most evident in older CPD patients, whereas those on MMN were most evident in younger subjects. The lower dose (10 mg) either had no detectable effect or tended to degrade these measures. The NMDA antagonist, memantine, has dose-dependent effects on preconscious, automatic measures of sensorimotor gating and auditory sensory processing that are associated with enhanced cognition and function in CPD patients. Ongoing studies will determine whether these memantine-induced changes predict acute pro-cognitive or otherwise clinically beneficial effects in CPD patients.

  15. Atypical mismatch negativity to distressful voices associated with conduct disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, An-Yi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Cheng, Yawei

    2013-09-01

    Although a general consensus holds that emotional reactivity in youth with conduct disorder (CD) symptoms arises as one of the main causes of successive aggression, it remains to be determined whether automatic emotional processing is altered in this population. We measured auditory event-related potentials (ERP) in 20 young offenders and 20 controls, screened for DSM-IV criteria of CD and evaluated using the youth version of Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:YV), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In an oddball design, sadly or fearfully spoken 'deviant' syllables were randomly presented within a train of emotionally neutral 'standard' syllables. In young offenders meeting with CD criteria, the ERP component mismatch negativity (MMN), presumed to reflect preattentive auditory change detection, was significantly stronger for fearful than sad syllables. No MMN differences for fearful versus sad syllables were observed in controls. Analyses of nonvocal deviants, matched spectrally with the fearful and sad sounds, supported our interpretation that the MMN abnormalities in juvenile offenders were related to the emotional content of sounds, instead of purely acoustic factors. Further, in the young offenders with CD symptoms, strong MMN amplitudes to fearful syllables were associated with high impulsive tendencies (PCL:YV, Factor 2). Higher trait and state anxiety, assessed by STAI, were positively correlated with P3a amplitudes to fearful and sad syllables, respectively. The differences in group-interaction MMN/P3a patterns to emotional syllables and nonvocal sounds could be speculated to suggest that there is a distinct processing route for preattentive processing of species-specific emotional information in human auditory cortices. Our results suggest that youths with CD symptoms may process distressful voices in an atypical fashion already at the preattentive level. This auditory processing abnormality correlated with

  16. Representation and Processing of Lexical Tone and Tonal Variants: Evidence from the Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yiya

    2015-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is ubiquitous in the speech signal. Different models of lexical representation have been put forward to deal with speech variability, which differ in the level as well as the nature of mental representation. We present the first mismatch negativity (MMN) study investigating the effect of allophonic variation on the mental representation and neural processing of lexical tones. Native speakers of Standard Chinese (SC) participated in an oddball electroencephalography (EEG) experiment. All stimuli have the same segments (ma) but different lexical tones: level [T1], rising [T2], and dipping [T3]. In connected speech with a T3T3 sequence, the first T3 may undergo allophonic change and is produced with a rising pitch contour (T3V), similar to the lexical T2 pitch contour. Four oddball conditions were constructed (T1/T3, T3/T1, T2/T3, T3/T2; standard/deviant). All four conditions elicited MMN effects, with the T1–T3 pair eliciting comparable MMNs, but the T2–T3 pair asymmetrical MMN effects. There were significantly greater and earlier MMN effects in the T2/T3 condition than that in the reversed T3/T2 condition. Furthermore, the T3/T2 condition showed more rightward MMN effects than the T2/T3 condition and the T1–T3 pair. Such asymmetries suggest co-activation of long-term memory representations of both T3 and T3V when T3 serves as the standard. The acoustic similarity between the activated T3V (by the standard T3) and the incoming deviant stimulus T2 induces acoustic processing of the tonal contrast in the T3/T2 condition, similar to that of within-category lexical tone processing, which is in contrast to the processing of between-category lexical tones observed in the T2/T3, T1/T3, and T3/T1 conditions. PMID:26625000

  17. Memory traces for spoken words in the brain as revealed by the hemodynamic correlate of the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury; Osswald, Katja; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-01-01

    The mismatch negativity response, considered a brain correlate of automatic preattentive auditory processing, is enhanced for word stimuli as compared with acoustically matched pseudowords. This lexical enhancement, taken as a signature of activation of language-specific long-term memory traces, was investigated here using functional magnetic resonance imaging to complement the previous electrophysiological studies. In passive oddball paradigm, word stimuli were randomly presented as rare deviants among frequent pseudowords; the reverse conditions employed infrequent pseudowords among word stimuli. Random-effect analysis indicated clearly distinct patterns for the different lexical types. Whereas the hemodynamic mismatch response was significant for the word deviants, it did not reach significance for the pseudoword conditions. This difference, more pronounced in the left than right hemisphere, was also assessed by analyzing average parameter estimates in regions of interests within both temporal lobes. A significant hemisphere-by-lexicality interaction confirmed stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent mismatch responses to words than pseudowords in the left but not in the right superior temporal cortex. The increased left superior temporal activation and the laterality of cortical sources elicited by spoken words compared with pseudowords may indicate the activation of cortical circuits for lexical material even in passive oddball conditions and suggest involvement of the left superior temporal areas in housing such word-processing neuronal circuits.

  18. Automatic auditory processing deficits in schizophrenia and clinical high-risk patients: forecasting psychosis risk with mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Veronica B; Woods, Scott W; Roach, Brian J; Ford, Judith M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Srihari, Vinod H; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2014-03-15

    Only about one third of patients at high risk for psychosis based on current clinical criteria convert to a psychotic disorder within a 2.5-year follow-up period. Targeting clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals for preventive interventions could expose many to unnecessary treatments, underscoring the need to enhance predictive accuracy with nonclinical measures. Candidate measures include event-related potential components with established sensitivity to schizophrenia. Here, we examined the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential elicited automatically by auditory deviance in CHR and early illness schizophrenia (ESZ) patients. We also examined whether MMN predicted subsequent conversion to psychosis in CHR patients. Mismatch negativity to auditory deviants (duration, frequency, and duration + frequency double deviant) was assessed in 44 healthy control subjects, 19 ESZ, and 38 CHR patients. Within CHR patients, 15 converters to psychosis were compared with 16 nonconverters with at least 12 months of clinical follow-up. Hierarchical Cox regression examined the ability of MMN to predict time to psychosis onset in CHR patients. Irrespective of deviant type, MMN was significantly reduced in ESZ and CHR patients relative to healthy control subjects and in CHR converters relative to nonconverters. Mismatch negativity did not significantly differentiate ESZ and CHR patients. The duration + frequency double deviant MMN, but not the single deviant MMNs, significantly predicted the time to psychosis onset in CHR patients. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying automatic processing of auditory deviance, as reflected by the duration + frequency double deviant MMN, are compromised before psychosis onset and can enhance the prediction of psychosis risk among CHR patients. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atypical pattern of discriminating sound features in adults with Asperger syndrome as reflected by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T; Aho, E; Lepistö, T; Jansson-Verkasalo, E; Nieminen-von Wendt, T; von Wendt, L; Näätänen, R

    2007-04-01

    Asperger syndrome, which belongs to the autistic spectrum of disorders, is characterized by deficits of social interaction and abnormal perception, like hypo- or hypersensitivity in reacting to sounds and discriminating certain sound features. We determined auditory feature discrimination in adults with Asperger syndrome with the mismatch negativity (MMN), a neural response which is an index of cortical change detection. We recorded MMN for five different sound features (duration, frequency, intensity, location, and gap). Our results suggest hypersensitive auditory change detection in Asperger syndrome, as reflected in the enhanced MMN for deviant sounds with a gap or shorter duration, and speeded MMN elicitation for frequency changes.

  20. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans - a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Schröger, E; Saher, M; Näätänen, R

    2000-08-18

    The pitch of a spectrally rich sound is known to be more easily perceived than that of a sinusoidal tone. The present study compared the importance of spectral complexity and sound duration in facilitated pitch discrimination. The mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflects automatic neural discrimination, was recorded to a 2. 5% pitch change in pure tones with only one sinusoidal frequency component (500 Hz) and in spectrally rich tones with three (500-1500 Hz) and five (500-2500 Hz) harmonic partials. During the recordings, subjects concentrated on watching a silent movie. In separate blocks, stimuli were of 100 and 250 ms in duration. The MMN amplitude was enhanced with both spectrally rich sounds when compared with pure tones. The prolonged sound duration did not significantly enhance the MMN. This suggests that increased spectral rather than temporal information facilitates pitch processing of spectrally rich sounds.

  1. Independent processing of changes in auditory single features and feature conjunctions in humans as indexed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Takegata, R; Paavilainen, P; Näätänen, R; Winkler, I

    1999-05-07

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential component of the EEG, is elicited by violations of auditory regularities In the present study, the stimulus blocks contained two types of standard tones, differing from each other in frequency and intensity. MMNs were recorded to three different types of deviant stimuli: (a) feature deviants, differing from standards in their perceived locus of origin; (b) conjunction deviants, having the frequency of one of the standards and the intensity of the other; (c) double deviants, differing from standards in both (a) and (b). The MMN to double deviants was similar to the sum of the MMNs to feature and conjunction deviants. This result indicates that changes in simple stimulus features and conjunction of features are processed independently by the automatic sound change detection system indexed by MMN.

  2. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  3. Atypical central auditory speech-sound discrimination in children who stutter as indexed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Eggers, Kurt; Järvenpää, Anu; Suominen, Kalervo; Van den Bergh, Bea; De Nil, Luc; Kujala, Teija

    2014-09-01

    Recent theoretical conceptualizations suggest that disfluencies in stuttering may arise from several factors, one of them being atypical auditory processing. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether speech sound encoding and central auditory discrimination, are affected in children who stutter (CWS). Participants were 10 CWS, and 12 typically developing children with fluent speech (TDC). Event-related potentials (ERPs) for syllables and syllable changes [consonant, vowel, vowel-duration, frequency (F0), and intensity changes], critical in speech perception and language development of CWS were compared to those of TDC. There were no significant group differences in the amplitudes or latencies of the P1 or N2 responses elicited by the standard stimuli. However, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) amplitude was significantly smaller in CWS than in TDC. For TDC all deviants of the linguistic multifeature paradigm elicited significant MMN amplitudes, comparable with the results found earlier with the same paradigm in 6-year-old children. In contrast, only the duration change elicited a significant MMN in CWS. The results showed that central auditory speech-sound processing was typical at the level of sound encoding in CWS. In contrast, central speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the MMN for multiple sound features (both phonetic and prosodic), was atypical in the group of CWS. Findings were linked to existing conceptualizations on stuttering etiology. The reader will be able (a) to describe recent findings on central auditory speech-sound processing in individuals who stutter, (b) to describe the measurement of auditory reception and central auditory speech-sound discrimination, (c) to describe the findings of central auditory speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), in children who stutter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mismatch negativity evoked by the McGurk-MacDonald effect: a phonetic representation within short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Colin, C; Radeau, M; Soquet, A; Demolin, D; Colin, F; Deltenre, P

    2002-04-01

    The McGurk-MacDonald illusory percept is obtained by dubbing an incongruent articulatory movement on an auditory phoneme. This type of audiovisual speech perception contributes to the assessment of theories of speech perception. The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects the detection of a deviant stimulus within the auditory short-term memory and besides an acoustic component, possesses, under certain conditions, a phonetic one. The present study assessed the existence of an MMN evoked by McGurk-MacDonald percepts elicited by audiovisual stimuli with constant auditory components. Cortical evoked potentials were recorded using the oddball paradigm on 8 adults in 3 experimental conditions: auditory alone, visual alone and audiovisual stimulation. Obtaining illusory percepts was confirmed in an additional psychophysical condition. The auditory deviant syllables and the audiovisual incongruent syllables elicited a significant MMN at Fz. In the visual condition, no negativity was observed either at Fz, or at O(z). An MMN can be evoked by visual articulatory deviants, provided they are presented in a suitable auditory context leading to a phonetically significant interaction. The recording of an MMN elicited by illusory McGurk percepts suggests that audiovisual integration mechanisms in speech take place rather early during the perceptual processes.

  5. Aberrant temporal behavior of mismatch negativity generators in schizophrenia patients and subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minah; Cho, Kang Ik Kevin; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2017-02-01

    Although disconnection syndrome has been considered a core pathophysiologic mechanism of schizophrenia, little is known about the temporal behavior of mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in individuals with schizophrenia or clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. MMN was assessed in 29 schizophrenia patients, 40 CHR subjects, and 47 healthy controls (HCs). Individual realistic head models and the minimum L2 norm algorithm were used to generate a current source density (CSD) model of MMN. The strength and time course of MMN CSD activity were calculated separately for the frontal and temporal cortices and were compared across brain regions and groups. Schizophrenia patients and CHR subjects displayed lower MMN CSD strength than HCs in both the temporal and frontal cortices. We found a significant time delay in MMN generator activity in the frontal cortex relative to that in the temporal cortex in HCs. However, the sequential temporo-frontal activities of MMN generators were disrupted in both the schizophrenia and CHR groups. Impairments and altered temporal behavior of MMN multiple generators were observed even in individuals at risk for psychosis. These findings suggest that aberrant MMN generator activity might be helpful in revealing the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The mismatch negativity as a measure of auditory stream segregation in a simulated "cocktail-party" scenario: effect of age.

    PubMed

    Getzmann, Stephan; Näätänen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    With age the ability to understand speech in multitalker environments usually deteriorates. The central auditory system has to perceptually segregate and group the acoustic input into sequences of distinct auditory objects. The present study used electrophysiological measures to study effects of age on auditory stream segregation in a multitalker scenario. Younger and older adults were presented with streams of short speech stimuli. When a single target stream was presented, the occurrence of a rare (deviant) syllable among a frequent (standard) syllable elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological correlate of automatic deviance detection. The presence of a second, concurrent stream consisting of the deviant syllable of the target stream reduced the MMN amplitude, especially when located nearby the target stream. The decrease in MMN amplitude indicates that the rare syllable of the target stream was less perceived as deviant, suggesting reduced stream segregation with decreasing stream distance. Moreover, the presence of a concurrent stream increased the MMN peak latency of the older group but not that of the younger group. The results provide neurophysiological evidence for the effects of concurrent speech on auditory processing in older adults, suggesting that older adults need more time for stream segregation in the presence of concurrent speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase A inhibition and nicotine on the mismatch negativity event related potential.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2015-10-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been extensively studied as a potential biomarker for abnormal auditory processing in schizophrenia (SZ), a population which exhibits abnormally high smoking rates. The relationship between nicotinic activation and cognition in SZ may be related to underlying nicotinic and NMDA receptor dysfunction within the disease. However, transient cognitive improvements via smoking in patients may also result from monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, achieved through tobacco smoke. In 24 healthy non-smoking males, we investigated the separate and combined effects of nicotine and MAO-A inhibition via moclobemide (75mg) on the optimal-5 variation of the MMN paradigm. No significant drug effects were observed in our total sample, however, stratification of individuals into low (N=12) and high (N=12) baseline MMN amplitude groups revealed increases in duration MMN amplitude relative to placebo by nicotine, as well as moclobemide, but not after the combination of the two. Because previous research has shown there was no effect of monoamine modulation on MMN, this study shows an unexpected effect of moclobemide on duration MMN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-level neural auditory discrimination dysfunctions in specific language impairment-A review on mismatch negativity findings.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Miika

    2017-12-01

    In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child's oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI. Furthermore, they suggest shortened sensory memory duration and vulnerability of the sensory memory to masking effects. Importantly, some studies reported associations between MMN parameters and language test measures. In addition, it was found that language intervention can influence the abnormal MMN in children with SLI, enhancing its amplitude. These results suggest that the MMN can shed light on the neural basis of various auditory and memory impairments in SLI, which are likely to influence speech perception. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Multisensory integration of speech sounds with letters vs. visual speech: only visual speech induces the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioural and neural levels. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech. To examine at which level in the information processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions occur, we recorded electroencephalography in an audiovisual mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of the event-related potential reflecting preattentive auditory change detection) paradigm in which deviant text or visual speech was used to induce an illusory change in a sequence of ambiguous sounds halfway between /aba/ and /ada/. We found that only deviant visual speech induced an MMN, but not deviant text, which induced a late P3-like positive potential. These results demonstrate that text has much weaker effects on sound processing than visual speech does, possibly because text has different biological roots than visual speech. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Speech-feature discrimination in children with Asperger syndrome as determined with the multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T; Kuuluvainen, S; Saalasti, S; Jansson-Verkasalo, E; von Wendt, L; Lepistö, T

    2010-09-01

    Asperger syndrome, belonging to the autistic spectrum of disorders, involves deficits in social interaction and prosodic use of language but normal development of formal language abilities. Auditory processing involves both hyper- and hypoactive reactivity to acoustic changes. Responses composed of mismatch negativity (MMN) and obligatory components were recorded for five types of deviations in syllables (vowel, vowel duration, consonant, syllable frequency, syllable intensity) with the multi-feature paradigm from 8-12-year old children with Asperger syndrome. Children with Asperger syndrome had larger MMNs for intensity and smaller MMNs for frequency changes than typically developing children, whereas no MMN group differences were found for the other deviant stimuli. Furthermore, children with Asperger syndrome performed more poorly than controls in Comprehension of Instructions subtest of a language test battery. Cortical speech-sound discrimination is aberrant in children with Asperger syndrome. This is evident both as hypersensitive and depressed neural reactions to speech-sound changes, and is associated with features (frequency, intensity) which are relevant for prosodic processing. The multi-feature MMN paradigm, which includes variation and thereby resembles natural speech hearing circumstances, suggests abnormal pattern of speech discrimination in Asperger syndrome, including both hypo- and hypersensitive responses for speech features. 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  12. Successful measurement of the mismatch negativity despite a concurrent movie soundtrack: reduced amplitude but normal component morphology.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Patricia; Jolicœur, Pierre; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    To examine the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of the mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component observed in response to pitch changes when the soundtrack of a movie is presented while recording the MMN. In three experiments we measured the MMN to tones that differed in pitch from a repeated standard tone presented with a silent subtitled movie, with the soundtrack played forward or backward, or with soundtracks set at different intensity levels. MMN amplitude was reduced when the soundtrack was presented either forward or backward compared to the silent subtitled movie. With the soundtrack, MMN amplitude increased proportionally to the increments in the sound-to-noise intensity ratio. MMN was reduced in amplitude but had normal morphology with a concurrent soundtrack, most likely because of basic acoustical interference from the soundtrack with MMN-critical tones rather than from attentional effects. A normal MMN can be recorded with a concurrent movie soundtrack, but signal amplitudes need to be set with caution to ensure a sufficiently high sound-to-noise ratio between MMN stimuli and the soundtrack. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical Learning, Syllable Processing, and Speech Production in Healthy Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children: A Mismatch Negativity Study.

    PubMed

    Studer-Eichenberger, Esther; Studer-Eichenberger, Felix; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate temporal/spectral sound-feature processing in preschool children (4 to 7 years old) with peripheral hearing loss compared with age-matched controls. The results verified the presence of statistical learning, which was diminished in children with hearing impairments (HIs), and elucidated possible perceptual mediators of speech production. Perception and production of the syllables /ba/, /da/, /ta/, and /na/ were recorded in 13 children with normal hearing and 13 children with HI. Perception was assessed physiologically through event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded by EEG in a multifeature mismatch negativity paradigm and behaviorally through a discrimination task. Temporal and spectral features of the ERPs during speech perception were analyzed, and speech production was quantitatively evaluated using speech motor maximum performance tasks. Proximal to stimulus onset, children with HI displayed a difference in map topography, indicating diminished statistical learning. In later ERP components, children with HI exhibited reduced amplitudes in the N2 and early parts of the late disciminative negativity components specifically, which are associated with temporal and spectral control mechanisms. Abnormalities of speech perception were only subtly reflected in speech production, as the lone difference found in speech production studies was a mild delay in regulating speech intensity. In addition to previously reported deficits of sound-feature discriminations, the present study results reflect diminished statistical learning in children with HI, which plays an early and important, but so far neglected, role in phonological processing. Furthermore, the lack of corresponding behavioral abnormalities in speech production implies that impaired perceptual capacities do not necessarily translate into productive deficits.

  14. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  16. Statistical parametric mapping of LORETA using high density EEG and individual MRI: application to mismatch negativities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kwon, Jun Soo; Youn, Tak; Pae, Ji Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ha, Kyoo-Seob

    2002-11-01

    We describe a method for the statistical parametric mapping of low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and individual magnetic resonance images (MRI) to investigate the characteristics of the mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in schizophrenia. LORETA, using a realistic head model of the boundary element method derived from the individual anatomy, estimated the current density maps from the scalp topography of the 128-channel EEG. From the current density maps that covered the whole cortical gray matter (up to 20,000 points), volumetric current density images were reconstructed. Intensity normalization of the smoothed current density images was used to reduce the confounding effect of subject specific global activity. After transforming each image into a standard stereotaxic space, we carried out statistical parametric mapping of the normalized current density images. We applied this method to the source localization of MMN in schizophrenia. The MMN generators, produced by a deviant tone of 1,200 Hz (5% of 1,600 trials) under the standard tone of 1,000 Hz, 80 dB binaural stimuli with 300 msec of inter-stimulus interval, were measured in 14 right-handed schizophrenic subjects and 14 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched controls. We found that the schizophrenic group exhibited significant current density reductions of MMN in the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior parietal gyrus (P < 0. 0005). This study is the first voxel-by-voxel statistical mapping of current density using individual MRI and high-density EEG. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Trait aspects of auditory mismatch negativity predict response to auditory training in individuals with early illness schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Biagianti, Bruno; Roach, Brian J; Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Ford, Judith M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait-like MMN data were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. MMN data collected with the same paradigm from a sample of Healthy Controls (HC; n = 105) were compared to baseline MMN data from the ESZ group. Compared to HC, ESZ individuals showed significant MMN reductions at baseline ( p = .003). Reduced Double-Deviant MMN was associated with greater general cognitive impairment in ESZ individuals ( p = .020). Neither ESZ intervention group showed significant change in MMN. We found high correlations in all MMN deviant types (rs = .59-.68, all ps < .001) between baseline and post-intervention amplitudes irrespective of treatment group, suggesting trait-like stability of the MMN signal. Greater deficits in trait-like Double-Deviant MMN predicted greater cognitive improvements in the AT group ( p = .02), but not in the CG group. In this sample of ESZ individuals, AT had no effect on auditory deviance processing as assessed by MMN. In ESZ individuals, baseline MMN

  18. Trait aspects of auditory mismatch negativity predict response to auditory training in individuals with early illness schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Biagianti, Bruno; Roach, Brian J.; Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Ford, Judith M.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Methods Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait-like MMN data were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. MMN data collected with the same paradigm from a sample of Healthy Controls (HC; n = 105) were compared to baseline MMN data from the ESZ group. Results Compared to HC, ESZ individuals showed significant MMN reductions at baseline (p = .003). Reduced Double-Deviant MMN was associated with greater general cognitive impairment in ESZ individuals (p = .020). Neither ESZ intervention group showed significant change in MMN. We found high correlations in all MMN deviant types (rs = .59–.68, all ps < .001) between baseline and post-intervention amplitudes irrespective of treatment group, suggesting trait-like stability of the MMN signal. Greater deficits in trait-like Double-Deviant MMN predicted greater cognitive improvements in the AT group (p = .02), but not in the CG group. Conclusions In this sample of ESZ individuals, AT had no effect on auditory deviance processing as assessed by

  19. Immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention: a mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, Y; Ren, G

    2009-06-16

    Language is often perceived together with visual information. Recent experimental evidences indicated that, during spoken language comprehension, the brain can immediately integrate visual information with semantic or syntactic information from speech. Here we used the mismatch negativity to further investigate whether prosodic information from speech could be immediately integrated into a visual scene context or not, and especially the time course and automaticity of this integration process. Sixteen Chinese native speakers participated in the study. The materials included Chinese spoken sentences and picture pairs. In the audiovisual situation, relative to the concomitant pictures, the spoken sentence was appropriately accented in the standard stimuli, but inappropriately accented in the two kinds of deviant stimuli. In the purely auditory situation, the speech sentences were presented without pictures. It was found that the deviants evoked mismatch responses in both audiovisual and purely auditory situations; the mismatch negativity in the purely auditory situation peaked at the same time as, but was weaker than that evoked by the same deviant speech sounds in the audiovisual situation. This pattern of results suggested immediate integration of prosodic information from speech and visual information from pictures in the absence of focused attention.

  20. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible

    PubMed Central

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated. PMID:26783525

  1. The Context Matters: Outcome Probability and Expectation Mismatch Modulate the Feedback Negativity When Self-Evaluation of Response Correctness Is Possible.

    PubMed

    Leue, Anja; Cano Rodilla, Carmen; Beauducel, André

    2015-01-01

    Individuals typically evaluate whether their performance and the obtained feedback match. Previous research has shown that feedback negativity (FN) depends on outcome probability and feedback valence. It is, however, less clear to what extent previous effects of outcome probability on FN depend on self-evaluations of response correctness. Therefore, we investigated the effects of outcome probability on FN amplitude in a simple go/no-go task that allowed for the self-evaluation of response correctness. We also investigated effects of performance incompatibility and feedback valence. In a sample of N = 22 participants, outcome probability was manipulated by means of precues, feedback valence by means of monetary feedback, and performance incompatibility by means of feedback that induced a match versus mismatch with individuals' performance. We found that the 100% outcome probability condition induced a more negative FN following no-loss than the 50% outcome probability condition. The FN following loss was more negative in the 50% compared to the 100% outcome probability condition. Performance-incompatible loss resulted in a more negative FN than performance-compatible loss. Our results indicate that the self-evaluation of the correctness of responses should be taken into account when the effects of outcome probability and expectation mismatch on FN are investigated.

  2. Abstract recall of a happy memory to repair sad mood in dysphoria: A possible link to negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Kate; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to repair sad mood through the deliberate recall of happy memories has been found to be impaired in dysphoric individuals. Rumination, or adopting an abstract processing mode, has been proposed as a possible mechanism underpinning this effect. In low and high dysphoric participants, we examined the relative consequences of adopting an abstract or concrete processing mode during happy memory recall or engaging in distraction for (1) mood repair and (2) cognitive content. Recalling a happy memory in either an abstract or concrete way resulted in greater happiness than distraction. Engaging in abstract recall of a happy memory resulted in high dysphoric participants generating negative evaluations and negative generalisations. These findings raise the interesting possibility that abstract processing of positive memories has the potential to generate negative cognition.

  3. [Experience of mismatched blood transfusion for an rh negative patient and reconsideration of emergency blood transfusion manual in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Aya; Hoshi, Takuo; Nishikawa, Masashi; Aya, Daisuke; Ueda, Hiroshi; Yokouchi, Takako; Tanaka, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    We report a B Rh negative patient undergoing total pelvic exenteration, who received both ABO and Rh incompatible packed red blood cells in an emergency situation. After this experience, we revised the manual of emergency blood transfusion. We defined level of severity to share information with surgeon, nurses, anesthesiologists and the member of the blood center. We changed anesthesia information management system for showing blood type including Duffy blood group system and checking out whether we can transfuse Rh positive blood to Rh negative patient in an emergency situation at the timeout of surgery.

  4. An Asymmetry in the Automatic Detection of the Presence or Absence of a Frequency Modulation within a Tone: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Jana; Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Schröger, Erich

    2011-01-01

    The infrequent occurrence of a transient feature (deviance; e.g., frequency modulation, FM) in one of the regular occurring sinusoidal tones (standards) elicits the deviance related mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential. Based on a memory-based comparison, MMN reflects the mismatch between the representations of incoming and standard sounds. The present study investigated to what extent the infrequent exclusion of an FM is detected by the MMN system. For that purpose we measured MMN to deviances that either consisted of the exclusion or inclusion of an FM at an early or late position within the sound that was present or absent, respectively, in the standard. According to the information-content hypothesis, deviance detection relies on the difference in informational content of the deviant relative to that of the standard. As this difference between deviants with FM and standards without FM is the same as in the reversed case, comparable MMNs should be elicited to FM inclusions and exclusions. According to the feature-detector hypothesis, however, the deviance detection depends on the increased activation of feature detectors to additional sound features. Thus, rare exclusions of the FM should elicit no or smaller MMN than FM inclusions. In passive listening condition, MMN was obtained only for the early inclusion, but not for the exclusions nor for the late inclusion of an FM. This asymmetry in automatic deviance detection seems to partly reflect the contribution of feature detectors even though it cannot fully account for the missing MMN to late FM inclusions. Importantly, the behavioral deviance detection performance in the active listening condition did not reveal such an asymmetry, suggesting that the intentional detection of the deviants is based on the difference in informational content. On a more general level, the results partly support the “fresh-afferent” account or an extended memory-comparison based account of MMN

  5. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  6. Frontal Glutamate and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and Their Associations With Mismatch Negativity and Digit Sequencing Task Performance in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Laura M; Summerfelt, Ann; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Du, Xiaoming; Chiappelli, Joshua J; Krishna, Nithin; West, Jeffrey; Muellerklein, Florian; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-02-01

    Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is a biomarker for schizophrenia thought to reflect glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function and excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmission balance. However, the association of glutamate level with MMN has not been directly examined in patients with schizophrenia, to our knowledge. To investigate the contributions of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to MMN and digit sequencing task (DST) performance, an assessment of verbal working memory, in schizophrenia. Fifty-three control participants from the community and 45 persons with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics completed an electroencephalographic session for MMN, magnetic resonance spectroscopy for glutamate and GABA, and a DST. The study dates were July 2011 to May 2014, and the dates of our analysis were May 2014 to August 2015. Glutamate, GABA, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate, MMN amplitude, and DST. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of neurochemistry and MMN amplitude on DST performance. The 45 persons with schizophrenia were a mean (SD) of 37.7 (12.8) years and the control participants were 37.1 (13.1) years. The schizophrenia group had a mean (SD) of 14.7 (12.1) years of illness. Mismatch negativity amplitude (F = 4.39, P = .04) and glutamate (F = 9.69, P = .002) were reduced in the schizophrenia group. Smaller MMN amplitude was significantly associated with lower GABA level (P = .008), lower glutamate level (P = .05), and higher ratio of glutamine to glutamate (P = .003). Reduced MMN amplitude was linked to poor verbal working memory in schizophrenia (P = .002). Modeling revealed that a proxy of glutamatergic function, indexed by the ratio of glutamine to glutamate, influenced a path from the ratio of glutamine to glutamate to MMN to verbal working memory (P = .38 [root-mean-square error of approximation, P < .001] by χ2 test), supporting the contention that MMN serves as an

  7. Frontal Glutamate and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and Their Associations With Mismatch Negativity and Digit Sequencing Task Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Laura M.; Summerfelt, Ann; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Du, Xiaoming; Chiappelli, Joshua J.; Krishna, Nithin; West, Jeffrey; Muellerklein, Florian; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L. Elliot

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is a biomarker for schizophrenia thought to reflect glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function and excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmission balance. However, the association of glutamate level with MMN has not been directly examined in patients with schizophrenia, to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE To investigate the contributions of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to MMN and digit sequencing task (DST) performance, an assessment of verbal working memory, in schizophrenia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Fifty-three control participants from the community and 45 persons with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics completed an electroencephalographic session for MMN, magnetic resonance spectroscopy for glutamate and GABA, and a DST. The study dates were July 2011 to May 2014, and the dates of our analysis were May 2014 to August 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Glutamate, GABA, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate, MMN amplitude, and DST. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of neurochemistry and MMN amplitude on DST performance. RESULTS The 45 persons with schizophrenia were a mean (SD) of 37.7 (12.8) years and the control participants were 37.1 (13.1) years. The schizophrenia group had a mean (SD) of 14.7 (12.1) years of illness. Mismatch negativity amplitude (F = 4.39, P = .04) and glutamate (F = 9.69, P = .002) were reduced in the schizophrenia group. Smaller MMN amplitude was significantly associated with lower GABA level (P = .008), lower glutamate level (P = .05), and higher ratio of glutamine to glutamate (P = .003). Reduced MMN amplitude was linked to poor verbal working memory in schizophrenia (P = .002). Modeling revealed that a proxy of glutamatergic function, indexed by the ratio of glutamine to glutamate, influenced a path from the ratio of glutamine to glutamate to MMN to verbal working memory (P = .38 [root-mean-square error of approximation, P < .001] by χ2 test

  8. The Feedback-related Negativity Codes Components of Abstract Inference during Reward-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andrea M F; Koch, Stefan P; Schröger, Erich; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear. One seminal theory suggests that the so-called feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP peaking 200-300 msec after a feedback stimulus at frontocentral sites of the scalp, codes RPEs. Hitherto, the FRN has been predominantly related to a so-called "model-free" RPE: The difference between the observed outcome and what had been expected. Here, by means of computational modeling of choice behavior, we show that individuals employ abstract, "double-update" inference on the task structure by concurrently tracking values of chosen stimuli (associated with observed outcomes) and unchosen stimuli (linked to fictive outcomes). In a parametric analysis, model-free RPEs as well as their modification because of abstract inference were regressed against single-trial FRN amplitudes. We demonstrate that components related to abstract inference uniquely explain variance in the FRN beyond model-free RPEs. These findings advance our understanding of the FRN and its role in behavioral adaptation. This might further the investigation of disturbed abstract inference, as proposed, for example, for psychiatric disorders, and its underlying neural correlates.

  9. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-12-14

    To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual words, specificity for selected high impact journals, and comparison between author affiliations within or outside countries with English as the official majority language. Frequency patterns were compared with 4% of all books ever printed and digitised by use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. Frequencies of positive and negative words in abstracts compared with frequencies of words with a neutral and random connotation, expressed as relative change since 1980. The absolute frequency of positive words increased from 2.0% (1974-80) to 17.5% (2014), a relative increase of 880% over four decades. All 25 individual positive words contributed to the increase, particularly the words "robust," "novel," "innovative," and "unprecedented," which increased in relative frequency up to 15,000%. Comparable but less pronounced results were obtained when restricting the analysis to selected journals with high impact factors. Authors affiliated to an institute in a non-English speaking country used significantly more positive words. Negative word frequencies increased from 1.3% (1974-80) to 3.2% (2014), a relative increase of 257%. Over the same time period, no apparent increase was found in neutral or random word use, or in the frequency of positive word use in published books. Our lexicographic analysis indicates that scientific abstracts are currently written with more positive and negative words, and provides an insight into the evolution of scientific writing. Apparently scientists look on the bright side of research

  10. Magnetoencephalographic recording of auditory mismatch negativity in response to duration and frequency deviants in a single session in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Suga, Motomu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Yumoto, Masato; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetoencephalographic (MEG) counterpart (MMNm) are an established biological index in schizophrenia research. MMN in response to duration and frequency deviants may have differential relevance to the pathophysiology and clinical stages of schizophrenia. MEG has advantage in that it almost purely detects MMNm arising from the auditory cortex. However, few previous MEG studies on schizophrenia have simultaneously assessed MMNm in response to duration and frequency deviants or examined the effect of chronicity on the group difference. Forty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 74 matched control subjects participated in the study. Using a whole-head MEG, MMNm in response to duration and frequency deviants of tones was recorded while participants passively listened to an auditory sequence. Compared to healthy subjects, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly reduced powers of MMNm in response to duration deviant in both hemispheres, whereas MMNm in response to frequency deviant did not differ between the two groups. These results did not change according to the chronicity of the illness. These results, obtained by using a sequence-enabling simultaneous assessment of both types of MMNm, suggest that MEG recording of MMN in response to duration deviant may be a more sensitive biological marker of schizophrenia than MMN in response to frequency deviant. Our findings represent an important first step towards establishment of MMN as a biomarker for schizophrenia in real-world clinical psychiatry settings. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Distributed feature binding in the auditory modality: experimental evidence toward reconciliation of opposing views on the basis of mismatch negativity and behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, Boris V; Bryzgalov, Dmitri V; Lazarev, Ivan E; Chernysheva, Elena G

    2016-08-03

    Current understanding of feature binding remains controversial. Studies involving mismatch negativity (MMN) measurement show a low level of binding, whereas behavioral experiments suggest a higher level. We examined the possibility that the two levels of feature binding coexist and may be shown within one experiment. The electroencephalogram was recorded while participants were engaged in an auditory two-alternative choice task, which was a combination of the oddball and the condensation tasks. Two types of deviant target stimuli were used - complex stimuli, which required feature conjunction to be identified, and simple stimuli, which differed from standard stimuli in a single feature. Two behavioral outcomes - correct responses and errors - were analyzed separately. Responses to complex stimuli were slower and less accurate than responses to simple stimuli. MMN was prominent and its amplitude was similar for both simple and complex stimuli, whereas the respective stimuli differed from standards in a single feature or two features respectively. Errors in response only to complex stimuli were associated with decreased MMN amplitude. P300 amplitude was greater for complex stimuli than for simple stimuli. Our data are compatible with the explanation that feature binding in auditory modality depends on two concurrent levels of processing. We speculate that the earlier level related to MMN generation is an essential and critical stage. Yet, a later analysis is also carried out, affecting P300 amplitude and response time. The current findings provide resolution to conflicting views on the nature of feature binding and show that feature binding is a distributed multilevel process.

  12. Selective attention and mismatch negativity in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after 6 months of antipsychotic monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oranje, B; Aggernaes, B; Rasmussen, H; Ebdrup, B H; Glenthøj, B Y

    2017-09-01

    Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A total of 34 first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and an equal number of healthy controls were tested in a selective attention and a typical mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm at baseline and after 6 months. The patients were treated with quetiapine according to their clinical needs during the period between baseline and follow-up, whereas controls received no treatment. Patients showed lower MMN and P200 amplitude than healthy controls in the selective attention paradigm at baseline, while this was not the case for MMN of the typical MMN paradigm. Interestingly, after 6 months treatment, this MMN deficit was only ameliorated in patients treated with above median dosages of quetiapine. Patients had lower P3B amplitude, yet showed similar levels of processing negativity and N100 amplitude compared with healthy controls, both at baseline and follow-up. The results indicate that deficits in MMN, P200 and P3B amplitude are present at early stages of schizophrenia, although depending on the paradigm used. Furthermore, the results indicate that 6 months quetiapine treatment ameliorates MMN but not P3B deficits, and only in those subjects on higher dosages.

  13. Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing-study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bravermanová, Anna; Viktorinová, Michaela; Tylš, Filip; Novák, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Korčák, Jakub; Horáček, Jiří; Balíková, Marie; Griškova-Bulanova, Inga; Danielová, Dominika; Vlček, Přemysl; Mohr, Pavel; Brunovský, Martin; Koudelka, Vlastimil; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors in information processing is less clear. We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT 2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10M/10F) were given 0.26 mg/kg of psilocybin orally in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. ERPs (P300, MMN) were registered during the peak of intoxication. Correlations between measured electrophysiological variables and psilocin serum levels and neuropsychological effects were also analyzed. Psilocybin induced robust psychedelic effects and psychotic-like symptoms, decreased P300 amplitude (p = 0.009) but did not affect the MMN. Psilocybin's disruptive effect on P300 correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic state, which was dependent on the psilocin serum levels. We also observed a decrease in N100 amplitude (p = 0.039) in the P300 paradigm and a negative correlation between P300 and MMN amplitude (p = 0.014). Even though pre-attentive cognition (MMN) was not affected, processing at the early perceptual level (N100) and in higher-order cognition (P300) was significantly disrupted by psilocybin. Our results have implications for the role of 5-HT 2A receptors in altered information processing in psychosis and schizophrenia.

  14. Mice with subtle reduction of NMDA NR1 receptor subunit expression have a selective decrease in mismatch negativity: Implications for schizophrenia prodromal population.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Robert E; Shin, Rick; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Liang, Yuling; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Siegel, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in glutamate function are regarded as an important contributory factor in schizophrenia. However, there is a paucity of animal models characterized by developmental and sustained reductions in glutamate function. Pharmacological models using NMDA antagonists have been widely used but these typically produce only transient changes in behavior and brain function. Likewise, mice with homozygous constitutive reductions in glutamate receptor expression show stable brain and behavioral changes, but many of these phenotypes are more severe than the human disease. The current study examines a variety of schizophrenia-related EEG measures in mice with a heterozygous alteration of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit gene (NR1) that is known to result in reduced NR1 receptor expression in the homozygous mouse (NR1-/-). (NR1+/-) mice showed a 30% reduction in NR1 receptor expression and were reared after weaning in either group or isolated conditions. Outcome measures include the response to paired white noise stimuli, escalating inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) and deviance-related mismatch negativity (MMN). In contrast to what has been reported in (NR1-/-) mice and mice treated with NMDA antagonists, (NR1+/-) mice showed no change on obligatory Event Related Potential (ERP) measures including the murine P50 and N100 equivalents (P20 and N40), or measures of baseline or evoked gamma power. Alternatively, (NR1+/-) mice showed a marked reduction in response to a deviant auditory tone during MMN task. Data suggest that EEG response to deviant, rather than static, stimuli may be more sensitive for detecting subtle changes in glutamate function. Deficits in these heterozygous NR1 knockdown mice are consistent with data demonstrating MMN deficits among family members of schizophrenia patients and among prodromal patients. Therefore, the current study suggests that (NR1+/-) mice may be among the most sensitive models for increased vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright

  15. Validation of Mismatch Negativity and P3a for Use in Multi-Site Studies of Schizophrenia: Characterization of Demographic, Clinical, Cognitive, and Functional Correlates in COGS-2

    PubMed Central

    Light, Gregory A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Thomas, Michael L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Pela, Marlena; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Sharp, Richard F.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Braff, David L.; Turetsky, Bruce I.

    2014-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n=824, SZ n=966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP data was obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d=0.96) and P3a (d=0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies. PMID:25449710

  16. Validation of mismatch negativity and P3a for use in multi-site studies of schizophrenia: characterization of demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates in COGS-2.

    PubMed

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Thomas, Michael L; Calkins, Monica E; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Pela, Marlena; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Sharp, Richard F; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Braff, David L; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n=824, SZ n=966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP recordings were obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d=0.96) and P3a (d=0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the auditory mismatch negativity response and working memory performance in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Impey, Danielle; Baddeley, Ashley; Nelson, Renee; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive impairment has been proposed to be the core feature of schizophrenia (Sz). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which can improve cognitive function in healthy participants and in psychiatric patients with cognitive deficits. tDCS has been shown to improve cognition and hallucination symptoms in Sz, a disorder also associated with marked sensory processing deficits. Recent findings in healthy controls demonstrate that anodal tDCS increases auditory deviance detection, as measured by the brain-based event-related potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), which is a putative biomarker of Sz that has been proposed as a target for treatment of Sz cognition. This pilot study conducted a randomized, double-blind assessment of the effects of pre- and post-tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory discrimination in 12 Sz patients, moderated by auditory hallucination (AH) presence, as well as working memory performance. Assessments were conducted in three sessions involving temporal and frontal lobe anodal stimulation (to transiently excite local brain activity), and one control session involving 'sham' stimulation (meaning with the device turned off, i.e., no stimulation). Results demonstrated a trend for pitch MMN amplitude to increase with anodal temporal tDCS, which was significant in a subgroup of Sz individuals with AHs. Anodal frontal tDCS significantly increased WM performance on the 2-back task, which was found to positively correlate with MMN-tDCS effects. The findings contribute to our understanding of tDCS effects for sensory processing deficits and working memory performance in Sz and may have implications for psychiatric disorders with sensory deficits.

  18. Seeing voices: High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis of the multisensory mismatch negativity evoked during the McGurk illusion.

    PubMed

    Saint-Amour, Dave; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Molholm, Sophie; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J

    2007-02-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial articulatory gestures powerfully affects speech perception, helping us overcome noisy acoustical environments. One particularly dramatic illustration of visual influences on speech perception is the "McGurk illusion", where dubbing an auditory phoneme onto video of an incongruent articulatory movement can often lead to illusory auditory percepts. This illusion is so strong that even in the absence of any real change in auditory stimulation, it activates the automatic auditory change-detection system, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We investigated the putative left hemispheric dominance of McGurk-MMN using high-density ERPs in an oddball paradigm. Topographic mapping of the initial McGurk-MMN response showed a highly lateralized left hemisphere distribution, beginning at 175 ms. Subsequently, scalp activity was also observed over bilateral fronto-central scalp with a maximal amplitude at approximately 290 ms, suggesting later recruitment of right temporal cortices. Strong left hemisphere dominance was again observed during the last phase of the McGurk-MMN waveform (350-400 ms). Source analysis indicated bilateral sources in the temporal lobe just posterior to primary auditory cortex. While a single source in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) accounted for the right hemisphere activity, two separate sources were required, one in the left transverse gyrus and the other in STG, to account for left hemisphere activity. These findings support the notion that visually driven multisensory illusory phonetic percepts produce an auditory-MMN cortical response and that left hemisphere temporal cortex plays a crucial role in this process.

  19. Seeing voices: High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis of the multisensory mismatch negativity evoked during the McGurk illusion

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Amour, Dave; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Molholm, Sophie; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Seeing a speaker’s facial articulatory gestures powerfully affects speech perception, helping us overcome noisy acoustical environments. One particularly dramatic illustration of visual influences on speech perception is the “McGurk illusion”, where dubbing an auditory phoneme onto video of an incongruent articulatory movement can often lead to illusory auditory percepts. This illusion is so strong that even in the absence of any real change in auditory stimulation, it activates the automatic auditory change-detection system, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We investigated the putative left hemispheric dominance of McGurk-MMN using high-density ERPs in an oddball paradigm. Topographic mapping of the initial McGurk-MMN response showed a highly lateralized left hemisphere distribution, beginning at 175 ms. Subsequently, scalp activity was also observed over bilateral fronto-central scalp with a maximal amplitude at ~290 ms, suggesting later recruitment of right temporal cortices. Strong left hemisphere dominance was again observed during the last phase of the McGurk-MMN waveform (350–400 ms). Source analysis indicated bilateral sources in the temporal lobe just posterior to primary auditory cortex. While a single source in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) accounted for the right hemisphere activity, two separate sources were required, one in the left transverse gyrus and the other in STG, to account for left hemisphere activity. These findings support the notion that visually driven multisensory illusory phonetic percepts produce an auditory-MMN cortical response and that left hemisphere temporal cortex plays a crucial role in this process. PMID:16757004

  20. Reduced temporal mismatch negativity in late-life depression: an event-related potential index of cognitive deficit and functional disability?

    PubMed

    Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Ward, Philip B; Diamond, Keri; Paradise, Matthew; Kaur, Manreena; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Hermens, Daniel F

    2012-04-01

    Depression in older people has been consistently linked with a variety of neurobiological brain changes. One measure of preattentive auditory processing, the mismatch negativity (MMN), has not been previously examined in late-life depression. This study examined MMN elicited by duration deviant stimuli in older people with lifetime depression, and explored its relationship with neuropsychological functioning and disability. Twenty-two older health-seeking patients (mean age=65.2 years) with lifetime major depressive disorder and twelve age and sex-matched control participants (mean age=64.6 years) completed detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments and the WHO-DAS as a measure of disability. MMN amplitudes were elicited using a two-tone passive auditory oddball paradigm and measured at frontal (Fz), central (Cz) and temporal (left and right mastoid: M1 and M2, respectively) sites. Patients with depression demonstrated reduced mean MMN amplitude at temporal (M1, t=3.1, p<0.01; M2, t=3.8, p<0.01), but not fronto-central sites. Reduced temporal MMN amplitudes did not relate to depressive symptom severity, but were associated with reduced semantic fluency and greater self-rated functional disability. The contribution of depressive symptom 'state' and medications on MMN need to be considered. Reduced mean amplitudes of mastoid MMN in older patients with lifetime depression may reflect underlying brain changes. This preattentive marker relates to neuropsychological probes of frontotemporal circuits, and importantly, is associated with disability. Longitudinal analysis of MMN in this group will determine its predictive utility as a biomarker for ongoing cognitive decline and illness chronicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Navigating the Functional Landscape of Transcription Factors via Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Analysis of MEDLINE Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sujoy; Yun, Daqing; Madahian, Behrouz; Berry, Michael W.; Deng, Lih-Yuan; Goldowitz, Daniel; Homayouni, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel text-mining approach, using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF), to simultaneously extract and functionally annotate transcriptional modules consisting of sets of genes, transcription factors (TFs), and terms from MEDLINE abstracts. A sparse 3-mode term × gene × TF tensor was constructed that contained weighted frequencies of 106,895 terms in 26,781 abstracts shared among 7,695 genes and 994 TFs. The tensor was decomposed into sub-tensors using non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) across 16 different approximation ranks. Dominant entries of each of 2,861 sub-tensors were extracted to form term–gene–TF annotated transcriptional modules (ATMs). More than 94% of the ATMs were found to be enriched in at least one KEGG pathway or GO category, suggesting that the ATMs are functionally relevant. One advantage of this method is that it can discover potentially new gene–TF associations from the literature. Using a set of microarray and ChIP-Seq datasets as gold standard, we show that the precision of our method for predicting gene–TF associations is significantly higher than chance. In addition, we demonstrate that the terms in each ATM can be used to suggest new GO classifications to genes and TFs. Taken together, our results indicate that NTF is useful for simultaneous extraction and functional annotation of transcriptional regulatory networks from unstructured text, as well as for literature based discovery. A web tool called Transcriptional Regulatory Modules Extracted from Literature (TREMEL), available at http://binf1.memphis.edu/tremel, was built to enable browsing and searching of ATMs. PMID:28894735

  2. Auditory Memory Decay as Reflected by a New Mismatch Negativity Score Is Associated with Episodic Memory in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Küster, Olivia C; Fissler, Patrick; Schlee, Winfried; Kolassa, Stephan; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2018-01-01

    The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) peaking about 100-250 ms after the onset of a deviant tone in a sequence of identical (standard) tones. Depending on the interstimulus interval (ISI) between standard and deviant tones, the MMN is suitable to investigate the pre-attentive auditory discrimination ability (short ISIs, ≤ 2 s) as well as the pre-attentive auditory memory trace (long ISIs, >2 s). However, current results regarding the MMN as an index for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are mixed, especially after short ISIs: while the majority of studies report positive associations between the MMN and cognition, others fail to find such relationships. To elucidate these so far inconsistent results, we investigated the validity of the MMN as an index for cognitive impairment exploring the associations between different MMN indices and cognitive performance, more specifically with episodic memory performance which is among the most affected cognitive domains in the course of Alzheimer's dementia (AD), at baseline and at a 5-year-follow-up. We assessed the amplitude of the MMN for short ISI (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 0.05 s) and for long ISI (3 s) in a neuropsychologically well-characterized cohort of older adults at risk of dementia (subjective memory impairment, amnestic and non-amnestic MCI; n = 57). Furthermore, we created a novel difference score (ΔMMN), defined as the difference between MMNs to short and to long ISI, as a measure to assess the decay of the auditory memory trace, higher values indicating less decay. ΔMMN and MMN amplitude after long ISI, but not the MMN amplitude after short ISI, was associated with episodic memory at baseline ( β = 0.38, p = 0.003; β = -0.27, p = 0.047, respectively). ΔMMN, but not the MMN for long ISIs, was positively associated with episodic memory performance at the 5-year-follow-up ( β = 0.57, p = 0.013). The results suggest that the MMN after long ISI might be

  3. Auditory Memory Decay as Reflected by a New Mismatch Negativity Score Is Associated with Episodic Memory in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Laptinskaya, Daria; Thurm, Franka; Küster, Olivia C.; Fissler, Patrick; Schlee, Winfried; Kolassa, Stephan; von Arnim, Christine A. F.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2018-01-01

    The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) peaking about 100–250 ms after the onset of a deviant tone in a sequence of identical (standard) tones. Depending on the interstimulus interval (ISI) between standard and deviant tones, the MMN is suitable to investigate the pre-attentive auditory discrimination ability (short ISIs, ≤ 2 s) as well as the pre-attentive auditory memory trace (long ISIs, >2 s). However, current results regarding the MMN as an index for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are mixed, especially after short ISIs: while the majority of studies report positive associations between the MMN and cognition, others fail to find such relationships. To elucidate these so far inconsistent results, we investigated the validity of the MMN as an index for cognitive impairment exploring the associations between different MMN indices and cognitive performance, more specifically with episodic memory performance which is among the most affected cognitive domains in the course of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), at baseline and at a 5-year-follow-up. We assessed the amplitude of the MMN for short ISI (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 0.05 s) and for long ISI (3 s) in a neuropsychologically well-characterized cohort of older adults at risk of dementia (subjective memory impairment, amnestic and non-amnestic MCI; n = 57). Furthermore, we created a novel difference score (ΔMMN), defined as the difference between MMNs to short and to long ISI, as a measure to assess the decay of the auditory memory trace, higher values indicating less decay. ΔMMN and MMN amplitude after long ISI, but not the MMN amplitude after short ISI, was associated with episodic memory at baseline (β = 0.38, p = 0.003; β = −0.27, p = 0.047, respectively). ΔMMN, but not the MMN for long ISIs, was positively associated with episodic memory performance at the 5-year-follow-up (β = 0.57, p = 0.013). The results suggest that the MMN after long ISI

  4. Unaccusative Mismatches in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimura, Natsuko

    Two instances of unaccusative verb mismatches in Japanese are examined. An unaccusative mismatch is the situation in which a different accusative diagnostic singles out different classes of intransitive verbs within and across languages. One type of unaccusative mismatch has to do with group C verbs, or verbs of manner with protagonist control.…

  5. Educational Mismatches and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Both Vertical and Horizontal Mismatches in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pholphirul, Piriya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Educational mismatches constitute negative impacts on labor markets in most countries, Thailand is no exception. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the degree of educational mismatch in Thailand and its impacts on labor market outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This study analyzes data obtained from Thailand's Labor Force Survey…

  6. Educational Mismatch and Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a panel data set of scientists in the US, we examine the hypothesis that workers in jobs poorly matched to their education are more likely to retire. In pooled estimates, we confirm that the mismatched are more likely to retire and that among retirees, the mismatched retire at younger ages. Hazard function estimates also support the…

  7. Mismatch repair proteins and AID deaminase activity are required for the dominant negative function of C terminally-deleted AID in class switching

    PubMed Central

    Ucher, Anna J.; Ranjit, Sanjay; Kadungure, Tatenda; Linehan, Erin K.; Khair, Lyne; Xie, Elaine; Limauro, Jennifer; Rauch, Katherina S.; Schrader, Carol E.; Stavnezer, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes. The AID C terminus is required for CSR but not for S region DNA DSBs during CSR, and it is not required for SHM. AID lacking the C terminus (ΔAID) is a dominant negative (DN) mutant, as human patients heterozygous for this mutant fail to undergo CSR. In agreement, we show that ΔAID is a DN mutant when expressed in AID-sufficient mouse splenic B cells. In order to have DN function,ΔAID must have deaminase activity, suggesting that its ability to induce DSBs is important for the DN function. Supporting this hypothesis, Msh2-Msh6 have previously been shown to contribute to DSB formation in S regions, and here we find that Msh2 is required for the DN activity, as ΔAID is not a DN mutant in msh2−/− cells. Our results suggest that the DNA DSBs induced by ΔAID are unable to participate in CSR, and might interfere with the ability of full-length AID to participate in CSR. We propose thatΔAID is impaired in its ability to recruit non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair factors, resulting in accumulation of DSBs that undergo aberrant resection. Supporting this hypothesis, we find that the S-S junctions induced by ΔAID have longer microhomologies than those induced by full-length AID. In addition, our data suggest that AID binds Sµ regions in vivo as a monomer. PMID:24973444

  8. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  9. Visual-perceptual mismatch in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Ahmad; Tao, Anna; LaRocca, Meg; Guan, Xingmin; Askari, Syed J; Bisley, James W; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S

    2017-08-01

    The principal objective of the experiment was to analyze the effects of the clutch operation of robotic surgical systems on the performance of the operator. The relative coordinate system introduced by the clutch operation can introduce a visual-perceptual mismatch which can potentially have negative impact on a surgeon's performance. We also assess the impact of the introduction of additional tactile sensory information on reducing the impact of visual-perceptual mismatch on the performance of the operator. We asked 45 novice subjects to complete peg transfers using the da Vinci IS 1200 system with grasper-mounted, normal force sensors. The task involves picking up a peg with one of the robotic arms, passing it to the other arm, and then placing it on the opposite side of the view. Subjects were divided into three groups: aligned group (no mismatch), the misaligned group (10 cm z axis mismatch), and the haptics-misaligned group (haptic feedback and z axis mismatch). Each subject performed the task five times, during which the grip force, time of completion, and number of faults were recorded. Compared to the subjects that performed the tasks using a properly aligned controller/arm configuration, subjects with a single-axis misalignment showed significantly more peg drops (p = 0.011) and longer time to completion (p < 0.001). Additionally, it was observed that addition of tactile feedback helps reduce the negative effects of visual-perceptual mismatch in some cases. Grip force data recorded from grasper-mounted sensors showed no difference between the different groups. The visual-perceptual mismatch created by the misalignment of the robotic controls relative to the robotic arms has a negative impact on the operator of a robotic surgical system. Introduction of other sensory information and haptic feedback systems can help in potentially reducing this effect.

  10. A Jobs Mismatch. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marina, Brenda L. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the article "A Jobs Mismatch", Jaschik has compiled the findings of a new report that was released by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. The Georgetown University report claims that there is a severe shortage of college graduates in America, and that this shortage has the United States on a…

  11. Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

  12. Septal and Anterior Reverse Mismatch of Myocardial Perfusion and Metabolism in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Fang, Wei; Yang, Min-Fu; Tian, Yue-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shen, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Xin; Guo, Feng; Wang, Dao-Yu; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular myocardial metabolism have not been well investigated. This study evaluated these effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixty-five CAD patients with complete LBBB (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.7 years) and 65 without LBBB (mean age, 59.9 ± 8.4 years) underwent single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and contrast coronary angiography. The relationship between myocardial perfusion and metabolism and reverse mismatch score, and that between QRS length and reverse mismatch score and wall motion score were evaluated. The incidence of left ventricular septum and anterior wall reverse mismatching between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The incidences of normal myocardial perfusion and metabolism in the left ventricular lateral and inferior walls were also significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of septal reverse mismatching in patients with mild to moderate perfusion was significantly higher among those with LBBB than among those without LBBB (P < 0.001). In CAD patients with LBBB, septal reverse mismatching was significantly more common among those with mild to moderate perfusion than among those with severe perfusion defects (P = 0.002). The correlation between the septal reverse mismatch score and QRS length was significant (P = 0.026). In patients with CAD and LBBB, septal and anterior reverse mismatching of myocardial perfusion and metabolism was frequently present; the septal reverse mismatch score negatively correlated with the QRS interval. PMID:25997045

  13. Women's Contraceptive Preference-Use Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    He, Katherine; Dalton, Vanessa K.; Zochowski, Melissa K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Family planning research has not adequately addressed women's preferences for different contraceptive methods and whether women's contraceptive experiences match their preferences. Methods: Data were drawn from the Women's Healthcare Experiences and Preferences Study, an Internet survey of 1,078 women aged 18–55 randomly sampled from a national probability panel. Survey items assessed women's preferences for contraceptive methods, match between methods preferred and used, and perceived reasons for mismatch. We estimated predictors of contraceptive preference with multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Among women at risk for pregnancy who responded with their preferred method (n = 363), hormonal methods (non-LARC [long-acting reversible contraception]) were the most preferred method (34%), followed by no method (23%) and LARC (18%). Sociodemographic differences in contraception method preferences were noted (p-values <0.05), generally with minority, married, and older women having higher rates of preferring less effective methods, compared to their counterparts. Thirty-six percent of women reported preference-use mismatch, with the majority preferring more effective methods than those they were using. Rates of match between preferred and usual methods were highest for LARC (76%), hormonal (non-LARC) (65%), and no method (65%). The most common reasons for mismatch were cost/insurance (41%), lack of perceived/actual need (34%), and method-specific preference concerns (19%). Conclusion: While preference for effective contraception was common among this sample of women, we found substantial mismatch between preferred and usual methods, notably among women of lower socioeconomic status and women using less effective methods. Findings may have implications for patient-centered contraceptive interventions. PMID:27710196

  14. Mismatching between nest volume and clutch volume reduces egg survival and fledgling success in black-tailed gulls

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A longstanding suggestion posits that parents prefer to match nest volume and clutch size (clutch volume), but few studies have tested this in colonial seabirds that nest in the open. Here, we demonstrate the effects of nest–clutch volume matching on egg survival, hatching, and fledgling success in black-tailed gulls Larus crassirostris on Hongdo Island, Korea. We show that the volume mismatch, defined as the difference between nest volume and total egg volume (the sum of all eggs’ volume in the clutch), was positively related to egg and chick mortality caused by predation, but was not significantly related to hatching success incurred by insulation during the incubation period. Although nest volume was negatively related to laying date, we found that the mismatch was positively related to laying date. Our results support the claim that well-matched nest–clutch volume may contribute to survival of eggs and chicks, and ultimately breeding success. PMID:29491934

  15. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  16. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  17. Size mismatch in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  18. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  19. Educational Mismatch and Self-Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Roche, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on educational mismatch concentrates on estimating its labor market consequences but with a focus on wage and salary workers. This paper examines the far less studied influence of mismatch on the self-employed. Using a sample of workers in science and engineering fields, results show larger earnings penalties for mismatch among…

  20. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  1. Repeated human leukocyte antigen mismatches in lung re-transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Wiebke; Hallensleben, Michael; Ius, Fabio; Kühn, Christian; Tudorache, Igor; Avsar, Murat; Salman, Jawad; Siemeni, Thierry; Greer, Mark; Gottlieb, Jens; Boethig, Dietmar; Blasczyk, Rainer; Haverich, Axel; Warnecke, Gregor

    2017-02-01

    The role of HLA-sensitization in the absence of detectable DSA in lung re-transplantation is unclear. Antigens of the second donor matching the HLA typing of the first donor are considered 'unacceptable', by some tissue typing laboratories, especially in kidney re-transplantation. Thus, we performed a retrospective analysis of all lung re-transplantations focussing on the impact of HLA-homologies between the first and the second donor ('unacceptable' antigens; repeated HLA mismatch) on patient and graft survival. A total of 132 lung re-transplantations were performed at our centre between 1985 and 2014, of which 120 with complete HLA data were analysed. 55.8% of the recipients received re-transplants with repeated HLA mismatched antigens whereas 43.2% of the re-transplants were transplanted without repeated HLA mismatched antigens. Postoperative survival showed no difference between re-transplant procedures with or without repeated HLA mismatches (p=0.99). While neither homologies on the HLA-A, -B, -C, or -DR locus, nor the addition of several locus homologies (p=0.72) had an impact on survival, unexpectedly, repeated HLA mismatching on the HLA-DQ locus was correlated with better survival. Re-transplantations with repeated HLA mismatches did not result in more development of CLAD as compared to recipients without repeated HLA mismatches (p=0.99). Neither the number of repeated HLA mismatched antigens (p=0.52) nor the HLA locus (HLA-A(p=0.34), HLA-B(p=0.97), HLA-C (p=0.80), HLA-DR(p=0.49) and HLA-DQ(p=0.07)) had an impact on the development of CLAD after re-transplantation. Transplantation with repeated HLA mismatches due to sensitization by a previous transplantation in the absence of detectable HLA-antibodies does not have a negative impact on patient or graft survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The structural impact of DNA mismatches

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Giulia; Dans, Pablo D.; Gomez-Pinto, Irene; Ivani, Ivan; Gonzalez, Carlos; Orozco, Modesto

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of all the transversion and transition mismatches in three different DNA environments have been characterized by molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy. We found that the presence of mismatches produced significant local structural alterations, especially in the case of purine transversions. Mismatched pairs often show promiscuous hydrogen bonding patterns, which interchange among each other in the nanosecond time scale. This therefore defines flexible base pairs, where breathing is frequent, and where distortions in helical parameters are strong, resulting in significant alterations in groove dimension. Even if the DNA structure is plastic enough to absorb the structural impact of the mismatch, local structural changes can be propagated far from the mismatch site, following the expected through-backbone and a previously unknown through-space mechanism. The structural changes related to the presence of mismatches help to understand the different susceptibility of mismatches to the action of repairing proteins. PMID:25820425

  3. [Impact of HLA mismatch on transplant outcomes].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch increases the risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant-related mortality. However, the variety of stem cell sources such as cord blood units or the improvements in GVHD prophylaxis makes the interpretation of HLA mismatch more complex. In unrelated transplantation, the locus of HLA mismatch has a great impact on the donor candidate selection, whereas in related transplantation, it has an impact on the intensity of GVHD prophylaxis because donor availability is limited. Anti-thymocyte globulin and post-transplant cyclophosphamide are attractive GVHD prophylactic agents to reduce the risk of immune-associated complications in HLA-mismatched transplantations. HLA mismatch has a reduced impact in adult cord blood transplantation. In this review article, the impact of HLA mismatch based on graft sources is discussed.

  4. Measurement of mismatch loss in CPV modul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingguo; Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Bagienski, Will; Nayak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

    2012-10-01

    A setup capable of simultaneously measuring I-V curves of a full string and its individual cells has been developed. This setup enables us to measure mismatch loss from individual cells in concert with various string combinations under varying field conditions. Mismatch loss from cells to plates at different off-track angles and mismatch from plates to strings in Amonix system during normal operation have been investigated.

  5. Spatial Mismatch: A Third Generation Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, J. Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The spatial mismatch argument hypothesizes that racial discrimination in the housing market, together with the suburbanization of low skilled jobs, contributes significantly to the high unemployment and/or low wages of inner city minority workers. Surveys recent spatial mismatch literature and discusses policy alternatives, focusing on areas…

  6. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  7. Entanglement verification with detection efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    Entanglement is a necessary condition for secure quantum key distribution (QKD). When there is an efficiency mismatch between various detectors used in the QKD system, it is still an open problem how to verify entanglement. Here we present a method to address this problem, given that the detection efficiency mismatch is characterized and known. The method works without assuming an upper bound on the number of photons going to each threshold detector. Our results suggest that the efficiency mismatch affects the ability to verify entanglement: the larger the efficiency mismatch is, the smaller the set of entangled states that can be verified becomes. When there is no mismatch, our method can verify entanglement even if the method based on squashing maps [PRL 101, 093601 (2008)] fails.

  8. A Computational Model for Biomechanical Effects of Arterial Compliance Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Hua, Lu; Gao, Li-jian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compliance mismatch is a negative factor and it needs to be considered in arterial bypass grafting. Objective. A computational model was employed to investigate the effects of arterial compliance mismatch on blood flow, wall stress, and deformation. Methods. The unsteady blood flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The vessel wall was assumed to be linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible. The fluid-wall interaction scheme was constructed using the finite element method. Results. The results show that there are identical wall shear stress waveforms, wall stress, and strain waveforms at different locations. The comparison of the results demonstrates that wall shear stresses and wall strains are higher while wall stresses are lower at the more compliant section. The differences promote the probability of intimal thickening at some locations. Conclusions. The model is effective and gives satisfactory results. It could be extended to all kinds of arteries with complicated geometrical and material factors. PMID:27019580

  9. The Association Between Broad Antigen HLA Mismatches, Eplet HLA Mismatches and Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Do Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Wong, Germaine; Chapman, Jeremy R; McDonald, Stephen P; Coates, Patrick T; Watson, Narelle; Russ, Graeme R; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Lim, Wai Hon

    2016-12-01

    Epitope matching, which evaluates mismatched amino acids within antigen-antibody interaction sites (eplets), may better predict acute rejection than broad antigen matching alone. We aimed to determine the association between eplet mismatches and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. The association between eplet mismatches, broad antigen mismatches and acute rejection was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. Model discrimination for acute rejection was evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. Of the 3,499 kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2011, the average (SD) number of broad antigen and eplet mismatches were 3.4 (1.7) and 22.8 (12.2), respectively. Compared with 0 to 2 eplet mismatches, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for acute rejection among those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.52; P = 0.001). The adjusted area under the curve for broad antigen mismatches was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.56-0.61), similar to that for eplet mismatches (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61; P = 0.365). In recipients who were considered as low immunological risk (0-2 broad antigen HLA-ABDR mismatch), those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches experienced an increased risk of rejection compared to those with less than 20 mismatches (adjusted HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.08; P = 0.019). Increasing number of eplet mismatches is associated with acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Consideration of eplet HLA mismatches may improve risk stratification for acute rejection in a selected group of kidney transplant candidates.

  10. Sensory Intelligence for Extraction of an Abstract Auditory Rule: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Xiu-Yuan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2018-02-21

    In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so-called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear. To address this issue, we constructed a complex speech sound stream using auditory materials in Mandarin Chinese, in which syllables had a flat lexical tone but differed in other acoustic features to form an abstract auditory rule. This rule was occasionally and randomly violated by the syllables with the rising, dipping or falling tone. We found that both Chinese and foreign speakers detected the violations of the abstract auditory rule in the speech sound stream at a pre-attentive stage, as revealed by the whole-head recordings of mismatch negativity (MMN) in a passive paradigm. However, MMNs peaked earlier in Chinese speakers than in foreign speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers showed different MMN peak latencies for the three deviant types, which paralleled recognition points. These findings indicate that the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech sounds is innate but shaped by language experience. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of sequence mismatches on the specificity of recombinase polymerase amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Daher, Rana K; Stewart, Gale; Boissinot, Maurice; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology relies on three major proteins, recombinase proteins, single-strand binding proteins, and polymerases, to specifically amplify nucleic acid sequences in an isothermal format. The performance of RPA with respect to sequence mismatches of closely-related non-target molecules is not well documented and the influence of the number and distribution of mismatches in DNA sequences on RPA amplification reaction is not well understood. We investigated the specificity of RPA by testing closely-related species bearing naturally occurring mismatches for the tuf gene sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for the cfb gene sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae. In addition, the impact of the number and distribution of mismatches on RPA efficiency was assessed by synthetically generating 14 types of mismatched forward primers for detecting five bacterial species of high diagnostic relevance such as Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, P. aeruginosa, and M. tuberculosis as well as Bacillus atropheus subsp. globigii for which we use the spores as internal control in diagnostic assays. A total of 87 mismatched primers were tested in this study. We observed that target specific RPA primers with mismatches (n > 1) at their 3'extrimity hampered RPA reaction. In addition, 3 mismatches covering both extremities and the center of the primer sequence negatively affected RPA yield. We demonstrated that the specificity of RPA was multifactorial. Therefore its application in clinical settings must be selected and validated a priori. We recommend that the selection of a target gene must consider the presence of closely-related non-target genes. It is advisable to choose target regions with a high number of mismatches (≥36%, relative to the size of amplicon) with respect to closely-related species and the best case scenario would be by choosing a unique target gene. Copyright © 2014

  12. Lattice QCD with mismatched fermi surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2014-04-25

    We study two flavor fermions with mismatched chemical potentials in quenched lattice QCD. We first consider a large isospin chemical potential, where a charged pion is condensed, and then introduce a small mismatch between the chemical potentials of the up quark and the down antiquark. We find that the homogeneous pion condensate is destroyed by the mismatch of the chemical potentials. We also find that the two-point correlation function shows spatial oscillation, which indicates an inhomogeneous ground state, although it is not massless but massive in the present simulation setup.

  13. A teleofunctional account of evolutionary mismatch.

    PubMed

    Cofnas, Nathan

    When the environment in which an organism lives deviates in some essential way from that to which it is adapted, this is described as "evolutionary mismatch," or "evolutionary novelty." The notion of mismatch plays an important role, explicitly or implicitly, in evolution-informed cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and medicine. The evolutionary novelty of our contemporary environment is thought to have significant implications for our health and well-being. However, scientists have generally been working without a clear definition of mismatch. This paper defines mismatch as deviations in the environment that render biological traits unable, or impaired in their ability, to produce their selected effects (i.e., to perform their proper functions in Neander's sense). The machinery developed by Millikan in connection with her account of proper function, and with her related teleosemantic account of representation, is used to identify four major types, and several subtypes, of evolutionary mismatch. While the taxonomy offered here does not in itself resolve any scientific debates, the hope is that it can be used to better formulate empirical hypotheses concerning the effects of mismatch. To illustrate, it is used to show that the controversial hypothesis that general intelligence evolved as an adaptation to handle evolutionary novelty can, contra some critics, be formulated in a conceptually coherent way.

  14. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  15. Linguistic category structure influences early auditory processing: Converging evidence from mismatch responses and cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Monahan, Philip J; Idsardi, William J

    2016-03-01

    While previous research has established that language-specific knowledge influences early auditory processing, it is still controversial as to what aspects of speech sound representations determine early speech perception. Here, we propose that early processing primarily depends on information propagated top-down from abstractly represented speech sound categories. In particular, we assume that mid-vowels (as in 'bet') exert less top-down effects than the high-vowels (as in 'bit') because of their less specific (default) tongue height position as compared to either high- or low-vowels (as in 'bat'). We tested this assumption in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study where we contrasted mid- and high-vowels, as well as the low- and high-vowels in a passive oddball paradigm. Overall, significant differences between deviants and standards indexed reliable mismatch negativity (MMN) responses between 200 and 300ms post-stimulus onset. MMN amplitudes differed in the mid/high-vowel contrasts and were significantly reduced when a mid-vowel standard was followed by a high-vowel deviant, extending previous findings. Furthermore, mid-vowel standards showed reduced oscillatory power in the pre-stimulus beta-frequency band (18-26Hz), compared to high-vowel standards. We take this as converging evidence for linguistic category structure to exert top-down influences on auditory processing. The findings are interpreted within the linguistic model of underspecification and the neuropsychological predictive coding framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative reactivity of mismatched and unpaired bases in relation to their type and surroundings. Chemical cleavage of DNA mismatches in mutation detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Yakubovskaya, Marianna G; Belyakova, Anna A; Gasanova, Viktoria K; Belitsky, Gennady A; Dolinnaya, Nina G

    2010-07-01

    Systematic study of chemical reactivity of non-Watson-Crick base pairs depending on their type and microenvironment was performed on a model system that represents two sets of synthetic DNA duplexes with all types of mismatched and unmatched bases flanked by T.A or G.C pairs. Using comparative cleavage pattern analysis, we identified the main and additional target bases and performed quantitative study of the time course and efficacy of DNA modification caused by potassium permanganate or hydroxylamine. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride was shown to induce DNA cleavage at all mismatched or bulged T residues, as well as at thymines of neighboring canonical pairs. Other mispaired (bulged) bases and thymine residues located on the second position from the mismatch site were not the targets for KMnO(4) attack. In contrast, hydroxylamine cleaved only heteroduplexes containing mismatched or unmatched C residues, and did not modify adjacent cytosines. However when G.C pairs flank bulged C residue, neighboring cytosines are also attacked by hydroxylamine due to defect migration. Chemical reactivity of target bases was shown to correlate strongly with the local disturbance of DNA double helix at mismatch or bulge site. With our model system, we were able to prove the absence of false-negative and false-positive results. Portion of heteroduplex reliably revealed in a mixture with corresponding homoduplex consists of 5% for bulge bases and "open" non-canonical pairs, and 10% for wobble base pairs giving minimal violations in DNA structure. This study provides a complete understanding of the principles of mutation detection methodology based on chemical cleavage of mismatches and clarifies the advantages and limitations of this approach in various biological and conformational studies of DNA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

  18. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DENTISTRY, ABSTRACTS), TEETH, DISEASES, MOUTH, TRANSPLANTATION, HYGIENE, STERILIZATION, FLUORIDES, HISTOLOGY, SURGICAL IMPLANTATION, OXYTETRACYCLINE , GELATINS, CELLULOSE, CASTING, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, TRAINING DEVICES

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of Lynch syndrome with DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry on a diagnostic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Warrier, S K; Trainer, A H; Lynch, A C; Mitchell, C; Hiscock, R; Sawyer, S; Boussioutas, A; Heriot, A G

    2011-12-01

    DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue is a simple, readily available, and cost-effective method of identifying patients with Lynch syndrome in the postoperative setting. The aim of the study was to assess whether the mismatch repair status of a colorectal cancer can be confirmed by mismatch repair immunohistochemistry on preoperative biopsy. Germline positive patients with Lynch syndrome were identified from a prospectively collected Familial Cancer Clinic database. Preoperative colorectal cancer biopsy specimens were obtained from the source pathology provider to generate a cohort of matched preoperative and postoperative specimens. The specimens were sectioned and stained for 4 mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2). An age-matched cohort to compare specimens was selected from Bethesda positive but mismatch repair immunohistochemistry negative patients. All slides were reviewed by a single blinded pathologist. The Wilson method was used to calculate a true underlying proportion of patients for whom the preoperative result matched the postoperative test result with a 95% confidence interval. Of 128 germline positive mutation carriers, 40 patients (mean age 41, SD 11.3) had colorectal resections. Thirty-three preoperative specimens were retrievable and were matched with biopsies from 33 controls. The germline mutations included in the study were 8 MLH1, 19 MSH2, 3 MSH6, and 2 PMS2. In patients where germline positive status was known, sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 89.2-100) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 89.2-100). Identical sensitivity and specificity were observed in 33 age-matched patients. The sensitivity of the endoscopic biopsy in predicting germline status was 94.9% (95% CI 80.4-98.3). The mismatch repair disease status of a colorectal cancer can be reliably confirmed by mismatch repair immunohistochemistry on a diagnostic colorectal cancer biopsy sample before definitive surgery. Ascertaining a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome

  20. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  1. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  2. Effects of aging on neuromagnetic mismatch responses to pitch changes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Baillet, Sylvain; Hsiao, Fu-Jung; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-06-07

    Although aging-related alterations in the auditory sensory memory and involuntary change discrimination have been widely studied, it remains controversial whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) or its magnetic counterpart (MMNm) is modulated by physiological aging. This study aimed to examine the effects of aging on mismatch activity to pitch deviants by using a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) together with distributed source modeling analysis. The neuromagnetic responses to oddball paradigms consisting of standards (1000 Hz, p=0.85) and deviants (1100 Hz, p=0.15) were recorded in healthy young (n=20) and aged (n=18) male adults. We used minimum norm estimate of source reconstruction to characterize the spatiotemporal neural dynamics of MMNm responses. Distributed activations to MMNm were identified in the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal areas. Compared to younger participants, the elderly exhibited a significant reduction of cortical activation in bilateral superior temporal guri, superior temporal sulci, inferior fontal gyri, orbitofrontal cortices and right inferior parietal lobules. In conclusion, our results suggest an aging-related decline in auditory sensory memory and automatic change detection as indexed by MMNm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immigrants' Educational Mismatch and the Penalty of Over-Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalfa, Eleni; Piracha, Matloob

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses immigrants' educational mismatch and its impact on wages in Spain. The incidence of immigrants' education-occupation mismatch in the Spanish labour market can largely be explained by the mismatch in the last job held in the home country. The probability of having been over-educated in the home country has a higher effect on the…

  4. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    PubMed

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  5. Supply-demand mismatch transients in susceptible peri-infarct hot zones explain the origin of spreading injury depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    von Bornstädt, Daniel; Houben, Thijs; Seidel, Jessica; Zheng, Yi; Dilekoz, Ergin; Qin, Tao; Sandow, Nora; Kura, Sreekanth; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Endres, Matthias; Boas, David A.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Lo, Eng H.; Dreier, Jens P.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sakadžić, Sava; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are seemingly spontaneous spreading depression-like waves that negatively impact tissue outcome in both experimental and human stroke. Factors triggering PIDs are unknown. Here, we show that somatosensory activation of peri-infarct cortex triggers PIDs when the activated cortex is within a critical range of ischemia. We show that the mechanism involves increased oxygen utilization within the activated cortex, worsening the supply-demand mismatch. We support the concept by clinical data showing that mismatch predisposes to PIDs in human stroke as well. Conversely, transient worsening of mismatch by episodic hypoxemia or hypotension also reproducibly triggers PIDs. Therefore, PIDs are triggered upon supply-demand mismatch transients in metastable peri-infarct hot zones due to increased demand or reduced supply. Based on the data, we propose that minimizing sensory stimulation and hypoxic or hypotensive transients in stroke and brain injury would reduce PID incidence and their adverse impact on outcome. PMID:25741731

  6. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...Packaged Dental Instrument4’, (Abstract #1133) 8. I. L. SHKLAIR*, R. W. GAUGLER, R. G. WALTER -.The Effect of Three Surfactants on Controlling Caries...Insoluble Streptococcal Glucan"’. e (Abstract #102) - _/_ / 10. R. G. WALTER* and I. L. SHKLAIR - The Effect of T-10 Dextran on Caries and Plaque in

  7. Acoustic evidence for phonologically mismatched speech errors.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production.

  8. Lattice mismatch modeling of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwon; Roy, Shibayan; Watkins, Thomas R.

    We present a theoretical framework to accurately predict the lattice mismatch between the fcc matrix and precipitates in the multi-component aluminum alloys as a function of temperature and composition. We use a computational thermodynamic approach to model the lattice parameters of the multi-component fcc solid solution and θ'-Al2Cu precipitate phase. Better agreement between the predicted lattice parameters of fcc aluminum in five commercial alloys (206, 319, 356, A356, and A356 + 0.5Cu) and experimental data from the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXD) has been obtained when simulating supersaturated rather than equilibrium solid solutions. We use the thermal expansion coefficient of thermodynamicallymore » stable θ-Al2Cu to describe temperature-dependent lattice parameters of meta-stable θ' and to show good agreement with the SXD data. Both coherent and semi-coherent interface mismatches between the fcc aluminum matrix and θ' in Al-Cu alloys are presented as a function of temperature. Our calculation results show that the concentration of solute atoms, particularly Cu, in the matrix greatly affects the lattice mismatch« less

  9. Infrequent identity mismatches are frequently undetected

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately match faces to photographs bears critically on many domains, from controlling purchase of age-restricted goods to law enforcement and airport security. Despite its pervasiveness and importance, research has shown that face matching is surprisingly error prone. The majority of face-matching research is conducted under idealized conditions (e.g., using photographs of individuals taken on the same day) and with equal proportions of match and mismatch trials, a rate that is likely not observed in everyday face matching. In four experiments, we presented observers with photographs of faces taken an average of 1.5 years apart and tested whether face-matching performance is affected by the prevalence of identity mismatches, comparing conditions of low (10 %) and high (50 %) mismatch prevalence. Like the low-prevalence effect in visual search, we observed inflated miss rates under low-prevalence conditions. This effect persisted when participants were allowed to correct their initial responses (Experiment 2), when they had to verify every decision with a certainty judgment (Experiment 3) and when they were permitted “second looks” at face pairs (Experiment 4). These results suggest that, under realistic viewing conditions, the low-prevalence effect in face matching is a large, persistent source of errors. PMID:24500751

  10. Relative impact of human leukocyte antigen mismatching and graft ischemic time after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brugière, Olivier; Thabut, Gabriel; Suberbielle, Caroline; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Thomas, Pascal; Pison, Christophe; Saint Raymond, Christel; Mornex, Jean-François; Bertocchi, Michèle; Dromer, Claire; Velly, Jean-François; Stern, Marc; Philippe, Bruno; Dauriat, Gaëlle; Biondi, Giuseppina; Castier, Yves; Fournier, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Recent data strongly suggest that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching has a negative impact on development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Because HLA matching is sometimes achieved by extending ischemic time in other solid-organ transplantation models and ischemic time is a risk factor per se for death after LTx, we sought to compare the theoretical benefit of HLA matching with the negative impact of lengthened ischemic time. In this collaborative study we compared the relative impact of HLA mismatching and ischemic time on BOS and survival in 182 LTx recipients. Using multivariate analyses, we observed a lower incidence of BOS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 2.7, p = 0.03) and enhanced survival (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.92, p = 0.01) in patients with zero or one HLA-A mismatch compared with those having two HLA-A mismatches. This beneficial effect on survival was equivalent to a reduction of ischemic time of 168 minutes. We observed a reduced incidence of BOS and a better survival rate in patients well-matched at the HLA-A locus, associated with an opposite effect of an enhanced ischemic time. This suggests that graft ischemic time should be taken into account in future studies of prospective HLA matching in LTx.

  11. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  12. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  13. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  14. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  15. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  16. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  17. Energy Research Abstracts. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations. ERA coverage of non-report literature is limited to that generated by Department of Energy activity. ERA is comprehensive in its subject scope, encompassing the DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technological programs resulting from its broadmore » charter for energy sources, conservation, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation. Corporate, author, subject, report number, and contract number indexes are included. ERA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research intitutions, industrial firms, and publishers of scientific information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain ERA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. ERA is available to the public on a subscription basis for 24 semimonthly issues including a semiannual index and an annual index. All citations announced in ERA exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  1. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  2. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes abstracts of special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include digital imagery; text summarization; browsing; digital libraries; icons and the Web; information management; curricula planning; interfaces; information systems; theories; scholarly and scientific communication; global development; archives; document delivery;…

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  5. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  6. Temperature-dependent spectral mismatch corrections

    DOE PAGES

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Campanelli, Mark; Moriarty, Tom; ...

    2015-11-01

    This study develops the mathematical foundation for a translation of solar cell short-circuit current from one thermal and spectral irradiance operating condition to another without the use of ill-defined and error-prone temperature coefficients typically employed in solar cell metrology. Using the partial derivative of quantum efficiency with respect to temperature, the conventional isothermal expression for spectral mismatch corrections is modified to account for changes of current due to temperature; this modification completely eliminates the need for short-circuit-current temperature coefficients. An example calculation is provided to demonstrate use of the new translation.

  7. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  8. Solution structure and stability of the DNA undecamer duplexes containing oxanine mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Seung Pil; Morimoto, Hirohisa; Makino, Keisuke; Tajima, Kunihiko; Kanaori, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Solution structures of DNA duplexes containing oxanine (Oxa, O) opposite a cytosine (O:C duplex) and opposite a thymine (O:T duplex) have been solved by the combined use of 1H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculation. One mismatch pair was introduced into the center of the 11-mer duplex of [d(GTGACO6CACTG)/d(CAGTGX17GTCAC), X = C or T]. 1H NMR chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) intensities indicate that both the duplexes adopt an overall right-handed B-type conformation. Exchangeable resonances of C17 4-amino proton of the O:C duplex and of T17 imino proton of O:T duplex showed unusual chemical shifts, and disappeared with temperature increasing up to 30°C, although the melting temperatures were >50°C. The O:C mismatch takes a wobble geometry with positive shear parameter where the Oxa ring shifted toward the major groove and the paired C17 toward the minor groove, while, in the O:T mismatch pair with the negative shear, the Oxa ring slightly shifted toward the minor groove and the paired T17 toward the major groove. The Oxa mismatch pairs can be wobbled largely because of no hydrogen bond to the O1 position of the Oxa base, and may occupy positions in the strands that optimize the stacking with adjacent bases. PMID:22039100

  9. Self-Selection of Frequency Tables with Bilateral Mismatches in an Acoustic Simulation of a Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Matthew B.; Prosolovich, Ksenia; Tan, Chin-Tuan; Glassman, E. Katelyn; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many recipients of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have differences in electrode insertion depth. Previous reports indicate that when a bilateral mismatch is imposed, performance on tests of speech understanding or sound localization becomes worse. If recipients of bilateral CIs cannot adjust to a difference in insertion depth, adjustments to the frequency table may be necessary to maximize bilateral performance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using real-time manipulations of the frequency table to offset any decrements in performance resulting from a bilateral mismatch. Research Design A simulation of a CI was used because it allows for explicit control of the size of a bilateral mismatch. Such control is not available with users of CIs. Study Sample A total of 31 normal-hearing young adults participated in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Using a CI simulation, four bilateral mismatch conditions (0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 mm) were created. In the left ear, the analysis filters and noise bands of the CI simulation were the same. In the right ear, the noise bands were shifted higher in frequency to simulate a bilateral mismatch. Then, listeners selected a frequency table in the right ear that was perceived as maximizing bilateral speech intelligibility. Word-recognition scores were then assessed for each bilateral mismatch condition. Listeners were tested with both a standard frequency table, which preserved a bilateral mismatch, or with their self-selected frequency table. Results Consistent with previous reports, bilateral mismatches of 1.5 and 3 mm yielded decrements in word recognition when the standard table was used in both ears. However, when listeners used the self-selected frequency table, performance was the same regardless of the size of the bilateral mismatch. Conclusions Self-selection of a frequency table appears to be a feasible method for ameliorating the negative effects of a bilateral

  10. Mismatch removal via coherent spatial relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ma, Jiayi; Yang, Changcai; Tian, Jinwen

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for removing mismatches from the given putative point correspondences in image pairs based on "coherent spatial relations." Under the Bayesian framework, we formulate our approach as a maximum likelihood problem and solve a coherent spatial relation between the putative point correspondences using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Our approach associates each point correspondence with a latent variable indicating it as being either an inlier or an outlier, and alternatively estimates the inlier set and recovers the coherent spatial relation. It can handle not only the case of image pairs with rigid motions but also the case of image pairs with nonrigid motions. To parameterize the coherent spatial relation, we choose two-view geometry and thin-plate spline as models for rigid and nonrigid cases, respectively. The mismatches could be successfully removed via the coherent spatial relations after the EM algorithm converges. The quantitative results on various experimental data demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art methods, it is not affected by low initial correct match percentages, and is robust to most geometric transformations including a large viewing angle, image rotation, and affine transformation.

  11. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilities to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Codemore » also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  12. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  13. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  14. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  15. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  16. Children and Computers Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of reports of eight research studies on computer uses in children's education are presented. Topics covered include (1) LOGO computer language; (2) computer graphics for art instruction; (3) animation; (4) problem solving; (5) children's use of symbols; (6) an evaluation of a Chapter 1 program involving children's computer use; (7) peer…

  17. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  18. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  19. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  20. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  2. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  3. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  5. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  6. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  7. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  8. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  9. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  11. HLA-DQ Mismatches and Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jeremy R.; Coates, Patrick T.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Russ, Graeme R.; Watson, Narelle; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Wong, Germaine

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The current allocation algorithm for deceased donor kidney transplantation takes into consideration HLA mismatches at the ABDR loci but not HLA mismatches at other loci, including HLA-DQ. However, the independent effects of incompatibilities for the closely linked HLA-DQ antigens in the context of HLA-DR antigen matched and mismatched allografts are uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of HLA-DQ mismatches on renal allograft outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we examined the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and acute rejections in primary live and deceased donor kidney transplant recipients between 2004 and 2012 using adjusted Cox regression models. Results Of the 788 recipients followed for a median of 2.8 years (resulting in 2891 person-years), 321 (40.7%) and 467 (59.3%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. Compared with recipients who have received zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, those who have received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys experienced greater numbers of any rejection (50 of 321 versus 117 of 467; P<0.01), late rejections (occurring >6 months post-transplant; 8 of 321 versus 27 of 467; P=0.03), and antibody-mediated rejections (AMRs; 12 of 321 versus 38 of 467; P=0.01). Compared with recipients of zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, the adjusted hazard ratios for any and late rejections in recipients who had received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys were 1.54 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 2.19) and 2.85 (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.75), respectively. HLA-DR was an effect modifier between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR (P value for interaction =0.02), such that the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR was statistically significant in those who have received one or two HLA-DR mismatched kidneys, with adjusted hazard ratio of 2.50 (95% CI, 1.05 to 5.94). Conclusions HLA

  12. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  13. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Development in Initally Caries-Free Naval Recruits" (Abstract #898) , 13. M. R. WIRTHLIN* and E. B. HANCOCK - " Regeneration After Biologic Treat- ment of...These variables can be grouped into four categories: oral condition (N-7), clinical attendance (N=4), personal characteristics (N=4), and record...Histologic examination of the pulp tissue in these teeth were related to the clinical criteria prior to extraction. Clinical criteria associated

  14. Abstract shapes of RNA.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Voss, Björn; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The function of a non-protein-coding RNA is often determined by its structure. Since experimental determination of RNA structure is time-consuming and expensive, its computational prediction is of great interest, and efficient solutions based on thermodynamic parameters are known. Frequently, however, the predicted minimum free energy structures are not the native ones, leading to the necessity of generating suboptimal solutions. While this can be accomplished by a number of programs, the user is often confronted with large outputs of similar structures, although he or she is interested in structures with more fundamental differences, or, in other words, with different abstract shapes. Here, we formalize the concept of abstract shapes and introduce their efficient computation. Each shape of an RNA molecule comprises a class of similar structures and has a representative structure of minimal free energy within the class. Shape analysis is implemented in the program RNAshapes. We applied RNAshapes to the prediction of optimal and suboptimal abstract shapes of several RNAs. For a given energy range, the number of shapes is considerably smaller than the number of structures, and in all cases, the native structures were among the top shape representatives. This demonstrates that the researcher can quickly focus on the structures of interest, without processing up to thousands of near-optimal solutions. We complement this study with a large-scale analysis of the growth behaviour of structure and shape spaces. RNAshapes is available for download and as an online version on the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server.

  15. Effects of Mismatched Pictures on Retention of Illustrated Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeck, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the findings of two earlier studies (Peeck l974 and Pressley l983) on the effects of occasional mismatches between verbal and pictorial content in children's retention of illustrated prose. While the Peeck study indicated a considerable impact of mismatched pictures, the Pressley study indicated that with some…

  16. Mismatch Repair Balances Leading and Lagging Strand DNA Replication Fidelity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-11

    mismatched base stacks with a conserved phenylalanine in Msh6, and/or (iii) DNA flexibility, since MutSa-bound mismatched DNA is kinked, and a...AB, Watt DL , Watts BE, et al. (2010) Genome instability due to ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA. Nat Chem Biol 6: 774–781. 24. Poloumienko A

  17. Educational Mismatch of Graduates: A Multidimensional and Fuzzy Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betti, Gianni; D'Agostino, Antonella; Neri, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to measure the educational mismatch, seen as a problem of overeducation, using a multidimensional and fuzzy methodology. Educational mismatch can be difficult to measure because many factors can converge to its definition and the traditional unidimensional indicators presented in literature can offer a restricted view of…

  18. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  19. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  20. Influence of cognitive control and mismatch on the N2 component of the ERP: A review

    PubMed Central

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Van Petten, Cyma

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen an explosion of research on the N2 component of the event-related potential, a negative wave peaking between 200 and 350 ms after stimulus onset. This research has focused on the influence of “cognitive control,” a concept that covers strategic monitoring and control of motor responses. However, rich research traditions focus on attention and novelty or mismatch as determinants of N2 amplitude. We focus on paradigms that elicit N2 components with an anterior scalp distribution, namely, cognitive control, novelty, and sequential matching, and argue that the anterior N2 should be divided into separate control- and mismatch-related subcomponents. We also argue that the oddball N2 belongs in the family of attention-related N2 components that, in the visual modality, have a posterior scalp distribution. We focus on the visual modality for which components with frontocentral and more posterior scalp distributions can be readily distinguished. PMID:17850238

  1. Collective pedagogical teacher culture, teacher-student ethno-racial mismatch, and teacher job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Mickelson, Roslyn; Moller, Stephanie

    2014-05-01

    Teacher job satisfaction is critical to schools' successful functioning. Using a representative sample of kindergarten teachers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we investigate the association among professional learning community and teacher collaboration, teacher ethno-racial group, teacher-student ethno-racial mismatch, and teacher job satisfaction. We find that White teachers are significantly less satisfied than African-American and Latino teachers, especially when they teach in majority non-White classrooms. However, the existence of a professional community moderates the negative influence of teacher-student ethno-racial mismatch on White teachers' job satisfaction. In effect, strong professional communities serve as a cushion to bolster teacher job satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  3. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  4. Selective alkylation of T–T mismatched DNA using vinyldiaminotriazine–acridine conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Onizuka, Kazumitsu; Usami, Akira; Yamaoki, Yudai; Kobayashi, Tomohito; Hazemi, Madoka E; Chikuni, Tomoko; Sato, Norihiro; Sasaki, Kaname; Katahira, Masato

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The alkylation of the specific higher-order nucleic acid structures is of great significance in order to control its function and gene expression. In this report, we have described the T–T mismatch selective alkylation with a vinyldiaminotriazine (VDAT)–acridine conjugate. The alkylation selectively proceeded at the N3 position of thymidine on the T–T mismatch. Interestingly, the alkylated thymidine induced base flipping of the complementary base in the duplex. In a model experiment for the alkylation of the CTG repeats DNA which causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the observed reaction rate for one alkylation increased in proportion to the number of T–T mismatches. In addition, we showed that primer extension reactions with DNA polymerase and transcription with RNA polymerase were stopped by the alkylation. The alkylation of the repeat DNA will efficiently work for the inhibition of replication and transcription reactions. These functions of the VDAT–acridine conjugate would be useful as a new biochemical tool for the study of CTG repeats and may provide a new strategy for the molecular therapy of DM1. PMID:29309639

  5. Technique to measure wavenumber mismatch between quadratically interacting modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajj, M. R.; Davila, J. B.; Miksad, R. W.; Powers, E. J.

    1995-02-01

    Nonlinear energy cascade by means of three-wave resonant interactions is a characteristic feature of transitioning and turbulent flows. Resonant wavenumber mismatch between these interacting modes can arise from the dispersive characteristics of the interacting waves and from spectral broadening due to random effects. In this paper, a general technique is presented to estimate the average level of instantaneous wavenumber mismatch, (Delta k) = (k(sub m) - k(sub i) - k(sub j)), between components whose frequencies obey the resonant selection condition, f(sub m) - f(sub i) - f(sub j) = 0. Cross-correlation of the auto-bispectrum is used to quantify the level of mismatch. The concept of bispectrum coupling coherency is introduced to determine the confidence level in the wavenumber mismatch estimates. These techniques are then applied to measure wavenumber mismatch in the transitioning field of a plane wake. The results show that the average of the instantaneous mismatch between the actual interacting modes (k(sub m) - k(sub i) - k(sub j)) is in general not equal to the mismatch between the average wavenumbers of each interacting mode (k(sub m) - (k(sub i)) - (k(sub j)).

  6. DNA Mismatch Binding and Antiproliferative Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Russell J.; Song, Hang; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in mismatch repair (MMR) are associated with carcinogenesis. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA base mismatches with high specificity and inhibit cellular proliferation preferentially in MMR-deficient cells versus MMR-proficient cells. A family of chrysenequinone diimine complexes of rhodium with varying ancillary ligands that serve as DNA metalloinsertors has been synthesized, and both DNA mismatch binding affinities and antiproliferative activities against the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116N and HCT116O, an isogenic model system for MMR deficiency, have been determined. DNA photocleavage experiments reveal that all complexes bind to the mismatch sites with high specificities; DNA binding affinities to oligonucleotides containing single base CA and CC mismatches, obtained through photocleavage titration or competition, vary from 104 to 108 M−1 for the series of complexes. Significantly, binding affinities are found to be inversely related to ancillary ligand size and directly related to differential inhibition of the HCT116 cell lines. The observed trend in binding affinity is consistent with the metalloinsertion mode where the complex binds from the minor groove with ejection of mismatched base pairs. The correlation between binding affinity and targeting of the MMR-deficient cell line suggests that rhodium metalloinsertors exert their selective biological effects on MMR-deficient cells through mismatch binding in vivo. PMID:19175313

  7. I Like Them…Will They Like Me? Evidence for the Role of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex During Mismatched Social Appraisals in Anxious Youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley R; Nelson, Eric E; Rappaport, Brent I; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Jarcho, Johanna M

    2018-05-24

    Socially anxious adolescents report distress during social decision-making, wherein their favorable view of peers directly conflicts with their expectation to be viewed negatively by peers; a phenomenon we refer to as "mismatch bias." The present study utilizes a novel paradigm with dynamic social stimuli to explore the correlates of mismatch biases in anxious and healthy youth. The behavioral and neural correlates of mismatch biases were assessed in healthy (N = 17) and anxious (N = 14) youth during functional MRI. Participants completed a novel task where they viewed silent videos of unknown peers. After viewing each video, participants appraised the social desirability of the peer ("How much do you think you would like them [if you met them]") or predicted how socially desirable the peer would find them ("How much do you think they would like you [if you met them]"). Each participant's mismatch bias was calculated as the difference between their appraisal of peers and their prediction of peers' appraisal of them. We found that anxious youth exhibited mismatch bias: they rated unknown peers as more desirable than they predicted peers would rate them. This effect was not present in the healthy group. Mismatch biases were associated with increased engagement of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), a region broadly involved in flexible cognitions and behavioral selection. In addition, greater mismatch biases and vlPFC activation during mismatch biases were associated with more severe anxiety symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of understanding mismatch biases to inform treatments that target distress elicited by discrepant social appraisals in anxious youth.

  8. Auditory mismatch impairments are characterized by core neural dysfunctions in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gaebler, Arnim Johannes; Mathiak, Klaus; Koten, Jan Willem; König, Andrea Anna; Koush, Yury; Weyer, David; Depner, Conny; Matentzoglu, Simeon; Edgar, James Christopher; Willmes, Klaus; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Major theories on the neural basis of schizophrenic core symptoms highlight aberrant salience network activity (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), prefrontal hypoactivation, sensory processing deficits as well as an impaired connectivity between temporal and prefrontal cortices. The mismatch negativity is a potential biomarker of schizophrenia and its reduction might be a consequence of each of these mechanisms. In contrast to the previous electroencephalographic studies, functional magnetic resonance imaging may disentangle the involved brain networks at high spatial resolution and determine contributions from localized brain responses and functional connectivity to the schizophrenic impairments. Twenty-four patients and 24 matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during an optimized auditory mismatch task. Haemodynamic responses and functional connectivity were compared between groups. These data sets further entered a diagnostic classification analysis to assess impairments on the individual patient level. In the control group, mismatch responses were detected in the auditory cortex, prefrontal cortex and the salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex). Furthermore, mismatch processing was associated with a deactivation of the visual system and the dorsal attention network indicating a shift of resources from the visual to the auditory domain. The patients exhibited reduced activation in all of the respective systems (right auditory cortex, prefrontal cortex, and the salience network) as well as reduced deactivation of the visual system and the dorsal attention network. Group differences were most prominent in the anterior cingulate cortex and adjacent prefrontal areas. The latter regions also exhibited a reduced functional connectivity with the auditory cortex in the patients. In the classification analysis, haemodynamic responses yielded a maximal accuracy of 83% based on four features; functional connectivity

  9. Stoichiometric Mismatch between Consumers and Resources Mediates the Growth of Rocky Intertidal Suspension Feeders

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Matthew E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of ecological stoichiometry—the balancing of elemental ratios in ecological interactions—has transformed our thinking about processes in natural systems. Here, this perspective is applied to rocky shore ecosystems to explore the consequences of variation in internal nutrient ratios across two trophic levels. Specifically, I measured the internal concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mussels (Mytilus spp.) and particulate organic matter (POM) to evaluate the effects of stoichiometric mismatch—the difference in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) between a consumer and its resources—on mussel growth at sites on the coasts of Oregon, USA, and the South Island of New Zealand. As POM quality (i.e., Chl a, a proxy for phytoplankton availability in the POM) increased, C:N of the POM declined, but C:N of mussels increased. This resulted in a greater mismatch in C:N between mussels and their food source at low Chl a. Mussel growth across sites was positively associated with Chl a, particulate organic carbon (POC), and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) but negatively associated with stoichiometric mismatch. Overall, as the elemental ratios of consumers became more different from those of their resources, growth declined, likely due to the energetic cost associated with processing lower quality food. Furthermore, the effect of food quantity on growth depended on stoichiometric mismatch. In New Zealand, where mismatch was high—i.e., consumer C:N differed substantially from resource C:N—consumer growth was strongly affected by resource quantity (Chl a or POC). However, in Oregon, where mismatch was low, the relationship between resource quantity and growth was considerably weaker. This interaction between resource quantity and mismatch was not apparent for PON, which is consistent with variation in PON underlying variation in POM C:N and highlights the role of N in limiting growth. Previous research has neglected the importance of ecological

  10. Binding of insertion/deletion DNA mismatches by the heterodimer of yeast mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH3.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Y; Sung, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1996-09-01

    DNA-mismatch repair removes mismatches from the newly replicated DNA strand. In humans, mutations in the mismatch repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1 and hPMS2 result in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) [1-8]. The hMSH2 (MSH for MutS homologue) protein forms a complex with a 160 kDa protein, and this heterodimer, hMutSalpha, has high affinity for a G/T mismatch [9,10]. Cell lines in which the 160 kDa subunit of hMutSalpha is mutated are specifically defective in the repair of base-base and single-nucleotide insertion/deletion mismatches [9,11]. Genetic studies in S. cerevisiae have suggested that MSH2 functions with either MSH3 or MSH6 in mismatch repair, and, in the absence of the latter two genes, MSH2 is inactive [12,13]. MSH6 encodes the yeast counterpart of the 160 kDa subunit of hMutSalpha [12,13]. As in humans, yeast MSH6 forms a complex with MSH2, and the MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer binds a G/T mismatch [14]. Here, we find that MSH2 and MSH3 form another stable heterodimer, and we purify this heterodimer to near homogeneity. We show that MSH2-MSH3 has low affinity for a G/T mismatch but binds to insertion/deletion mismatches with high specificity, unlike MSH2-MSH6.

  11. Applying different equations to evaluate the level of mismatch between students and school furniture.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

    2014-07-01

    The mismatch between students and school furniture is likely to result in a number of negative effects, such as uncomfortable body posture, pain, and ultimately, it may also affect the learning process. This study's main aim is to review the literature describing the criteria equations for defining the mismatch between students and school furniture, to apply these equations to a specific sample and, based on the results, to propose a methodology to evaluate school furniture suitability. The literature review comprises one publications database, which was used to identify the studies carried out in the field of the abovementioned mismatch. The sample used for testing the different equations was composed of 2261 volunteer subjects from 14 schools. Fifteen studies were found to meet the criteria of this review and 21 equations to test 6 furniture dimensions were identified. Regarding seat height, there are considerable differences between the two most frequently used equations. Although seat to desk clearance was evaluated by knee height, this condition seems to be based on the false assumption that students are sitting on a chair with a proper seat height. Finally, the proposed methodology for suitability evaluation of school furniture should allow for a more reliable analysis of school furniture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  13. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  14. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Megan V.; Alisaukas, Ray T.; Douglas, David C.; Kellett, Dana K.

    2017-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992–2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May–30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment

  15. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Ross, Megan V; Alisauskas, Ray T; Douglas, David C; Kellett, Dana K

    2017-07-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May-30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment, leading

  16. UGT2B17 minor histocompatibility mismatch and clinical outcome after HLA-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Santos, N; Rodríguez-Romanos, R; Nieto, J B; Buño, I; Vallejo, C; Jiménez-Velasco, A; Brunet, S; Buces, E; López-Jiménez, J; González, M; Ferrá, C; Sampol, A; de la Cámara, R; Martínez, C; Gallardo, D

    2016-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility Ags (mHags) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) gene deletion may act as a mHag and its association with acute GVHD (aGVHD) has been described. We retrospectively studied the clinical impact of a UGT2B17 mismatch in a cohort of 1127 patients receiving a HSCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor. UGT2B17 mismatch was present in 69 cases (6.1%). Incidence of severe aGVHD was higher in the UGT2B17 mismatched pairs (22.7% vs 14.6%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P: 0.098). We did not detect differences in chronic GVHD, overall survival, relapse-free survival, transplant-related mortality or relapse. Nevertheless, when we analyzed only those patients receiving grafts from a male donor (616 cases), aGVHD was significantly higher in the UGT2B17 mismatched group (25.1% vs 12.8%; P: 0.005) and this association was confirmed by the multivariate analysis (P: 0.043; hazard ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.57). Overall survival was worse for patients mismatched for UGT2B17 (P: 0.005). We conclude that UGT2B17 mismatch has a negative clinical impact in allogeneic HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors only when a male donor is used. These results should be confirmed by other studies.

  17. Replication infidelity via a mismatch with Watson–Crick geometry

    PubMed Central

    Bebenek, Katarzyna; Pedersen, Lars C.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    In describing the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick suggested that “spontaneous mutation may be due to a base occasionally occurring in one of its less likely tautomeric forms.” Indeed, among many mispairing possibilities, either tautomerization or ionization of bases might allow a DNA polymerase to insert a mismatch with correct Watson–Crick geometry. However, despite substantial progress in understanding the structural basis of error prevention during polymerization, no DNA polymerase has yet been shown to form a natural base–base mismatch with Watson–Crick-like geometry. Here we provide such evidence, in the form of a crystal structure of a human DNA polymerase λ variant poised to misinsert dGTP opposite a template T. All atoms needed for catalysis are present at the active site and in positions that overlay with those for a correct base pair. The mismatch has Watson–Crick geometry consistent with a tautomeric or ionized base pair, with the pH dependence of misinsertion consistent with the latter. The results support the original idea that a base substitution can originate from a mismatch having Watson–Crick geometry, and they suggest a common catalytic mechanism for inserting a correct and an incorrect nucleotide. A second structure indicates that after misinsertion, the now primer-terminal G•T mismatch is also poised for catalysis but in the wobble conformation seen in other studies, indicating the dynamic nature of the pathway required to create a mismatch in fully duplex DNA. PMID:21233421

  18. Replication infidelity via a mismatch with Watson-Crick geometry.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Katarzyna; Pedersen, Lars C; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2011-02-01

    In describing the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick suggested that "spontaneous mutation may be due to a base occasionally occurring in one of its less likely tautomeric forms." Indeed, among many mispairing possibilities, either tautomerization or ionization of bases might allow a DNA polymerase to insert a mismatch with correct Watson-Crick geometry. However, despite substantial progress in understanding the structural basis of error prevention during polymerization, no DNA polymerase has yet been shown to form a natural base-base mismatch with Watson-Crick-like geometry. Here we provide such evidence, in the form of a crystal structure of a human DNA polymerase λ variant poised to misinsert dGTP opposite a template T. All atoms needed for catalysis are present at the active site and in positions that overlay with those for a correct base pair. The mismatch has Watson-Crick geometry consistent with a tautomeric or ionized base pair, with the pH dependence of misinsertion consistent with the latter. The results support the original idea that a base substitution can originate from a mismatch having Watson-Crick geometry, and they suggest a common catalytic mechanism for inserting a correct and an incorrect nucleotide. A second structure indicates that after misinsertion, the now primer-terminal G • T mismatch is also poised for catalysis but in the wobble conformation seen in other studies, indicating the dynamic nature of the pathway required to create a mismatch in fully duplex DNA.

  19. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Patient-prosthesis mismatch in aortic valve replacement: really tolerable?

    PubMed

    Fuster, Rafael García; Montero Argudo, José A; Albarova, Oscar Gil; Sos, Fernando Hornero; López, Sergio Cánovas; Codoñer, María Bueno; Buendía Miñano, José A; Albarran, Ignacio Rodríguez

    2005-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated favorable results despite patient-prosthesis mismatch after aortic valve replacement with the use of third generation prostheses. Our aim was to determine whether this mismatch is always tolerable. A clinical-echocardiographic study has been performed in 339 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement because of aortic stenosis. In-hospital outcome and left ventricular mass index regression (1st month-1st year) were analyzed in the presence or absence of mismatch (indexed effective orifice area < or =0.85cm(2)/m(2)). The influence of high degrees of preoperative left ventricular mass on in-hospital mortality has also been evaluated. Left ventricular mass index was considered increased if the calculated value was over the superior quartile of the frequency distribution of all the values observed in both sexes. Mismatch was found in 38% of the patients. In the absence of mismatch, the absolute mass regression was proportional to the preoperative left ventricular mass. This regression was higher in patients with increased left ventricular mass indexed (vs not increased): -38.0+/-7.8 vs -8.8+/-4.7g/m(2), p<0.01 (1st month) and -67.7+/-16.9vs -23.5+/-6.7g/m(2), p<0.05 (1st year). Mass regression was impaired in the presence of mismatch, particularly, in patients with previously increased left ventricular mass: -8.2+/-11.6 vs -5.6+/-6.3g/m(2) (p=0.83) and -24.6+/-12.6 vs -11.7+/-10.5g/m(2) (p=0.54). This worse regression was reflected on a 100% incidence of residual hypertrophy at follow-up (1st month-1st year). In the presence of mismatch, increased ventricular mass was associated with higher mortality: 14.7% vs 2.1% (p<0.01). In the absence of mismatch, ventricular mass was not associated with mortality: 4.1 vs 2.5% (p=0.55). In patients with severe ventricular hypertrophy it may be important to elude patient-prosthesis mismatch to avoid a significant increase in mortality and improve ventricular mass regression

  2. DNA mismatch-specific targeting and hypersensitivity of mismatch-repair-deficient cells to bulky rhodium(III) intercalators

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jonathan R.; Glebov, Oleg; Ernst, Russell J.; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2006-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is critical to maintaining the integrity of the genome, and deficiencies in MMR are correlated with cancerous transformations. Bulky rhodium intercalators target DNA base mismatches with high specificity. Here we describe the application of bulky rhodium intercalators to inhibit cellular proliferation differentially in MMR-deficient cells compared with cells that are MMR-proficient. Preferential inhibition by the rhodium complexes associated with MMR deficiency is seen both in a human colon cancer cell line and in normal mouse fibroblast cells; the inhibition of cellular proliferation depends strictly on the MMR deficiency of the cell. Furthermore, our assay of cellular proliferation is found to correlate with DNA mismatch targeting by the bulky metallointercalators. It is the Δ-isomer that is active both in targeting base mismatches and in inhibiting DNA synthesis. Additionally, the rhodium intercalators promote strand cleavage at the mismatch site with photoactivation, and we observe that the cellular response is enhanced with photoactivation. Targeting DNA mismatches may therefore provide a cell-selective strategy for chemotherapeutic design. PMID:17030786

  3. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  4. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    approach for applying model checking to unbounded systems is to extract finite state models from them using conservative abstraction techniques. Prop...36 2.5.1 Multiple Reference Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.5.2 Adding Monitor Processes...model checking to complex pieces of code like device drivers depends on the use of abstraction methods. An abstraction method extracts a small finite

  5. Stereotype Threat Reinterpreted as a Regulatory Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Lisa R.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd; Baldwin, Grant C.

    2008-01-01

    Research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. We combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows us to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. We draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce a prevention focus, and other research suggesting that people exhibit greater flexibility when their regulatory focus matches the reward structure of the task. This work suggests that stereotype threat effects emerge from a prevention focus combined with tasks that have an explicit or implicit gains reward structure. We find flexible performance can be induced in individuals who have a negative task-relevant stereotype by using a losses reward structure. We demonstrate the interaction of stereotypes and the reward structure of the task using chronic stereotypes and GRE math problems (Experiment 1), and primed stereotypes and a category learning task (Experiments 2a and 2b). We discuss implications of this research for other work on stereotype threat. PMID:19159133

  6. Supply-demand mismatch transients in susceptible peri-infarct hot zones explain the origins of spreading injury depolarizations.

    PubMed

    von Bornstädt, Daniel; Houben, Thijs; Seidel, Jessica L; Zheng, Yi; Dilekoz, Ergin; Qin, Tao; Sandow, Nora; Kura, Sreekanth; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Endres, Matthias; Boas, David A; Moskowitz, Michael A; Lo, Eng H; Dreier, Jens P; Woitzik, Johannes; Sakadžić, Sava; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-03-04

    Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are seemingly spontaneous spreading depression-like waves that negatively impact tissue outcome in both experimental and human stroke. Factors triggering PIDs are unknown. Here, we show that somatosensory activation of peri-infarct cortex triggers PIDs when the activated cortex is within a critical range of ischemia. We show that the mechanism involves increased oxygen utilization within the activated cortex, worsening the supply-demand mismatch. We support the concept by clinical data showing that mismatch predisposes stroke patients to PIDs as well. Conversely, transient worsening of mismatch by episodic hypoxemia or hypotension also reproducibly triggers PIDs. Therefore, PIDs are triggered upon supply-demand mismatch transients in metastable peri-infarct hot zones due to increased demand or reduced supply. Based on the data, we propose that minimizing sensory stimulation and hypoxic or hypotensive transients in stroke and brain injury would reduce PID incidence and their adverse impact on outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced entrainability of genetic oscillators by period mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Biological oscillators coordinate individual cellular components so that they function coherently and collectively. They are typically composed of multiple feedback loops, and period mismatch is unavoidable in biological implementations. We investigated the advantageous effect of this period mismatch in terms of a synchronization response to external stimuli. Specifically, we considered two fundamental models of genetic circuits: smooth and relaxation oscillators. Using phase reduction and Floquet multipliers, we numerically analysed their entrainability under different coupling strengths and period ratios. We found that a period mismatch induces better entrainment in both types of oscillator; the enhancement occurs in the vicinity of the bifurcation on their limit cycles. In the smooth oscillator, the optimal period ratio for the enhancement coincides with the experimentally observed ratio, which suggests biological exploitation of the period mismatch. Although the origin of multiple feedback loops is often explained as a passive mechanism to ensure robustness against perturbation, we study the active benefits of the period mismatch, which include increasing the efficiency of the genetic oscillators. Our findings show a qualitatively different perspective for both the inherent advantages of multiple loops and their essentiality. PMID:23389900

  8. Coordination success and interpersonal perceptions: matching versus mismatching.

    PubMed

    Abele, Susanne; Stasser, Garold

    2008-09-01

    Coordination is an essential part of social functioning. The authors distinguish 2 types of coordination: matching and mismatching. In matching, coordination is successful if parties choose the same action. In mismatching, coordination is successful if people choose different actions. In 3 studies, the authors investigated the downstream social consequences of tacit coordination for interpersonal perceptions. In all studies, participants repeatedly choose between 2 bets with equivalent expected values, and payoffs increased either when they choose the same bet or when they choose different bets. In the 1st 2 studies, coordination success increased the perceptions of interpersonal similarity and liking when matching was required but not when mismatching was required. The authors' interpretation is that matching responses and coordination success had countervailing effects in the mismatching task. Also, percentage of matched responses did not affect perceptions when coordination was not required (Experiment 2). In 4 person teams, a frequently matching partner was viewed more favorably (smarter, more similar to self, and more liked) than were other teammates, even when mismatching increased payoffs (Experiment 3).

  9. Mismatch cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Till, Bradley J.; Burtner, Chris; Comai, Luca; Henikoff, Steven

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of single-strand specific (sss) nucleases from different sources to cleave single base pair mismatches in heteroduplex DNA templates used for mutation and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) mismatch cleavage protocol was used with the LI-COR gel detection system to assay cleavage of amplified heteroduplexes derived from a variety of induced mutations and naturally occurring polymorphisms. We found that purified nucleases derived from celery (CEL I), mung bean sprouts and Aspergillus (S1) were able to specifically cleave nearly all single base pair mismatches tested. Optimal nicking of heteroduplexes for mismatch detection was achieved using higher pH, temperature and divalent cation conditions than are routinely used for digestion of single-stranded DNA. Surprisingly, crude plant extracts performed as well as the highly purified preparations for this application. These observations suggest that diverse members of the S1 family of sss nucleases act similarly in cleaving non-specifically at bulges in heteroduplexes, and single-base mismatches are the least accessible because they present the smallest single-stranded region for enzyme binding. We conclude that a variety of sss nucleases and extracts can be effectively used for high-throughput mutation and polymorphism discovery. PMID:15141034

  10. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  11. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein–protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes. PMID:25635869

  12. Mismatches in genetic markers in a large family study.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, G C

    1980-01-01

    The Hawaii Family Study of Cognition provided an opportunity to investigate the frequency and implications of non-agreement, or mismatches, between observed and expected genetic marker phenotypes of husbands, wives, and children. Mismatch data from 68 families in which one or both spouses were known not to be a biological parent were used to determine the rate of undeclared nonparentage in 1,748 families in which conventional relationships were claimed. Two independent approaches gave consistent estimates, suggesting that approximately 2.3% of the 2,839 tested children from these families were probably the result of infidelity, concealed adoption, or another event. About two-thirds of the mismatches detected were probably due to properties of the techniques employed. PMID:6930820

  13. High fitness costs of climate change-induced camouflage mismatch.

    PubMed

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L Scott; Nowak, J Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has created myriad stressors that threaten to cause local extinctions if wild populations fail to adapt to novel conditions. We studied individual and population-level fitness costs of a climate change-induced stressor: camouflage mismatch in seasonally colour molting species confronting decreasing snow cover duration. Based on field measurements of radiocollared snowshoe hares, we found strong selection on coat colour molt phenology, such that animals mismatched with the colour of their background experienced weekly survival decreases up to 7%. In the absence of adaptive response, we show that these mortality costs would result in strong population-level declines by the end of the century. However, natural selection acting on wide individual variation in molt phenology might enable evolutionary adaptation to camouflage mismatch. We conclude that evolutionary rescue will be critical for hares and other colour molting species to keep up with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Duration of Auditory Sensory Memory in Parents of Children with SLI: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Johanna G.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Line, Elizabeth; White, Katherine B.; Yasin, Ifat; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, we showed that parents of children with SLI had a subclinical deficit in phonological short-term memory. Here, we tested the hypothesis that they also have a deficit in nonverbal auditory sensory memory. We measured auditory sensory memory using a paradigm involving an electrophysiological component called the…

  15. Mismatch Negativity in essential tremor: role of age at onset in pre-attentive auditory discrimination.

    PubMed

    Pauletti, C; Mannarelli, D; Locuratolo, N; Vanacore, N; De Lucia, M C; Fattapposta, F

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether pre-attentive auditory discrimination is impaired in patients with essential tremor (ET) and to evaluate the role of age at onset in this function. Seventeen non-demented patients with ET and seventeen age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent an EEG recording during a classical auditory MMN paradigm. MMN latency was significantly prolonged in patients with elderly-onset ET (>65 years) (p=0.046), while no differences emerged in either latency or amplitude between young-onset ET patients and controls. This study represents a tentative indication of a dysfunction of auditory automatic change detection in elderly-onset ET patients, pointing to a selective attentive deficit in this subgroup of ET patients. The delay in pre-attentive auditory discrimination, which affects elderly-onset ET patients alone, further supports the hypothesis that ET represents a heterogeneous family of diseases united by tremor; these diseases are characterized by cognitive differences that may range from a disturbance in a selective cognitive function, such as the automatic part of the orienting response, to more widespread and complex cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inequality across Consonantal Contrasts in Speech Perception: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Sonia A.; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The precise structure of speech sound representations is still a matter of debate. In the present neurobiological study, we compared predictions about differential sensitivity to speech contrasts between models that assume full specification of all phonological information in the mental lexicon with those assuming sparse representations (only…

  17. Mismatch Negativity Responses in Children with a Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froud, Karen; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a hypothesis suggesting that apraxia of speech results from phonological overspecification could be relevant for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: High-density EEG was recorded from 5 children with CAS and 5 matched controls, ages 5-8 years, with and without CAS, as they listened to randomized sequences of CV…

  18. Auditory Phoneme Discrimination in Illiterates: Mismatch Negativity--A Question of Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaadt, Gesa; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-01-01

    These days, illiteracy is still a major problem. There is empirical evidence that auditory phoneme discrimination is one of the factors contributing to written language acquisition. The current study investigated auditory phoneme discrimination in participants who did not acquire written language sufficiently. Auditory phoneme discrimination was…

  19. Atypical Mismatch Negativity to Distressful Voices Associated with Conduct Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, An-Yi; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Cheng, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a general consensus holds that emotional reactivity in youth with conduct disorder (CD) symptoms arises as one of the main causes of successive aggression, it remains to be determined whether automatic emotional processing is altered in this population. Methods: We measured auditory event-related potentials (ERP) in 20 young…

  20. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaomei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Tang, Di; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs). This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  1. Is Auditory Discrimination Mature by Middle Childhood? A Study Using Time-Frequency Analysis of Mismatch Responses from 7 Years to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological studies give differing impressions of when auditory discrimination is mature. Ability to discriminate frequency and speech contrasts reaches adult levels only around 12 years of age, yet an electrophysiological index of auditory discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN), is reported to be as large in…

  2. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: Do we know it?

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, C; Challa, Vasu Reddy; Shetty, Rachan

    2014-04-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome caused by homozygous mutations in mismatch repair genes. This is characterized by the childhood onset of brain tumors, colorectal cancers, cutaneous manifestations of neurofibromatosis-1 like café au lait spots, hematological malignancies, and occasionally other rare malignancies. Here, we would like to present a family in which the sibling had glioblastoma, and the present case had acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and colorectal cancer. We would like to present this case because of its rarity and would add to literature.

  3. Neighboring extremal optimal control design including model mismatch errors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.J.; Hull, D.G.

    1994-11-01

    The mismatch control technique that is used to simplify model equations of motion in order to determine analytic optimal control laws is extended using neighboring extremal theory. The first variation optimal control equations are linearized about the extremal path to account for perturbations in the initial state and the final constraint manifold. A numerical example demonstrates that the tuning procedure inherent in the mismatch control method increases the performance of the controls to the level of a numerically-determined piecewise-linear controller.

  4. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearlymore » point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.« less

  5. (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will review the application of NASA developed remote sensing technology towards the monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards. The overview will be followed by recent data on three specific natural hazard applications.

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  7. Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that evaluated features of TEXNET abstracting software, compared the use of keywords and phrases that were automatically extracted, tested hypotheses about relations between abstractors' backgrounds and their reactions to abstracting assistance software, and obtained ideas for further features to be developed in TEXNET.…

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVI, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) music in the biology classroom; (2) pairing English as a second language and freshman composition students in writing activities; (3) moot court exercises in…

  9. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  10. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  11. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  12. Abstracts of Research Papers 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drowatzky, John N., Ed.

    This publication includes the abstracts of 199 research papers presented at the 1970 American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation convention in Seattle, Washington. Abstracts from symposia on environmental quality education, obesity, motor development, research methods, and laboratory equipment are also included. Each…

  13. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  14. Energetic basis for selective recognition of T*G mismatched base pairs in DNA by imidazole-rich polyamides.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Eilyn R; Nguyen, Binh; Le, Minh; Cox, Kari K; OHare, Caroline; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses; Wilson, W David

    2004-01-01

    To complement available structure and binding results and to develop a detailed understanding of the basis for selective molecular recognition of T.G mismatches in DNA by imidazole containing polyamides, a full thermodynamic profile for formation of the T.G-polyamide complex has been determined. The amide-linked heterocycles f-ImImIm and f-PyImIm (where f is formamido group, Im is imidazole and Py is pyrrole) were studied by using biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with a T.G mismatch containing DNA hairpin duplex and a similar DNA with only Watson-Crick base pairs. Large negative binding enthalpies for all of the polyamide-DNA complexes indicate that the interactions are enthalpically driven. SPR results show slower complex formation and stronger binding of f-ImImIm to the T.G than to the match site. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the enhanced binding to the T.G site is the result of better entropic contributions. Negative heat capacity changes for the complex are correlated with calculated solvent accessible surface area changes and indicate hydrophobic contributions to complex formation. DNase I footprinting analysis in a long DNA sequence provided supporting evidence that f-ImImIm binds selectively to T.G mismatch sites.

  15. Energetic basis for selective recognition of T·G mismatched base pairs in DNA by imidazole-rich polyamides

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Eilyn R.; Nguyen, Binh; Le, Minh; Cox, Kari K.; O'Hare, Caroline; Hartley, John A.; Lee, Moses; Wilson, W. David

    2004-01-01

    To complement available structure and binding results and to develop a detailed understanding of the basis for selective molecular recognition of T·G mismatches in DNA by imidazole containing polyamides, a full thermodynamic profile for formation of the T·G–polyamide complex has been determined. The amide-linked heterocycles f-ImImIm and f-PyImIm (where f is formamido group, Im is imidazole and Py is pyrrole) were studied by using biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with a T·G mismatch containing DNA hairpin duplex and a similar DNA with only Watson–Crick base pairs. Large negative binding enthalpies for all of the polyamide–DNA complexes indicate that the interactions are enthalpically driven. SPR results show slower complex formation and stronger binding of f-ImImIm to the T·G than to the match site. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the enhanced binding to the T·G site is the result of better entropic contributions. Negative heat capacity changes for the complex are correlated with calculated solvent accessible surface area changes and indicate hydrophobic contributions to complex formation. DNase I footprinting analysis in a long DNA sequence provided supporting evidence that f-ImImIm binds selectively to T·G mismatch sites. PMID:15064359

  16. Discriminating DNA mismatches by electrochemical and gravimetric techniques.

    PubMed

    Mazouz, Zouhour; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Ommezine, Asma; Rebhi, Lamia; Yaakoubi, Nourdin; Kalfat, Rafik; Othmane, Ali

    2013-10-15

    A silicon nitride functionalized electrode and a 104 MHz lithium tantalate (LiTaO₃) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor have been used to investigate target-probe recognition processes. Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements have been considered to monitor hybridization of single base mismatch (SBM) in synthetic oligonucleotides and single-nucleotide polymorphisms ApoE in real clinical genotypes. Obvious discrimination of SBM in nucleotides has been shown by both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques, without labeling nor amplification. Investigations on mismatches nature and position have also been considered. For guanine-adenine (GA), guanine-thymine (GT) and guanine-guanine (GG) mismatches, the sensors responses present a dependence upon positions. Considering the capacitance variations and hybridization rates, results showed that gravimetric transduction is more sensitive than electrochemical one. Moreover, the highest value of GT hybridization rate (in the middle position) was found in accordance with the nearest-neighbor model, where the considered configuration appears as the most thermodynamically stable. For the real samples, where the electrochemical transduction, by combining capacitance and flat-band potential measurements, were found more sensitive, the results show that the realized sensor permits an unambiguous discrimination of recognition between fully complementary, non-complementary and single base mismatched targets, and even between the combination of differently matched strands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supply and Demand Mismatches in Training: Can Anything Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; de Andrade, Antonio Cabral

    1990-01-01

    Vocational training often fails to provide what employers need and students want. To correct supply/demand mismatches requires improving feedback from employers, increasing the flow of information, bringing schools closer to businesses, rewarding institutions for successful employment of graduates, and providing incentives for entrepreneurs. (SK)

  18. Implications of segment mismatch for influenza A virus evolution

    PubMed Central

    White, Maria C.; Lowen, Anice C.

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an RNA virus with a segmented genome. These viral properties allow for the rapid evolution of IAV under selective pressure, due to mutation occurring from error-prone replication and the exchange of gene segments within a co-infected cell, termed reassortment. Both mutation and reassortment give rise to genetic diversity, but constraints shape their impact on viral evolution: just as most mutations are deleterious, most reassortment events result in genetic incompatibilities. The phenomenon of segment mismatch encompasses both RNA- and protein-based incompatibilities between co-infecting viruses and results in the production of progeny viruses with fitness defects. Segment mismatch is an important determining factor of the outcomes of mixed IAV infections and has been addressed in multiple risk assessment studies undertaken to date. However, due to the complexity of genetic interactions among the eight viral gene segments, our understanding of segment mismatch and its underlying mechanisms remain incomplete. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding segment mismatch and discuss the implications of this phenomenon for IAV reassortment and diversity. PMID:29244017

  19. Skills Mismatch among University Graduates in the Nigeria Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, S. O.

    2012-01-01

    University graduates in Nigeria have been reported to be poorly prepared for work in recent years. This has implications on the relevance of university education, the employability and productivity of university graduates. One of the reasons suggested for this condition by previous studies was skill mismatch--a situation where there is a disparity…

  20. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  1. Phase mismatched optical parametric generation in semiconductor magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.; Jain, Kamal

    2017-05-01

    Optical parametric generation involves the interaction of pump, signal, and idler waves satisfying law of conservation of energy. Phase mismatch parameter plays important role for the spatial distribution of the field along the medium. In this paper instead of exactly matching wave vector, a small mismatch is admitted with a degree of phase velocity mismatch between these waves. Hence the medium must possess certain finite coherence length. This wave mixing process is well explained by coupled mode theory and one dimensional hydrodynamic model. Based on this scheme, expressions for threshold pump field and transmitted intensity have been derived. It is observed that the threshold pump intensity and transmitted intensity can be manipulated by varying doping concentration and magnetic field under phase mismatched condition. A compound semiconductor crystal of n-InSb is assumed to be shined at 77 K by a 10.6μm CO2 laser with photon energy well below band gap energy of the crystal, so that only free charge carrier influence the optical properties of the medium for the I.R. parametric generation in a semiconductor plasma medium. Favorable parameters were explored to incite the said process keeping in mind the cost effectiveness and conversion efficiency of the process.

  2. Minority Students and Research Universities: How to Overcome the "Mismatch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A controversial theory much in the news lately claims that affirmative action is often unfair to the very students it is intended to help. Called the "mismatch" theory, it suggests that underrepresented minority students are more likely to leave science, math, and engineering when, because of affirmative action, they attend colleges for which they…

  3. Frequency-response mismatch effects in Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.; Qu, J.-F.

    2018-02-01

    Johnson noise thermometry is of considerable interest at present due to the planned redefinition of the kelvin in 2019, and several determinations of the Boltzmann constant have recently been published in support of the redefinition. To determine the Boltzmann constant by noise thermometry, the thermal noise from a sensing resistor at the triple point of water is compared to a pseudo-random noise with a calculable power spectral density traceable to quantum electrical standards. In all the measurements to date, the two dominant sources of measurement uncertainty are strongly influenced by a single factor: the frequency-response mismatch between the sets of leads connecting the thermometer to the two noise sources. In the most recent determination at the National Institute of Metrology, China, substantial changes were made to the connecting leads to reduce the mismatch effects. The aims of this paper are, firstly, to describe and explain the rationale for the changes, and secondly, to better understand the effects of the least-squares fits and the bias-variance compromise in the analysis of measurements affected by the mismatch effects. While significant improvements can be made to the connecting leads to lessen the effects of the frequency-response mismatch, the efforts are unlikely to be rewarded by a significant increase in bandwidth or a significant reduction in uncertainty.

  4. Mismatch in Law School. NBER Working Paper No. 14275

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jesse; Yoon, Albert

    2008-01-01

    An important criticism of race-based higher education admission preferences is that they may hurt minority students who attend more selective schools than they would in the absence of such preferences. We categorize the non-experimental research designs available for the study of so-called "mismatch" effects and evaluate the likely biases in each.…

  5. Educational Mismatch and Spatial Flexibility in Italian Local Labour Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Giuseppe; Ghignoni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    According to recent literature, this paper highlights the relevance of spatial mobility as an explanatory factor of the individual risk of job-education mismatch. To investigate this causal link, we use individual information about daily home-to-work commuting time and choices to relocate in a different local area to get a job. Our model takes…

  6. Negative Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    others and their self-image as a leader (yellow light type of leader). “Toxic” leaders were described as being maladjusted , malcontent, and often...negative or toxic leadership (assuming they are using the correct definition), or do they, based on the social environment they grew up in, feel

  7. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  8. HLA-DQ Mismatching and Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Leeaphorn, Napat; Pena, Jeremy Ryan A; Thamcharoen, Natanong; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Pavlakis, Martha; Cardarelli, Francesca

    2018-05-07

    Recent evidence suggests that HLA epitope-mismatching at HLA-DQ loci is associated with the development of anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies and adverse graft outcomes. However, the clinical significance of broad antigen HLA-DQ mismatching for graft outcomes is not well examined. Using the United Network Organ Sharing/the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN) data, patients with primary kidney transplants performed between 2005 and 2014 were included. Patients were classified as having either zero HLA-DQ mismatches, or one or two HLA-DQ mismatches. Primary outcomes were death-censored graft survival and incidence of acute rejection. A total of 93,782 patients were included. Of these, 22,730 (24%) and 71,052 (76%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. After adjusting for variables including HLA-ABDR, HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in living kidney donor recipients with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.18 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.07 to 1.30; P <0.01), but not in deceased kidney donor recipients (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.12; P =0.18) ( P value for interaction <0.01). When taking cold ischemic time into account, HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time ≤17 hours (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P =0.002), but not in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time >17 hours (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.06; P =0.49) ( P value for interaction <0.01). Recipients with one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys had a higher incidence of acute rejection at 1 year, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.23; P <0.01) in deceased donor and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.27; P =0.02) in living donor kidney transplant recipients. Specific donor-DQ mismatches seemed to be associated with the risk of acute rejection and graft failure, whereas others did not. HLA-DQ mismatching is

  9. Matches, Mismatches, and Methods: Multiple-View Workflows for Energy Portfolio Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brehmer, Matthew; Ng, Jocelyn; Tate, Kevin; Munzner, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The energy performance of large building portfolios is challenging to analyze and monitor, as current analysis tools are not scalable or they present derived and aggregated data at too coarse of a level. We conducted a visualization design study, beginning with a thorough work domain analysis and a characterization of data and task abstractions. We describe generalizable visual encoding design choices for time-oriented data framed in terms of matches and mismatches, as well as considerations for workflow design. Our designs address several research questions pertaining to scalability, view coordination, and the inappropriateness of line charts for derived and aggregated data due to a combination of data semantics and domain convention. We also present guidelines relating to familiarity and trust, as well as methodological considerations for visualization design studies. Our designs were adopted by our collaborators and incorporated into the design of an energy analysis software application that will be deployed to tens of thousands of energy workers in their client base.

  10. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  12. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  13. Diff-seq: A high throughput sequencing-based mismatch detection assay for DNA variant enrichment and discovery

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Vlad O; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Varghese, Vici; Shafer, Robert W; Greenleaf, William J; Sherlock, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Much of the within species genetic variation is in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), typically detected by whole genome sequencing (WGS) or microarray-based technologies. However, WGS produces mostly uninformative reads that perfectly match the reference, while microarrays require genome-specific reagents. We have developed Diff-seq, a sequencing-based mismatch detection assay for SNP discovery without the requirement for specialized nucleic-acid reagents. Diff-seq leverages the Surveyor endonuclease to cleave mismatched DNA molecules that are generated after cross-annealing of a complex pool of DNA fragments. Sequencing libraries enriched for Surveyor-cleaved molecules result in increased coverage at the variant sites. Diff-seq detected all mismatches present in an initial test substrate, with specific enrichment dependent on the identity and context of the variation. Application to viral sequences resulted in increased observation of variant alleles in a biologically relevant context. Diff-Seq has the potential to increase the sensitivity and efficiency of high-throughput sequencing in the detection of variation. PMID:29361139

  14. Climate change effects on migration phenology may mismatch brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa; Sokolov, Leonid V; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Møller, Anders P

    2009-08-23

    Phenological responses to climate change vary among taxa and across trophic levels. This can lead to a mismatch between the life cycles of ecologically interrelated populations (e.g. predators and prey), with negative consequences for population dynamics of some of the interacting species. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that climate change might disrupt the association between the life cycles of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), a migratory brood parasitic bird, and its hosts. We investigated changes in timing of spring arrival of the cuckoo and its hosts throughout Europe over six decades, and found that short-distance, but not long-distance, migratory hosts have advanced their arrival more than the cuckoo. Hence, cuckoos may keep track of phenological changes of long-distance, but not short-distance migrant hosts, with potential consequences for breeding of both cuckoo and hosts. The mismatch to some of the important hosts may contribute to the decline of cuckoo populations and explain some of the observed local changes in parasitism rates of migratory hosts.

  15. Understanding Emotions in Frontotemporal Dementia: The Explicit and Implicit Emotional Cue Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Cotelli, Maria; Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Cosseddu, Maura; Premi, Enrico; Gasparotti, Roberto; Zanetti, Orazio; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported significant deficits in emotion recognition among individuals along the frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum. The basis of emotional impairment is still poorly understood and explicit (emotion appraisal) and implicit (autonomic system activity) responses have not been carefully evaluated. We investigated explicit evaluation of emotions by testing valence and arousal using self-report measures and we also assessed automatic responses to emotional cues, using autonomic measures (skin conductance response and heart rate). 16 behavioral variant FTD and 12 agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia patients were included. The performance of these patients was compared to a group of 14 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 healthy controls. Each subject was required to observe and evaluate affective pictures while autonomic parameters were recorded. FTD patients preserved a functional general competency in terms of valence (correct positive versus negative attribution) and arousal (correct dichotomy between high versus low arousal category) distinction. These patients showed significant changes in autonomic implicit response compared to the other groups. The mismatch between explicit and implicit responsiveness to emotional cues was found both in behavioral variant FTD and in agrammatic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Emotional responsiveness was related to the severity of behavioral abnormalities as measured by the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and associated with atrophy of the left putamen. The present findings indicate that FTD patients are able to explicitly "appraise" the emotion, but they cannot implicitly "feel" the emotion. This mismatch between the two levels may help explain the general emotional behavior impairment found in these patients.

  16. Structural studies of the 5'-phenazinium-tethered matched and G-A-mismatched DNA duplexes by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, T; Sandström, A; Ivanova, I M; Sergeyev, D S; Zarytova, V F; Chattopadhyaya, J

    1993-05-01

    optimization using ab initio program (3-21G basis set). It has been shown that mismatched G-A bases are in the anti-anti conformation. The mismatched 7G-1A form stable base pairs through inter-strand hydrogen bonds (N7(A)...HN2(G) (1.92 A) with a subtended angle of 176 degrees and N3(G)...HN6(A) (2.01 A) with a subtended angle of 153 degrees (the 'amino-type' hydrogen bond)) and a propeller twist of 36 degrees for 7G-1A residues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. The Mismatch between Student Educational Expectations and Realities: Prevalence, Causes, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloshonok, Natalia; Terentev, Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to answer three questions concerning (1) the prevalence of the mismatch between student expectations and real university life, (2) factors influencing this mismatch, and (3) the effect of the expectation-reality mismatch on academic performance during the first year of study at university. The results of this study suggest that a…

  18. Phonological mismatch makes aided speech recognition in noise cognitively taxing.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Foo, Catharina; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    The working memory framework for Ease of Language Understanding predicts that speech processing becomes more effortful, thus requiring more explicit cognitive resources, when there is mismatch between speech input and phonological representations in long-term memory. To test this prediction, we changed the compression release settings in the hearing instruments of experienced users and allowed them to train for 9 weeks with the new settings. After training, aided speech recognition in noise was tested with both the trained settings and orthogonal settings. We postulated that training would lead to acclimatization to the trained setting, which in turn would involve establishment of new phonological representations in long-term memory. Further, we postulated that after training, testing with orthogonal settings would give rise to phonological mismatch, associated with more explicit cognitive processing. Thirty-two participants (mean=70.3 years, SD=7.7) with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (pure-tone average=46.0 dB HL, SD=6.5), bilaterally fitted for more than 1 year with digital, two-channel, nonlinear signal processing hearing instruments and chosen from the patient population at the Linköping University Hospital were randomly assigned to 9 weeks training with new, fast (40 ms) or slow (640 ms), compression release settings in both channels. Aided speech recognition in noise performance was tested according to a design with three within-group factors: test occasion (T1, T2), test setting (fast, slow), and type of noise (unmodulated, modulated) and one between-group factor: experience setting (fast, slow) for two types of speech materials-the highly constrained Hagerman sentences and the less-predictable Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Complex cognitive capacity was measured using the reading span and letter monitoring tests. PREDICTION: We predicted that speech recognition in noise at T2 with mismatched experience and test settings would be associated with more

  19. Immunohistochemistry for PMS2 and MSH6 alone can replace a four antibody panel for mismatch repair deficiency screening in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Geoffrey; Clarkson, Adele; Shi, Amanda; Langford, Eileen; Leung, Helen; Eckstein, Robert P; Gill, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Currently, testing for mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancers is initiated by performing immunohistochemistry with four antibodies (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6). If any one of these stains is negative the tumour is considered microsatellite unstable and, if clinical circumstances warrant it, the patient is offered genetic testing for Lynch's syndrome. Due to the binding properties of the mismatch repair heterodimer complexes, gene mutation and loss of MLH1 and MSH2 invariably result in the degradation of PMS2 and MSH6, respectively, but the converse is not true. We propose that staining for PMS2 and MSH6 alone will be sufficient to detect all cases of mismatch repair deficiency and should replace routine screening with all four antibodies. The electronic database of the department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia, was searched for all colorectal carcinomas on which a four panel immunohistochemical microsatellite instability screen was performed. An audit of the slides for concordant loss of MLH1-PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 was then undertaken. Unusual or discordant cases were reviewed and, in some cases, re-stained to confirm the staining pattern. Of 344 cases of colorectal cancer which underwent four antibody immunohistochemistry, 104 displayed loss of at least one mismatch repair protein. Of these, 100 showed concordant mismatch repair loss (i.e., loss of MLH1 and PMS2 or loss of MSH2 and MSH6). The four discordant cases comprised two single negative cases (1 MSH6 negative/MSH2 positive case, 1 PMS2 negative/MLH1 positive) and two triple negative (both MLH1/PMS2/MSH6 negative). The microsatellite instability (MSI) group showed a relatively high median age (69.3 years) due to the departmental policy of testing all cases with possible MSI morphology regardless of age. The sensitivity and specificity of a two panel test comprised of PMS2 and MSH6, compared to a four panel test, is 100%. No false negatives or positives were

  20. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  1. Oxygen Diode Formed in Nickelate Heterostructures by Chemical Potential Mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Erjia; Liu, Yaohua; Sohn, Changhee

    Deliberate control of oxygen vacancy formation and migration in perovskite oxide thin films is important for developing novel electronic and iontronic devices. Here in this paper, it is found that the concentration of oxygen vacancies (V O) formed in LaNiO 3 (LNO) during pulsed laser deposition is strongly affected by the chemical potential mismatch between the LNO film and its proximal layers. Increasing the V O concentration in LNO significantly modifies the degree of orbital polarization and drives the metal–insulator transition. Changes in the nickel oxidization state and carrier concentration in the films are confirmed by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » and optical spectroscopy. The ability to unidirectional-control the oxygen flow across the heterointerface, e.g., a so-called “oxygen diode”, by exploiting chemical potential mismatch at interfaces provides a new avenue to tune the physical and electrochemical properties of complex oxides.« less

  2. Oxygen Diode Formed in Nickelate Heterostructures by Chemical Potential Mismatch

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Erjia; Liu, Yaohua; Sohn, Changhee; ...

    2018-03-07

    Deliberate control of oxygen vacancy formation and migration in perovskite oxide thin films is important for developing novel electronic and iontronic devices. Here in this paper, it is found that the concentration of oxygen vacancies (V O) formed in LaNiO 3 (LNO) during pulsed laser deposition is strongly affected by the chemical potential mismatch between the LNO film and its proximal layers. Increasing the V O concentration in LNO significantly modifies the degree of orbital polarization and drives the metal–insulator transition. Changes in the nickel oxidization state and carrier concentration in the films are confirmed by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » and optical spectroscopy. The ability to unidirectional-control the oxygen flow across the heterointerface, e.g., a so-called “oxygen diode”, by exploiting chemical potential mismatch at interfaces provides a new avenue to tune the physical and electrochemical properties of complex oxides.« less

  3. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  4. Mismatch repair polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Platz, Elizabeth A; Fallin, M Daniele; Thuita, Lucy W; Hoffman, Sandra C; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2007-04-01

    Rare germline variants in mismatch repair genes have been linked to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; however, it is unknown whether common polymorphisms in these genes alter the risk of colorectal cancer. To examine the association between common variants in mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-cohort study within the CLUE II cohort. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in 3 mismatch repair genes (MSH3 R940Q, MSH3 T1036A, MSH6 G39E and MLH1 I219V) were genotyped in 237 colorectal cancer cases and a subcohort of 2,189 participants. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each polymorphism were estimated. The MSH3 1036A variant was found to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.94-1.74 and RR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.01-2.70 for the AT and TT genotypes, respectively, with p(trend)=0.02), particularly proximal colon cancer. Although the MSH3 940Q variant was only weakly associated with colorectal cancer overall (p(trend)=0.07), it was associated with a significant increased risk of proximal colon cancer (RR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.61 and RR=2.68, 95% CI: 0.96-7.47 for the RQ and QQ genotypes, respectively with p(trend)=0.005). Processed meat intake appeared to modify the association between the MSH3 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (p(interaction) < 0.10 for both). No association was observed with the MSH6 and MLH1 polymorphisms overall. This study suggests that common polymorphisms in the mismatch repair gene, MSH3, may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, especially proximal colon cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Phenotypic Mismatches Reveal Escape from Arms-Race Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Hanifin, Charles T; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts) and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes) to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were “ahead” of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race. PMID:18336073

  6. Ferrocene conjugated oligonucleotide for electrochemical detection of DNA base mismatch.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yusuke; Takada, Tadao; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Yamana, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    We describe the synthesis, binding, and electrochemical properties of ferrocene-conjugated oligonucleotides (Fc-oligos). The key step for the preparation of Fc-oligos contains the coupling of vinylferrocene to 5-iododeoxyuridine via Heck reaction. The Fc-conjugated deoxyuridine phosphoramidite was used in the Fc-oligonucleotide synthesis. We show that thiol-modified Fc-oligos deposited onto gold electrodes possess potential ability in electrochemical detection of DNA base mismatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  8. The Scientist and the Educational Development Team: An Impedance Mismatch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This talk describes my experiences and those of several other scientists who have worked on teams to develop new instructional materials and programs. At each stage of the development process we try to communicate our skills and experiences to the rest of the development team. In turn, the experiences of non-scientist educators on the team must be communicated to us. However, in many cases there is an "impedance mismatch" which makes communication difficult. One primary source of this mismatch is the scientist's lack of experience with schools, students, teachers, school administrators, museums, and the public. The result of this mismatch can leave the scientist in one limited, but useful role: proofreader and critic. Unfortunately, this can hardly be described as a partnership. This talk gives some advice, based on 25 years of educational materials and program development work, on how to avoid such a limited role. The talk would be appropriate for those scientists who want to lead, inspire, or significantly contribute to educational initiatives and to share in the frustration and the rewards enjoyed by professional educators and professional educational developers. S. Pompea is an adjunct faculty member of Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona.

  9. Evidence supporting the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Sara; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wagner, Klaus V; Hartmann, Jakob; Labermaier, Christiana; Scharf, Sebastian H; Müller, Marianne B; Holsboer, Florian; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2014-06-01

    Chronic stress is one of the predominant environmental risk factors for a number of psychiatric disorders, particularly for major depression. Different hypotheses have been formulated to address the interaction between early and adult chronic stress in psychiatric disease vulnerability. The match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disease states that the early life environment shapes coping strategies in a manner that enables individuals to optimally face similar environments later in life. We tested this hypothesis in female Balb/c mice that underwent either stress or enrichment early in life and were in adulthood further subdivided in single or group housed, in order to provide aversive or positive adult environments, respectively. We studied the effects of the environmental manipulation on anxiety-like, depressive-like and sociability behaviors and gene expression profiles. We show that continuous exposure to adverse environments (matched condition) is not necessarily resulting in an opposite phenotype compared to a continuous supportive environment (matched condition). Rather, animals with mismatched environmental conditions behaved differently from animals with matched environments on anxious, social and depressive like phenotypes. These results further support the match/mismatch hypothesis and illustrate how mild or moderate aversive conditions during development can shape an individual to be optimally adapted to similar conditions later in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of MSH2-MSH3-mediated mismatch recognition by the yeast MLH1-PMS1 complex.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Y; Sung, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1997-10-01

    DNA mismatch repair has a key role in maintaining genomic stability. Defects in mismatch repair cause elevated spontaneous mutation rates and increased instability of simple repetitive sequences, while mutations in human mismatch repair genes result in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers. Mismatch recognition represents the first critical step of mismatch repair. Genetic and biochemical studies in yeast and humans have indicated a requirement for MSH2-MSH3 and MSH2-MSH6 heterodimers in mismatch recognition. These complexes have, to some extent, overlapping mismatch binding specificities. MLH1 and PMS1 are the other essential components of mismatch repair, but how they function in this process is not known. We have purified the yeast MLH1-PMS1 heterodimer to near homogeneity, and examined its effect on MSH2-MSH3 binding to DNA mismatches. By itself, the MLH1-PMS1 complex shows no affinity for mismatched DNA, but it greatly enhances the mismatch binding ability of MSH2-MSH3.

  11. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  12. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  13. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  14. Journalism Abstracts. Volume 25, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins, Ed.

    Collected from 55 universities in the United States and Canada, and published by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, this volume contains 339 abstracts of research dissertations and theses accepted for graduate degrees in journalism and mass communications from July 1, 1986 through June 30, 1987. Only research…

  15. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  16. Blockade of LAG3 enhances responses of tumor-infiltrating T cells in mismatch repair-proficient liver metastases of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Lisanne; Sprengers, Dave; Boor, Patrick P. C.; Mancham, Shanta; Menon, Anand G.; Lange, Johan F.; Burger, Pim J. W. A.; Brandt, Alexandra; Galjart, Boris; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Bruno, Marco J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Liver metastasis develops in >50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and is a leading cause of CRC-related mortality. We aimed to identify which inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways can be targeted to enhance functionality of intra-tumoral T-cells in mismatch repair-proficient liver metastases of colorectal cancer (LM-CRC). Methodology: Intra-tumoral expression of multiple inhibitory molecules was compared among mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC, peritoneal metastases of colorectal cancer (PM-CRC) and primary CRC. Expression of inhibitory molecules was also analyzed on leukocytes isolated from paired resected metastatic liver tumors, tumor-free liver tissues, and blood of patients with mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC. The effects of blocking inhibitory pathways on tumor-infiltrating T-cell responses were studied in ex vivo functional assays. Results: Mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC showed higher expression of inhibitory receptors on intra-tumoral T-cells and contained higher proportions of CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells and monocytes than mismatch repair-proficient primary CRC and/or PM-CRC. Inhibitory receptors LAG3, PD-1, TIM3 and CTLA4 were higher expressed on CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-helper and/or regulatory T-cells in LM-CRC tumors compared with tumor-free liver and blood. Antibody blockade of LAG3 or PD-L1 increased proliferation and effector cytokine production of intra-tumoral T-cells isolated from LM-CRC in response to both polyclonal and autologous tumor-specific stimulations. Higher LAG3 expression on intra-tumoral CD8+ T-cells associated with longer progression-free survival of LM-CRC patients. Conclusion: Mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC may be more sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors than mismatch repair-proficient primary CRC. Blocking LAG3 enhances tumor-infiltrating T-cell responses of mismatch repair-proficient LM-CRC, and therefore may be a new promising immunotherapeutic target for LM-CRC.

  17. Afterload mismatch in aortic and mitral valve disease: implications for surgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Ross, J

    1985-04-01

    regurgitation, maintenance of a normal ejection fraction can mask depressed myocardial contractility. Pre- and postoperative studies in such patients have shown a poor clinical result after mitral valve replacement, associated with a sharp decrease in the ejection fraction after operation. This response appears to reflect unmasking of decreased myocardial contractility by mitral valve replacement, with ejection of the total stroke volume into the high impedance of the aorta (afterload mismatch produced by operation).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. Analysis of in vivo correction of defined mismatches in the DNA mismatch repair mutants msh2, msh3 and msh6 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lühr, B; Scheller, J; Meyer, P; Kramer, W

    1998-02-01

    We have analysed the correction of defined mismatches in wild-type and msh2, msh3, msh6 and msh3 msh6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two different yeast strain backgrounds by transformation with plasmid heteroduplex DNA constructs. Ten different base/base mismatches, two single-nucleotide loops and a 38-nucleotide loop were tested. Repair of all types of mismatches was severely impaired in msh2 and msh3 msh6 mutants. In msh6 mutants, repair efficiency of most base/base mismatches was reduced to a similar extent as in msh3 msh6 double mutants. G/T and A/C mismatches, however, displayed residual repair in msh6 mutants in one strain background, implying a role for Msh3p in recognition of base/base mismatches. Furthermore, the efficiency of repair of base/base mismatches was considerably reduced in msh3 mutants in one strain background, indicating a requirement for MSH3 for fully efficient mismatch correction. Also the efficiency of repair of the 38-nucleotide loop was reduced in msh3 mutants, and to a lesser extent in msh6 mutants. The single-nucleotide loop with an unpaired A was less efficiently repaired in msh3 mutants and that with an unpaired T was less efficiently corrected in msh6 mutants, indicating non-redundant functions for the two proteins in the recognition of single-nucleotide loops.

  19. Physical Origin of Transient Negative Capacitance in a Ferroelectric Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sou-Chi; Avci, Uygar E.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Transient negative differential capacitance, the dynamic reversal of transient capacitance in an electrical circuit, is of highly technological and scientific interest since it probes the foundation of ferroelectricity. We study a resistor-ferroelectric capacitor (R -FEC) network through a series of coupled equations based on Kirchhoff's law, electrostatics, and Landau theory. We show that transient negative capacitance (NC) in a R -FEC circuit originates from the mismatch in switching rate between the free charge on the metal plate and the bound charge in a ferroelectric (FE) capacitor during the polarization switching. This transient free charge-polarization mismatch is driven by the negative curvature of the FE free-energy landscape, and it is also analytically shown that a free-energy profile with a negative curvature is the only physical system that can describe transient NC in a R -FEC circuit. Furthermore, transient NC induced by the free charge-polarization mismatch is justified by its dependence on both external resistance and the intrinsic FE viscosity coefficient. The depolarization effect on FE capacitors emphasizes the importance of negative curvature to transient NC and also implies that transient and steady-state NC cannot be observed in a FE capacitor simultaneously. Finally, using the transient NC measurements, a procedure to experimentally determine the viscosity coefficient is presented to provide more insight into the relation between transient NC and the FE free-energy profile.

  20. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  1. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  2. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  3. F157. HIERARCHICAL PREDICTION ERRORS DURING AUDITORY MISMATCH UNDER PHARMACOLOGICAL MANIPULATIONS: A COMPUTATIONAL SINGLE-TRIAL EEG ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Lilian; Diaconescu, Andreea; Tomiello, Sara; Schöbi, Dario; Iglesias, Sandra; Mathys, Christoph; Haker, Helene; Stefanics, Gabor; Schmidt, André; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X; Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background A central theme of contemporary neuroscience is the notion that the brain embodies a generative model of its sensory inputs to infer on the underlying environmental causes, and that it uses hierarchical prediction errors (PEs) to continuously update this model. In two pharmacological EEG studies, we investigate trial-wise hierarchical PEs during the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological response to unexpected events, which depends on NMDA-receptor mediated plasticity and has repeatedly been shown to be reduced in schizophrenia. Methods Study1: Reanalysis of 64 channel EEG data from a previously published MMN study (Schmidt et al., 2012) using a placebo-controlled, within-subject design (N=19) to examine the effect of S-ketamine. Study2: 64 channel EEG data recorded during MMN (between subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, N=73), to examine the effects of amisulpride and biperiden. Using the Hierarchical Gaussian Filter, a Bayesian learning model, we extracted trial-by-trial PE estimates on two hierarchical levels. These served as regressors in a GLM of trial-wise EEG signals at the sensor level. Results We find strong correlations of EEG with both PEs in both samples: lower-level PEs show effects early on (Study1: 133ms post-stimulus, Study2: 177ms), higher-level PEs later (Study1: 240ms, Study2: 450ms). The temporal order of these signatures thus mimics the hierarchical relationship of the PEs, as proposed by our computational model, where lower level beliefs need to be updated before learning can ensue on higher levels. Ketamine significantly reduced the representation of the higher-level PE in Study1. (Study2 has not been unblinded.) Discussion These studies present first evidence for hierarchical PEs during MMN and demonstrate that single-trial analyses guided by a computational model can distinguish different types (levels) of PEs, which are differentially linked to neuromodulators of demonstrated

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with constitutional mismatch-repair-deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kratz, C P; Holter, S; Etzler, J; Lauten, M; Pollett, A; Niemeyer, C M; Gallinger, S; Wimmer, K

    2009-06-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 cause a recessive childhood cancer syndrome characterised by early-onset malignancies and signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Alluding to the underlying genetic defect, we refer to this syndrome as constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome. The tumour spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome includes haematological neoplasias, brain tumours and Lynch syndrome-associated tumours. Other tumours, such as neuroblastoma, Wilm tumour, ovarian neuroectodermal tumour or infantile myofibromatosis, have so far been found only in individual cases. We analysed two consanguineous families that had members with suspected CMMR-D syndrome who developed rhabdomyosarcoma among other neoplasias. In the first family, we identified a pathogenic PMS2 mutation for which the affected patient was homozygous. In family 2, immunohistochemistry analysis showed isolated loss of PMS2 expression in all tumours in the affected patients, including rhabdomyosarcoma itself and the surrounding normal tissue. Together with the family history and microsatellite instability observed in one tumour this strongly suggests an underlying PMS2 alteration in family 2 also. Together, these two new cases show that rhabdomyosarcoma and possibly other embryonic tumours, such as neuroblastoma and Wilm tumour, belong to the tumour spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome. Given the clinical overlap of CMMR-D syndrome with NF1, we suggest careful examination of the family history in patients with embryonic tumours and signs of NF1 as well as analysis of the tumours for loss of one of the mismatch repair genes and microsatellite instability. Subsequent mutation analysis will lead to a definitive diagnosis of the underlying disorder.

  5. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  6. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  7. Indium arsenide-on-SOI MOSFETs with extreme lattice mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin

    Both molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been used to explore the growth of InAs on Si. Despite 11.6% lattice mismatch, planar InAs structures have been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) when nucleating using MBE on patterned submicron Si-on-insulator (SOI) islands. Planar structures of size as large as 500 x 500 nm 2 and lines of width 200 nm and length a few microns have been observed. MOCVD growth of InAs also generates single grain structures on Si islands when the size is reduced to 100 x 100 nm2. By choosing SOI as the growth template, selective growth is enabled by MOCVD. Post-growth pattern-then-anneal process, in which MOCVD InAs is deposited onto unpatterned SOI followed with patterning and annealing of InAs-on-Si structure, is found to change the relative lattice parameters of encapsulated 17/5 nm InAs/Si island. Observed from transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, the lattice mismatch of 17/5 nm InAs/Si island reduces from 11.2 to 4.2% after being annealed at 800°C for 30 minutes. High-k Al2O3 dielectrics have been deposited by both electron-beam-enabled physical vapor deposition (PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Films from both techniques show leakage currents on the order of 10-9A/cm2, at ˜1 MV/cm electric field, breakdown field > ˜6 MV/cm, and dielectric constant > 6, comparable to those of reported ALD prior arts by Groner. The first MOSFETs with extreme lattice mismatch InAs-on-SOI channels using PVD Al2O3 as the gate dielectric are characterized. Channel recess was used to improve the gate control of the drain current.

  8. Reduced mutation rate in exons due to differential mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Mularoni, Loris; Muiños, Ferran; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; López-Bigas, Núria

    2017-01-01

    While recent studies have revealed higher than anticipated heterogeneity of mutation rate across genomic regions, mutations in exons and introns are assumed to be generated at the same rate. Here we find fewer somatic mutations in exons than expected based on their sequence content, and demonstrate that this is not due to purifying selection. Moreover, we show that it is caused by higher mismatch repair activity in exonic than in intronic regions. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of mutational and DNA repair processes, our knowledge of the evolution of eukaryotic genes, and practical ramifications for the study of the evolution of both tumors and species. PMID:29106418

  9. Model mismatch analysis and compensation for modal phase measuring deflectometry

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo; ...

    2017-01-11

    The correspondence residuals due to the discrepancy between the reality and the shape model in use are analyzed for the modal phase measuring deflectometry. Slope residuals are calculated from these discrepancies between the modal estimation and practical acquisition. Since the shape mismatch mainly occurs locally, zonal integration methods which are good at dealing with local variations are used to reconstruct the height residual for compensation. Finally, results of both simulation and experiment indicate the proposed height compensation method is effective, which can be used as a post-complement for the modal phase measuring deflectometry.

  10. Representations of abstract grammatical feature agreement in young children.

    PubMed

    Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un MASC ravole 'a ravole'). Test trials presented the objects side-by-side while one of them was named in new phrases containing other determiners and an adjective (e.g., le MASC joli ravole MASC 'the pretty ravole'). The gender agreement between the new determiner and the non-adjacent noun was manipulated in different test trials (e.g., le MASC __ravole MASC; *la FEM __ravole MASC). We found that online comprehension of the named target was facilitated in gender-matched trials but impeded in gender-mismatched trials. That is, children assigned the determiner genders to the novel nouns during word learning. They then processed the non-adjacent gender agreement between the two categories (Det, Noun) during test. The results demonstrate abstract featural representation and grammatical productivity in young children.

  11. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  12. Influence of donor–recipient gender mismatch on graft function and survival following lung transplantation†

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Antonio; Moreno, Paula; Illana, Jennifer; Espinosa, Dionisio; Baamonde, Carlos; Arango, Elisabet; Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra, Angel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In current practice, donors and recipients are not matched for gender in lung transplantation. However, some data have suggested a possible effect of gender combinations on lung transplant outcomes. We examined whether donor–recipient (D/R) gender mismatch is related to adverse outcomes after lung transplantation in terms of early and long-term graft function and survival. METHODS We reviewed 256 donors and lung transplant recipients over a 14-year period. Patients were distributed into four groups: Group A (D/R: female/female), Group B (D/R: male/male), Group C (D/R: female/male), Group D (D/R: male/female). Donor and recipient variables were compared among groups, including early graft function, 30-day mortality, freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and long-term survival. RESULTS Group A: 57 (22%), Group B: 99 (39%), Group C: 62 (24%), Group D: 38 (15%) transplants (P = 0.001). Donor age was 29 ± 14, 27 ± 12, 33 ± 13 and 23 ± 12 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.004). Recipient age was 31 ± 15, 44 ± 17, 42 ± 16 and 30 ± 16 years for Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.000). PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) 24 h post-transplant was: Group A: 276 ± 144, Group B: 297 ± 131, Group C: 344 ± 133 and Group D: 238 ± 138 (P = 0.015). Primary graft dysfunction developed in 23, 14, 17 and 21% of recipients from Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.45). Operative mortality was 4.4, 6.5, 5.2 and 2%, for recipients from Groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.66). Freedom from BOS was 73, 59 and 36% for gender-matched transplants vs 76, 67 and 40% for gender-mismatched transplants at 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively (P = 0.618), without differences among groups. A non-significant survival benefit was observed for female recipients, irrespective of the donor gender. CONCLUSIONS Donor–recipient gender mismatch does not have a negative impact on early graft function and mortality following lung transplantation. There is a

  13. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    Although many studies have examined the phenological mismatches between interacting organisms, few have addressed the potential for mismatches between phenology and seasonal weather conditions. In the Arctic, rapid phenological changes in many taxa are occurring in association with earlier snowmelt. The timing of snowmelt is jointly affected by the size of the late winter snowpack and the temperature during the spring thaw. Increased winter snowpack results in delayed snowmelt, whereas higher air temperatures and faster snowmelt advance the timing of snowmelt. Where interannual variation in snowpack is substantial, changes in the timing of snowmelt can be largely uncoupled from changes in air temperature. Using detailed, long-term data on the flowering phenology of four arctic plant species from Zackenberg, Greenland, we investigate whether there is a phenological component to the temperature conditions experienced prior to and during flowering. In particular, we assess the role of timing of flowering in determining pre-flowering exposure to freezing temperatures and to the temperatures-experienced prior to flowering. We then examine the implications of flowering phenology for flower abundance. Earlier snowmelt resulted in greater exposure to freezing conditions, suggesting an increased potential for a mismatch between the timing of flowering and seasonal weather conditions and an increased potential for negative consequences, such as freezing 'damage. We also found a parabolic relationship between the timing of flowering and the temperature experienced during flowering after taking interannual temperature effects into account. If timing of flowering advances to a cooler period of the growing season, this may moderate the effects of a general warming trend across years. Flower abundance was quadratically associated with the timing of flowering, such that both early and late flowering led to lower flower abundance than did intermediate flowering. Our results

  14. Brain network response underlying decisions about abstract reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Mills-Finnerty, Colleen; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen Jose

    2014-12-01

    Decision making studies typically use tasks that involve concrete action-outcome contingencies, in which subjects do something and get something. No studies have addressed decision making involving abstract reinforcers, where there are no action-outcome contingencies and choices are entirely hypothetical. The present study examines these kinds of choices, as well as whether the same biases that exist for concrete reinforcer decisions, specifically framing effects, also apply during abstract reinforcer decisions. We use both General Linear Model as well as Bayes network connectivity analysis using the Independent Multi-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) algorithm to examine network response underlying choices for abstract reinforcers under positive and negative framing. We find for the first time that abstract reinforcer decisions activate the same network of brain regions as concrete reinforcer decisions, including the striatum, insula, anterior cingulate, and VMPFC, results that are further supported via comparison to a meta-analysis of decision making studies. Positive and negative framing activated different parts of this network, with stronger activation in VMPFC during negative framing and in DLPFC during positive, suggesting different decision making pathways depending on frame. These results were further clarified using connectivity analysis, which revealed stronger connections between anterior cingulate, insula, and accumbens during negative framing compared to positive. Taken together, these results suggest that not only do abstract reinforcer decisions rely on the same brain substrates as concrete reinforcers, but that the response underlying framing effects on abstract reinforcers also resemble those for concrete reinforcers, specifically increased limbic system connectivity during negative frames. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    compact. self -contained transducer unit for 151) Field of Stucek............... 73/71 5 US, 67.5 R. electromagnetic generation and detection of...BSTRACT SPONSORED PROGRAMS FROM THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 1191 (111 4,115,616 Heitz et &1. (45 Sep. 19, 1978 154) SELF -SEALING...ioseph E. Rutz; Wiliam J.O’Brien (221 Filed: F . (57 ABSTRACT A self -sealing multi-laminated fuel line composite mate. rial composed of (a) a plastic

  16. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  17. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  18. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  20. Maturation of cortical mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported two types of event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses in infants to infrequent auditory changes: a broad discriminative positivity in younger infants and a negativity resembling adult mismatch negativity (MMN) in older infants. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive discriminative slow wave and the adult-like MMN are functionally distinct by examining how they are affected by presentation rate and magnitude of change. We measured ERPs from adults, 2-month-olds, and 4-month-olds to a repeating piano tone (standard) that occasionally changed in pitch (deviant). The pitch changes between standards and deviants were either small (1/12 octave) or large (1/2 octave) in magnitude, and the stimulus presentation rate was either slow (800 ms SOA) or fast (400 ms SOA). As the presentation rate increased, both adults and 4-month-olds showed an MMN response that decreased in latency, but was unaffected in amplitude. As the magnitude of the pitch change increased, MMN increased in amplitude. On the other hand, only a broad positive mismatch response was seen in 2-month-olds. As the presentation rate increased, 2-month-olds' responses to standard tones decreased in amplitude while their responses to deviant tones were unaffected. The magnitude of the pitch change did not affect 2-month-olds' responses. These results suggest that pitch is processed differently in auditory cortex by 2-month-olds and 4-month-olds, and that a cortical change-detection mechanism for pitch discrimination similar to that of adults emerges between 2 and 4 months of age.

  1. Construction and characterization of mismatch-containing circular DNA molecules competent for assessment of nick-directed human mismatch repair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erik D; Nickens, David; Drummond, James T

    2002-02-01

    The ability of cell-free extracts to correct DNA mismatches has been demonstrated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such an assay requires a template containing both a mismatch and a strand discrimination signal, and the multi-step construction process can be technically difficult. We have developed a three-step procedure for preparing DNA heteroduplexes containing a site-specific nick. The mismatch composition, sequence context, distance to the strand signal, and the means for assessing repair in each strand are adjustable features built into a synthetic oligonucleotide. Controlled ligation events involving three of the four DNA strands incorporate the oligonucleotide into a circular template and generate the repair-directing nick. Mismatch correction in either strand of a prototype G.T mismatch was achieved by placing a nick 10-40 bp away from the targeted base. This proximity of nick and mismatch represents a setting where repair has not been well characterized, but the presence of a nick was shown to be essential, as was the MSH2/MSH6 heterodimer, although low levels of repair occurred in extract defective in each protein. All repair events were inhibited by a peptide that interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and inhibits both mismatch repair and long-patch replication.

  2. Differential emotional processing in concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Keitel, Anne; Bruce, Gillian; Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2018-02-12

    Emotion (positive and negative) words are typically recognized faster than neutral words. Recent research suggests that emotional valence, while often treated as a unitary semantic property, may be differentially represented in concrete and abstract words. Studies that have explicitly examined the interaction of emotion and concreteness, however, have demonstrated inconsistent patterns of results. Moreover, these findings may be limited as certain key lexical variables (e.g., familiarity, age of acquisition) were not taken into account. We investigated the emotion-concreteness interaction in a large-scale, highly controlled lexical decision experiment. A 3 (Emotion: negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Concreteness: abstract, concrete) design was used, with 45 items per condition and 127 participants. We found a significant interaction between emotion and concreteness. Although positive and negative valenced words were recognized faster than neutral words, this emotion advantage was significantly larger in concrete than in abstract words. We explored potential contributions of participant alexithymia level and item imageability to this interactive pattern. We found that only word imageability significantly modulated the emotion-concreteness interaction. While both concrete and abstract emotion words are advantageously processed relative to comparable neutral words, the mechanisms of this facilitation are paradoxically more dependent on imageability in abstract words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Toward a phenological mismatch in estuarine pelagic food web?

    PubMed

    Chevillot, Xavier; Drouineau, Hilaire; Lambert, Patrick; Carassou, Laure; Sautour, Benoit; Lobry, Jérémy

    2017-01-01

    Alterations of species phenology in response to climate change are now unquestionable. Until now, most studies have reported precocious occurrence of life cycle events as a major phenological response. Desynchronizations of biotic interactions, in particular predator-prey relationships, are however assumed to strongly impact ecosystems' functioning, as formalized by the Match-Mismatch Hypothesis (MMH). Temporal synchronicity between juvenile fish and zooplankton in estuaries is therefore of essential interest since estuaries are major nursery grounds for many commercial fish species. The Gironde estuary (SW France) has suffered significant alterations over the last three decades, including two Abrupt Ecosystem Shifts (AES), and three contrasted intershift periods. The main objective of this study was to depict modifications in fish and zooplankton phenology among inter-shift periods and discuss the potential effects of the resulting mismatches at a community scale. A flexible Bayesian method was used to estimate and compare yearly patterns of species abundance in the estuary among the three pre-defined periods. Results highlighted (1) an earlier peak of zooplankton production and entrance of fish species in the estuary and (2) a decrease in residence time of both groups in the estuary. Such species-specific phenological changes led to changes in temporal overlap between juvenile fish and their zooplanktonic prey. This situation questions the efficiency and potentially the viability of nursery function of the Gironde estuary, with potential implications for coastal marine fisheries of the Bay of Biscay.

  4. Toward a phenological mismatch in estuarine pelagic food web?

    PubMed Central

    Chevillot, Xavier; Drouineau, Hilaire; Lambert, Patrick; Carassou, Laure; Sautour, Benoit; Lobry, Jérémy

    2017-01-01

    Alterations of species phenology in response to climate change are now unquestionable. Until now, most studies have reported precocious occurrence of life cycle events as a major phenological response. Desynchronizations of biotic interactions, in particular predator-prey relationships, are however assumed to strongly impact ecosystems’ functioning, as formalized by the Match-Mismatch Hypothesis (MMH). Temporal synchronicity between juvenile fish and zooplankton in estuaries is therefore of essential interest since estuaries are major nursery grounds for many commercial fish species. The Gironde estuary (SW France) has suffered significant alterations over the last three decades, including two Abrupt Ecosystem Shifts (AES), and three contrasted intershift periods. The main objective of this study was to depict modifications in fish and zooplankton phenology among inter-shift periods and discuss the potential effects of the resulting mismatches at a community scale. A flexible Bayesian method was used to estimate and compare yearly patterns of species abundance in the estuary among the three pre-defined periods. Results highlighted (1) an earlier peak of zooplankton production and entrance of fish species in the estuary and (2) a decrease in residence time of both groups in the estuary. Such species-specific phenological changes led to changes in temporal overlap between juvenile fish and their zooplanktonic prey. This situation questions the efficiency and potentially the viability of nursery function of the Gironde estuary, with potential implications for coastal marine fisheries of the Bay of Biscay. PMID:28355281

  5. Symptom-Hemodynamic Mismatch and Heart Failure Event Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Hiatt, Shirin O.; Denfeld, Quin E.; Mudd, James O.; Chien, Christopher; Gelow, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous condition of both symptoms and hemodynamics. Objective The goal of this study was to identify distinct profiles among integrated data on physical and psychological symptoms and hemodynamics, and quantify differences in 180-day event-risk among observed profiles. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected during two prospective cohort studies by a single group of investigators was performed. Latent class mixture modeling was used to identify distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to quantify difference in event-risk (HF emergency visit, hospitalization or death) among profiles. Results The mean age (n=291) was 57±13 years, 38% were female, and 61% had class III/IV HF. Three distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles were identified. 17.9% of patients had concordant symptoms and hemodynamics (i.e. moderate physical and psychological symptoms matched the comparatively hemodynamic profile), 17.9% had severe symptoms and average hemodynamics, and 64.2% had poor hemodynamics and mild symptoms. Compared to those in the concordant profile, both profiles of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch were associated with a markedly increased event-risk (severe symptoms hazards ratio = 3.38, p=0.033; poor hemodynamics hazards ratio = 3.48, p=0.016). Conclusions A minority of adults with HF have concordant symptoms and hemodynamics. Either profile of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch in HF is associated with a greater risk of healthcare utilization for HF or death. PMID:24988323

  6. Abstract processing and observer vantage perspective in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Hart-Smith, Ly; Moulds, Michelle L

    2018-05-07

    processing and observer vantage perspective have been associated with negative consequences in depression. We investigated the relationship between mode of processing and vantage perspective bidirectionally in high and low dysphoric individuals, using abstract and concrete descriptions of experimenter-provided everyday actions. When vantage perspective was manipulated and processing mode was measured (Study 1a), participants who adopted a field perspective did not differ from those who adopted an observer perspective in their preference for abstract descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. When processing mode was manipulated and vantage perspective was measured (Study 1b), participants provided with abstract descriptions had a greater tendency to adopt an observer perspective than those provided with concrete descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. These results were replicated in larger online samples (Studies 2a and 2b). Together, they indicate a unidirectional causal relationship, whereby processing mode causally influences vantage perspective, in contrast to the bidirectional relationship previously reported in an unselected sample (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009). Further, these findings demonstrate that abstract processing increases the likelihood of adopting an observer perspective, and support targeting abstract processing in the treatment of depression to address the negative consequences associated with both abstract processing and recalling/imagining events from an observer perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Systems with Uncertain Interconnections, Plant-Model Mismatch and Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized adaptive control is considered for systems consisting of multiple interconnected subsystems. It is assumed that each subsystem s parameters are uncertain and the interconnection parameters are not known. In addition, mismatch can exist between each subsystem and its reference model. A strictly decentralized adaptive control scheme is developed, wherein each subsystem has access only to its own state but has the knowledge of all reference model states. The mismatch is estimated online for each subsystem and the mismatch estimates are used to adaptively modify the corresponding reference models. The adaptive control scheme is extended to the case with actuator failures in addition to mismatch.

  8. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  9. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  10. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  11. The Education-Occupation Mismatch of International and Internal Migrants in Mexico, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have found international migrants from developing countries such as Mexico to be negatively selected by education; that is, they are less educated than those who stay behind. Moving beyond the question of whether migrants are negatively selected by education overall, I examine how migrants are selected compared with others in similar jobs. Using data from a nationally representative panel survey of Mexican households, I find that men who migrate abroad have significantly higher levels of education than nonmigrants in the same occupation. Because men who are overeducated for their occupation tend to receive lower wages than those employed in occupations commensurate with their education, and are also more dissatisfied with their jobs, overeducation may encourage men to emigrate. Results from the regression models, which account for differential selectivity into employment, indicate that internal migrants within Mexico also have higher educational levels than nonmigrants in the same occupation prior to migrating but comparable levels of education afterward. Migrating internally, therefore, appears to allow men to improve their occupational placement. Finally, I examine changes in migrants’ education over time and find evidence that the education-occupation mismatch has increased among Mexican emigrants in the years following the 2008 U.S. recession. PMID:27083195

  12. The Education-Occupation Mismatch of International and Internal Migrants in Mexico, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have found international migrants from developing countries such as Mexico to be negatively selected by education; that is, they are less educated than those who stay behind. Moving beyond the question of whether migrants are negatively selected by education overall, I examine how migrants are selected compared with others in similar jobs. Using data from a nationally representative panel survey of Mexican households, I find that men who migrate abroad have significantly higher levels of education than nonmigrants in the same occupation. Because men who are overeducated for their occupation tend to receive lower wages than those employed in occupations commensurate with their education, and are also more dissatisfied with their jobs, overeducation may encourage men to emigrate. Results from the regression models, which account for differential selectivity into employment, indicate that internal migrants within Mexico also have higher educational levels than nonmigrants in the same occupation prior to migrating but comparable levels of education afterward. Migrating internally, therefore, appears to allow men to improve their occupational placement. Finally, I examine changes in migrants' education over time and find evidence that the education-occupation mismatch has increased among Mexican emigrants in the years following the 2008 U.S. recession.

  13. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain EAPA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis, which includes 12 monthly issues plus the annual index. All items announced in EAPA exist as separate records on the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  14. Single-base-pair discrimination of terminal mismatches by using oligonucleotide microarrays and neural network analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Noble, Peter A.; El Fantroussi, Said; Kelly, John J.; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of single-base-pair near-terminal and terminal mismatches on the dissociation temperature (T(d)) and signal intensity of short DNA duplexes were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays and neural network (NN) analyses. Two perfect-match probes and 29 probes having a single-base-pair mismatch at positions 1 to 5 from the 5' terminus of the probe were designed to target one of two short sequences representing 16S rRNA. Nonequilibrium dissociation rates (i.e., melting profiles) of all probe-target duplexes were determined simultaneously. Analysis of variance revealed that position of the mismatch, type of mismatch, and formamide concentration significantly affected the T(d) and signal intensity. Increasing the concentration of formamide in the washing buffer decreased the T(d) and signal intensity, and it decreased the variability of the signal. Although T(d)s of probe-target duplexes with mismatches in the first or second position were not significantly different from one another, duplexes with mismatches in the third to fifth positions had significantly lower T(d)s than those with mismatches in the first or second position. The trained NNs predicted the T(d) with high accuracies (R(2) = 0.93). However, the NNs predicted the signal intensity only moderately accurately (R(2) = 0.67), presumably due to increased noise in the signal intensity at low formamide concentrations. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the concentration of formamide explained most (75%) of the variability in T(d)s, followed by position of the mismatch (19%) and type of mismatch (6%). The results suggest that position of the mismatch at or near the 5' terminus plays a greater role in determining the T(d) and signal intensity of duplexes than the type of mismatch.

  15. A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition

    PubMed Central

    Junicke, Henrik; Hart, Jonathan R.; Kisko, Jennifer; Glebov, Oleg; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-01-01

    A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)2phzi]3+ (bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)]3+ [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 × 107 M−1, respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design. PMID:12610209

  16. Identification of a permissible HLA mismatch in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Wang, Tao; Lee, Stephanie J.; Haagenson, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Askar, Medhat; Battiwalla, Minoo; Baxter-Lowe, Lee-Ann; Gajewski, James; Jakubowski, Ann A.; Marino, Susana; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Schultz, Kirk; Turner, E. Victoria; Waller, Edmund K.; Woolfrey, Ann; Umejiego, John; Spellman, Stephen R.; Setterholm, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    In subjects mismatched in the HLA alleles C*03:03/C*03:04 no allogeneic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses are detected in vitro. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with unrelated donors (UDs) showed no association between the HLA-C allele mismatches (CAMMs) and adverse outcomes; antigen mismatches at this and mismatches other HLA loci are deleterious. The absence of effect of the CAMM may have resulted from the predominance of the mismatch C*03:03/C*03:04. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving UD HSCT matched in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA alleles were examined. Transplants mismatched in HLA-C antigens or mismatched in HLA-A, -B, or -DRB1 presented significant differences (P < .0001) in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37, 1.30), disease-free survival (HR = 1.33, 1.27), treatment-related mortality (HR = 1.54, 1.54), and grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (HR = 1.49, 1.77) compared with the 8/8 group; transplants mismatched in other CAMMs had similar outcomes with HR ranging from 1.34 to 172 for these endpoints. The C*03:03/C*03:04 mismatched and the 8/8 matched groups had identical outcomes (HR ranging from 0.96-1.05). The previous finding that CAMMs do not associate with adverse outcomes is explained by the predominance (69%) of the mismatch C*03:03/03:04 in this group that is better tolerated than other HLA mismatches. PMID:24408320

  17. Thermal Protection Supplement for Reducing Interface Thermal Mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A. (Inventor); Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermal protection system that reduces a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients CTE between a first material layer (CTE1) and a second material layer (CTE2) at a first layer-second layer interface. A portion of aluminum borosilicate (abs) or another suitable additive (add), whose CTE value, CTE(add), satisfies (CTE(add)-CTE1)(CTE(add)-CTE2)<0, is distributed with variable additive density,.rho.(z;add), in the first material layer and/or in the second material layer, with.rho.(z;add) near the materials interface being relatively high (alternatively, relatively low) and.rho.(z;add) in a region spaced apart from the interface being relatively low (alternatively, relatively high).

  18. Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Speck, J. S.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-11-01

    Epitaxial films having a large lattice mismatch with their substrate invariably form a mosaic structure of slightly misoriented sub-grains. The mosaic structure is usually characterized by its x-ray rocking curve on a surface normal reflection but this is limited to the out-of-plane component unless off-axis or transmission experiments are performed. A method is presented by which the in-plane component of the mosaic misorientation can be determined from the rocking curves of substrate normal and off-axis reflections. Results are presented for two crystallographically distinct heteroepitaxial systems, ZnO, AlN, and GaN (wurtzite crystal structure) on c-plane sapphire and MgO (rock salt crystal structure) on (001) GaAs. The differences in the mosaic structure of these films are attributed to the crystallographic nature of their lattice dislocations.

  19. Indexing a sequence for mapping reads with a single mismatch.

    PubMed

    Crochemore, Maxime; Langiu, Alessio; Rahman, M Sohel

    2014-05-28

    Mapping reads against a genome sequence is an interesting and useful problem in computational molecular biology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we focus on the problem of indexing a sequence for mapping reads with a single mismatch. We first focus on a simpler problem where the length of the pattern is given beforehand during the data structure construction. This version of the problem is interesting in its own right in the context of the next generation sequencing. In the sequel, we show how to solve the more general problem. In both cases, our algorithm can construct an efficient data structure in O(n log(1+ε) n) time and space and can answer subsequent queries in O(m log log n + K) time. Here, n is the length of the sequence, m is the length of the read, 0<ε<1 and is the optimal output size.

  20. Three perspectives on the mismatch between measures of material poverty.

    PubMed

    Hick, Rod

    2015-03-01

    The two most prominent measures of material poverty within contemporary European poverty analysis are low income and material deprivation. However, it is by now well-known that these measures identify substantially different people as being poor. In this research note, I seek to demonstrate that there are at least three ways to understand the mismatch between low income and material deprivation, relating to three different forms of identification: identifying poor households, identifying groups at risk of poverty and identifying trends in material poverty over time. Drawing on data from the British Household Panel Survey, I show that while low income and material deprivation identify very different households as being poor, and display distinct trends over time, in many cases they identify the same groups at being at risk of material poverty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Immunohistochemical mismatch in a case of rhabdomyoblastic metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Georgescu, Simona Roxana; Păunică, Stana; Matei, Clara Nicoleta; Nica, Adriana Elena; Costache, Mariana; Motofei, Ion; Sajin, Maria; Păunică, Ioana; Georgescu, Tiberiu Augustin

    2018-01-01

    Melanomas can exhibit a wide range of unusual morphologies due to the neural crest origin of melanocytes. Several authors have documented variations in size and shape of cells, cytoplasmic features and inclusions, nuclear features and cell architecture. Metastatic melanoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation is an extremely rare condition with poor prognosis. Few studies concerning rhabdoid or rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in melanoma are currently available and the current report highlights some of the most important immunohistochemical features of this rare entity. We report on a case of a rhabdomyoblastic metastatic melanoma showing intense positivity for both melanocytic and rhabdoid markers in two cell populations dissociated within the tumor with multiple mismatches in immunomarker expression. Improved recognition of this rare morphological pattern may provide the means for developing new techniques to identify novel therapeutic targets, which would improve the prognostic outlook for these patients.

  2. An Index-Mismatch Scattering Approach to Optical Limiting

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ferris, Kim F.; Windisch, Charles F.

    A densely packed bed of alkaline earth fluoride particles percolated by a fluid medium has been investigated as a potential index-matched optical limiter in the spirit of a Christiansen-Shelyubskii filter. Marked optical limiting was observed through this transparent medium under conditions where the focused second-harmonic output of a Q-swtiched Nd: YAG laser was on the order of about 1 J/cm2. An open-aperture Z-scan technique was used to quantify the limiting behavior. In this case, the mechanism of optical limiting is thought to be a nonlinear shift in the fluid index of refraction, resulting in an index mismatch between the disparatemore » phases at high laser fluence.« less

  3. WD1145+017 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) WD1145 is a 17th magnitude white dwarf star 570 light years away in Virgo that was discovered to have a disintegrating planetoid in close orbit by Andrew Vanderburg, a graduate student at Harvard CfA, while data mining the elucidate the nature of its rather bizarre transit light curves. I obtained multiple observations of WD1145 over the course of a year, and found a series of complex transit light curves that could only be interpreted as a ring complex or torus in close orbit around WD1145. Combined with data from other amateur astronomers, professional observations, and satellite data, it became clear that WD1145 has a small planetoid in close orbit at the Roche limit and is breaking apart, forming a ring of debris material that is then raining down on the white dwarf. The surface of the star is "polluted" by heavy metals, determined by spectroscopic data. Given that in the intense gravitational field of a white dwarf any heavy metals could not for long last on the surface, this confirms that we are tracking in real time the destruction of a small planet by its host star.

  4. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  5. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  6. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize amore » composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.« less

  7. Phenological mismatch and the effectiveness of assisted gene flow.

    PubMed

    Wadgymar, Susana M; Weis, Arthur E

    2017-06-01

    The persistence of narrowly adapted species under climate change will depend on their ability to migrate apace with their historical climatic envelope or to adapt in place to maintain fitness. This second path to persistence can only occur if there is sufficient genetic variance for response to new selection regimes. Inadequate levels of genetic variation can be remedied through assisted gene flow (AGF), that is the intentional introduction of individuals genetically adapted to localities with historic climates similar to the current or future climate experienced by the resident population. However, the timing of reproduction is frequently adapted to local conditions. Phenological mismatch between residents and migrants can reduce resident × migrant mating frequencies, slowing the introgression of migrant alleles into the resident genetic background and impeding evolutionary rescue efforts. Focusing on plants, we devised a method to estimate the frequency of resident × migrant matings based on flowering schedules and applied it in an experiment that mimicked the first generation of an AGF program with Chamaecrista fasciculata, a prairie annual, under current and expected future temperature regimes. Phenological mismatch reduced the potential for resident × migrant matings by 40-90%, regardless of thermal treatment. The most successful migrant sires were the most resident like in their flowering time, further biasing the genetic admixture between resident and migrant populations. Other loci contributing to local adaptation-heat-tolerance genes, for instance-may be in linkage disequilibrium with phenology when residents and migrants are combined into a single mating pool. Thus, introgression of potentially adaptive migrant alleles into the resident genetic background is slowed when selection acts against migrant phenology. Successful AGF programs may require sustained high immigration rates or preliminary breeding programs when phenologically matched migrant

  8. Are Educational Mismatches Responsible for the "Inequality Increasing Effect" of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budria, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks whether educational mismatches can account for the positive association between education and wage inequality found in the data. We use two different data sources, the European Community Household Panel and the Portuguese Labour Force Survey, and consider several types of mismatch, including overqualification, underqualification…

  9. Educational Mismatch between Graduates' Possessed Skills and Market Demands in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzair-ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Noreen, Zahida

    2013-01-01

    Educational mismatch in skills that graduates possess and market requires creates barriers for organizations as well as for job seekers. The study was conducted to find out the educational mismatch between graduates possessed skills and market demands. Convenient sampling was carried out and data were collected from 200 graduates of economics…

  10. University Graduates' Skills Mismatches in Central Asia: Employers' Perspectives from Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonbekova, Dilrabo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines employers' perspectives about university graduates' skills and preparation for employment in post-Soviet Tajikistan. It explores the mismatch between the skills university graduates acquire and the skills required in the job market, and addresses some of the underlying reasons for the perceived skills mismatch. Thematic…

  11. The Impact of Major-Job Mismatch on College Graduates' Early Career Earnings: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the mismatch between a college major and job on college graduates' early career earnings using a sample from China. On average, a major-job mismatched college graduate is found to suffer from an income loss that is much lower than the penalty documented in previous studies. The income losses are also found to be…

  12. On the Mismatch between Multicultural Education and Its Subjects in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizrachi, Nissim

    2012-01-01

    This article draws attention to the growing evidence of a mismatch between sociological categorization and actors' worlds of meaning as expressed in the classroom. The mismatch is especially blatant in cases where students from disadvantaged groups are introduced to what educators and theorists presume to be the liberating discourse of…

  13. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism augments thymic regulatory T-cell production and prevents relapse of EAE in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Limin; Li, Nainong; Zhang, Mingfeng; Xue, Sheng-Li; Cassady, Kaniel; Lin, Qing; Riggs, Arthur D.; Zeng, Defu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with demyelination, axon damage, and paralysis. Induction of mixed chimerism with allogeneic donors has been shown to not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in animal models and humans. We have reported that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can cure autoimmunity in autoimmune NOD mice, but this approach has not yet been tested in animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we report that MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism with C57BL/6 (H-2b) donor in SJL/J (H-2s) EAE recipients eliminates clinical symptoms and prevents relapse. This cure is demonstrated by not only disappearance of clinical signs but also reversal of autoimmunity; elimination of infiltrating T, B, and macrophage cells in the spinal cord; and regeneration of myelin sheath. The reversal of autoimmunity is associated with a marked reduction of autoreactivity of CD4+ T cells and significant increase in the percentage of Foxp3+ Treg among host-type CD4+ T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The latter is associated with a marked reduction of the percentage of host-type CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and an increase of Treg percentage among the CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8− thymocytes. Thymectomy leads to loss of prevention of EAE relapse by induction of mixed chimerism, although there is a dramatic expansion of host-type Treg cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism can restore thymic negative selection of autoreactive CD4+ T cells, augment production of Foxp3+ Treg, and cure EAE. PMID:26647186

  14. Microarray-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Using Sex-Matched Reference DNA Provides Greater Sensitivity for Detection of Sex Chromosome Imbalances than Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization with Sex-Mismatched Reference DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Ou, Zhishuo; Pursley, Amber N.; Patel, Ankita; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R.; Chinault, A. Craig; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    In array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) experiments, the measurement of DNA copy number of sex chromosomal regions depends on the sex of the patient and the reference DNAs used. We evaluated the ability of bacterial artificial chromosomes/P1-derived artificial and oligonucleotide array-CGH analyses to detect constitutional sex chromosome imbalances using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Twenty-two samples with imbalances involving either the X or Y chromosome, including deletions, duplications, triplications, derivative or isodicentric chromosomes, and aneuploidy, were analyzed. Although concordant results were obtained for approximately one-half of the samples when using sex-mismatched and sex-matched reference DNAs, array-CGH analyses with sex-mismatched reference DNAs did not detect genomic imbalances that were detected using sex-matched reference DNAs in 6 of 22 patients. Small duplications and deletions of the X chromosome were most difficult to detect in female and male patients, respectively, when sex-mismatched reference DNAs were used. Sex-matched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses provides optimal sensitivity and enables an automated statistical evaluation for the detection of sex chromosome imbalances when compared with an experimental design using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. Using sex-mismatched reference DNAs in array-CGH analyses may generate false-negative, false-positive, and ambiguous results for sex chromosome-specific probes, thus masking potential pathogenic genomic imbalances. Therefore, to optimize both detection of clinically relevant sex chromosome imbalances and ensure proper experimental performance, we suggest that alternative internal controls be developed and used instead of using sex-mismatched reference DNAs. PMID:19324990

  15. Selective Cytotoxicity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors in Mismatch Repair-Deficient Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Russell J.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    Mismatches in DNA occur naturally during replication and as a result of endogenous DNA damaging agents, but the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway acts to correct mismatches before subsequent rounds of replication. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity and represent a promising strategy to target mismatches in cells. Here we examine the biological fate of rhodium metalloinsertors bearing dipyridylamine ancillary ligands in cells deficient in MMR versus those that are MMR-proficient. These complexes are shown to exhibit accelerated cellular uptake which permits the observation of various cellular responses, including disruption of the cell cycle, monitored by flow cytometry assays, and induction of necrosis, monitored by dye exclusion and caspase inhibition assays, that occur preferentially in the MMR-deficient cell line. These cellular responses provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the selective activity of this novel class of targeted anti-cancer agents. PMID:22103240

  16. Single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence spectroscopy reveals directional MutS binding to mismatched bases in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cristóvão, Michele; Sisamakis, Evangelos; Hingorani, Manju M.; Marx, Andreas D.; Jung, Caroline P.; Rothwell, Paul J.; Seidel, Claus A. M.; Friedhoff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors such as mismatched bases and loops in DNA. The evolutionarily conserved dimeric MMR protein MutS recognizes mismatches by stacking a phenylalanine of one subunit against one base of the mismatched pair. In all crystal structures of G:T mismatch-bound MutS, phenylalanine is stacked against thymine. To explore whether these structures reflect directional mismatch recognition by MutS, we monitored the orientation of Escherichia coli MutS binding to mismatches by FRET and anisotropy with steady state, pre-steady state and single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence measurements in a solution. The results confirm that specifically bound MutS bends DNA at the mismatch. We found additional MutS–mismatch complexes with distinct conformations that may have functional relevance in MMR. The analysis of individual binding events reveal significant bias in MutS orientation on asymmetric mismatches (G:T versus T:G, A:C versus C:A), but not on symmetric mismatches (G:G). When MutS is blocked from binding a mismatch in the preferred orientation by positioning asymmetric mismatches near the ends of linear DNA substrates, its ability to authorize subsequent steps of MMR, such as MutH endonuclease activation, is almost abolished. These findings shed light on prerequisites for MutS interactions with other MMR proteins for repairing the appropriate DNA strand. PMID:22367846

  17. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis: a monthly abstract journal. Abstracts 1-225

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M..

    1983-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available to DOE offices and contractors on request, and on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The subscription rate for the 12 monthly issues plus the annual index is $70.00 for domestic subscribers and $87.50 for subscribers outside the North American continent.« less

  18. Genetic and clinical determinants of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: report from the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency consortium.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Doua; Aronson, Melyssa; Durno, Carol; Rimawi, Hala; Farah, Roula; Alharbi, Qasim Kholaif; Alharbi, Musa; Shamvil, Ashraf; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Mistry, Matthew; Constantini, Shlomi; Dvir, Rina; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Gallinger, Steven; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Pollett, Aaron; Stephens, Derek; Kelies, Steve; Chao, Elizabeth; Malkin, David; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2014-03-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a devastating cancer predisposition syndrome for which data regarding clinical manifestations, molecular screening tools and management are limited. We established an international CMMRD consortium and collected comprehensive clinical and genetic data. Molecular diagnosis of tumour and germline biospecimens was performed. A surveillance protocol was developed and implemented. Overall, 22/23 (96%) of children with CMMRD developed 40 different tumours. While childhood CMMRD related tumours were observed in all families, Lynch related tumours in adults were observed in only 2/14 families (p=0.0007). All children with CMMRD had café-au-lait spots and 11/14 came from consanguineous families. Brain tumours were the most common cancers reported (48%) followed by gastrointestinal (32%) and haematological malignancies (15%). Importantly, 12 (30%) of these were low grade and resectable cancers. Tumour immunohistochemistry was 100% sensitive and specific in diagnosing mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency of the corresponding gene while microsatellite instability was neither sensitive nor specific as a diagnostic tool (p<0.0001). Furthermore, screening of normal tissue by immunohistochemistry correlated with genetic confirmation of CMMRD. The surveillance protocol detected 39 lesions which included asymptomatic malignant gliomas and gastrointestinal carcinomas. All tumours were amenable to complete resection and all patients undergoing surveillance are alive. CMMRD is a highly penetrant syndrome where family history of cancer may not be contributory. Screening tumours and normal tissues using immunohistochemistry for abnormal expression of MMR gene products may help in diagnosis and early implementation of surveillance for these children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA mismatch repair deficiency and hereditary syndromes in Latino patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Charité N; Hanna, Diana L; Peng, Cheng; Nguyen, Nathalie T; Stern, Mariana C; Schmit, Stephanie L; Idos, Greg E; Patel, Ravi; Tsai, Steven; Ramirez, Veronica; Lin, Sonia; Shamasunadara, Vinay; Barzi, Afsaneh; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-10-01

    The landscape of hereditary syndromes and clinicopathologic characteristics among US Latino/Hispanic individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood. A total of 265 patients with CRC who were enrolled in the Hispanic Colorectal Cancer Study were included in the current study. Information regarding CRC risk factors was elicited through interviews, and treatment and survival data were abstracted from clinical charts. Tumor studies and germline genetic testing results were collected from medical records or performed using standard molecular methods. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 53.7 years (standard deviation, 10.3 years), and 48.3% were female. Overall, 21.2% of patients reported a first-degree or second-degree relative with CRC; 3.4% met Amsterdam I/II criteria. With respect to Bethesda guidelines, 38.5% of patients met at least 1 criterion. Of the 161 individuals who had immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing performed, 21 (13.0%) had mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (dMMR) tumors. dMMR tumors were associated with female sex (61.9%), earlier age at the time of diagnosis (50.4 ± 12.4 years), proximal location (61.9%), and first-degree (23.8%) or second-degree (9.5%) family history of CRC. Among individuals with dMMR tumors, 13 (61.9%) had a germline MMR mutation (MutL homolog 1 [MLH1] in 6 patients; MutS homolog 2 [MSH2] in 4 patients; MutS homolog 6 [MHS6] in 2 patients; and PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component [PMS2] in 1 patient). The authors identified 2 additional MLH1 mutation carriers by genetic testing who had not received immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability testing. In total, 5.7% of the entire cohort were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome. In addition, 6 individuals (2.3%) had a polyposis phenotype. The percentage of dMMR tumors noted among Latino individuals (13%) is similar to estimates in non-Hispanic white individuals. In the current study, the majority of

  20. Optic pathway glioma as part of a constitutional mismatch-repair deficiency syndrome in a patient meeting the criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jacky T; Pollack, Ian F; Shah, Sapana; Jaffe, Ronald; Nikiforova, Marina; Jakacki, Regina I

    2013-01-01

    Patients with constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) caused by the biallelic deletions of mismatch repair (MMR) genes have a high likelihood of developing malignancies of the bone marrow, bowel, and brain. Affected individuals often have phenotypic features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), including café-au-lait spots. Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs), a common manifestation of NF-1, have not been reported. We report the case of a 3-year-old male with an extensive OPG who met the diagnostic criteria for NF-1. He was subsequently found to have multiple colonic polyps and bi-allelic loss of PMS2. Testing for NF-1 was negative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  2. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  3. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  4. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Holte, Robert C; Choueiry, Berthe Y

    2003-07-29

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense.

  5. Geophysical abstracts 167, October-December 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  6. Geophysical abstracts 164, January-March 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. A new table of contents, alphabetically arranged, has been adapted to show more clearly the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  7. Geophysical abstracts 166, July-September 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  8. Geophysical abstracts 165, April-June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  9. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  10. Mismatch and lexical retrieval gestures are associated with visual information processing, verbal production, and symptomatology in youth at high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Millman, Zachary B; Goss, James; Schiffman, Jason; Mejias, Johana; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Vijay A

    2014-09-01

    Gesture is integrally linked with language and cognitive systems, and recent years have seen a growing attention to these movements in patients with schizophrenia. To date, however, there have been no investigations of gesture in youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Examining gesture in UHR individuals may help to elucidate other widely recognized communicative and cognitive deficits in this population and yield new clues for treatment development. In this study, mismatch (indicating semantic incongruency between the content of speech and a given gesture) and retrieval (used during pauses in speech while a person appears to be searching for a word or idea) gestures were evaluated in 42 UHR individuals and 36 matched healthy controls. Cognitive functions relevant to gesture production (i.e., speed of visual information processing and verbal production) as well as positive and negative symptomatologies were assessed. Although the overall frequency of cases exhibiting these behaviors was low, UHR individuals produced substantially more mismatch and retrieval gestures than controls. The UHR group also exhibited significantly poorer verbal production performance when compared with controls. In the patient group, mismatch gestures were associated with poorer visual processing speed and elevated negative symptoms, while retrieval gestures were associated with higher speed of visual information-processing and verbal production, but not symptoms. Taken together these findings indicate that gesture abnormalities are present in individuals at high risk for psychosis. While mismatch gestures may be closely related to disease processes, retrieval gestures may be employed as a compensatory mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atypical associations to abstract words in Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Roll, Mikael; Mårtensson, Frida; Sikström, Sverker; Apt, Pia; Arnling-Bååth, Rasmus; Horne, Merle

    2012-09-01

    Left frontal brain lesions are known to give rise to aphasia and impaired word associations. These associations have previously been difficult to analyze. We used a semantic space method to investigate associations to cue words. The degree of abstractness of the generated words and semantic similarity to the cue words were measured. Three subjects diagnosed with Broca's aphasia and twelve control subjects associated freely to cue words. Results were evaluated with latent semantic analysis (LSA) applied to the Swedish Parole corpus. The aphasic subjects could be clearly distinguished from controls by a lower degree of abstractness in the words they generated. The aphasic group's associations showed a negative correlation between semantic similarity to cue word and abstractness of cue word. By developing novel semantic measures, we showed that Broca's aphasic subjects' word production was characterized by a low degree of abstractness and low degree of coherence in associations to abstract cue words. The results support models where meanings of concrete words are represented in neural networks involving perceptual and motor areas, whereas the meaning of abstract words is more dependent on connections to other word forms in the left frontal region. Semantic spaces can be used in future developments of evaluative tools for both diagnosis and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  13. Mood Modulates Auditory Laterality of Hemodynamic Mismatch Responses during Dichotic Listening

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Lisa; Dyck, Miriam; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Hertrich, Ingo; Sturm, Walter; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Hemodynamic mismatch responses can be elicited by deviant stimuli in a sequence of standard stimuli even during cognitive demanding tasks. Emotional context is known to modulate lateralized processing. Right-hemispheric negative emotion processing may bias attention to the right and enhance processing of right-ear stimuli. The present study examined the influence of induced mood on lateralized pre-attentive auditory processing of dichotic stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Faces expressing emotions (sad/happy/neutral) were presented in a blocked design while a dichotic oddball sequence with consonant-vowel (CV) syllables in an event-related design was simultaneously administered. Twenty healthy participants were instructed to feel the emotion perceived on the images and to ignore the syllables. Deviant sounds reliably activated bilateral auditory cortices and confirmed attention effects by modulation of visual activity. Sad mood induction activated visual, limbic and right prefrontal areas. A lateralization effect of emotion-attention interaction was reflected in a stronger response to right-ear deviants in the right auditory cortex during sad mood. This imbalance of resources may be a neurophysiological correlate of laterality in sad mood and depression. Conceivably, the compensatory right-hemispheric enhancement of resources elicits increased ipsilateral processing. PMID:22384105

  14. Working Hours Mismatch, Macroeconomic Changes, and Mental Well-being in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Moortel, Deborah; Thévenon, Olivier; De Witte, Hans; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the association between involuntarily working less or more than the standard workweek and poor mental well-being, and whether this relationship is dependent upon (changing) national-level unemployment and gross domestic product growth rates. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004-2005) and Round 5 (2010) were analyzed. The sample included 16,224 male and 16,184 female employees. Mental well-being was assessed by the World Health Organization Well-being Index. Three-level linear multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. Working involuntary long hours was positively associated with poor mental well-being for men. For women, working voluntary long, involuntary long, and involuntary short hours were positively associated with poor mental well-being. The mental well-being of women working voluntary and involuntary long hours was negatively influenced by deteriorating economic conditions. This study suggests women are more vulnerable to the effects of long working hours and working hours mismatch on mental well-being, especially during difficult economic periods.

  15. Screening for Muir-Torre syndrome using mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry of sebaceous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Maegan E; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Thomas, Brittany C; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Krishna, Murli; DiCaudo, David J; Bridges, Alina G; Hunt, Katherine S; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Cappel, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Screening for the Muir-Torre variant of Lynch Syndrome (LS) using Mismatch Repair (MMR) gene immunohistochemistry (IHC) on sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) is technically feasible. To date, research into the clinical utility of MMR IHC for this indication is limited. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with MMR IHC completed on at least one SN from January 2005 to May 2010. SNs included were adenomas, epitheliomas, carcinomas and basal and squamous cell carcinomas with sebaceous differentiation. Of the 90 patients, 13 (14 %) had genetically confirmed or fulfilled clinical criteria for a diagnosis of MTS and 51 patients (57 %) presented with an abnormal MMR IHC result (loss of one or more MMR proteins) on at least one SN. Abnormal IHC had a sensitivity of 85 %, specificity of 48 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 22 % and negative predictive value (NPV) of 95 % when evaluating for MTS. When personal or family history of colorectal cancer (≥2 family members with a history of colorectal cancer) was taken into consideration, ignoring IHC results, sensitivity was 92 %, specificity was 99 %, PPV was 92 % and NPV was 99 %. MMR IHC on SNs when used to screen for MTS has poor diagnostic utility. We recommend that MMR IHC not be performed routinely on SNs when the patient does not have either personal or family history of colorectal cancer.

  16. Collocation mismatch uncertainties in satellite aerosol retrieval validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodríguez, Edith; Saponaro, Giulia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based aerosol products are routinely validated against ground-based reference data, usually obtained from sun photometer networks such as AERONET (AEROsol RObotic NETwork). In a typical validation exercise a spatial sample of the instantaneous satellite data is compared against a temporal sample of the point-like ground-based data. The observations do not correspond to exactly the same column of the atmosphere at the same time, and the representativeness of the reference data depends on the spatiotemporal variability of the aerosol properties in the samples. The associated uncertainty is known as the collocation mismatch uncertainty (CMU). The validation results depend on the sampling parameters. While small samples involve less variability, they are more sensitive to the inevitable noise in the measurement data. In this paper we study systematically the effect of the sampling parameters in the validation of AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product against AERONET data and the associated collocation mismatch uncertainty. To this end, we study the spatial AOD variability in the satellite data, compare it against the corresponding values obtained from densely located AERONET sites, and assess the possible reasons for observed differences. We find that the spatial AOD variability in the satellite data is approximately 2 times larger than in the ground-based data, and the spatial variability correlates only weakly with that of AERONET for short distances. We interpreted that only half of the variability in the satellite data is due to the natural variability in the AOD, and the rest is noise due to retrieval errors. However, for larger distances (˜ 0.5°) the correlation is improved as the noise is averaged out, and the day-to-day changes in regional AOD variability are well captured. Furthermore, we assess the usefulness of the spatial variability of the satellite AOD data as an estimate of CMU by comparing the

  17. The Abstraction Process of Limit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Memnun, Dilek; Aydin, Bünyamin; Özbilen, Ömer; Erdogan, Günes

    2017-01-01

    The RBC+C abstraction model is an effective model in mathematics education because it gives the opportunity to analyze research data through cognitive actions. For this reason, we aim to examine the abstraction process of the limit knowledge of two volunteer participant students using the RBC+C abstraction model. With this aim, the students'…

  18. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  19. Tips to Understanding and Writing Manuscript Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    An abstract represents a short summary of key elements of the manuscript. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the function, contents, and types of manuscript abstracts. The essay concludes with a few tips for authors to writing effective abstracts.

  20. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  1. Social, Spatial, and Skill Mismatch among Immigrants and Native-Born Workers in Los Angeles. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Manuel, Jr.; Marcelli, Enrico A.

    Racially different economic outcomes stem from multiple causes, including various "mismatches" between minority employees and available jobs. A skill mismatch occurs when individuals' education and job skills do not qualify them for existing jobs. A spatial mismatch means that people live far from the work for which they qualify. A…

  2. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  3. Enhanced spontaneous DNA twisting/bending fluctuations unveiled by fluorescence lifetime distributions promote mismatch recognition by the Rad4 nucleotide excision repair complex

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sagnik; Steinbach, Peter J; Paul, Debamita; Mu, Hong; Broyde, Suse

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rad4/XPC recognizes diverse DNA lesions including ultraviolet-photolesions and carcinogen-DNA adducts, initiating nucleotide excision repair. Studies have suggested that Rad4/XPC senses lesion-induced helix-destabilization to flip out nucleotides from damaged DNA sites. However, characterizing how DNA deformability and/or distortions impact recognition has been challenging. Here, using fluorescence lifetime measurements empowered by a maximum entropy algorithm, we mapped the conformational heterogeneities of artificially destabilized mismatched DNA substrates of varying Rad4-binding specificities. The conformational distributions, as probed by FRET between a cytosine-analog pair exquisitely sensitive to DNA twisting/bending, reveal a direct connection between intrinsic DNA deformability and Rad4 recognition. High-specificity CCC/CCC mismatch, free in solution, sampled a strikingly broad range of conformations from B-DNA-like to highly distorted conformations that resembled those observed with Rad4 bound; the extent of these distortions increased with bound Rad4 and with temperature. Conversely, the non-specific TAT/TAT mismatch had a homogeneous, B-DNA-like conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations also revealed a wide distribution of conformations for CCC/CCC, complementing experimental findings. We propose that intrinsic deformability promotes Rad4 damage recognition, perhaps by stalling a diffusing protein and/or facilitating ‘conformational capture’ of pre-distorted damaged sites. Surprisingly, even mismatched DNA specifically bound to Rad4 remains highly dynamic, a feature that may reflect the versatility of Rad4/XPC to recognize many structurally dissimilar lesions. PMID:29267981

  4. Short hairpin RNA suppression of thymidylate synthase produces DNA mismatches and results in excellent radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sheryl A; Cooper, Kristin S; Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A; Shewach, Donna S

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. TS shRNA produced profound (≥ 90%) and prolonged (≥ 8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA mismatches underlying radiosensitization. Importantly, sh

  5. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J.; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J.; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy—projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace. PMID:26584870

  6. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  7. Detecting population–environmental interactions with mismatched time series data

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jake M.; Reichert, Brian E.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Jager, Henriëtte I.

    2017-01-01

    Time series analysis is an essential method for decomposing the influences of density and exogenous factors such as weather and climate on population regulation. However, there has been little work focused on understanding how well commonly collected data can reconstruct the effects of environmental factors on population dynamics. We show that, analogous to similar scale issues in spatial data analysis, coarsely sampled temporal data can fail to detect covariate effects when interactions occur on timescales that are fast relative to the survey period. We propose a method for modeling mismatched time series data that couples high-resolution environmental data to low-resolution abundance data. We illustrate our approach with simulations and by applying it to Florida’s southern Snail kite population. Our simulation results show that our method can reliably detect linear environmental effects and that detecting nonlinear effects requires high-resolution covariate data even when the population turnover rate is slow. In the Snail kite analysis, our approach performed among the best in a suite of previously used environmental covariates explaining Snail kite dynamics and was able to detect a potential phenological shift in the environmental dependence of Snail kites. Our work provides a statistical framework for reliably detecting population–environment interactions from coarsely surveyed time series. An important implication of this work is that the low predictability of animal population growth by weather variables found in previous studies may be due, in part, to how these data are utilized as covariates. PMID:28759123

  8. Detecting population-environmental interactions with mismatched time series data.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jake M; Reichert, Brian E; Fletcher, Robert J; Jager, Henriëtte I

    2017-11-01

    Time series analysis is an essential method for decomposing the influences of density and exogenous factors such as weather and climate on population regulation. However, there has been little work focused on understanding how well commonly collected data can reconstruct the effects of environmental factors on population dynamics. We show that, analogous to similar scale issues in spatial data analysis, coarsely sampled temporal data can fail to detect covariate effects when interactions occur on timescales that are fast relative to the survey period. We propose a method for modeling mismatched time series data that couples high-resolution environmental data to low-resolution abundance data. We illustrate our approach with simulations and by applying it to Florida's southern Snail kite population. Our simulation results show that our method can reliably detect linear environmental effects and that detecting nonlinear effects requires high-resolution covariate data even when the population turnover rate is slow. In the Snail kite analysis, our approach performed among the best in a suite of previously used environmental covariates explaining Snail kite dynamics and was able to detect a potential phenological shift in the environmental dependence of Snail kites. Our work provides a statistical framework for reliably detecting population-environment interactions from coarsely surveyed time series. An important implication of this work is that the low predictability of animal population growth by weather variables found in previous studies may be due, in part, to how these data are utilized as covariates. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Effect of HLA mismatch on acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Junya

    2013-09-01

    HLA matching between donors and recipients is the most important factor associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With improvements in GVHD prophylaxis and supportive care, transplantations from HLA mismatched donors are performed increasingly frequently, drawing greater attention to the effects of HLA mismatch. In related transplantation, HLA 1-antigen mismatch at the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR loci is considered acceptable, but the incidence of severe acute GVHD under standard prophylaxis is higher than that for matched related and unrelated transplantation, highlighting the need for a modification of GVHD prophylaxis. Development of new GVHD prophylaxes has now made HLA 2-3-antigen mismatched related transplantation feasible, and has almost overcome the HLA barrier. In unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, donors matched for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1 alleles are the most preferable. The impact of allele or antigen mismatch has been evaluated in a number of studies, but the results of these have not been consistent, partly due to differences in race and HLA distribution. The effects of HLA mismatch may differ depending on the year of transplantation and the form of GVHD prophylaxis administered. In cord blood transplantation, successful transplantation can be achieved with up to two HLA mismatches. In children, compared to the use of HLA mismatched units, the use of HLA-matched units is associated with a lower risk of acute GVHD and mortality, while in adults HLA mismatches may have a lower impact on outcome. Thus, the effect of HLA matching should be evaluated separately for different stem cell sources.

  10. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  11. Validation of predictive models for germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Jose G; Cremin, Carol; Armstrong, Linlea; Nuk, Jennifer; Young, Sean; Horsman, Doug E; Garbutt, Kristy; Bajdik, Chris D; Gill, Sharlene

    2010-02-15

    Lynch syndrome is defined by the presence of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Several models have been recently devised that predict mutation carrier status (Myriad Genetics, Wijnen, Barnetson, PREMM and MMRpro models). Families at moderate-high risk for harboring a Lynch-associated mutation, referred to the BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) Hereditary Cancer Program (HCP), underwent mutation analysis, immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite testing. Seventy-two tested cases were included. Twenty-five patients were mutation positive (34.7%) and 47 were mutation negative (65.3%). Nineteen of 43 patients who were both microsatellite stable and normal on immunohistochemistry for MLH1 and MSH2 were also genotyped for mutations in these genes; all 19 were negative for MMR gene mutations. Model-derived probabilities of harboring a MMR gene mutation in the proband were calculated and compared to observed results. The area under the ROC curves were 0.75 (95%CI; 0.63-0.87), 0.86 (0.7-0.96), 0.89 (0.82-0.97), 0.89 (0.81-0.98) and 0.93 (0.86-0.99) for the Myriad, Barnetson, Wijnen, MMRpro and PREMM models, respectively. The Amsterdam II criteria had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.76 and 0.74, respectively, in this cohort. The PREMM model demonstrated the best performance for predicting carrier status based on the positive likelihood ratios at the >10%, >20% and >30% probability thresholds. In this referred cohort, the PREMM model had the most favorable concordance index and predictive performance for carrier status based on the positive LR. These prediction models (PREMM, MMRPro and Wijnen) may soon replace the Amsterdam II and revised Bethesda criteria as a prescreening tool for Lynch mutations.

  12. Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-02-01

    In order to process speech and music, the auditory cortex must learn to process patterns of sounds. Our previous studies showed that with a stream consisting of a repeating (standard) sound, younger infants show an increase in the amplitude of a positive slow wave in response to occasional changes (deviants) in pitch or duration, whereas older infants show a faster negative response that resembles mismatch negativity (MMN) in adults (Trainor et al., 2001, 2003; He et al., 2007). MMN reflects an automatic change-detection process that does not require attention, conscious awareness or behavioural response for its elicitation (Picton et al., 2000; Näätänen et al., 2007). It is an important tool for understanding auditory perception because MMN reflects a change-detection mechanism, and not simply that repetition of a stimulus results in a refractory state of sensory neural circuits while occasional changes to a new sound activate new non-refractory neural circuits (Näätänen et al., 2005). For example, MMN is elicited by a change in the pattern of a repeating note sequence, even when no new notes are introduced that could activate new sensory circuits (Alain et al., 1994, 1999;Schröger et al., 1996). In the present study, we show that in response to a change in the pattern of two repeating tones, MMN in 4-month-olds remains robust whereas the 2-month-old response does not. This indicates that the MMN response to a change in pattern at 4 months reflects the activation of a change-detection mechanism similarly as in adults.

  13. Robust image matching via ORB feature and VFC for mismatch removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Fu, Wenxing; Fang, Bin; Hu, Fangyu; Quan, Siwen; Ma, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Image matching is at the base of many image processing and computer vision problems, such as object recognition or structure from motion. Current methods rely on good feature descriptors and mismatch removal strategies for detection and matching. In this paper, we proposed a robust image match approach based on ORB feature and VFC for mismatch removal. ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF) is an outstanding feature, it has the same performance as SIFT with lower cost. VFC (Vector Field Consensus) is a state-of-the-art mismatch removing method. The experiment results demonstrate that our method is efficient and robust.

  14. Mid-IR femtosecond frequency conversion by soliton-probe collision in phase-mismatched quadratic nonlinear crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2015-08-15

    We show numerically that ultrashort self-defocusing temporal solitons colliding with a weak pulsed probe in the near-IR can convert the probe to the mid-IR. A near-perfect conversion efficiency is possible for a high effective soliton order. The near-IR self-defocusing soliton can form in a quadratic nonlinear crystal (beta-barium borate) in the normal dispersion regime due to cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, and the mid-IR converted wave is formed in the anomalous dispersion regime between λ=2.2-2.4  μm as a resonant dispersive wave. This process relies on nondegenerate four-wave mixing mediated by an effective negative cross-phase modulation term caused by cascaded soliton-probe sum-frequency generation.

  15. Influence of tempering and contraction mismatch on crack development in ceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; DeHoff, P H; Hojjatie, B; Gray, A

    1989-07-01

    Tempering of glass produces a state of compressive stress in surface regions which can enhance the resistance to crack initiation and growth. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of tempering on the sizes of surface cracks induced within the tempered surfaces of opaque porcelain-body porcelain discs, with contraction coefficient differences (alpha O-alpha B) of +3.2, +0.7, 0.0, -0.9, and -1.5 ppm/degrees C. We fired the discs to the maturing temperature (982 degrees C) of body porcelain and then subjected them to three cooling procedures: slow cooling in a furnace (SC), fast cooling in air (FC), and tempering (T) by blasting the body porcelain surface with compressed air for 90 s. We used body porcelain discs as the thermally compatible (delta alpha = 0) control specimens. We measured the diameters of cracks induced by a microhardness indenter at an applied load of 4.9 N at 80 points along diametral lines within the surface of body porcelain. The mean values of the crack diameters varied from 75.9 microns (delta alpha = -1.5 ppm/degrees C) to 103.3 microns (delta alpha = +3.2 ppm/degrees C). The results of ANOVA indicate that significant differences in crack dimensions were controlled by cooling rate, contraction mismatch, and their combined effect (p less than 0.0001). Multiple contrast analysis (Tukey's HSD Test) revealed significantly lower (p less than 0.05) crack sizes for tempered specimens compared with those of fast-cooled and slow-cooled specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(sub x)V(sub 1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(sub x)Te(sub 1-x) and ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, y between 0 and 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(sub y)Te(sub 1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the

  17. Band Anticrossing in Highly Mismatched Compound Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A.; Su, Ching-Hua; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys in which metallic anions are partially replaced with more electronegative isoelectronic atoms have recently attracted significant attention. Group IIIN(x)V(1-x), alloys with a small amount of the electronegative N substituting more metallic column V elements has been the most extensively studied class of such Highly Mismatched Alloys (HMAs). We have shown that many of the unusual properties of the IIIN(x),V(1-x) alloys can be well explained by the Band Anticrossing (BAC) model that describes the electronic structure in terms of an interaction between highly localized levels of substitutional N and the extended states of the host semiconductor matrix. Most recently the BAC model has been also used to explain similar modifications of the electronic band structure observed in Te-rich ZnS(x)Te(l-x) and ZnSe(Y)Te(1-y) alloys. To date studies of HMAs have been limited to materials with relatively small concentrations of highly electronegative atoms. Here we report investigations of the electronic structure of ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) alloys in the entire composition range, 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 1. The samples used in this study are bulk ZnSe(y)Te(1-y) crystals grown by either a modified Bridgman method or by physical vapor transport. Photomodulated reflection (PR) spectroscopy was used to measure the composition dependence of optical transitions from the valence band edge and from the spin-orbit split off band to the conduction band. The pressure dependence of the band gap was measured using optical absorption in a diamond anvil cell. We find that the energy of the spin-orbit split off valence band edge does not depend on composition and is located at about 3 eV below the conduction band edge of ZnSe. On the Te-rich side the pressure and the composition dependence of the optical transitions are well explained by the BAC model which describes the downward shift of the conduction band edge in terms of the interaction between

  18. Rethinking the advantage of zero-HLA mismatches in unrelated living donor kidney transplantation: implications on kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Casey, Michael Jin; Wen, Xuerong; Rehman, Shehzad; Santos, Alfonso H; Andreoni, Kenneth A

    2015-04-01

    The OPTN/UNOS Kidney Paired Donation (KPD) Pilot Program allocates priority to zero-HLA mismatches. However, in unrelated living donor kidney transplants (LDKT)-the same donor source in KPD-no study has shown whether zero-HLA mismatches provide any advantage over >0 HLA mismatches. We hypothesize that zero-HLA mismatches among unrelated LDKT do not benefit graft survival. This retrospective SRTR database study analyzed LDKT recipients from 1987 to 2012. Among unrelated LDKT, subjects with zero-HLA mismatches were compared to a 1:1-5 matched (by donor age ±1 year and year of transplantation) control cohort with >0 HLA mismatches. The primary endpoint was death-censored graft survival. Among 32,654 unrelated LDKT recipients, 83 had zero-HLA mismatches and were matched to 407 controls with >0 HLA mismatches. Kaplan-Meier analyses for death-censored graft and patient survival showed no difference between study and control cohorts. In multivariate marginal Cox models, zero-HLA mismatches saw no benefit with death-censored graft survival (HR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.78-2.73) or patient survival (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.68-3.01). Our data suggest that in unrelated LDKT, zero-HLA mismatches may not offer any survival advantage. Therefore, particular study of zero-HLA mismatching is needed to validate its place in the OPTN/UNOS KPD Pilot Program allocation algorithm. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. DNA mismatch repair gene polymorphisms affect survival in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoqun; Li, Yanan; Hess, Kenneth R; Abbruzzese, James L; Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genomic stability and mediates cellular response to DNA damage. We aim to demonstrate whether MMR genetic variants affect overall survival (OS) in pancreatic cancer. Using the Sequenom method in genomic DNA, we retrospectively genotyped 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 13 MMR genes from 706 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma seen at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Association between genotype and OS was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models. At a false discovery rate of 1% (p ≤ .0015), 15 SNPs of EXO1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2, PMS2L3, TP73, and TREX1 in patients with localized disease (n = 333) and 6 SNPs of MSH3, MSH6, and TP73 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease (n = 373) were significantly associated with OS. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models, SNPs of EXO1, MSH2, MSH3, PMS2L3, and TP73 in patients with localized disease, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and TP73 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, and EXO1, MGMT, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2L3, and TP73 in all patients remained significant predictors for OS (p ≤ .0015) after adjusting for all clinical predictors and all SNPs with p ≤ .0015 in single-locus analysis. Sixteen haplotypes of EXO1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2, PMS2L3, RECQL, TP73, and TREX1 significantly correlated with OS in all patients (p ≤ .001). MMR gene variants may have potential value as prognostic markers for OS in pancreatic cancer patients.

  20. Mismatched related hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Wahadneh, Adel M; Bin Dahman, Haifa A; Abu Shukear, Mohammed E; Habahbeh, Zeyad M; Ajarmeh, Mohammad A; Zyood, Raed M; Habashneh, Mueen S

    2013-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the definitive therapy for a variety of primary immunodeficiency syndromes (PIDs). However, no more than 30% of the patients will have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling. We retrospectively analyzed our results of ten patients with PID; severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (n = 7), hyper IgM (HIgM) (n = 1) and combined immunodeficiency (CID) (n = 2), who lacked a fully matched donor and underwent mismatched related HSCT during the period from 2008 to 2010. The median age at the time of transplantation ranged between 3 and 84 months (median 6.5 months). Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were used in all HSCTs. The mean value of the peripheral CD34+ cells infused was 9.19 × 10 (6) /kg recipient weight. Patients received different conditioning protocols. All patients received anti graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and all were engrafted. Mixed chimerism (5-55%) was noticed. GVHD was observed in 50% of the patients. Post-transplant follow-up ranged from 3 weeks to 36 months (median 15 months). Five patients are still alive while one patient developed engraftment syndrome followed by graft slippage for which a second transplant with CD34+ stem cells 5.8 × 10 (6) /kg recipient's weight was infused. The others died from sepsis and transplant-related complications. Immune reconstitution was noticed in four patients. In conclusion, HLA-haploidentical stem cell transplantation may be feasible, with appropriate GVHD prophylaxis, for patients with PID who lack a fully matched donor.

  1. Disease-associated repeat instability and mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Monika H M; Pearson, Christopher E

    2016-02-01

    Expanded tandem repeat sequences in DNA are associated with at least 40 human genetic neurological, neurodegenerative, and neuromuscular diseases. Repeat expansion can occur during parent-to-offspring transmission, and arise at variable rates in specific tissues throughout the life of an affected individual. Since the ongoing somatic repeat expansions can affect disease age-of-onset, severity, and progression, targeting somatic expansion holds potential as a therapeutic target. Thus, understanding the factors that regulate this mutation is crucial. DNA repair, in particular mismatch repair (MMR), is the major driving force of disease-associated repeat expansions. In contrast to its anti-mutagenic roles, mammalian MMR curiously drives the expansion mutations of disease-associated (CAG)·(CTG) repeats. Recent advances have broadened our knowledge of both the MMR proteins involved in disease repeat expansions, including: MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, and MLH3, as well as the types of repeats affected by MMR, now including: (CAG)·(CTG), (CGG)·(CCG), and (GAA)·(TTC) repeats. Mutagenic slipped-DNA structures have been detected in patient tissues, and the size of the slip-out and their junction conformation can determine the involvement of MMR. Furthermore, the formation of other unusual DNA and R-loop structures is proposed to play a key role in MMR-mediated instability. A complex correlation is emerging between tissues showing varying amounts of repeat instability and MMR expression levels. Notably, naturally occurring polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can have dramatic effects upon the levels of repeat instability, which may explain the variation in disease age-of-onset, progression and severity. An increasing grasp of these factors holds prognostic and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zishuo I; Shia, Jinru; Stadler, Zsofia K; Varghese, Anna M; Capanu, Marinela; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Lowery, Maeve A; Diaz, Luis A; Mandelker, Diana; Yu, Kenneth H; Zervoudakis, Alice; Kelsen, David P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Klimstra, David S; Saltz, Leonard B; Sahin, Ibrahim H; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been shown to generate profound and durable responses in mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D) solid tumors and has elicited interest in detection tools and strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making. Herein we address questions on the appropriate screening, detection methods, patient selection, and initiation of therapy for MMR-D pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and assess the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in providing additional prognostic and predictive information for MMR-D PDAC. Experimental Design: Archival and prospectively acquired samples and matched normal DNA from N = 833 PDAC cases were analyzed using a hybridization capture-based, NGS assay designed to perform targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 341 to 468 cancer-associated genes. A computational program using NGS data derived the MSI status from the tumor-normal paired genome sequencing data. Available germline testing, IHC, and microsatellite instability (MSI) PCR results were reviewed to assess and confirm MMR-D and MSI status. Results: MMR-D in PDAC is a rare event among PDAC patients (7/833), occurring at a frequency of 0.8%. Loss of MMR protein expression by IHC, high mutational load, and elevated MSIsensor scores were correlated with MMR-D PDAC. All 7 MMR-D PDAC patients in the study were found to have Lynch syndrome. Four (57%) of the MMR-D patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade had treatment benefit (1 complete response, 2 partial responses, 1 stable disease). Conclusions: An integrated approach of germline testing and somatic analyses of tumor tissues in advanced PDAC using NGS may help guide future development of immune and molecularly directed therapies in PDAC patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1326-36. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Clinicopathologic implications of DNA mismatch repair status in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shikama, Ayumi; Minaguchi, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Akiyama-Abe, Azusa; Nakamura, Yuko; Michikami, Hiroo; Nakao, Sari; Sakurai, Manabu; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Satoh, Toyomi; Oki, Akinori; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women with Lynch syndrome caused by mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. We investigated the clinicopathologic significance of deficient MMR and Lynch syndrome presumed by MMR analyses in unselected endometrial carcinomas. We analyzed immunohistochemistry of MMR proteins (MLH1/MSH2/MSH6/PMS2) and MLH1 promoter methylation in primary endometrial carcinomas from 221 consecutive patients. Based on these results, tumors were categorized as sporadic or probable Lynch syndrome (PLS). Clinicopathologic variables and prognosis were compared according to MMR status and sporadic/PLS classification. Deficient MMR showed only trends towards favorable overall survival (OS) compared with intact MMR (p=0.13), whereas PLS showed significantly better OS than sporadic (p=0.038). Sporadic was significantly associated with older age, obesity, deep myometrial invasion, and advanced stage (p=0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03), while PLS was significantly associated with early stage and Lynch syndrome-associated multiple cancer (p=0.04 and 0.001). The trend towards favorable OS of PLS was stronger in advanced stage than in early stage (hazard ratio, 0.044 [95% CI 0-25.6] vs. 0.49 [0.063-3.8]). In the subset receiving adjuvant therapies, PLS showed trends towards favorable disease-free survival compared to sporadic by contrast with patients receiving no adjuvant therapies showing no such trend (hazard ratio, 0.045 [95% CI 0-20.3] vs. 0.81 [0.095-7.0]). The current findings suggest that analyzing MMR status and searching for Lynch syndrome may identify a subset of patients with favorable survival and high sensitivity to adjuvant therapies, providing novel and useful implications for formulating the precision medicine in endometrial carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  5. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  6. A Direct Adaptive Control Approach in the Presence of Model Mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Tao, Gang; Khong, Thuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of direct model reference adaptive control when the plant-model matching conditions are violated due to abnormal changes in the plant or incorrect knowledge of the plant's mathematical structure. The approach consists of direct adaptation of state feedback gains for state tracking, and simultaneous estimation of the plant-model mismatch. Because of the mismatch, the plant can no longer track the state of the original reference model, but may be able to track a new reference model that still provides satisfactory performance. The reference model is updated if the estimated plant-model mismatch exceeds a bound that is determined via robust stability and/or performance criteria. The resulting controller is a hybrid direct-indirect adaptive controller that offers asymptotic state tracking in the presence of plant-model mismatch as well as parameter deviations.

  7. Perceived match or mismatch on the Gottman conflict styles: associations with relationship outcome variables.

    PubMed

    Busby, Dean M; Holman, Thomas B

    2009-12-01

    Gottman has proposed that there are 3 functional styles of conflict management in couple relationships, labeled Avoidant, Validating, and Volatile, and 1 dysfunctional style, labeled Hostile. Using a sample of 1,983 couples in a committed relationship, we test the association of perceived matches or mismatches on these conflict styles with relationship outcome variables. The results indicate that 32% of the participants perceive there is a mismatch with their conflict style and that of their partner. The Volatile-Avoidant mismatch was particularly problematic and was associated with more stonewalling, relationship problems, and lower levels of relationship satisfaction and stability than the Validating matched style and than other mismatched styles. The most problematic style was the Hostile style. Contrary to existing assumptions by Gottman, the 3 matched functional styles were not equivalent, as the Validating Style was associated with substantially better results on relationship outcome measures than the Volatile and Avoidant styles.

  8. Minimizing the effect of process mismatch in a neuromorphic system using spike-timing-dependent adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Katherine; Murray, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates whether spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can minimize the effect of mismatch within the context of a depth-from-motion algorithm. To improve noise rejection, this algorithm contains a spike prediction element, whose performance is degraded by analog very large scale integration (VLSI) mismatch. The error between the actual spike arrival time and the prediction is used as the input to an STDP circuit, to improve future predictions. Before STDP adaptation, the error reflects the degree of mismatch within the prediction circuitry. After STDP adaptation, the error indicates to what extent the adaptive circuitry can minimize the effect of transistor mismatch. The circuitry is tested with static and varying prediction times and chip results are presented. The effect of noisy spikes is also investigated. Under all conditions the STDP adaptation is shown to improve performance.

  9. Is there a differential strength of specific HLA mismatches in kidney transplants?

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Idica, A; Terasaki, P

    2008-05-01

    In this article we attempted to identify whether there is a specific mismatched antigen that might be detrimental to kidney transplant outcome. The frequency of function versus failure of transplant cases was tallied within subpopulations among a subset of the 2006 United Network for Organ Sharing transplant dataset. We examined 7998 cadaveric and 11,420 living donor kidney transplants that were mismatched for a single class I antigen. When tested by five different criteria, the results were relatively similar for the HLA class I, A- and B-locus mismatches. HLA A1 was identified as the single most dominant immunogenic mismatch. However, when the P values were multiplied by 68, the number of comparisons, A1 was only marginally significant. We concluded that at least for class I specificities, the 68 specificities were about equal immunogenicity in kidney transplantation.

  10. Temporal Processing Ability Is Related to Ear-Asymmetry for Detecting Time Cues in Sound: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Juanita; Finch, Brayden; Smith, Ellen; Budd, Timothy W.; Schall, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spectral sound information is processed asymmetrically in the brain with the left-hemisphere showing an advantage for processing the former and the right-hemisphere for the latter. Using monaural sound presentation we demonstrate a context and ability dependent ear-asymmetry in brain measures of temporal change detection. Our measure…

  11. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and sensory auditory processing in children aged 9-12 years presenting with putative antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, Jason M; Stockill, Helen V; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Laurens, Kristin R

    2013-09-01

    Identification of markers of abnormal brain function in children at-risk of schizophrenia may inform early intervention and prevention programs. Individuals with schizophrenia are characterised by attenuation of MMN amplitude, which indexes automatic auditory sensory processing. The current aim was to examine whether children who may be at increased risk of schizophrenia due to their presenting multiple putative antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) are similarly characterised by MMN amplitude reductions, relative to typically developing (TD) children. EEG was recorded from 22 ASz and 24 TD children aged 9 to 12 years (matched on age, sex, and IQ) during a passive auditory oddball task (15% duration deviant). ASz children were those presenting: (1) speech and/or motor development lags/problems; (2) social, emotional, or behavioural problems in the clinical range; and (3) psychotic-like experiences. TD children presented no antecedents, and had no family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. MMN amplitude, but not latency, was significantly greater at frontal sites in the ASz group than in the TD group. Although the MMN exhibited by the children at risk of schizophrenia was unlike that of their typically developing peers, it also differed from the reduced MMN amplitude observed in adults with schizophrenia. This may reflect developmental and disease effects in a pre-prodromal phase of psychosis onset. Longitudinal follow-up is necessary to establish the developmental trajectory of MMN in at-risk children. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Weighting of Amplitude and Formant Rise Time Cues by School-Aged Children: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Peter; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: An important skill in the development of speech perception is to apply optimal weights to acoustic cues so that phonemic information is recovered from speech with minimum effort. Here, we investigated the development of acoustic cue weighting of amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in children as measured by mismatch…

  13. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  14. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, María V; Monti, Mariela R; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E; Pezza, Roberto J

    2016-03-04

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3' end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5' end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange*

    PubMed Central

    Borgogno, María V.; Monti, Mariela R.; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3′ end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5′ end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. PMID:26709229

  16. BatMis: a fast algorithm for k-mismatch mapping.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Chandana; Purbojati, Rikky W; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2012-08-15

    Second-generation sequencing (SGS) generates millions of reads that need to be aligned to a reference genome allowing errors. Although current aligners can efficiently map reads allowing a small number of mismatches, they are not well suited for handling a large number of mismatches. The efficiency of aligners can be improved using various heuristics, but the sensitivity and accuracy of the alignments are sacrificed. In this article, we introduce Basic Alignment tool for Mismatches (BatMis)--an efficient method to align short reads to a reference allowing k mismatches. BatMis is a Burrows-Wheeler transformation based aligner that uses a seed and extend approach, and it is an exact method. Benchmark tests show that BatMis performs better than competing aligners in solving the k-mismatch problem. Furthermore, it can compete favorably even when compared with the heuristic modes of the other aligners. BatMis is a useful alternative for applications where fast k-mismatch mappings, unique mappings or multiple mappings of SGS data are required. BatMis is written in C/C++ and is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/batmis/

  17. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  18. Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that, since mathematics is essentially a self-contained system, mathematical objects may best be described as "abstract-apart." On the other hand, fundamental mathematical ideas are closely related to the real world and their learning involves empirical concepts. These concepts may be called "abstract-general" because they embody…

  19. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  20. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  1. User-Extensible Graphics Using Abstract Structure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Flex 6 The Algol68 model of the graphical abstract structure 5 The creation of a PictureDefinition 6 The making of a picture from a PictureDefinition 7...data together with the operations that can be performed on that data. i 7! ś I _ § 4, The Alqol68 model of the graphical abstract structure Every

  2. Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov Websites

    ADS Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service Please use this form to report bugs or send comments to the ADS Abstract Project. Thank you for your feedback. ❉ Required field Your Name: ❉ Your E

  3. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  4. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  5. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  6. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  7. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  8. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  9. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  10. Abstracts of BESRL Research Publications, FY 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma E.

    Publications abstracted include Technical Research Reports 1156 and 1157, Technical Research Notes 199 through 210, Research Studies 68-4 through 68-6 and 69-1 through 6910, and Research Memorandums 68-8 through 68-13. Included are descriptions of 19 Work Units covering activities reported in the 33 abstracted publications, a list of regular…

  11. Homozygous germ-line mutation of the PMS2 mismatch repair gene: a unique case report of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD).

    PubMed

    Ramchander, N C; Ryan, N A J; Crosbie, E J; Evans, D G

    2017-04-05

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of the founder PMS2 mutation - NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11 and its associated cancers in this family. The proband is 30 years old and is alive today. She is of Pakistani ethnic origin and a product of consanguinity. She initially presented aged 24 with painless bleeding per-rectum from colorectal polyps and was referred to clinical genetics. Clinical examination revealed two café-au-lait lesions, lichen planus, and a dermoid cyst. Her sister had been diagnosed in childhood with an aggressive brain tumour followed by colorectal cancer. During follow up, the proband developed 37 colorectal adenomatous polyps, synchronous ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinomas, and ultimately a metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. DNA sequencing of peripheral lymphocytes revealed a bi-allelic inheritance of the PMS2 mutation NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11. Ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated low microsatellite instability. To date, she has had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and a total gastrectomy. Aspirin and oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy provide some chemoprophylaxis and manage postmenopausal symptoms, respectively. An 18-monthly colonoscopy surveillance programme has led to the excision of three high-grade dysplastic colorectal tubular adenomatous polyps. The proband's family pedigree displays multiple relatives with cancers including a likely case of 'true' Turcot syndrome. Constitutional mismatch repair

  12. Explaining negative refraction without negative refractive indices.

    PubMed

    Talalai, Gregory A; Garner, Timothy J; Weiss, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Negative refraction through a triangular prism may be explained without assigning a negative refractive index to the prism by using array theory. For the case of a beam incident upon the wedge, the array theory accurately predicts the beam transmission angle through the prism and provides an estimate of the frequency interval at which negative refraction occurs. The hypotenuse of the prism has a staircase shape because it is built of cubic unit cells. The large phase delay imparted by each unit cell, combined with the staircase shape of the hypotenuse, creates the necessary conditions for negative refraction. Full-wave simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method show that array theory accurately predicts the beam transmission angle.

  13. BRAF/KRAS gene sequencing of sebaceous neoplasms after mismatch repair protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Deng, April; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Welch, Matthew; Lyle, Stephen; Dresser, Karen; Cosar, Ediz F

    2014-06-01

    Sebaceous neoplasms are cutaneous markers for the autosomal-dominant Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). This phenotypic variant of Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Microsatellite instability or loss of protein expression suggests a mutation or promoter hypermethylation in 1 of the MMR genes. BRAF gene sequencing may help to distinguish between patients with sporadic and LS-associated colorectal carcinomas with loss of MLH1 expression. LS-associated carcinomas are virtually negative for BRAF mutations, but a subset harbors KRAS mutations. The aim of our study was to test sebaceous neoplasms for V600E BRAF or KRAS mutations to determine if these mutations are associated with somatic or germline MMR defects, analogous to colorectal carcinomas. Over a 4-year period, 32 cases comprising 21 sebaceous adenomas, 3 sebaceomas, and 8 sebaceous carcinomas with sufficient material for testing were collected. MMR immunohistochemistry showed that 7 neoplasms had combined loss of MLH1-PMS2, 16 neoplasms had combined loss of MSH2-MSH6, 2 neoplasms had solitary loss of MSH6, and 7 sebaceous neoplasms had intact protein expression. BRAF/KRAS testing revealed all sebaceous neoplasms contained a wild-type BRAF gene. Two (15%) of 13 patients with MTS were found to harbor a KRAS mutation and loss of MLH1 expression. We conclude that a V600E BRAF mutation may not be helpful in distinguishing sporadic from MTS-associated sebaceous neoplasms. Further studies are needed to determine if KRAS mutations are restricted to patients with MTS or are also present in sporadic sebaceous neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Claudia; Steinsträter, Olaf; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a MMN in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory (SA) training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  15. A practical assessment of magnetic resonance diffusion-perfusion mismatch in acute stroke: observer variation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kane, I; Hand, P J; Rivers, C; Armitage, P; Bastin, M E; Lindley, R; Dennis, M; Wardlaw, J M

    2009-11-01

    MR diffusion/perfusion mismatch may help identify patients for acute stroke treatment, but mixed results from clinical trials suggest that further evaluation of the mismatch concept is required. To work effectively, mismatch should predict prognosis on arrival at hospital. We assessed mismatch duration and associations with functional outcome in acute stroke. We recruited consecutive patients with acute stroke, recorded baseline clinical variables, performed MR diffusion and perfusion imaging and assessed 3-month functional outcome. We assessed practicalities, agreement between mismatch on mean transit time (MTT) or cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps, visually and with lesion volume, and the relationship of each to functional outcome. Of 82 patients starting imaging, 14 (17%) failed perfusion imaging. Overall, 42% had mismatch (56% at <6 h; 41% at 12-24 h; 23% at 24-48 h). Agreement for mismatch by visual versus volume assessment was fair using MTT (kappa 0.59, 95% CI 0.34-0.84) but poor using CBF (kappa 0.24, 95% CI 0.01-0.48). Mismatch by either definition was not associated with functional outcome, even when the analysis was restricted to just those with mismatch. Visual estimation is a reasonable proxy for mismatch volume on MTT but not CBF. Perfusion is more difficult for acute stroke patients than diffusion imaging. Mismatch is present in many patients beyond 12 h after stroke. Mismatch alone does not distinguish patients with good and poor prognosis; both can do well or poorly. Other factors, e.g. reperfusion, may influence outcome more strongly, even in patients without mismatch.

  16. Electrophysiological responses to feedback during the application of abstract rules.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2013-11-01

    Much research focuses on how people acquire concrete stimulus-response associations from experience; however, few neuroscientific studies have examined how people learn about and select among abstract rules. To address this issue, we recorded ERPs as participants performed an abstract rule-learning task. In each trial, they viewed a sample number and two test numbers. Participants then chose a test number using one of three abstract mathematical rules they freely selected from: greater than the sample number, less than the sample number, or equal to the sample number. No one rule was always rewarded, but some rules were rewarded more frequently than others. To maximize their earnings, participants needed to learn which rules were rewarded most frequently. All participants learned to select the best rules for repeating and novel stimulus sets that obeyed the overall reward probabilities. Participants differed, however, in the extent to which they overgeneralized those rules to repeating stimulus sets that deviated from the overall reward probabilities. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP component thought to reflect reward prediction error, paralleled behavior. The FRN was sensitive to item-specific reward probabilities in participants who detected the deviant stimulus set, and the FRN was sensitive to overall reward probabilities in participants who did not. These results show that the FRN is sensitive to the utility of abstract rules and that the individual's representation of a task's states and actions shapes behavior as well as the FRN.

  17. Electrophysiological Responses to Feedback during the Application of Abstract Rules

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Much research focuses on how people acquire concrete stimulus–response associations from experience; however, few neuroscientific studies have examined how people learn about and select among abstract rules. To address this issue, we recorded ERPs as participants performed an abstract rule-learning task. In each trial, they viewed a sample number and two test numbers. Participants then chose a test number using one of three abstract mathematical rules they freely selected from: greater than the sample number, less than the sample number, or equal to the sample number. No one rule was always rewarded, but some rules were rewarded more frequently than others. To maximize their earnings, participants needed to learn which rules were rewarded most frequently. All participants learned to select the best rules for repeating and novel stimulus sets that obeyed the overall reward probabilities. Participants differed, however, in the extent to which they overgeneralized those rules to repeating stimulus sets that deviated from the overall reward probabilities. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP component thought to reflect reward prediction error, paralleled behavior. The FRN was sensitive to item-specific reward probabilities in participants who detected the deviant stimulus set, and the FRN was sensitive to overall reward probabilities in participants who did not. These results show that the FRN is sensitive to the utility of abstract rules and that the individualʼs representation of a taskʼs states and actions shapes behavior as well as the FRN. PMID:23915052

  18. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  19. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  20. Indirectly Recognized HLA-C Mismatches and Their Potential Role in Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Thus, Kirsten A.; Te Boome, Liane; Kuball, Jürgen; Spierings, Eric

    2014-01-01

    HLA-C mismatches are clearly associated to alloreactivity after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation; in a number of large cohorts, HLA-C mismatches are correlated to an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or even impaired survival. While for HLA-A and -B, both antigenic as well as allelic mismatches are associated with an increased risk of acute GVHD, such an increased risk is only observed for antigenic HLA-C mismatches and not for allelic mismatches. These observations raise the question what sets HLA-C apart from HLA-A and -B. The difference may well be related to the reduced levels of cell-surface expression of HLA-C as compared to HLA-A and -B, possibly due to, among other factors, a limited peptide-binding capacity. This limited peptide-binding capacity may retain HLA-C in the ER and enhance degradation of the HLA-C protein. Once degraded, HLA-C-derived peptides can be presented to the immune system via other HLA alleles and are thus available for indirect recognition. Indeed, such HLA-C-derived peptides have previously been eluted from other HLA alleles. We have recently developed an approach to predict indirect recognition of HLA molecules, by establishing the numbers of predicted indirectly recognizable HLA epitopes (PIRCHES). The number of PIRCHES presented on HLA class I and II (PIRCHE-I and -II, respectively), are highly correlated to clinical measures of alloreactivity, such as acute GVHD. In the present “Hypothesis & Theory,” we reviewed the current knowledge on HLA-C mismatches and alloreactivity. Moreover, we speculate about the role of direct and indirect recognition of HLA-C and the consequences for donor selection in HLA-C mismatched stem-cell transplantation. PMID:24860572

  1. Abstractness and emotionality values for 398 English words.

    PubMed

    Guido, Gianluigi; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    This study is aimed to replicate Vikis-Freibergs' classic study (1976) on the values of vividness for French words. Vividness resulted from the concreteness and the emotionality values of words, here defined, respectively, as referring to something that can be experienced through senses and that can arouse pleasant or unpleasant emotions. 398 English words were rated on two different scales, Abstractness and Emotionality, by a group of English native speakers and also by a group of Italian subjects who used English as a second language. Results show a low correlation between the concreteness and emotionality ratings in line with Vikis-Freibergs' previous study of French words (1976). A negative correlation between Abstractness and Emotionality was observed for British data but a slightly positive correlation for the Italian data.

  2. Comparing data accuracy between structured abstracts and full-text journal articles: implications in their use for informing clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Gavino, Alex; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis

    2013-12-01

    The abstract is the most frequently read section of a research article. The use of 'Consensus Abstracts', a clinician-oriented web application formatted for mobile devices to search MEDLINE/PubMed, for informing clinical decisions was proposed recently; however, inaccuracies between abstracts and the full-text article have been shown. Efforts have been made to improve quality. We compared data in 60 recent-structured abstracts and full-text articles from six highly read medical journals. Data inaccuracies were identified and then classified as either clinically significant or not significant. Data inaccuracies were observed in 53.33% of articles ranging from 3.33% to 45% based on the IMRAD format sections. The Results section showed the highest discrepancies (45%) although these were deemed to be mostly not significant clinically except in one. The two most common discrepancies were mismatched numbers or percentages (11.67%) and numerical data or calculations found in structured abstracts but not mentioned in the full text (40%). There was no significant relationship between journals and the presence of discrepancies (Fisher's exact p value =0.3405). Although we found a high percentage of inaccuracy between structured abstracts and full-text articles, these were not significant clinically. The inaccuracies do not seem to affect the conclusion and interpretation overall. Structured abstracts appear to be informative and may be useful to practitioners as a resource for guiding clinical decisions.

  3. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 3. Abstracts 5,201- 5,330

    SciTech Connect

    Hardgrove, B.J.; Warren, F.L. comps.

    1962-03-01

    Abstracts of astronautics information covering the period March 1962 are presented. The 129 abstracts cover the subject of spaceflight and applicable data and techniques. Author, subject, and source indexes are included. (M.C.G.)

  4. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. Abstracts Vol. III, No. 1. Abstracts 3,082- 3,184

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1961-01-01

    Abstracts are presented on astronautics. The abstracts are generally restricted to spaceflight and to applicable techniques and data. The publication covers the period of January 1961. 102 references. (J.R.D.)

  5. A Negative Revelation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how teaching secondary art students to perceive negative shape improved their drawings of a bicycle, a visually complex mechanical structure. Concentrating on negative shape forces students to work with the relationships between shapes and their relative sizes. (AM)

  6. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000657.htm Culture-negative endocarditis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Culture-negative endocarditis is an infection and inflammation of ...

  7. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  8. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  9. Model Mismatch Paradigm for Probe based Nanoscale Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Pranav

    Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) are widely used for investigation of material properties and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. These instruments are considered critical enablers of nanotechnology by providing the only technique for direct observation of dynamics at the nanoscale and affecting it with sub Angstrom resolution. Current SPMs are limited by low throughput and lack of quantitative measurements of material properties. Various applications like the high density data storage, sub-20 nm lithography, fault detection and functional probing of semiconductor circuits, direct observation of dynamical processes involved in biological samples viz. motor proteins and transport phenomena in various materials demand high throughput operation. Researchers involved in material characterization at nanoscale are interested in getting quantitative measurements of stiffness and dissipative properties of various materials in a least invasive manner. In this thesis, system theoretic concepts are used to address these limitations. The central tenet of the thesis is to model, the known information about the system and then focus on perturbations of these known dynamics or model, to sense the effects due to changes in the environment such as changes in material properties or surface topography. Thus a model mismatch paradigm for probe based nanoscale imaging is developed. The topic is developed by presenting physics based modeling of a particular mode of operation of SPMs called the dynamic mode operation. This mode is modeled as a forced Lure system where a linear time invariant system is in feedback with an unknown static memoryless nonlinearity. Tools from averaging theory are used to tame this complex nonlinear system by approximating it as a linear system with time varying parameters. Material properties are thus transformed from being parameters of unknown nonlinear functions to being unknown coefficients of a linear plant. The first contribution of this thesis

  10. Upper tract urothelial carcinomas: frequency of association with mismatch repair protein loss and lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harper, Holly L; McKenney, Jesse K; Heald, Brandie; Stephenson, Andrew; Campbell, Steven C; Plesec, Thomas; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Increased risk for upper tract urothelial carcinoma is described in patients with Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. We aimed to identify the frequency of mismatch repair protein loss in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and its potential for identifying an association with Lynch syndrome. We queried our database to identify upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Patients were cross-referenced for history of colorectal carcinoma or other common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms to enrich for potential Lynch syndrome cases. Tumor histopathologic characteristics were reviewed and each case was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, by immunohistochemistry. Of 444 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma, a subset of 215 (encompassing 30 with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and another common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasm) was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Of 30 patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, six had documented Lynch syndrome, including two with Muir-Torre syndrome. Mismatch repair protein loss was identified in 7% of total upper tract urothelial carcinomas and 30% of patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms (including all patients with Lynch syndrome/Muir-Torre syndrome). Of patients without history of Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, 5 of 184 (2.7%) had loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Twelve cases with mismatch repair protein loss demonstrated loss of MSH2 and MSH6, and 2 had isolated loss of MSH6. MLH1 and PMS2 expression were consistently retained. Although increased intratumoral lymphocytes, inverted growth, pushing tumor-stromal interface, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism were more commonly seen in cases with mismatch repair protein loss, only intratumoral lymphocytes and presence of pushing borders were statistically significant. MLH1 and PMS2 testing appear to have little utility in upper tract urothelial

  11. [Expression of DNA mismatch repair protein in endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathologic features].

    PubMed

    Bi, R; Tu, X Y; Xiao, Y X; Shan, B E; Wang, H Y; Cai, X; Zhou, X Y; Yang, W T

    2016-05-08

    To study the expression of mismatch repair protein in a series of endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. The clinical data of 150 consecutive cases of endometrial carcinoma were collected during the period from December, 2014 to August, 2015 in Fudan University Cancer Center. Morphologic features including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), peritumoral lymphocytes and tumor heterogeneity were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for expression of mismatch repair proteins was performed. The correlation with clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Loss of mismatch repair protein expression was observed in 43 cases (28.7%), including loss of MLH1/PMS2 in 27 cases (18%), loss of MSH2/MSH6 in 7 cases (4.7%), loss of MSH6 in 6 cases (4%) and loss of PMS2 in 3 cases (2%). There were 23.3% and 27.1% of mismatch repair protein-deficient endometrial carcinomas in women under and above 50 years of age, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Amongst the 12 cases with family history of tumors, 4 of the 6 mismatch repair protein-deficient cases were under 50 years of age, which was higher than that in the 6 cases with mismatch repair protein expression (P=0.014). The mismatch repair protein-deficient group showed significantly more prominent TIL and peritumoral lymphocytes than protein-expression group (P=0.033 and <0.001). Moreover, there were also significant differences in depth of myometrial invasion and occurrence of synchronous malignancy (2 cases of ovarian clear cell carcinoma and 1 case of colonic carcinoma) between the two groups (P=0.039 and 0.022). However, there were no significant differences in lymph node metastasis, tumor heterogeneity, lower uterine segment involvement and tumor stage between the two groups. Prominent TIL and peritumoral lymphocytes characteristically occur in mismatch repair protein-deficient endometrial carcinomas. Patient age does not significantly correlate with the loss of mismatch repair

  12. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  13. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  14. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  15. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  16. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  17. Genomic amplification of the human DHFR/MSH3 locus remodels mismatch recognition and repair activities.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J T

    1999-01-01

    Mismatch recognition in human cells is mediated by two heterodimers, MutS alpha and MutS beta. MutS alpha appears to shoulder primary responsibility for mismatch correction during replication, based on its relative abundance and ability to recognize a broad spectrum of base-base and base-insertion mismatches. Because MutS alpha and MutS beta share a common component, MSH2, conditions that influence the expression or degradation of MSH3 or MSH6 can redistribute the profile of mismatch recognition and repair. MSH3 is linked by a shared promoter with DHFR, connecting two pathways with key roles in DNA metabolism. In a classic example of gene amplification, the DHFR (and MSH3) locus can become amplified to several hundred copies in the presence of methotrexate. Under these conditions, MutS beta forms at the expense of MutS alpha, and the mutation rate in these tumor cells rises more than 100-fold. The implications for cancer chemotherapy include a potential increase in mutability when tumors are treated with methotrexate, which could increase the frequency of subsequent mutations that influence the tumor's drug sensitivity or aggressiveness. Because processing certain types of DNA damage by the mismatch repair pathway has also been implicated in tumor sensitivity to agents such as cisplatin, changes in expression at the DHFR/MSH3 locus may have further relevance to the outcome of multi-drug treatment regimens.

  18. Total variation-based method for radar coincidence imaging with model mismatch for extended target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Kaicheng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Cheng, Yongqiang; Fan, Bo; Qin, Yuliang

    2017-11-01

    Originating from traditional optical coincidence imaging, radar coincidence imaging (RCI) is a staring/forward-looking imaging technique. In RCI, the reference matrix must be computed precisely to reconstruct the image as preferred; unfortunately, such precision is almost impossible due to the existence of model mismatch in practical applications. Although some conventional sparse recovery algorithms are proposed to solve the model-mismatch problem, they are inapplicable to nonsparse targets. We therefore sought to derive the signal model of RCI with model mismatch by replacing the sparsity constraint item with total variation (TV) regularization in the sparse total least squares optimization problem; in this manner, we obtain the objective function of RCI with model mismatch for an extended target. A more robust and efficient algorithm called TV-TLS is proposed, in which the objective function is divided into two parts and the perturbation matrix and scattering coefficients are updated alternately. Moreover, due to the ability of TV regularization to recover sparse signal or image with sparse gradient, TV-TLS method is also applicable to sparse recovering. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that, for uniform extended targets, sparse targets, and real extended targets, the algorithm can achieve preferred imaging performance both in suppressing noise and in adapting to model mismatch.

  19. Using medication list--problem list mismatches as markers of potential error.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, James D.; Gorman, Paul N.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to specify and develop an algorithm that will check for drug and problem list mismatches in an electronic medical record (EMR). The algorithm is based on the premise that a patient's problem list and medication list should agree, and a mismatch may indicate medication error. Successful development of this algorithm could mean detection of some errors, such as medication orders entered into a wrong patient record, or drug therapy omissions, that are not otherwise detected via automated means. Additionally, mismatches may identify opportunities to improve problem list integrity. To assess the concept's feasibility, this study compared medications listed in a pharmacy information system with findings in an online nursing adult admission assessment, serving as a proxy for the problem list. Where drug and problem list mismatches were discovered, examination of the patient record confirmed the mismatch, and identified any potential causes. Evaluation of the algorithm in diabetes treatment indicates that it successfully detects both potential medication error and opportunities to improve problem list completeness. This algorithm, once fully developed and deployed, could prove a valuable way to improve the patient problem list, and could decrease the risk of medication error. PMID:12463796

  20. HLA Mismatching Strategies for Solid Organ Transplantation – A Balancing Act

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Andrea A.; Leffell, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    HLA matching provides numerous benefits in organ transplantation including better graft function, fewer rejection episodes, longer graft survival, and the possibility of reduced immunosuppression. Mismatches are attended by more frequent rejection episodes that require increased immunosuppression that, in turn, can increase the risk of infection and malignancy. HLA mismatches also incur the risk of sensitization, which can reduce the opportunity and increase waiting time for a subsequent transplant. However, other factors such as donor age, donor type, and immunosuppression protocol, can affect the benefit derived from matching. Furthermore, finding a well-matched donor may not be possible for all patients and usually prolongs waiting time. Strategies to optimize transplantation for patients without a well-matched donor should take into account the immunologic barrier represented by different mismatches: what are the least immunogenic mismatches considering the patient’s HLA phenotype; should repeated mismatches be avoided; is the patient sensitized to HLA and, if so, what are the strengths of the patient’s antibodies? This information can then be used to define the HLA type of an immunologically optimal donor and the probability of such a donor occurring. A probability that is considered to be too low may require expanding the donor population through paired donation or modifying what is acceptable, which may require employing treatment to overcome immunologic barriers such as increased immunosuppression or desensitization. Thus, transplantation must strike a balance between the risk associated with waiting for the optimal donor and the risk associated with a less than optimal donor. PMID:28003816

  1. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  2. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  3. Measuring strand discontinuity-directed mismatch repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cell-free nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fenghua; Lai, Fangfang; Gu, Liya; Zhou, Wen; El Hokayem, Jimmy; Zhang, Yanbin

    2009-05-01

    Mismatch repair corrects biosynthetic errors generated during DNA replication, whose deficiency causes a mutator phenotype and directly underlies hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic cancers. Because of remarkably high conservation of the mismatch repair machinery between the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and humans, the study of mismatch repair in yeast has provided tremendous insights into the mechanisms of this repair pathway in humans. In addition, yeast cells possess an unbeatable advantage over human cells in terms of the easy genetic manipulation, the availability of whole genome deletion strains, and the relatively low cost for setting up the system. Although many components of eukaryotic mismatch repair have been identified, it remains unclear if additional factors, such as DNA helicase(s) and redundant nuclease(s) besides EXO1, participate in eukaryotic mismatch repair. To facilitate the discovery of novel mismatch repair factors, we developed a straightforward in vitro cell-free repair system. Here, we describe the practical protocols for preparation of yeast cell-free nuclear extracts and DNA mismatch substrates, and the in vitro mismatch repair assay. The validity of the cell-free system was confirmed by the mismatch repair deficient yeast strain (Deltamsh2) and the complementation assay with purified yeast MSH2-MSH6.

  4. The DNA mismatch repair genes Msh3 and Msh6 cooperate in intestinal tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Umar, A; Yang, K; Heyer, J; Kucherlapati, M; Lia, M; Kneitz, B; Avdievich, E; Fan, K; Wong, E; Crouse, G; Kunkel, T; Lipkin, M; Kolodner, R D; Kucherlapati, R

    2000-02-15

    Repair of mismatches in DNA in mammalian cells is mediated by a complex of proteins that are members of two highly conserved families of genes referred to as MutS and MutL homologues. Germline mutations in several members of these families, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2, but not MSH3, are responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. To examine the role of MSH3, we generated a mouse with a null mutation in this gene. Cells from Msh3-/- mice are defective in repair of insertion/ deletion mismatches but can repair base-base mismatches. Msh3-/- mice develop tumors at a late age. When the Msh3-/- and Msh6-/- mutations are combined, the tumor predisposition phenotype is indistinguishable from Msh2-/- or Mlh1-/- mice. These results suggest that MSH3 cooperates with MSH6 in tumor suppression.

  5. Novel disturbance-observer-based control for systems with high-order mismatched disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Zhiguo; Dong, Na

    2018-01-01

    A novel disturbance-observer-based control method is investigated to attenuate the high-order mismatched disturbances. First, a finite-time disturbance observer (FTDO) is proposed to estimate the disturbances as well as the derivatives. By incorporating the outputs of FTDO, the original system is then reconstructed, where the mismatched disturbances are transformed to the matched ones that are compensated by feed-forward algorithm. Moreover, a feedback control law is developed to achieve the stability and tracking performance requirements for the systems. Finally, the proposed composite control method is applied to an unmanned helicopter system. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method exhibits excellent control performance in the presence of high-order matched and mismatched disturbances.

  6. The mismatch between conventional house price modeling and regulated markets: insights from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qi; de Haan, Jan; Boelhouwer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    House price modeling has been frequently used to investigate the dynamics of housing markets, especially competitive markets; yet less attention has been given to markets that have experienced considerable interventions. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a mismatch between conventional house price models and the case of the Netherlands and to provide reasons of such mismatch. We first describe and classify the conventional house price models into asset-pricing house price model, stock-flow model, multi-period utility model, and repayment model. These models are subsequently applied to the Netherlands, where considerable government interventions took place. As expected, the empirical results are unsatisfactory to explain the Dutch house price development. The degree of mismatch of the repayment model and the multi-period utility model, however, seems to be fairly limited.

  7. Receiver IQ mismatch estimation in PDM CO-OFDM system using training symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dandan; Ma, Xiurong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Haoyuan

    2017-07-01

    Receiver in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is hard to mitigate at the receiver via using conventional method in polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. In this paper, a novel training symbol structure is proposed to estimate IQ mismatch and channel distortion. Combined this structure with Gram Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) algorithm, we can get lower bit error rate (BER). Meanwhile, based on this structure one estimation method is deduced in frequency domain which can achieve the estimation of IQ mismatch and channel distortion independently and improve the system performance obviously. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed two methods have better performance than compared method at 100 Gb/s after 480 km fiber transmission. Besides, the calculation complexity is also analyzed.

  8. Dominant phonon polarization conversion across dimensionally mismatched interfaces: Carbon-nanotube-graphene junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lee, Jonghoon; Dong, Yalin; Roy, Ajit; Fisher, Timothy S.; Ruan, Xiulin

    2018-04-01

    Dimensionally mismatched interfaces are emerging for thermal management applications, but thermal transport physics remains poorly understood. Here we consider the carbon-nanotube-graphene junction, which is a dimensionally mismatched interface between one- and two-dimensional materials and is the building block for carbon-nanotube (CNT)-graphene three-dimensional networks. We predict the transmission function of individual phonon modes using the wave packet method; surprisingly, most incident phonon modes show predominantly polarization conversion behavior. For instance, longitudinal acoustic (LA) polarizations incident from CNTs transmit mainly into flexural transverse (ZA) polarizations in graphene. The frequency stays the same as the incident mode, indicating elastic transmission. Polarization conversion is more significant as the phonon wavelength increases. We attribute such unique phonon polarization conversion behavior to the dimensional mismatch across the interface, and it opens significantly new phonon transport channels as compared to existing theories where polarization conversion is neglected.

  9. Manufacturer-provided effective orifice area index charts and the prevention of prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    PubMed

    House, Chad M; Nelson, William B; Kroshus, Timothy J; Dahiya, Ranjan; Pibarot, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) occurs when an implanted prosthesis is too small relative to the patient's body surface area (BSA). However, mismatch can often be prevented by indexing the expected effective orifice area (EOA) of a prosthesis to the patient's BSA and then selecting the largest implantable prosthesis to avoid mismatch. Previously, prosthesis manufacturers have attempted to simplify this process by providing charts that include the expected EOA for their prosthesis, already indexed into an array of BSA values. One caveat with these charts is that the expected EOA data must truly be reliable, or the charts will misguide the implanting surgeon. Manufacturer-provided charts could be improved by standardizing the EOA data, with one potential source being the hemodynamic data submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration. This review discusses PPM, manufacturer-provided EOA charts, and the regulation of EOA data.

  10. Advancing the match-mismatch framework for large herbivores in the Arctic: Evaluating the evidence for a trophic mismatch in caribou

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Perry; Adams, Layne; Griffith, Brad; Whitten, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic “mismatches” between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970–2013), and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011–13). Despite advanced thaw dates (7−12 days earlier), increased growing season lengths (15−21 days longer), and consistent parturition dates, we found no decline in forage quality and therefore no evidence within this dataset for a trophic mismatch at peak parturition or peak lactation from 1977 to 2011–13. In Arctic ungulates that use stored capital for reproduction, reproductive demands are largely met by body stores deposited in the previous summer and autumn, which reduces potential adverse effects of any mismatch between food availability and timing of parturition. Climate-induced effects on forages growing in the summer and autumn ranges, however, do correspond with the demands of female caribou and their offspring to gain mass for the next reproductive cycle and winter. Therefore, we suggest the window of time to examine the match-mismatch framework in Arctic ungulates is not at parturition but in late summer-autumn, where the multiplier effects of small changes in forage quality are amplified by forage abundance, peak forage intake, and resultant mass gains in mother-offspring pairs. PMID:28231256

  11. Advancing the match-mismatch framework for large herbivores in the Arctic: Evaluating the evidence for a trophic mismatch in caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry; Adams, Layne G.; Griffith, Brad; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic “mismatches” between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970–2013), and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011–13). Despite advanced thaw dates (7−12 days earlier), increased growing season lengths (15−21 days longer), and consistent parturition dates, we found no decline in forage quality and therefore no evidence within this dataset for a trophic mismatch at peak parturition or peak lactation from 1977 to 2011–13. In Arctic ungulates that use stored capital for reproduction, reproductive demands are largely met by body stores deposited in the previous summer and autumn, which reduces potential adverse effects of any mismatch between food availability and timing of parturition. Climate-induced effects on forages growing in the summer and autumn ranges, however, do correspond with the demands of female caribou and their offspring to gain mass for the next reproductive cycle and winter. Therefore, we suggest the window of time to examine the match-mismatch framework in Arctic ungulates is not at parturition but in late summer-autumn, where the multiplier effects of small changes in forage quality are amplified by forage abundance, peak forage intake, and resultant mass gains in mother-offspring pairs.

  12. Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dunlavy, A C; Garcy, A M; Rostila, M

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign-born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Convergent transmission of RNAi guide-target mismatch information across Argonaute internal allosteric network.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Thomas T; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand "seed region" have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative effects of

  14. Convergent Transmission of RNAi Guide-Target Mismatch Information across Argonaute Internal Allosteric Network

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Thomas T.; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand “seed region” have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative

  15. The Risk of Transplant Failure With HLA Mismatch in First Adult Kidney Allografts From Deceased Donors.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert C; Opelz, Gerhard; McGarvey, Chelsea J; Weil, E Jennifer; Chakkera, Harini A

    2016-05-01

    Since the beginning of the technology, there has been active debate about the role of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching in kidney allograft survival. Recent studies have reported diminishing importance of HLA matching, which have, in turn, been challenged by reports that suggest the continuing importance of these loci. Given the controversies, we examined the effect of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival by studying all first adult kidney transplants in the United States from a deceased donor. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing data, we identified first deceased donor kidney transplants between October 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. Recipients were classified by their number of HLA mismatches. Cox multivariate regression analyses adjusting for recipient and donor transplant characteristics were performed to determine the impact of HLA compatibility on kidney allograft survival. Study cohort included 189 141 first adult kidney alone transplants, with a total of 994 558 years of kidney allograft follow-up time. Analyses adjusted for recipient and donor characteristics demonstrated a 13% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.21) with 1 mismatch and a 64% higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.64, 95% confidence interval, 1.56-1.73) with 6 mismatches. Dividing the mismatch categories into 27 ordered permutations, and testing their 57 within mismatch category differences, demonstrated that all but 1 were equal, independent of locus. A significant linear relationship of hazard ratios was associated with HLA mismatch and affects allograft survival even during the recent periods of increasing success in renal transplantation.

  16. Olfactory language and abstraction across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Burenhult, Niclas; Stensmyr, Marcus; de Valk, Josje; Hansson, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    Olfaction presents a particularly interesting arena to explore abstraction in language. Like other abstract domains, such as time, odours can be difficult to conceptualize. An odour cannot be seen or held, it can be difficult to locate in space, and for most people odours are difficult to verbalize. On the other hand, odours give rise to primary sensory experiences. Every time we inhale we are using olfaction to make sense of our environment. We present new experimental data from 30 Jahai hunter-gatherers from the Malay Peninsula and 30 matched Dutch participants from the Netherlands in an odour naming experiment. Participants smelled monomolecular odorants and named odours while reaction times, odour descriptors and facial expressions were measured. We show that while Dutch speakers relied on concrete descriptors, i.e. they referred to odour sources (e.g. smells like lemon), the Jahai used abstract vocabulary to name the same odours (e.g. musty). Despite this differential linguistic categorization, analysis of facial expressions showed that the two groups, nevertheless, had the same initial emotional reactions to odours. Critically, these cross-cultural data present a challenge for how to think about abstraction in language. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain’. PMID:29915007

  17. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  18. Test report for twinax cable (Rockwell type MB0150-051). [effects of mismatched termination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    A controlled impedance twisted pair shielded cable was tested to determine the frequency response and effects of mismatched termination. It was found that a long length of this cable, about 100 feet, exhibited a frequency sensitive attenuation roll-off greater than 1.5 db down at 5 MHz. It was also determined that improper termination resulted in losses of 1/2 to 1 db within the frequency range of 200 KHz to greater than 1-1/2 MHz. The test results indicate a possible problem where mismatched connectors are used in video signal cables.

  19. Coalescence induced dislocation reduction in selectively grown lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy: Theoretical prediction and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yako, Motoki; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2018-05-01

    A method for reduction of threading dislocation density (TDD) in lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy is proposed, and the reduction is experimentally verified for Ge on Si. Flat-top epitaxial layers are formed through coalescences of non-planar selectively grown epitaxial layers, and enable the TDD reduction in terms of image force. Numerical calculations and experiments for Ge on Si verify the TDD reduction by this method. The method should be applicable to not only Ge on Si but also other lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy such as III-V on Si.

  20. Hippocampal Mismatch Signals Are Modulated by the Strength of Neural Predictions and Their Similarity to Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Long, Nicole M; Lee, Hongmi; Kuhl, Brice A

    2016-12-14

    The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without measuring them directly. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here, we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word-picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues). After initial learning, a subset of cues was paired with a novel, unexpected outcome, whereas other cues continued to predict the same outcome. Critically, when outcomes changed, the new outcome was either "near" to the predicted outcome (same visual category as the predicted picture) or "far" from the predicted outcome (different visual category). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we indexed cue-evoked reactivation (prediction) within neocortical areas and related these trial-by-trial measures of prediction strength to univariate hippocampal responses to the outcomes. We found that prediction strength positively modulated hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes, particularly when unexpected outcomes were close, but not identical, to the prediction. Hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes were also associated with a tradeoff in performance during a subsequent memory test: relatively faster retrieval of new (updated) associations, but relatively slower retrieval of the original (older) associations. Together, these results indicate that hippocampal mismatch signals reflect a comparison between active predictions and current outcomes and that these signals are most robust when predictions are similar, but not identical, to outcomes. Although the hippocampus is widely thought to signal "mismatches" between memory-based predictions and outcomes, previous research has not linked