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Sample records for abstract nitric oxide

  1. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  3. Nitric oxide selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian R; Zhang, Xueji

    2008-01-01

    Since nitric oxide (NO) was identified as the endothelial-derived relaxing factor in the late 1980s, many approaches have attempted to provide an adequate means for measuring physiological levels of NO. Although several techniques have been successful in achieving this aim, the electrochemical method has proved the only technique that can reliably measure physiological levels of NO in vitro, in vivo, and in real time. We describe here the development of electrochemical sensors for NO, including the fabrication of sensors, the detection principle, calibration, detection limits, selectivity, and response time. Furthermore, we look at the many experimental applications where NO selective electrodes have been successfully used.

  4. Demystified … Nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Smith, K

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) demonstrated that cells could communicate via the manufacture and local diffusion of an unstable lipid soluble molecule. Since the original demonstration of the vascular relaxant properties of endothelium derived NO, this fascinating molecule has been shown to have multiple, complex roles within many biological systems. This review cannot hope to cover all of the recent advances in NO biology, but seeks to place the discovery of NO in its historical context, and show how far our understanding has come in the past 20 years. The role of NO in mitochondrial respiration, and consequently in oxidative stress, is described in detail because these processes probably underline the importance of NO in the development of disease. PMID:12456772

  5. Nitric Oxide and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gulati, K; Rai, N; Ray, A

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which affects both physical and mental health. Complex neurobiological mechanisms are involved in the genesis of anxiety, and the drugs used to date, though effective, are not free from shortcomings. Conventional agents like the classical benzodiazepines and the atypical nonbenzodiazepine agents like buspirone have their own limitations. There is thus need to explore newer neurochemical pathways to develop efficacious and safer drugs for the disorder. Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique neuromodulator substance, with the ability to influence and modulate several other conventional messengers which play an important role in anxiety. The currently available experimental and clinical data indicate that NO may be involved in the regulation of anxiety-like behavior induced by a variety of stimuli. These studies have explored the pharmacological and biochemical basis of nitrergic mechanisms in anxiety, and the data available are equivocal. This chapter reviews the research data available in this specific area and suggests that in view of the nature of the existing data, there is considerable scope for future research in this field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitric oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schairer, David O.; Martinez, Luis R.; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason S.; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections. PMID:22286699

  7. Chemiluminescence of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Rusch, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the intensities of the delta and gamma bands of nitric oxide in the nighttime terrestrial thermosphere are presented and used to infer the rate coefficient for the transition from the C 2 Pi to the A 2 Sigma + states. The nightglow spectrum was observed between 1900 and 2300 A at a resolution of 15 A by a rocket-borne scanning 1/4-m spectrometer pointing north at an apogee of 150 km. Progressions of the delta, gamma and epsilon bands are identified on the spectra by the construction of synthetic spectra, and the contributions of resonance fluorescence to the total band intensities are calculated. Finally, the ratio of the sum of the gamma bands for v-prime = 0 to the sum of the delta bands for v-prime = 0 is used to derive a branching ratio of 0.21 + or - 0.04 to the A 2 Sigma + state, which yields a probability for the C-A transition of 5.6 + or - 1.5 x to the 6th/sec.

  8. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  9. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  10. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  11. Feedback inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity by nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Assreuy, J.; Cunha, F. Q.; Liew, F. Y.; Moncada, S.

    1993-01-01

    1. A murine macrophage cell line, J774, expressed nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, 10 u ml-1) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng ml-1). The enzyme activity was first detectable 6 h after incubation, peaked at 12 h and became undetectable after 48 h. 2. The decline in the NO synthase activity was not due to inhibition by stable substances secreted by the cells into the culture supernatant. 3. The decline in the NO synthase activity was significantly slowed down in cells cultured in a low L-arginine medium or with added haemoglobin, suggesting that NO may be involved in a feedback inhibitory mechanism. 4. The addition of NO generators, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) or S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) markedly inhibited the NO synthase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of NO on the enzyme was not due to the inhibition of de novo protein synthesis. 5. SNAP directly inhibited the inducible NO synthase extracted from activated J774 cells, as well as the constitutive NO synthase extracted from the rat brain. 6. The enzyme activity of J774 cells was not restored after the removal of SNAP by gel filtration, suggesting that NO inhibits NO synthase irreversibly. PMID:7682140

  12. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to be...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to be...

  14. A nitric oxide concentration clamp.

    PubMed

    Zhelyaskov, V R; Godwin, D W

    1999-10-01

    We report a new method of generating nitric oxide (NO) that possesses several advantages for experimental use. This method consists of a photolysis chamber where NO is released by illuminating photolabile NO donors with light from a xenon lamp, in conjunction with feedback control. Control of the photolysis light was achieved by selectively gating light projected through a shutter before the light was launched into a light guide that conveyed the light to the photolysis chamber. By gating the light in proportion to a sensor that reported nearly instantaneous concentration from the photolysis chamber, a criterion NO concentration could be achieved, which could be easily adjusted to higher or lower criterion levels. To denote the similarity of this process with the electrophysiological process of voltage clamp, we term this process a concentration "clamp." This development enhances the use of the fiber-optic-based system for NO delivery and should enable the execution of experiments where the in situ concentration of NO is particularly critical, such as in biological preparations. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Nitric oxide, stress, and depression.

    PubMed

    McLeod, T M; López-Figueroa, A L; López-Figueroa, M O

    2001-01-01

    Stress and depression have a significant impact on modern society. Even though their symptomatology is well characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these disturbing disorders. While the role of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been extensively studied, new evidence suggests a role for the unique neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO). This highly diffusible and reactive molecule is synthesized by at least three enzyme subtypes of NO synthase (NOS). The commonly known neuronal NOS subtype is localized in areas of the brain related to stress and depression. The limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis is the core of this system. These interrelated pathways have in common the production, and negative feedback, of glucocorticoids. Within these areas, NO is suggested to play a role in modulating the release of other neurotransmitters, acting as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, and/or acting as a vasodilator in regulation of blood flow. This article summarizes some of the recent advances in the understanding of the role of NO in stress and depression.

  16. Nitric Oxide Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has become prominent over the years. Increased activity of the enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes and imbalances in glutathione pools mediate and mark the neurodegenerative process. Much of the oxidative damage of proteins is brought about by the overproduction of nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and its subsequent reactivity with reactive oxygen species. Proteomic methods have advanced the field tremendously, by facilitating the quantitative assessment of differential expression patterns and oxidative modifications of proteins and alongside, mapping their non-canonical functions. As a signaling molecule involved in multiple biochemical pathways, the level of nitric oxide is subject to tight regulation. All three NOS isoforms display aberrant patterns of expression in Alzheimer's disease, altering intracellular signaling and routing oxidative stress in directions that are uncompounded. This review discusses the prime factors that control nitric oxide biosynthesis, reactivity footprints and ensuing effects in the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  18. BIOGENIC NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CROPLAND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined during late spring and summer 1995 and the spring of 1996 from four agricultural soils on which four different crops were grown. These agricultural soils were located at four different sites throughout North Carolina. Emission rates ...

  19. Oxidation of nitroxyl anion to nitric oxide by copper ions

    PubMed Central

    Nelli, Silvia; Hillen, Mark; Buyukafsar, Kansu; Martin, William

    2000-01-01

    This study made use of a nitric oxide-sensitive electrode to examine possible means of generating nitric oxide from nitroxyl anion (NO−) released upon the decomposition of Angeli's salt. Our results show that copper ions (from CuSO4) catalyze the rapid and efficient oxidation of nitroxyl to nitric oxide. Indeed, the concentrations of copper required to do so (0.1–100 μM) are roughly 100-times lower than those required to generate equivalent amounts of nitric oxide from S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP). Experiments with ascorbate (1 mM), which reduces Cu2+ ions to Cu+, and with the Cu2+ chelators, EDTA and cuprizone, and the Cu+ chelator, neocuproine, each at 1 mM, suggest that the oxidation is catalyzed by copper ions in both valency states. Some compounds containing other transition metals, i.e. methaemoglobin, ferricytochrome c and Mn(III)TMPyP, were much less efficient than CuSO4 in catalyzing the formation of nitric oxide from nitroxyl, while FeSO4, FeCl3, MnCl2, and ZnSO4 were inactive. Of the copper containing enzymes examined, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and ceruloplasmin were weak generators of nitric oxide from nitroxyl, even at concentrations (2500 and 30 u ml−1, respectively) vastly greater than are present endogenously. Two others, ascorbate oxidase (10 u ml−1) and tyrosinase (250 u ml−1) were inactive. Our findings suggest that a copper-containing enzyme may be responsible for the rapid oxidation of nitroxyl to nitric oxide by cells, but the identity of such an enzyme remains elusive. PMID:10991931

  20. Interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Liew, F Y

    1995-01-01

    There is now an impressive range of evidence supporting the important role of cytokines in sleep regulation (see Krueger et al., 1995; De Simoni et al., 1995). It has also been reported that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis suppresses sleep in rabbits (Kapás et al., 1994). This is not surprising, since NO is closely involved in neurotransmission (Garthwaite, 1991; Schuman and Madison, 1994) and cytokines are the major inducers of NO synthesis (Hibbs et al., 1990). Further, it is now clear that NO plays an important role in modulating immune responses, possibly through the differential regulation of cytokine synthesis (Taylor-Robinson et al., 1994). In this article, I will provide evidence for the interactions between cytokines and nitric oxide, and discuss their implications in the regulation of immune responses. I shall illustrate these mainly with results from my coworkers and I, from our laboratory rather than attempting an exhaustive review of the subject.

  1. Therapeutic strategies to address neuronal nitric oxide synthase deficiency and the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-05-25

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials. Notably, the efficacy of these interventions are varied and not always translatable from animal model to human patients, highlighting a complex interplay of factors which determine the downstream modulatory effects of nitric oxide. We review these studies herein.

  2. The Polar Night Nitric Oxide Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The Polar Night Nitric Oxide or PolarNOx experiment from Virginia Tech is launched aboard a NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket at 8:45 a.m. EST, Jan. 27, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. PolarNOx is measuring nitric oxide in the polar night sky. Nitric oxide in the polar night sky is created by auroras. Under appropriate conditions it can be transported to the stratosphere where it may destroy ozone resulting in possible changes in stratospheric temperature and wind and may even impact the circulation at Earth’s surface. Credit: NASA/Wallops/Jamie Adkins NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Biological nitric oxide signalling: chemistry and terminology

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Tassiele A; da Silva, Roberto S; Miranda, Katrina M; Switzer, Christopher H; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen oxide signalling and stress is an area of extreme clinical, pharmacological, toxicological, biochemical and chemical research interest. The utility of nitric oxide and derived species as signalling agents is due to their novel and vast chemical interactions with a variety of biological targets. Herein, the chemistry associated with the interaction of the biologically relevant nitrogen oxide species with fundamental biochemical targets is discussed. Specifically, the chemical interactions of nitrogen oxides with nucleophiles (e.g. thiols), metals (e.g. hemeproteins) and paramagnetic species (e.g. dioxygen and superoxide) are addressed. Importantly, the terms associated with the mechanisms by which NO (and derived species) react with their respective biological targets have been defined by numerous past chemical studies. Thus, in order to assist researchers in referring to chemical processes associated with nitrogen oxide biology, the vernacular associated with these chemical interactions is addressed. PMID:23617570

  4. Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:20703435

  5. The Moraxella catarrhalis nitric oxide reductase is essential for nitric oxide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kinkel, Traci; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A; Fang, Ferric C; Hansen, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative obligate aerobe that is an important cause of human respiratory tract infections. The M. catarrhalis genome encodes a predicted truncated denitrification pathway that reduces nitrate to nitrous oxide. We have previously shown that expression of both the M. catarrhalis aniA (encoding a nitrite reductase) and norB (encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase) genes is repressed by the transcriptional regulator NsrR under aerobic conditions and that M. catarrhalis O35E nsrR mutants are unable to grow in the presence of low concentrations of nitrite (W. Wang, et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:7762-7772, 2008). In this study, we constructed an M. catarrhalis norB mutant and showed that planktonic growth of this mutant is inhibited by low levels of nitrite, whether or not an nsrR mutation is present. To determine the importance of NorB in this truncated denitrification pathway, we analyzed the metabolism of nitrogen oxides by norB, aniA norB, and nsrR norB mutants. We found that norB mutants are unable to reduce nitric oxide and produce little or no nitrous oxide from nitrite. Furthermore, nitric oxide produced from nitrite by the AniA protein is bactericidal for a Moraxella catarrhalis O35E norB mutant but not for wild-type O35E bacteria under aerobic growth conditions in vitro, suggesting that nitric oxide catabolism in M. catarrhalis is accomplished primarily by the norB gene product. Measurement of bacterial protein S-nitrosylation directly implicates nitrosative stress resulting from AniA-dependent nitric oxide formation as a cause of the growth inhibition of norB and nsrR mutants by nitrite.

  6. Modulation of opioid actions by nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Kishioka, Shiroh; Hatano, Yoshio; Toda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays pivotal roles in controlling physiological functions, participates in pathophysiological intervention, and is involved in mechanisms underlying beneficial or untoward actions of therapeutic agents. Endogenous nitric oxide is formed by three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase: endothelial, neurogenic and inducible. The former two are constitutively present mainly in the endothelium and nervous system, respectively, and the latter one is induced by lipopolysaccharides or cytokines mainly in mitochondria and glial cells. Constitutively formed nitric oxide modulates the actions of morphine and related analgesics by either enhancing or reducing antinociception. Tolerance to and dependence on morphine or its withdrawal syndrome are likely prevented by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Information concerning modulation of morphine actions by nitric oxide is undoubtedly useful in establishing new strategies for efficient antinociceptive treatment and for minimizing noxious and unintended reactions.

  7. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission.

  8. Role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lubos, Edith; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade basic and clinical research has highlighted the central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular disease. Enhanced production or attenuated degradation of ROS leads to oxidative stress, a process that affects endothelial and vascular function, and contributes to vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO), a product of the normal endothelium, is a principal determinant of normal endothelial and vascular function. In states of inflammation, NO production by the vasculature increases considerably and, in conjunction with other ROS, contributes to oxidative stress. This review examines the role of oxidative stress and NO in mechanisms of endothelial and vascular dysfunction with an emphasis on atherothrombosis. PMID:18508590

  9. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  10. Biogenic nitric oxide from wastewater land application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammon, Desirée A.; Peirce, J. Jeffrey

    The importance of municipal wastewater land application to nitric oxide production and transport in soil was studied through the formulation and conduct of a comprehensive laboratory testing protocol. Nitric oxide (NO) is a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone which can directly impact public health and the environment. It is the uncertainty in the NO budget, and its relation to O 3, that motivates the need for measurements and modeling of NO flux from soils. Wastewater-amended soil is potentially one important component of that budget. NO emissions reported here were measured from: a well-characterized unamended soil, water-amended soil, and wastewater-amended soil in the laboratory in a dynamic test chamber. Laboratory results indicate that NO emissions from the selected sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 0.4 ng N m -2 s -1 per cm 2 of unamended soil, while water-amended soil emissions ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng N m -2 s -1 per cm 2. NO flux from wastewater-amended soil ranged from 1.0 to 1.2 ng N m -2 s -1 per cm 2 of applied soil.

  11. Melatonin and its precursors scavenge nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Y.; Mori, A.; Liburdy, R.

    Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of melatonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan was examined by the Griess reaction using flow injection analysis. 1-Hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene(NOC-7) was used as NO generator. The Griess reagent stoichiometrically reacts with NO2-, which was converted by a cadmium-copper reduction column from the stable end products of NO oxidation. Except for tryptophan, all the compounds examined scavenged NO in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested. Serotonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively, showed moderate scavenging activity compared to melatonin.more » Tryptophan, which has neither a methoxy nor a hydroxyl group in the 5-position, exhibited the least NO scavenging activity.« less

  12. Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Muna F.; Stevanin, Tânia M.; Read, Robert C.; Moir, James W. B.

    2002-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease in humans, is likely to be exposed to nitrosative stress during natural colonization and disease. The genome of N. meningitidis includes the genes aniA and norB, predicted to encode nitrite reductase and nitric oxide (NO) reductase, respectively. These gene products should allow the bacterium to denitrify nitrite to nitrous oxide. We show that N. meningitidis can support growth microaerobically by the denitrification of nitrite via NO and that norB is required for anaerobic growth with nitrite. NorB and, to a lesser extent, the cycP gene product cytochrome c′ are able to counteract toxicity due to exogenously added NO. Expression of these genes by N. meningitidis during colonization and disease may confer protection against exogenous or endogenous nitrosative stress. PMID:12003939

  13. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  14. HBOC Vasoactivity: Interplay Between Nitric Oxide Scavenging and Capacity to Generate Bioactive Nitric Oxide Species

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. Recent Advances: HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Critical Issues: Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Future Directions: Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2284–2297. PMID:23249305

  15. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165 Section 868.5165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165 Section 868.5165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration...

  17. Nitric oxide synthesis in patients with advanced HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T G; Rasmussen, K; Wiebke, G; Hibbs, J B

    1994-01-01

    The discovery that humans produce nitric oxide and that this molecule plays an important role in cell communication, host resistance to infection, and perhaps in host defence to neoplastic disease, has created much interest in further research on its function in the body. A cytokine-inducible high output L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway was recently detected in patients with advanced malignancy treated with IL-2. The production of nitric oxide was thus examined in patients with advanced HIV infection and in intensive care unit control patients. Extrinsic nitrate and nitrite consumption were carefully controlled in the diet or through the use of total parenteral nutrition. Seven of eight HIV+ patients were placed into positive nitrogen balance. Nitric oxide synthesis was found to be within the normal human range. In contrast, nitric oxide synthesis in extremely ill intensive care unit patients was low normal to depressed. PMID:8033424

  18. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, M; Billiar, T; Tzeng, E

    1999-08-15

    The role nitric oxide (NO) plays in the cardiovascular system is complex and diverse. Even more controversial is the role that the inducible NO synthase enzyme (iNOS) serves in mediating different aspects of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Following arterial injury, NO has been shown to serve many vasoprotective roles, including inhibition of platelet aggregation and adherence to the site of injury, inhibition of leukocyte adherence, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and stimulation of endothelial cell (EC) growth. These properties function together to preserve a normal vascular environment following injury. In this review, we discuss what is known about the involvement of iNOS in the vascular injury response. Additionally, we discuss the beneficial role of iNOS gene transfer to the vasculature in preventing the development of neointimal thickening. Lastly, the pathophysiology of transplant vasculopathy is discussed as well as the role of iNOS in this setting.

  19. The role of nitric oxide in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yarlagadda, Keerthi; Hassani, John; Foote, Isaac P; Markowitz, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small gaseous signaling molecule that mediates its effects in melanoma through free radical formation and enzymatic processes. Investigations have demonstrated multiple roles for NO in melanoma pathology via immune surveillance, apoptosis, angiogenesis, melanogenesis, and on the melanoma cell itself. In general, elevated levels of NO prognosticate a poor outcome for melanoma patients. However, there are processes where the relative concentration of NO in different environments may also serve to limit melanoma proliferation. This review serves to outline the roles of NO in melanoma development and proliferation. As demonstrated by multiple in vivo murine models and observations from human tissue, NO may promote melanoma formation and proliferation through its interaction via inhibitory immune cells, inhibition of apoptosis, stimulation of pro-tumorigenic cytokines, activation of tumor associated macrophages, alteration of angiogenic processes, and stimulation of melanoma formation itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Megson, I L

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

  1. An intercomparison of nitric oxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Gregory, G. L.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Carroll, M. A.; Mcfarland, M.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Torres, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence system and two chemiluminescence instruments. The intercomparisons were performed with ambient air at NO mixing ratios ranging from 10 to 60 pptv and NO-enriched ambient air at mixing ratios from 20 to 170 pptv. All instruments sampled from a common manifold. The techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the NO mixing ratio. Agreement among the three techniques was placed at approximately + or - 30 percent. Within this level of agreement, no artifacts or species interferences were identified.

  2. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  3. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J; McInnes, Steven Jp; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  4. Auroral nitric oxide concentration and infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, W. P.; Degges, T. C.; Hurd, A. G.; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Ulwick, J. C.

    1982-05-01

    Rocket-borne measurements of infrared auroral emission by nitric oxide are analyzed. Four rocket flights provided opportunities to measure 5.3- and 2.7-micron NO emission by means of infrared fixed band radiometers and CVF spectrometers, narrow band photometers, and incident energy spectra on various occasions. Analysis of infrared emission profiles and electron flux data indicates the NO density to be significantly enhanced with respect to midlatitude values. NO emission in the fundamental 5.3-micron band is attributed to resonance excitation by warm earth radiation, collisional excitation primarily by O atoms and chemiluminescence from the reaction of N with O2; with an energy efficiency of 0.015. The overtone band emission at 2.7 microns is accounted for by chemiluminescence produced with an energy efficiency of 0.0054. Total photon yield for the chemiluminescence reaction is estimated to range from 1.2 to 2.4 vibrational quanta per NO molecule.

  5. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  6. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors as Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Gregers; Volke, Vallo

    2010-01-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested to play major roles in the pathophysiology of mood and stress-related disorders. However, a few clinical and several pre-clinical studies, strongly suggest involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in these disorders. Moreover, several of the conventional neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate and GABA, are intimately regulated by NO, and distinct classes of antidepressants have been found to modulate the hippocampal NO level in vivo. The NO system is therefore a potential target for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug action in acute therapy as well as in prophylaxis. This paper reviews the effect of drugs modulating NO synthesis in anxiety and depression. PMID:27713253

  7. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  9. Nitric oxide: cancer target or anticancer agent?

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone

    2009-03-01

    Despite the improved understanding of nitric oxide (NO) biology and the large amount of preclinical experiments testing its role in cancer development and progression, it is still debated whether NO should be considered a potential anticancer agent or instead a carcinogen. The complexity of NO effects within a cell and the variability of the final biological outcome depending upon NO levels makes it highly challenging to determine the therapeutic value of interfering with the activity of this intriguing gaseous messenger. This uncertainty has so far halted the clinical implementation of NO-based therapeutics in the field of oncology. Accordingly, only an in depth knowledge of the mechanisms leading to experimental tumor regression or progression in response to NO will allow us to exploit this molecule to fight cancer.

  10. Nitric oxide signalling via cytoskeleton in plants.

    PubMed

    Yemets, Alla I; Krasylenko, Yuliya A; Lytvyn, Dmytro I; Sheremet, Yarina A; Blume, Yaroslav B

    2011-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in plant cell mediates processes of growth and development starting from seed germination to pollination, as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. However, proper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of NO signalling in plants has just begun to emerge. Accumulated evidence suggests that in eukaryotic cells NO regulates functions of proteins by their post-translational modifications, namely tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosylation. Among the candidates for NO-downstream effectors are cytoskeletal proteins because of their involvement in many processes regulated by NO. This review discusses new insights in plant NO signalling focused mainly on the involvement of cytoskeleton components into NO-cascades. Herein, examples of NO-related post-translational modifications of cytoskeletal proteins, and also indirect NO impact, are discussed. Special attention is paid to plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration as an emerging topic in plant NO research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  12. Nitric oxide system and diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    About 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop clinically overt nephropathy. Hyperglycemia is necessary, but not sufficient, to cause the renal damage that leads to kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial disorder that results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors. In the present article we will review the role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous lipophilic molecule produced in almost all tissues, and it has three distinct genes that encode three NOS isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS). The correct function of the endothelium depends on NO, participating in hemostasis control, vascular tone regulation, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and blood pressure homeostasis, among other features. In the kidney, NO plays many different roles, including control of renal and glomerular hemodynamics. The net effect of NO in the kidney is to promote natriuresis and diuresis, along with renal adaptation to dietary salt intake. The eNOS gene has been considered a potential candidate gene for DN susceptibility. Three polymorphisms have been extensively researched: G894T missense mutation (rs1799983), a 27-bp repeat in intron 4, and the T786C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (rs2070744). However, the potential link between eNOS gene variants and the induction and progression of DN yielded contradictory results in the literature. In conclusion, NOS seems to be involve in the development and progression of DN. Despite the discrepant results of many studies, the eNOS gene is also a good candidate gene for DN. PMID:24520999

  13. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

  14. Myeloperoxidase potentiates nitric oxide-mediated nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Vijaya M; Nauseef, William M; Zenser, Terry V

    2005-01-21

    Nitrosation is an important reaction elicited by nitric oxide (NO). To better understand how nitrosation occurs in biological systems, we assessed the effect of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a mediator of inflammation, on nitrosation observed during NO autoxidation. Nitrosation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ; 10 mum) to 2-nitrosoamino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-NO-IQ) was monitored by HPLC. Using the NO donor spermine NONOate at pH 7.4, MPO potentiated N-NO-IQ formation. The minimum effective quantity of necessary components was 8.5 nm MPO, 0.25 mum H(2)O(2)/min, and 0.024 mum NO/min. Autoxidation was only detected at >/=1.2 mum NO/min. MPO potentiation was not affected by a 40-fold excess flux of H(2)O(2) over NO or less than a 2.4-fold excess flux of NO over H(2)O(2). Potentiation was due to an 8.8-fold increased affinity of MPO-derived nitrosating species for IQ. Autoxidation was inhibited by azide, suggesting involvement of the nitrosonium ion, NO(+). MPO potentiation was inhibited by NADH, but not azide, suggesting oxidative nitrosylation with NO(2)(.) or an NO(2)(.)-like species. MPO nonnitrosative oxidation of IQ with 0.3 mm NO(2)(-) at pH 5.5 was inhibited by azide, but not NADH, demonstrating differences between MPO oxidation of IQ with NO compared with NO(2)(-). Using phorbol ester-stimulated human neutrophils, N-NO-IQ formation was increased with superoxide dismutase and inhibited by catalase and NADH, but not NaN(3). This is consistent with nitrosation potentiation by MPO, not peroxynitrite. Increased N-NO-IQ formation was not detected with polymorphonuclear neutrophils from two unrelated MPO-deficient patients. Results suggest that the highly diffusible stable gas NO could initiate nitrosation at sites of neutrophil infiltration.

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma...

  16. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  17. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  18. Airborne intercomparison of nitric oxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Torres, Arnold L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted during missions flown in the fall of 1983 and spring of 1984. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system and two chemiluminescence instruments (CL). NO mixing ratios from below 5 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) to greater than 100 pptv were reported, with the majority less than 20 pptv. Good correlation was observed between the measurements reported by the CL and LIF techniques. The general level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements obtained during the two missions provides the basis from which one can conclude that equally 'valid' measurements of background levels of NO can be expected from either CL or LIF instruments. At the same time the periods of disagreement that were observed between the CL and LIF instruments as well as between the two CL instruments highlight the difficulty of obtaining reliable measurements with NO mixing ratios in the 5-20 pptv range and emphasize the vigilance that should be maintained in future NO measurements.

  19. Nitric oxide sensing by chlorophyll a.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Biswas, Pranjal; Kar, Puranjoy; Roychoudhury, Piya; Basu, Sankar; Ganguly, Souradipta; Ghosh, Sanjay; Panda, Koustubh; Pal, Ruma; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2017-09-08

    Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule that has direct and indirect regulatory roles in various functional processes in biology, though in plant kingdom its role is relatively unexplored. One reason for this is the fact that sensing of NO is always challenging. There are very few probes that can classify the different NO species. The present paper proposes a simple but straightforward way for sensing different NO species using chlorophyll, the source of inspiration being hemoglobin that serves as NO sink in mammalian systems. The proposed method is able to classify NO from DETA-NONOate or (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiol or SNO. This discrimination is carried out by chlorophyll a (chl a) at nano molar (nM) order of sensitivity and at 293 K-310 K. Molecular docking reveals the differential binding effects of NO and SNO with chlorophyll, the predicted binding affinity matching with the experimental observation. Additional experiments with a diverse range of cyanobacteria reveal that apart from the spectroscopic approach the proposed sensing module can be used in microscopic inspection of NO species. Binding of NO is sensitive to temperature and static magnetic field. This provides additional support for the involvement of the porphyrin ring structures to the NO sensing process. This also, broadens the scope of the sensing methods as hinted in the text. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used in a number of ways to study nitric oxide chemistry and biology. As an intrinsically stable and relatively unreactive diatomic free radical, the challenges for detecting this species by EPR are somewhat different than those for transient radical species. This review gives a basic introduction to EPR spectroscopy and discusses its uses to assess and quantify nitric oxide formation in biological systems. PMID:20304044

  1. Role of nitric oxide in progression and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, J P

    1996-01-01

    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is a potent endogenous vasodilator that is derived from the metabolism of L-arginine. This endothelial factor inhibits circulating blood elements from interacting with the vessel wall. Platelet adherence and aggregation as well as monocyte adherence and infiltration are opposed by this paracrine substance. By virtue of these characteristics, endothelium-derived nitric oxide inhibits atherogenesis in animal models and may even induce regression. Images Figure 1. PMID:8686299

  2. Measurements of nitric oxide after a nuclear burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghan, M.; Shaw, A.; Megill, L. R.; Sedlacek, W.; Guthals, P. R.; Fowler, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of ozone and nitric oxide in a nuclear cloud 7 days after the explosion are reported. No measurable increase above ambient density of either ozone or nitric oxide was found. Results from a chemistry model of the cloud do not agree with the measurement unless 'nonstandard' assumptions are made with regard to the operating chemical processes. A number of possible explanations of the results are discussed.

  3. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes published information on levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24–48 hours with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma and/or red blood cells fell within three hours, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 hours, and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell associated nitrogen oxides were more than two hundred times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree showed by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors’ and the Tibetans’ high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Unable to Express Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Propagate Tuberculosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Stephen T; Vogelzang, Alexis; Tornack, Julia; Bauer, Wolfgang; Zedler, Ulrike; Schommer-Leitner, Sandra; Stingl, Georg; Melchers, Fritz; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human bone marrow stem cells has been identified as a potential bacterial niche during latent tuberculosis. Using a murine model of tuberculosis, we show here that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagated tuberculosis when transferred to naive mice, given that both transferred cells and recipient mice were unable to express inducible nitric oxide synthase, which mediates killing of intracellular bacteria via nitric oxide. Our findings suggest that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagate hallmarks of disease if nitric oxide-mediated killing of bacteria is defective. PMID:29471332

  5. A sub-nanomolar real-time nitric oxide probe: in vivo nitric oxide release in heart.

    PubMed

    Mantione, Kirk J; Stefano, George B

    2004-04-01

    Amperometric nitric oxide probes are critical in evaluating real-time nitric oxide levels. This valuable tool enables one to measure spontaneous baseline levels of nitric oxide as well as 'puffs' of the gaseous signal molecule that may last for only seconds to minutes. However, in the past, many probes suffered from a lack of sensitivity, durability and reliability, causing investigators to design numerous controls to support their data. Our laboratory evaluated the new ISO-NOPF100 NO probe manufactured by World Precision Instruments of Sarasota, Florida. An invertebrate in vivo heart preparation was used, which presents a high degree of difficuly in obtaining nitric oxide measurements due to space limitations, resulting in physical contact of the probe with tissues. Additionally, we used in vitro invertebrate ganglionic preparations as a comparison since this tissue releases spontaneous and low levels of NO. Calibration of the new probe demonstrated high linearity and sensitivity. The detection limit for this new probe was determined to be approximately two times lower than probes previously used in our laboratory. Basal nitric oxide fluctuations in Mytilus edulis heart and excised ganglia were able to be resolved in the sub-nanomolar range. The ISO-NOPF100 NO probe represents a significant advancement for measuring nitric oxide in real-time.

  6. Transport of Nitric Oxide by Perfluorocarbon Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel; Briceño, Juan C.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions can transport and release various gases based on concentration gradients. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of carrying and delivering exogenous nitric oxide (NO) into the circulation by simply loading PFC emulsion with NO prior infusion. PFC was equilibrated with room air (PFC) or 300 ppm NO (PFC-NO) at atmospheric pressure. Isotonic saline solution was used as a volume control (Saline). PFC and PFC-NO were infused at a dose of 3.5 mL/kg in the hamster window chamber model. Blood chemistry, and systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response were measured. Infusion of PFC preloaded with NO reduced blood pressure, induced microvascular vasodilation and increased capillary perfusion; although these changes lasted less than 30 min post infusion. On the other hand, infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction; however, the vasoconstriction was followed by vasodilatation at 30 min post infusion. Plasma nitrite and nitrate increased 15 min after infusion of NO preloaded PFC compared to PFC, 60 min after infusion nitrite and nitrate were not different, and 90 min after infusion plasma S-nitrosothiols increased in both groups. Infusion of NO preloaded PFC resulted in acute vascular relaxation, where as infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction, potentially due to NO sequestration by the PFC micelles. The late effects of PFC infusion are due to NO redistribution and plasma S-nitrosothiols. Gas solubility in PFC can provide a tool to modulate plasma vasoactive NO forms availability and improve microcirculatory function and promote increased blood flow. PMID:23966236

  7. Nitric oxide and gene regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Grün, S; Lindermayr, C; Sell, S; Durner, J

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that nitric oxide (NO), which was first identified as a unique diffusible molecular messenger in animals, plays an important role in diverse physiological processes in plants. Recent progress that has deepened our understanding of NO signalling functions in plants, with special emphasis on defence signalling, is discussed here. Several studies, based on plants with altered NO-levels, have recently provided genetic evidence for the importance of NO in gene induction. For a general overview of which gene expression levels are altered by NO, two studies, involving large-scale transcriptional analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana using custom-made or commercial DNA-microarrays, were performed. Furthermore, a comprehensive transcript profiling by cDNA-amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed a number of Arabidopsis thaliana genes that are involved in signal transduction, disease resistance and stress response, photosynthesis, cellular transport, and basic metabolism. In addition, NO affects the expression of numerous genes in other plant species such as tobacco or soybean. The NO-dependent intracellular signalling pathway(s) that lead to the activation or suppression of these genes have not yet been defined. Several lines of evidence point to an interrelationship between NO and salicylic acid (SA) in plant defence. Recent evidence suggests that NO also plays a role in the wounding/jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway. NO donors affect both wounding-induced H2O2 synthesis and wounding- or JA-induced expression of defence genes. One of the major challenges ahead is to determine how the correct specific response is evoked, despite shared use of the NO signal and, in some cases, its downstream second messengers.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  10. Nitric oxide functions as a signal in plant disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Delledonne, M; Xia, Y; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C

    1998-08-06

    Recognition of an avirulent pathogen triggers the rapid production of the reactive oxygen intermediates superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This oxidative burst drives crosslinking of the cell wall, induces several plant genes involved in cellular protection and defence, and is necessary for the initiation of host cell death in the hypersensitive disease-resistance response. However, this burst is not enough to support a strong disease-resistance response. Here we show that nitric oxide, which acts as a signal in the immune, nervous and vascular systems, potentiates the induction of hypersensitive cell death in soybean cells by reactive oxygen intermediates and functions independently of such intermediates to induce genes for the synthesis of protective natural products. Moreover, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis compromise the hypersensitive disease-resistance response of Arabidopsis leaves to Pseudomonas syringae, promoting disease and bacterial growth. We conclude that nitric oxide plays a key role in disease resistance in plants.

  11. The Nitric Acid Oxidation of Selected Alcohols and Ketones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Shows that nitric acid can be used as a rapid, versatile, and economical oxidant for selected organic substances. The experiments (with background information, procedures, and results provided) require one three-hour laboratory period but could serve as open-ended projects since substrates not described could be oxidized. (JN)

  12. Nitric oxide scavengers differentially inhibit ammonia oxidation in ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Laura A; Ross, Ashley A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2016-04-01

    Differential inhibitors are important for measuring the relative contributions of microbial groups, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), to biogeochemical processes in environmental samples. In particular, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) represents a nitric oxide scavenger used for the specific inhibition of AOA, implicating nitric oxide as an intermediate of thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation. This study investigated four alternative nitric oxide scavengers for their ability to differentially inhibit AOA and AOB in comparison to PTIO. Caffeic acid, curcumin, methylene blue hydrate and trolox were tested onNitrosopumilus maritimus, two unpublished AOA representatives (AOA-6f and AOA-G6) as well as the AOB representative Nitrosomonas europaea All four scavengers inhibited ammonia oxidation by AOA at lower concentrations than for AOB. In particular, differential inhibition of AOA and AOB by caffeic acid (100 μM) and methylene blue hydrate (3 μM) was comparable to carboxy-PTIO (100 μM) in pure and enrichment culture incubations. However, when added to aquarium sponge biofilm microcosms, both scavengers were unable to inhibit ammonia oxidation consistently, likely due to degradation of the inhibitors themselves. This study provides evidence that a variety of nitric oxide scavengers result in differential inhibition of ammonia oxidation in AOA and AOB, and provides support to the proposed role of nitric oxide as a key intermediate in the thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation pathway. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Light activated nitric oxide releasing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muizzi Casanas, Dayana Andreina

    The ability to control the location and dosage of biologically active molecules inside the human body can be critical to maximizing effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases like angina. The current standard of treatment relies on the metabolism of organonitrate drugs into nitric oxide (NO), which are not specific, and also show problems with densitization with long-term use. There is a need then to create a treatment method that gives targeted release of NO. Metal-nitrosyl (M-NO) complexes can be used for delivery of NO since the release of NO can be controlled with light. However, the NO-releasing drug must be activated with red light to ensure maximum penetration of light through tissue. However, the release of NO from M-NO complexes with red-light activation is a significant challenge since the energy required to break the metal-NO bond is usually larger than the energy provided by red light. The goal of this project was to create red- sensitive, NO-releasing materials based on Ru-salen-nitrosyl compounds. Our approach was to first modify Ru salen complexes to sensitize the photochemistry for release of NO after red light irradiation. Next, we pursued polymerization of the Ru-salen complexes. We report the synthesis and quantitative photochemical characterization of a series of ruthenium salen nitrosyl complexes. These complexes were modified by incorporating electron donating groups in the salen ligand structure at key locations to increase electron density on the Ru. Complexes with either an --OH or --OCH3 substituent showed an improvement in the quantum yield of release of NO upon blue light irradiation compared to the unmodified salen. These --OH and --OCH3 complexes were also sensitized for NO release after red light activation, however the red-sensitive complexes were unstable and showed ligand substitution on the order of minutes. The substituted complexes remained sensitive for NO release, but only after blue light irradiation. The Ru

  14. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nianzhen

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca 2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca 2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca 2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca 2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocytemore » cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca 2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca 2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca 2+, possibly through store-operated Ca 2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca 2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca 2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca 2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca 2+ using fluorescent Ca 2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca 2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca 2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca 2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by recording the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-dependent neuronal slow inward current (SIC). Although NO is not required for the SIC,PTIO reduced SIC amplitude, suggesting

  15. Multifaceted role of nitric oxide in an in vitro mouse neuronal injury model: transcriptomic profiling defines the temporal recruitment of death signalling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhao Feng; Chen, Minghui Jessica; Manikandan, Jayapal; Melendez, Alirio J; Shui, Guanghou; Russo-Marie, Françoise; Whiteman, Matthew; Beart, Philip M; Moore, Philip K; Cheung, Nam Sang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitric oxide is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuropathologies characterized by oxidative stress. Although nitric oxide has been reported to be involved in the exacerbation of oxidative stress observed in several neuropathologies, existent data fail to provide a holistic description of how nitrergic pathobiology elicits neuronal injury. Here we provide a comprehensive description of mechanisms contributing to nitric oxide induced neuronal injury by global transcriptomic profiling. Microarray analyses were undertaken on RNA from murine primary cortical neurons treated with the nitric oxide generator DETA-NONOate (NOC-18, 0.5 mM) for 8–24 hrs. Biological pathway analysis focused upon 3672 gene probes which demonstrated at least a ±1.5-fold expression in a minimum of one out of three time-points and passed statistical analysis (one-way anova, P < 0.05). Numerous enriched processes potentially determining nitric oxide mediated neuronal injury were identified from the transcriptomic profile: cell death, developmental growth and survival, cell cycle, calcium ion homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and GSH and nitric oxide metabolism. Our detailed time-course study of nitric oxide induced neuronal injury allowed us to provide the first time a holistic description of the temporal sequence of cellular events contributing to nitrergic injury. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in nitric oxide neuropathologies where nitric oxide mediated injury is causative. PMID:21352476

  16. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Gladwin, M T; Schechter, A N; Shelhamer, J H; Pannell, L K; Conway, D A; Hrinczenko, B W; Nichols, J S; Pease-Fye, M E; Noguchi, C T; Rodgers, G P; Ognibene, F P

    1999-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of beta-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibility of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P(50), did not respond to inhaled NO, either in controls or in individuals with sickle cell disease. At baseline, the arterial and venous levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different, but NO inhalation led to a dose-dependent increase in mean nitrosylated hemoglobin, and at the highest dosage, a significant arterial-venous difference emerged. The levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin are too low to affect overall hemoglobin oxygen affinity, but augmented NO transport to the microvasculature seems a promising strategy for improving microvascular perfusion.

  17. Estimation of the nitric oxide formed from hydroxylamine by Nitrosomonas

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide that was produced by reducing nitrite with an excess of acidified potassium iodide under nitrogen in Warburg respirometer flasks was rapidly absorbed by a solution of permanganate in sodium hydroxide held in the side arm. A small amount of nitrous oxide (or nitrogen) that was also produced was not absorbed. 2. By using a quantitative method for the recovery of nitrite from samples of the alkaline permanganate, it was found that the sum of the nitrite N formed and the residual nitrous oxide N was equivalent to the nitrite N used to generate the gases. These results showed that alkaline permanganate completely oxidized nitric oxide to nitrite. The method was suitable for determining 0·4–20 μmoles of nitric oxide. 3. The technique was used to determine the nitric oxide content of the nitrogenous gas that was produced anaerobically from hydroxylamine by an extract of the autotrophic nitrifying micro-organism Nitrosomonas in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. PMID:14342235

  18. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  19. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Treesearch

    Iris C. Anderson; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Poth; Philip J. Riggan

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least 6 months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of...

  20. HBOC vasoactivity: interplay between nitric oxide scavenging and capacity to generate bioactive nitric oxide species.

    PubMed

    Cabrales, Pedro; Friedman, Joel M

    2013-06-10

    Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature.

  1. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 °C (70 °F). Transportation of nitric... with a minimum test pressure of 200 bar. The maximum working pressure of the cylinder must not exceed 50 bar. The pressure in the cylinder at 65 °C (149 °F) may not exceed the test pressure. The use of...

  2. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 °C (70 °F). Transportation of nitric... with a minimum test pressure of 200 bar. The maximum working pressure of the cylinder must not exceed 50 bar. The pressure in the cylinder at 65 °C (149 °F) may not exceed the test pressure. The use of...

  3. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 °C (70 °F). Transportation of nitric... with a minimum test pressure of 200 bar. The maximum working pressure of the cylinder must not exceed 50 bar. The pressure in the cylinder at 65 °C (149 °F) may not exceed the test pressure. The use of...

  4. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 °C (70 °F). Transportation of nitric... with a minimum test pressure of 200 bar. The maximum working pressure of the cylinder must not exceed 50 bar. The pressure in the cylinder at 65 °C (149 °F) may not exceed the test pressure. The use of...

  5. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... charged to a pressure of not more than 5,170 kPa (750 psi) at 21 °C (70 °F). Transportation of nitric... with a minimum test pressure of 200 bar. The maximum working pressure of the cylinder must not exceed 50 bar. The pressure in the cylinder at 65 °C (149 °F) may not exceed the test pressure. The use of...

  6. Functional Nitric Oxide Nutrition to Combat Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nathan S

    2018-03-17

    To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide. NO is one of the most important molecules produced within the cardiovascular system that maintains normal blood pressure and prevents inflammation, immune dysfunction, and oxidative stress, hallmarks of cardiovascular disease. This pathway is dependent upon the amount of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in the foods we eat, the presence of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, and sufficient stomach acid production. The concept of food being medicine and medicine being food has lost its place in the practice and implementation of modern medicine over the past century. Certain dietary patterns and specific foods are known to confer very significant protective effects for many human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, the number one killer of men and women in the developed world. However, identification of single or multiple bioactive molecules that are responsible for these effects has escaped scientists and nutritionists for many years. This review will highlight the biochemical, physiological, and epidemiological basis for functional nitric oxide nutrition that can be safely and effectively utilized in patients.

  7. Nitrosation of melatonin by nitric oxide: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Turjanski, A G; Sáenz, D A; Doctorovich, F; Estrin, D A; Rosenstein, R E

    2001-09-01

    Melatonin is being increasingly promoted as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of jet lag and insomnia, and is an efficient free radical scavenger. We have recently characterized a product for the reaction of melatonin with nitric oxide (NO), N-nitrosomelatonin. In the present work, reaction pathways with N1, C2, C4, C6 and C7 as possible targets for its reaction with NO that yield the respective nitroso derivatives have been investigated using semiempirical AM1 computational tools, both in vacuo and aqueous solution. Specifically, two different pathways were studied: a radical mechanism involving the hydrogen atom abstraction to yield a neutral radical followed by NO addition, and an ionic mechanism involving addition of nitrosonium ion to the indolic moiety. Our results show that the indolic nitrogen is the most probable site for nitrosation by the radical mechanism, whereas different targets are probable considering the ionic pathway. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings and provide a coherent picture for the interaction of melatonin with NO.

  8. Hypertension, nitric oxide, oxidants, and dietary plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Galleano, Monica; Pechanova, Olga; Fraga, Cesar G

    2010-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables are key foods whose high ingestion is associated with the improvement of numerous pathological conditions, including hypertension. Such health promoting actions have been increasingly ascribed to the antioxidant characteristics of different polyphenols in fruits and vegetables. Consequently, based on this assumption, many beverages and foods rich in polyphenols, grape, tea, cocoa, and soy products and many of their chemical constituents purified, are being studied both, as antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. This paper reviews the current evidence linking high polyphenol consumption with reductions in blood pressure. Basic chemical aspects of flavanols, flavonols, isoflavones and stilbenes, as possible responsible for the observed effects of those foods on blood pressure are included. Human interventions studies by using grapes and wine, cocoa and chocolate, black and green tea, soy products, and purified compounds ((+)-catequin, quercetin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate) are summarized. The discussed hypothesis, strongly supported by experimental data in animals, is that by regulating nitric oxide bioavailability, polyphenols present in fruits and vegetables affect endothelial function and as a consequence, blood pressure. Even when data are not definitive and many questions remain open, the whole evidence is encouraging to start considering diets that can provide a benefit to hypertensive subjects, and those benefits will be more significant in people that do not have controlled his/her elevated blood pressure.

  9. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  10. Thiopental inhibits nitric oxide production in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Asbun, J; Escalante, B; Villalón, C M; López, P; Castillo, E F

    1999-12-01

    We studied whether thiopental affects endothelial nitric oxide dependent vasodilator responses and nitrite production (an indicator of nitric oxide production) elicited by acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187 in rat aorta (artery in which nitric oxide is the main endothelial relaxant factor). In addition, we evaluated the barbiturate effect on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in both rat aorta and kidney homogenates. Thiopental (10-100 microg/mL) reversibly inhibited the endothelium-dependent relaxation elicited by acetylcholine, histamine, and A23187. On the contrary, this anesthetic did not modify the endothelium-independent but cGMP-dependent relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside (1 nM - 1 microM) and nitroglycerin (1 nM - 1 microM), thus excluding an effect of thiopental on guanylate cyclase of vascular smooth muscle. Thiopental (100 microg/mL) inhibited both basal (87.8+/-14.3%) and acetylcholine- or A23187-stimulated (78.6+/-3.9 and 39.7+/-5.6%, respectively) production of nitrites in aortic rings. In addition the barbiturate inhibited (100 microg/mL) the NOS (45+/-4 and 42.8+/-9%) in aortic and kidney homogenates, respectively (measured as 14C-labeled citrulline production). In conclusion, thiopental inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation and nitrite production in aortic rings strongly suggests an inhibitory effect on NOS. Thiopental inhibition of the NOS provides further support to this contention.

  11. Nitric oxide gamma and delta band emission at twilight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.; Takacs, P. Z.

    1974-01-01

    Nitric oxide twilight emission above 140 km in the gamma- and delta-bands was observed with a rocket-borne spectrophotometer. The relative intensity of the two band systems indicates that the emission is produced predominantly by the chemiluminescent preassociation of oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

  12. Estimates of nitric oxide production for lifting spacecraft reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1971-01-01

    The amount of nitric oxide which may be produced by heating of air during an atmospheric reentry of a lifting spacecraft is estimated by three different methods. Two assume nitrogen fixation by the process of sudden freezing, and the third is a computer calculation using chemical rate equations.

  13. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  14. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu, E-mail: yukitikawa@nifty.com

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  19. Procedures of laboratory nitric oxide fumigation for pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant and has the potential to be a safe and effective alternative for postharvest pest control. As NO reacts with oxygen spontaneously to produce nitrogen dioxide, NO fumigation must be conducted under ultralow oxygen (ULO) atmosphere and therefore has com...

  20. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  1. Nitric oxide signalling and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the heart under stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin Hua

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1) NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS]) and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway) and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2) NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3) NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S -nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation); 4) the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5) NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and different NO-related derivatives) and triggers redox-dependent responses. However, nNOS inhibits cardiac oxidases to reduce the sources of oxidative stress in diseased hearts. Recent consensus indicates the importance of nNOS protein in cardiac protection under pathological stress. In addition, a dietary regime with high nitrate intake from fruit and vegetables together with unsaturated fatty acids is strongly associated with reduced cardiovascular events. Collectively, NO-dependent mechanisms in healthy and diseased hearts are better understood and shed light on the therapeutic prospects for NO and NOSs in clinical applications for fatal human heart diseases.

  2. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less thanmore » $$5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0

  3. Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Oxidant Lung Injury Due to Paraquat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Hasan I.; Pakbaz, Hedayatollah; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1994-08-01

    At low concentrations, nitric oxide is a physiological transmitter, but in excessive concentrations it may cause cell and tissue injury. We report that in acute oxidant injury induced by the herbicide paraquat in isolated guinea pig lungs, nitric oxide synthesis was markedly stimulated, as evidenced by increased levels of cyclic GMP in lung perfusate and of nitrite and L-citrulline production in lung tissue. All signs of injury, including increased airway and perfusion pressures, pulmonary edema, and protein leakage into the airspaces, were dose-dependently attenuated or totally prevented by either N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N^ω-nitro-L-arginine, selective and competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Protection was reversed by excess L-arginine but not by its enantiomer D-arginine. When blood was added to the lung perfusate, the paraquat injury was moderated or delayed as it was when paraquat was given to anesthetized guinea pigs. The rapid onset of injury and its failure to occur in the absence of Ca2+ suggest that constitutive rather than inducible nitric oxide synthase was responsible for the stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. The findings indicate that nitric oxide plays a critical role in the production of lung tissue injury due to paraquat, and it may be a pathogenetic factor in other forms of oxidant tissue injury.

  4. A Nitric Oxide Storage and Transport System That Protects Activated Macrophages from Endogenous Nitric Oxide Cytotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Hiu Chuen; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric J.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Hawkins, Clare L.; Richardson, Des R.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is integral to macrophage cytotoxicity against tumors due to its ability to induce iron release from cancer cells. However, the mechanism for how activated macrophages protect themselves from endogenous NO remains unknown. We previously demonstrated by using tumor cells that glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) sequesters NO as dinitrosyl-dithiol iron complexes (DNICs) and inhibits NO-mediated iron release from cells via the transporter multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1). These prior studies also showed that MRP1 and GSTP1 protect tumor cells against NO cytotoxicity, which parallels their roles in defending cancer cells from cytotoxic drugs. Considering this, and because GSTP1 and MRP1 are up-regulated during macrophage activation, this investigation examined whether this NO storage/transport system protects macrophages against endogenous NO cytotoxicity in two well characterized macrophage cell types (J774 and RAW 264.7). MRP1 expression markedly increased upon macrophage activation, and the role of MRP1 in NO-induced 59Fe release was demonstrated by Mrp1 siRNA and the MRP1 inhibitor, MK571, which inhibited NO-mediated iron efflux. Furthermore, Mrp1 silencing increased DNIC accumulation in macrophages, indicating a role for MRP1 in transporting DNICs out of cells. In addition, macrophage 59Fe release was enhanced by silencing Gstp1, suggesting GSTP1 was responsible for DNIC binding/storage. Viability studies demonstrated that GSTP1 and MRP1 protect activated macrophages from NO cytotoxicity. This was confirmed by silencing nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which decreased MRP1 and GSTP1 expression, concomitant with reduced 59Fe release and macrophage survival. Together, these results demonstrate a mechanism by which macrophages protect themselves against NO cytotoxicity. PMID:27866158

  5. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  6. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  7. Ribavirin in Cancer Immunotherapies: Controlling Nitric Oxide Augments Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Kast, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Either ribavirin (RBV) or cyclophosphamide (CY) can shift an immune response from Th2 toward a Th1 cytokine profile. CY is used in this role in various current cancer immunotherapy attempts but with mixed success. More potent and reliable immunoadjuvants and Th1 response biasing methods are needed. RBV is used today mainly to augment interferon-alpha treatment of hepatitis C. RBV shifts an immune response from Th2 toward Th1 more effectively than CY and may be a safe and useful adjuvant for current cancer immunotherapeutic efforts. RBV is thought to act by inhibition of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for all known isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Lowered nitric oxide favors Th1 development as high levels favor Th2 weighting. PMID:12659664

  8. Expression and Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Dopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Danielle M.; Son, Jong H.; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7–30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals administered saline or neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine at postnatal days 60 and/or 90, resulting in four treatment groups: Saline:Saline, METH:Saline, Saline:METH, and METH:METH. Acute administration of methamphetamine on postnatal day 90 (Saline:METH and METH:METH) increased nitric oxide production, as evidenced by increased protein nitration. Methamphetamine did not, however, change the expression of endothelial or inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nor did it change the number of cells positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression or the amount of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA per cell. However, nitric oxide synthase activity in striatal interneurons was increased in the Saline:METH and METH:METH animals. These data suggest that increased nitric oxide production after a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine results from increased nitric oxide synthase activity, rather than an induction of mRNA, and that constitutively expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase is the most likely source of nitric oxide after methamphetamine administration. Of interest, animals rendered resistant to further methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions still show equivalent degrees of methamphetamine-induced nitric oxide production, suggesting that nitric oxide production alone in response to methamphetamine is not sufficient to induce acute neurotoxic injury. PMID:23230214

  9. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in transplant arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, P C; Shears, L L; Billiar, T R

    1999-12-01

    1. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a major obstacle to long-term allograft survival. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator in the development of this disease. 2. We and others have shown that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is up-regulated in allografts with transplant arteriosclerosis. Despite the acute cytotoxic effects produced by high levels of NO, a chronic increase in NO availability is protective against neointimal hyperplasia, mainly by suppressing the inflammatory cell recruitment and neointimal smooth muscle cell accumulation. 3. Currently, we have the technology to directly transfer the iNOS gene to allografts. We have demonstrated that this exciting strategy is feasible and therapeutic and may improve the long-term survival and function of allografts. Future challenges include optimizing the methods and the vectors of gene delivery.

  10. Nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere - Measurements and geophysical interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvath, J. J.; Frederick, J. E.; Orsini, N.; Douglass, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket-borne parachute-deployed chemiluminescence instrument has obtained seven new measurements of atmospheric nitric oxide for altitudes between 30 and 50 km at mid-latitudes. These results, when combined with profiles measured by an earlier version of the instrument, cover all four seasons and provide a more comprehensive picture of upper stratospheric nitric oxide than has been available previously. At the highest altitudes studied, the vertical gradient in mixing ratio displays positive and negative values during different observations, with the largest values tending to appear at the greatest heights in summer. Examination of the differences among the profiles, which exceed a factor of 3 near the stratopause, suggests that they arise from the action of transport processes which carry air into the mid-latitude upper stratosphere from regions of the atmosphere that contain widely different odd-nitrogen abundances.

  11. Effect of fuel/air nonuniformity on nitric oxide emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1979-01-01

    A flame tube combustor holding jet A fuel was used in experiments performed at a pressure of .3 Mpa and a reference velocity of 25 meters/second for three inlet air temperatures of 600, 700, and 800 K. The gas sample measurements were taken at locations 18 cm and 48 cm downstream of the perforated plate flameholder. Nonuniform fuel/air profiles were produced using a fuel injector by separately fueling the inner five fuel tubes and the outer ring of twelve fuel tubes. Six fuel/air profiles were produced for nominal overall equivalence ratios of .5 and .6. An example of three of three of these profiles and their resultant nitric oxide NOx emissions are presented. The uniform fuel/air profile cases produced uniform and relatively low profile levels. When the profiles were either center-peaked or edge-peaked, the overall mass-weighted nitric oxide levels increased.

  12. Olfactory ensheathing cells: nitric oxide production and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie A; West, Adrian K; Chuah, Meng Inn

    2009-12-01

    Olfactory nerves extend from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system and provide therefore, a direct route for pathogenic infection of the brain. Since actual infection by this route remains relatively uncommon, powerful endogenous mechanisms for preventing microbial infection must exist, but these remain poorly understood. Our previous studies unexpectedly revealed that the unique glial cells that ensheath olfactory nerves, olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), expressed components of the innate immune response. In this study, we show that OECs are able to detect and respond to bacterial challenge via the synthesis of nitric oxide. In vitro studies revealed that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein were present in Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-incubated OECs, but were barely detectable in untreated OECs. Neuronal NOS and endothelial NOS were not expressed by OECs pre- and post-bacterial incubation. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), detectable in the majority of OECs 1 h following bacterial incubation, preceded iNOS induction which resulted in the production of nitric oxide. N(G)-methyl-L-arginine significantly attenuated nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and nitrite production (P < 0.001) by OECs. In rat olfactory mucosa which was compromised by irrigation with 0.17M zinc sulfate or 0.7% Triton X-100 to facilitate bacterial infiltration, OECs contributed to a robust synthesis of iNOS. These data strongly support the hypothesis that OECs are an essential component of the innate immune response against bacterial invasion of the central nervous system via olfactory nerves.

  13. Activity of nitric oxide-generating compounds against encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemard, E; Geniteau-Legendre, M; Kergot, R; Lemaire, G; Petit, J F; Labarre, C; Quero, A M

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by two NO donors (sodium nitroprusside or S-nitroso-L-glutathione) was shown to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of encephalomyocarditis virus growth in L-929 cells. This activity was not due to the cytotoxic or direct virucidal effects of NO donors. L-929 cells were shown to produce NO endogenously, but this low level of production did not counter encephalomyocarditis virus replication. PMID:8849231

  14. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P < 0.05) than the other 2 groups. In experiment 2, twenty 11-d-old ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P < 0.07) and plasma nitric oxide concentration (P < 0.05) 2 h postinjection in the L-NAME administered group were lower than those of the control group. In conclusion, the study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Sensor materials for an intravascular fiber optic nitric oxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Parikh, Bhairavi R.; Stahl, Russell F.

    1996-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulatory molecule in physiological processes including neurotransmission and the control of blood pressure. It is produced in excess during septic shock, the profound hypotensive state which accompanies severe infections. In-vivo measurement of NO would enhance the understanding of its varied biological roles. Our goal is the development of an intravascular fiber-optic sensor for the continuous measurement of NO. This study evaluated nitric oxide sensitive compounds as potential sensing materials in the presence and absence of oxygen. Using absorption spectroscopy we studied both the Fe II and Fe III forms of three biologically active hemes known to rapidly react with NO: hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c. The Fe II forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin and the Fe III form of cytochrome-c were found to have the highest sensitivity to NO. Cytochrome c (Fe III) is selective for NO even at high oxygen levels, while myoglobin is selective only under normal oxygen levels. NO concentrations as low as 1 (mu) M can be detected with our fiber-optic spectrometer using cytochrome c, and as low as 300 nM using myoglobin. Either of these materials would be adequate to monitor the increase in nitric oxide production during the onset of septic shock.

  16. Separate Nitrite, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Reducing Fractions from Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. J.; Riley, P. S.; Cox, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Pseudomonas perfectomarinus was found to grow anaerobically at the expense of nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide but not chlorate or nitric oxide. In several repetitive experiments, anaerobic incubation in culture media containing nitrate revealed that an average of 82% of the cells in aerobically grown populations were converted to the capacity for respiration of nitrate. Although they did not form colonies under these conditions, the bacteria synthesized the denitrifying enzymes within 3 hr in the absence of oxygen or another acceptable inorganic oxidant. This was demonstrated by the ability, after anaerobic incubation, of cells and of extracts to reduce nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide to nitrogen. From crude extracts of cells grown on nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide, separate complex fractions were obtained that utilized reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as the source of electrons for the reduction of (i) nitrite to nitric oxide, (ii) nitric oxide to nitrous oxide, and (iii) nitrous oxide to nitrogen. Gas chromatographic analyses revealed that each of these fractions reduced only one of the nitrogenous oxides. PMID:4324803

  17. Ethanol exposure induces oxidative stress and impairs nitric oxide availability in the human placental villi: a possible mechanism of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kay, H H; Grindle, K M; Magness, R R

    2000-03-01

    We undertook this investigation to explore the effects of ethanol exposure on nitric oxide synthase levels and nitric oxide release. Our hypothesis was that ethanol exposure modifies nitric oxide activity within the placenta as a result of oxidative stress. Four 10-g samples of term normal human placental villous tissue were perifused with nonrecirculating Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and 25-mmol/L N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] with 0-, 50-, 100-, or 200-mmol/L ethanol. After 2 hours of exposure, tissue was removed, fixed, and frozen for analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for subtype I or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), subtype II or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and subtype III or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) localization. Western blot analysis was performed for eNOS quantitation. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase levels were measured by electroimmunoassay and kinetic assay, respectively. Nitric oxide release was analyzed by a Sievers nitric oxide analyzer. Immunohistochemical examination confirmed that only eNOS was localized to the syncytiotrophoblasts. After ethanol exposure, eNOS protein expression increased 2.5- to 3.0-fold over that of the control. Tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate content and nitric oxide release into the effluent were decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase levels were increased at higher ethanol levels (P <.05). Ethanol exposure appears to induce oxidative stress, which may account for the decreased nitric oxide release, because nitric oxide may be shunted toward scavenging free radicals. Increased eNOS protein expression may be a response to the increased demand for nitric oxide. Decreased nitric oxide availability could adversely affect placental blood flow regulation, which could, in turn, account for the growth restriction seen in ethanol-exposed fetuses.

  18. Nitric oxide donors for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arpita; Lattey, Katherine R; Kelly, Anthony J

    2016-12-05

    trials, 300 women; low-quality evidence), caesarean section (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.11; nine trials, 2624 women; moderate-quality evidence) or serious neonatal morbidity/perinatal death (average RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.08 to 33.26; two trials, 1712 women; low-quality evidence). There were no instances of serious maternal morbidity or death (one study reported this outcome).There was a reduction in an unfavourable cervix at 12 to 24 hours in women treated with NO donors (average RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.90; four trials, 762 women), and this difference was observed in both subgroups of standard release and slow release formulation. Women who received NO donors were less likely to experience uterine hyperstimulation without FHR rate changes (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.80; one trial, 200 women), and more likely to experience side effects, including nausea, headache and vomiting. Nitric oxide donors versus vaginal prostaglandins There was no evidence of any difference between groups for uterine hyperstimulation with FHR changes or caesarean section (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.21; three trials, 571 women). Serious neonatal morbidity and serious maternal morbidity were not reported. There were fewer women in the NO donor group who did not achieve a vaginal delivery within 24 hours (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.86; one trial, 400 primiparae women). Nitric oxide donors versus intracervical prostaglandins One study reported a reduction in the number of women who had not achieved a vaginal delivery within 24 hours with NO donors (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.86; one trial, 400 women). This result should be interpreted with caution as the information was extracted from an abstract only and a full report of the study is awaited. No differences were observed between groups for uterine hyperstimulation with FHR changes (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.74; one trial, 42 women) or serious neonatal morbidity/perinatal death (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.74; one trial, 42 women). Fewer women in the NO donor

  19. Effects of endogenous nitric oxide and of DETA NONOate in arteriogenesis.

    PubMed

    Troidl, Kerstin; Tribulova, Silvia; Cai, Wei-Jun; Rüding, Inka; Apfelbeck, Hanna; Schierling, Wilma; Troidl, Christian; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Schaper, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies showed that targeted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) disruption in mice with femoral artery occlusion does not impede and transgenic eNOS overexpression does not stimulate collateral artery growth after femoral artery occlusion, suggesting that nitric oxide from eNOS does not play a role in arteriogenesis. However, pharmacologic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with L-NAME markedly blocks arteriogenesis, suggestive of an important role of nitric oxide. To solve the paradox, we studied targeted deletion of eNOS and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mice and found that only iNOS knockout could partially inhibit arteriogenesis. However, the combination of eNOS knockout and treatment with the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL completely abolished arteriogenesis. mRNA transcription studies (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) performed on collateral arteries of rats showed that eNOS and especially iNOS (but not neural nitric oxide synthase) become upregulated in shear stress-stimulated collateral vessels, which supports the hypothesis that nitric oxide is necessary for arteriogenesis but that iNOS plays an important part. This was strengthened by the observation that the nitric oxide donor DETA NONOate strongly stimulated collateral artery growth, activated perivascular monocytes, and increased proliferation markers. Shear stress-induced nitric oxide may activate the innate immune system and activate iNOS. In conclusion, arteriogenesis is completely dependent on the presence of nitric oxide, a large part of it coming from mononuclear cells.

  20. Nitric oxide regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide gene expression in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Jamie; Bowen, Elizabeth J.; Russo, Andrew F.; Durham, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide are involved in the underlying pathophysiology of migraine and other diseases involving neurogenic inflammation. We have tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide might trigger signaling mechanisms within the trigeminal ganglia neurons that would coordinately stimulate CGRP synthesis and release. Treatment of primary trigeminal ganglia cultures with nitric oxide donors caused a greater than four-fold increase in CGRP release compared with unstimulated cultures. Similarly, CGRP promoter activity was also stimulated by nitric oxide donors and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Cotreatment with the antimigraine drug sumatriptan greatly repressed nitric oxide stimulation of CGRP promoter activity and secretion. Somewhat surprisingly, the mechanisms of nitric oxide stimulation of CGRP secretion did not require cGMP or PI3-kinase signaling pathways, but rather, nitric oxide action required extracellular calcium and likely involves T-type calcium channels. Furthermore, nitric oxide was shown to increase expression of the active forms of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Jun amino-terminal kinase and p38 but not extracellular signal-related kinase in trigeminal neurons. In summary, our results provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms by which nitric oxide induces CGRP synthesis and secretion from trigeminal neurons. PMID:16630053

  1. L-citrulline immunostaining identifies nitric oxide production sites within neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinelli, G. P. T.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Holstein, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody against L-citrulline or polyclonal anti-neuronal nitric oxide synthase sera, and double immunofluorescence to detect neuronal nitric oxide synthase and L-citrulline co-localization. The results demonstrate that the same CNS regions and cell types are labeled by neuronal nitric oxide synthase polyclonal antisera and L-citrulline monoclonal antibodies, using both immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Short-term pretreatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor reduces L-citrulline immunostaining, but does not affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. In the vestibular brainstem, double immunofluorescence studies show that many, but not all, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells co-express L-citrulline, and that local intracellular patches of intense L-citrulline accumulation are present in some neurons. Conversely, all L-citrulline-labeled neurons co-express neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cells expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase alone are interpreted as neurons with the potential to produce nitric oxide under other stimulus conditions, and the subcellular foci of enhanced L-citrulline staining are viewed as intracellular sites of nitric oxide production. This interpretation is supported by ultrastructural observations of subcellular foci with enhanced L-citrulline and/or neuronal nitric oxide synthase staining that are located primarily at postsynaptic densities and portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that nitric oxide is produced and released at focal sites within neurons that are identifiable using L-citrulline as a marker. Copyright 2002 IBRO.

  2. Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the nematode Trichinella britovi. Evidence for nitric oxide production by the parasite.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Teresa; Cecchettini, Antonella; Lucchesi, Paolo; Magi, Marta; Malvaldi, Gino; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2004-05-01

    Nitric oxide has been extensively studied as an effector molecule of the host immune response against both protozoa and helminths, but parasites can also produce this molecule, through the action of nitric oxide (NO) synthases or NO synthases-like enzymes. The aim of this study was to verify the possible production of NO by Trichinella britovi L(1) larvae and the enzymes involved in this process. The NO synthase immunoreactivity and putative nitric oxide synthase-activity was analysed using antibodies to mammalian NO synthase III and to nitrotyrosine with immunohistochemistry, gold immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Our results show that T. britovi L(1) larvae possess an enzymatic activity capable of producing NO. The localisation of this activity, according to the NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, is both at the cuticular and the internal level. This localisation is confirmed by nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry both under optical and electron microscopy. Using the NO synthase III antibody, a similar pattern of labelling was found: in particular, electron microscopy showed a localisation of this immunoreactivity in the cuticle and in the stichocytes, where only the alpha2 granules contained gold particles, mainly concentrated at their periphery. Four polypeptides reacting to the NO synthase III antibody are revealed by Western blotting. Their molecular weight ranged from 38 to 50 kDa. A significant reaction of the anti-nitrotyrosine antibody to polypeptides 95, 60, 48 and 39 kDa from the same sample suggested the presence of different nitrosylated proteins.

  3. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-inducedmore » inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.« less

  4. Study of the nitric oxide system in the rat cerebellum during aging.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Santos; Molina, Francisco J; Castro, Lourdes; Del Moral, Maria L; Hernandez, Raquel; Jimenez, Ana; Rus, Alma; Martinez-Lara, Esther; Siles, Eva; Peinado, Maria A

    2010-06-24

    The cerebellum is the neural structure with the highest levels of nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter that has been proposed to play a key role in the brain aging, although knowledge concerning its contribution to cerebellar senescence is still unclear, due mainly to absence of integrative studies that jointly evaluate the main factors involved in its cell production and function. Consequently, in the present study, we investigate the expression, location, and activity of nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes; the protein nitration; and the production of nitric oxide in the cerebellum of adult and old rats. Our results show no variation in the expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms with aging, although, we have detected some changes in the cellular distribution pattern of the inducible isoform particularly in the cerebellar nuclei. There is also an increase in nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as greater protein-nitration levels, and maintenance of nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels in the senescent cerebellum. The nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthases system suffers from a number of changes, mainly in the inducible nitric oxide synthase distribution and in overall nitric oxide synthases activity in the senescent cerebellum, which result in an increase of the protein nitration. These changes might be related to the oxidative damage detected with aging in the cerebellum.

  5. A Finite Rate Chemical Analysis of Nitric Oxide Flow Contamination Effects on Scramjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen F.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    The level of nitric oxide contamination in the test gas of the Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility and the effect of the contamination on scramjet test engine performance were investigated analytically. A finite rate chemical analysis was performed to determine the levels of nitric oxide produced in the facility at conditions corresponding to Mach 6 to 8 flight simulations. Results indicate that nitric oxide levels range from one to three mole percent, corroborating previously obtained measurements. A three-stream combustor code with finite rate chemistry was used to investigate the effects of nitric oxide on scramjet performance. Results indicate that nitric oxide in the test gas causes a small increase in heat release and thrust performance for the test conditions investigated. However, a rate constant uncertainty analysis suggests that the effect of nitric oxide ranges from no net effect, to an increase of about 10 percent in thrust performance.

  6. The role of nitric oxide in low level light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. Firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. This review will focus on the role of nitric oxide in the cellular and tissue effects of LLLT. Red and near-IR light is primarily absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). Nitric oxide produced in the mitochondria can inhibit respiration by binding to cytochrome c oxidase and competitively displacing oxygen, especially in stressed or hypoxic cells. If light absorption displaced the nitric oxide and thus allowed the cytochrome c oxidase to recover and cellular respiration to resume, this would explain many of the observations made in LLLT. Why the effect is only seen in hypoxic, stressed or damaged cells or tissues? How the effects can keep working for some time (hours or days) postillumination? Why increased NO concentrations are sometimes measured in cell culture or in animals? How blood flow can be increased? Why angiogenesis is sometimes increased after LLLT in vivo?

  7. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.

  8. Modulation of Lung Function by Increased Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram Lochan; Yadav, Prakash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking reduces endogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) production by reducing Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity, which is one of the probable reason for increased rate of pulmonary diseases in smokers. Nitric oxide/oxygen blends are used in critical care to promote capillary and pulmonary dilation to treat several pulmonary vascular diseases. Among several supplements, the highest NOS activation has been proved for garlic with its unique mechanism of action. Aim To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of NO producing garlic on pulmonary function of smokers. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 40 healthy non-smoker (Group A) and 40 chronic smoker (Group B) males with matched age, height and weight. The pulmonary function tests- Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were performed in non-smokers (Group A), smokers (Group B) and smokers after supplementation of approximately 4 gm of raw garlic (2 garlic cloves) per day for three months (Group C). Endogenous NO production was studied in smokers before and after garlic supplementation and in non-smokers without supplementation. The data obtained were compared between the groups using unpaired student’s t-test. The p-value considered significant at <0.05. Results Our results showed that FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR were reduced significantly along with a significant decreased NOS activity among smokers (Group B) when compared with non-smokers (Group A). Garlic supplementation significantly improved the pulmonary function tests in Group C in comparison to Group B by increasing NOS activity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of garlic, which might be by increasing NOS activity, has significantly improved pulmonary functions in smokers. PMID:28764150

  9. Daily life negative mood and exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Kullowatz, Antje; Bill, Michelle N; Rosenfield, David

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial stress and negative affect have been linked to asthma exacerbations, but longitudinal studies demonstrating a daily life association between negative affect and airway nitric oxide are missing. The longitudinal association between negative mood fluctuations, exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function in asthma was examined. Self-assessments of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry (forced expiratory volume in the first second, FEV1), negative mood, and daily activities were obtained from 20 patients with asthma for 2 months, resulting in 1108 assessments for the analyses (approximately 55 per patient). Concurrent and prospective associations between FeNO, FEV1, and negative mood were analyzed using mixed effects regression models for longitudinal data. Negative mood was positively associated with changes in FeNO during the same day, and to a stronger extent when prior day negative mood was included in the prediction. FeNO and negative mood were positively associated with same-day FEV1, with the latter relation being partially mediated by changes in FeNO. Associations between FeNO and FEV1 were stronger in younger patients, with earlier onset of asthma, or with lower asthma control. Findings were not changed when controlling for physical activity, medication, cold symptoms, air pollution, and hours spent outside. Daily life changes of negative mood in asthma are positively associated with FeNO changes and FeNO increases are associated with a mild bronchodilation. These findings indicate that psychological influences need to be considered when using FeNO as indicator of airway inflammation and guide for treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show thatmore » the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.« less

  11. THE ESTROGENS / CHROMIUM INTERACTION IN THE NITRIC OXIDE GENERATION.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Ewa; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Musiala, Tomasz; Dlugosz, Anna

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of estrogens with environmental toxins in free radicals generation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which participates in cancerogenesis is not yet recognized. Chromium(VI) is widely present in environment. One of its toxicity pathway is free radicals generation. Estrogens have the ability to scavenge free radicals, but may also act as prooxidants. Both chromium(VI) and estrogens are classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens, so synergistic effect seems very dangerous. The interaction of chromium and estrogens in ROS generation are partly described but there are no reports on estrogen/chromium interaction on nitric oxide (NO) generation. The aim of the study was to examine the interaction of chromium(VI) and 17-p-estradiol (E2) on NO level in human blood as well as the role of E2 metabolites: 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 16a-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) in these processes. The NO level was estimated with the diagnostic kit (Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Detection Kit from Arbor Assays) in human blood in vitm. The results showed that Cr(VI) in used concentration (0.5; 1.0 and 5.0 gg/mL) decreases significantly NO level in blood, acting antagonistically to E2 and 4-OHE2. Estrogens (E2, 4-OHE2 and 16α-OHEI) do not protect against inhibiting effect of Cr(VI) on nitric oxide generation in blood because after combined exposure the decreased production of NO in blood was noted. In conclusion, presented results provide the information about the character of estrogen/Cr(VI) interaction in NO level in human blood. It is important knowledge for cardio protected effect e.g., hormone replacement therapy in environmental or occupational exposure to Cr(VI), chromium supplementation, also important for cancer risk evaluation.

  12. Arginase expression modulates nitric oxide production in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Stephanie Maia; Aoki, Juliana Ide; Laranjeira-Silva, Maria Fernanda; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Fernandes, Juliane Cristina Ribeiro; Muxel, Sandra Marcia; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2017-01-01

    Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection. The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L. (L.) amazonensis wild-type (La-WT) and L. (L.) amazonensis arginase knockout (La-arg-) promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. We highlighted the identification of an oxidoreductase that could act as nitric oxide synthase-like (NOS-like), due to the following evidences: conserved domain composition, the participation of NO production during the time course of promastigotes growth and during the axenic amastigotes differentiation, regulation dependence on arginase activity, as well as reduction of NO amount through the NOS activity inhibition. NO quantification was measured by DAF-FM labeling analysis in a flow cytometry. We described an arginase-dependent NOS-like activity in L. (L.) amazonensis and its role in the parasite growth. The increased detection of NO production in the mid-stationary and late-stationary growth phases of La-WT promastigotes could suggest that this production is an important factor to metacyclogenesis triggering. On the other hand, La-arg- showed an earlier increase in NO production compared to La-WT, suggesting that NO production can be arginase-dependent. Interestingly, La-WT and La-arg- axenic amastigotes produced higher levels of NO than those observed in promastigotes. As a conclusion, our work suggested that NOS-like is expressed in Leishmania in the stationary growth phase promastigotes and amastigotes, and could be correlated to metacyclogenesis and amastigotes growth in a dependent way to the internal pool of L-arginine and arginase activity.

  13. Cancer cell metabolism and the modulating effects of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Fang; Diers, Anne R; Hogg, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Altered metabolic phenotype has been recognized as a hallmark of tumor cells for many years, but this aspect of the cancer phenotype has come into greater focus in recent years. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase of iNOS) has been implicated as a component in many aggressive tumor phenotypes, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and breast cancer. Nitric oxide has been well established as a modulator of cellular bioenergetics pathways, in many ways similar to the alteration of cellular metabolism observed in aggressive tumors. In this review we attempt to bring these concepts together with the general hypothesis that one function of NOS2 and NO in cancer is to modulate metabolic processes to facilitate increased tumor aggression. There are many mechanisms by which NO can modulate tumor metabolism, including direct inhibition of respiration, alterations in mitochondrial mass, oxidative inhibition of bioenergetic enzymes, and the stimulation of secondary signaling pathways. Here we review metabolic alterations in the context of cancer cells and discuss the role of NO as a potential mediator of these changes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Elucidating nitric oxide synthase domain interactions by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Holden, Jeffrey K; Li, Huiying; Poulos, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) by oxidizing L-Arg to NO and L-citrulline. NO production requires multiple interdomain electron transfer steps between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and heme domain. Specifically, NADPH-derived electrons are transferred to the heme-containing oxygenase domain via the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and FMN containing reductase domains. While crystal structures are available for both the reductase and oxygenase domains of NOS, to date there is no atomic level structural information on domain interactions required for the final FMN-to-heme electron transfer step. Here, we evaluate a model of this final electron transfer step for the heme-FMN-calmodulin NOS complex based on the recent biophysical studies using a 105-ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The resulting equilibrated complex structure is very stable and provides a detailed prediction of interdomain contacts required for stabilizing the NOS output state. The resulting equilibrated complex model agrees well with previous experimental work and provides a detailed working model of the final NOS electron transfer step required for NO biosynthesis. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  15. Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Modulating Effects of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Fang; Diers, Anne R.; Hogg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Altered metabolic phenotype has been recognized as a hallmark of tumor cells for many years, but this aspect of the cancer phenotype has come into greater focus in recent years. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase of iNOS) has been implicated as a component in many aggressive tumor phenotypes, including melanoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Nitric oxide has been well established as a modulator of cellular bioenergetics pathways, in many ways similar to the alteration of cellular metabolism observed in aggressive tumors. In this review we attempt to bring these concepts together with the general hypothesis that one function of NOS2 and NO in cancer is to modulate metabolic processes to facilitate increased tumor aggression. There are many mechanisms by which NO can modulate tumor metabolism, including direct inhibition of respiration, alterations in mitochondrial mass, oxidative inhibition of bioenergetic enzymes, and the stimulation of secondary signaling pathways. Here we review metabolic alterations in the context of cancer cells and discuss the role of NO as a potential mediator of these changes. PMID:25464273

  16. Nitric Oxide Generating Polymeric Coatings for Subcutaneous Glucose Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    primary polymer which was then aminated (2) for attachment of (Boc)3-cyclen-N-acetic acid (1). After the conjugation via EDC coupling chemistry, the Boc...dipping procedure is repeated 5 times. This is the needle-type NO sensor currently used (e.g., Figure 4 device but w/o the SePEI and alginic acid ...Cha, M. E. Meyerhoff, " Polymethacrylates with Covalently Linked Cu(II)-Cyclen Complex for the In-Situ Generation of Nitric Oxide from Nitrosothiols in

  17. Direct Reaction of Amides with Nitric Oxide To Form Diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the apparently unprecedented direct reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with amides to generate ions of structure R(C=O)NH–N(O)=NO–, with examples including R = Me (1a) or 3-pyridyl (1b). The sodium salts of both released NO in pH 7.4 buffer, with 37 °C half-lives of 1–3 min. As NO-releasing drug candidates, diazeniumdiolated amides would have the advantage of generating only 1 equiv of base on hydrolyzing exhaustively to NO, in contrast to their amine counterparts, which generate 2 equiv of base. PMID:25210948

  18. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  19. Interactions between nitric oxide and plant hormones in aluminum tolerance.

    PubMed

    He, Huyi; He, Longfei; Gu, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved, together with plant hormones, in the adaptation to Al stress in plants. However, the mechanism by which NO and plant hormones interplay to improve Al tolerance are still unclear. We have recently shown that patterns of plant hormones alteration differ between rye and wheat under Al stress. NO may enhance Al tolerance by regulating hormonal equilibrium in plants, as a regulator of plant hormones signaling. In this paper, some unsolved issues are discussed based on recent studies and the complex network of NO and plant hormones in inducing Al tolerance of plants are proposed.

  20. Nitric oxide evokes pain in humans on intracutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Holthusen, H; Arndt, J O

    1994-01-03

    To test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) acts algetically in humans, we determined pain intensity/dose relations for intracutaneously applied NO solutions. NO, dissolved in isoosmolar phosphate buffer, was injected in the forearm of six volunteers and the subjects rated NO-evoked pain continuously with the help of an electronically controlled visual analogue scale. Pain always occurred at a NO dose of 12 nmol, increased with dose and reached the tolerance maximum at 50 nmol. This shows for the first time the genuine pain evoking properties of NO.

  1. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-08-01

    The discovery and early use of NO is recalled followed by some of its chemical reactions to give useful products such as nitric acid and fertilizers. However NO produced from the internal combustion engine results in photochemical smog production and ozone depletion. A rebirth of interest in NO has occurred because of its unexpected roles in physiology and neurobiology. Its production can lead to biological responses such as vasodilation, cell adhesion, neurotransmission and immune regulation. Finally the ways denitrifying bacteria convert NO and other oxides of nitrogen to dinitrogen are discussed.

  2. [Effect of inducible nitric oxide on intracellular homeostasis of hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xi-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Yao; Kang, Ge-Fei

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the effects of inducible nitric oxide (NO) and exogenous NO on the intracellular homeostasis of the hepatocytes. Endogenous NO was induced by combined action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines in cultured rat hepatocytes, and exogenous NO was supplied by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to stimulate the hepatocytes. The changes in intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione(GSH) and free calcium ([Ca2+]i) were observed. substantial increase by 7.97 times in intracellular MDA level and a decrease by 57.9% in GSH occurred in the hepatocytes after the cells had been incubated with LPS and cytokines for 24 h, which were reversed by 43.5% and 98.4% respectively by treatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Verapamil significantly reduced both endogenous NO production and oxidative stress, while the effect of A23187 was not conspicuous. Incubation with chlorpromazine and Vitamine E (VitE), however, did not result in decreased release of NO by LPS- and cytokines-induced hepatocytes. After SNP exposure of the hepatocytes, the oxidative status was reversibly enhanced in a time-dependent manner. Short exposure to SNP led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of the rapid and transient increase in free calcium induced by K(+) depolarization and hepatopoietin-coupled calcium mobilization. Inducible NO may initiate and play a key role in the latter stages of metabolic and functional stress responses of hepatocytes against endotoxin and cytokines, when the reduction occurs in the capacity of NO to independently mediate lipid peroxidation and counteract oxidation. The inhibitory effect of NO on [Ca2+]i mobilization may be an important autoregulatory mechanism by means of negative feedback on protein kinase C-associated NOS induction.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. PMID:28635681

  4. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  5. Requirement of argininosuccinate lyase for systemic nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Campeau, Philippe M; Chen, Yuqing; Garg, Harsha K; Li, Li; Mian, Asad; Bertin, Terry K; Black, Jennifer O; Zeng, Heng; Tang, Yaoping; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Summar, Marshall; O'Brien, William E; Harrison, David G; Mitch, William E; Marini, Juan C; Aschner, Judy L; Bryan, Nathan S; Lee, Brendan

    2011-11-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) is crucial in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We show that a hypomorphic mouse model of argininosuccinate lyase (encoded by Asl) deficiency has a distinct phenotype of multiorgan dysfunction and NO deficiency. Loss of Asl in both humans and mice leads to reduced NO synthesis, owing to both decreased endogenous arginine synthesis and an impaired ability to use extracellular arginine for NO production. Administration of nitrite, which can be converted into NO in vivo, rescued the manifestations of NO deficiency in hypomorphic Asl mice, and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-independent NO donor restored NO-dependent vascular reactivity in humans with ASL deficiency. Mechanistic studies showed that ASL has a structural function in addition to its catalytic activity, by which it contributes to the formation of a multiprotein complex required for NO production. Our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for ASL in NOS function and NO homeostasis. Hence, ASL may serve as a target for manipulating NO production in experimental models, as well as for the treatment of NO-related diseases.

  6. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  7. Diurnal variation of nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Aimedieu, P.; Pirre, M.; Ramaroson, R.; Matthews, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km are reported. The observations were made at float altitude with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector together with in situ ozone measurements. The first measurement was made at 44 N on September 17, 1987, at an altitude of 40 km from before sunrise until 1000 LT. The second observation was made at the same latitude on June 18, 1988, at 39 km from 0800 to 1230 LT. At an altitude of 40 km, nitric oxide was observed to start increasing very rapidly at sunrise when the solar zenith angle reached about 95 deg. After the rapid initial buildup, the rate of NO increase stabilized for 3 hours at about 1.2 ppbv/hour. Near 1100 LT at 39 km in summer, the NO mixing ratio was observed to become nearly constant. These features of the diurnal variation of NO are in accord with the temporal variation expected from a time-dependent zero-dimensional photochemical model.

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Thomas; Cordani, Caroline; Potes, Catarina Soares; Lutz, Thomas A

    2010-11-01

    Treatment with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a commonly used model to induce disease-related anorexia. Following LPS treatment inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where nitric oxide (NO) inhibits orexigenic neurons. Intracellular STAT signaling is triggered by inflammatory stimuli and has been linked to the transcriptional regulation of iNOS. We evaluated whether pharmacological blockade of iNOS by the specific inhibitor 1400W attenuates LPS-induced anorexia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the tolerance to the anorectic effect occurring after repeated LPS treatment is paralleled by a blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC. Rats treated with a subcutaneous injection of 1400W (10 mg/kg) showed an attenuated anorectic LPS response relative to control rats receiving only LPS (100 µg/kg; i.p.). Similarly, iNOS blockade attenuated LPS-induced adipsia, hyperthermia, inactivity and the concomitant drop in energy expenditure. While single LPS treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC, rats treated repeatedly with LPS showed no anorectic response and also no STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC after the second and third LPS injections, respectively. Hence, pSTAT3 signaling in the ARC might be part of the intracellular cascades translating pro-inflammatory stimuli into suppression of food intake. The current findings substantiate a role of iNOS dependent NO formation in disease-related anorexia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  10. Nitric oxide leads to cytoskeletal reorganization in the retinal pigment epithelium under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Srinivas R; He, Weilue; Um, Ji-Yeon; Moser, Trevor; Dehnbostel, Stevie; Kindt, Kimberly; Goldman, Jeremy; Frost, Megan C; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2012-01-01

    Light is a risk factor for various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We aim to understand how cytoskeletal proteins in the retinal pigment epithetlium (RPE) respond to oxidative stress, including light and how these responses affect apoptotic signaling. Previously, proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of vimentin and serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are significantly increased when mice are exposed under continuous light for 7 days compared to a condition of 12 hrs light/dark cycling exposure using retina degeneration 1 (rd1) model. When melatonin is administered to animals while they are exposed to continuous light, the levels of vimentin and PP2A return to a normal level. Vimentin is a substrate of PP2A that directly binds to vimentin and dephosphorylates it. The current study shows that upregulation of PP2Ac (catalytic subunit) phosphorylation negatively correlates with vimentin phosphorylation under stress condition. Stabilization of vimentin appears to be achieved by decreased PP2Ac phosphorylation by nitric oxide induction. We tested our hypothesis that site-specific modifications of PP2Ac may drive cytoskeletal reorganization by vimentin dephosphorylation through nitric oxide signaling. We speculate that nitric oxide determines protein nitration under stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that PP2A and vimentin are modulated by nitric oxide as a key element involved in cytoskeletal signaling. The current study suggests that external stress enhances nitric oxide to regulate PP2Ac and vimentin phosphorylation, thereby stabilizing or destabilizing vimentin. Phosphorylation may result in depolymerization of vimentin, leading to nonfilamentous particle formation. We propose that a stabilized vimentin might act as an anti-apoptotic molecule when cells are under oxidative stress.

  11. Nitric oxide leads to cytoskeletal reorganization in the retinal pigment epithelium under oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Um, Ji-Yeon; Moser, Trevor; Dehnbostel, Stevie; Kindt, Kimberly; Goldman, Jeremy; Frost, Megan C.; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Light is a risk factor for various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We aim to understand how cytoskeletal proteins in the retinal pigment epithetlium (RPE) respond to oxidative stress, including light and how these responses affect apoptotic signaling. Previously, proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of vimentin and serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are significantly increased when mice are exposed under continuous light for 7 days compared to a condition of 12 hrs light/dark cycling exposure using retina degeneration 1 (rd1) model. When melatonin is administered to animals while they are exposed to continuous light, the levels of vimentin and PP2A return to a normal level. Vimentin is a substrate of PP2A that directly binds to vimentin and dephosphorylates it. The current study shows that upregulation of PP2Ac (catalytic subunit) phosphorylation negatively correlates with vimentin phosphorylation under stress condition. Stabilization of vimentin appears to be achieved by decreased PP2Ac phosphorylation by nitric oxide induction. We tested our hypothesis that site-specific modifications of PP2Ac may drive cytoskeletal reorganization by vimentin dephosphorylation through nitric oxide signaling. We speculate that nitric oxide determines protein nitration under stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that PP2A and vimentin are modulated by nitric oxide as a key element involved in cytoskeletal signaling. The current study suggests that external stress enhances nitric oxide to regulate PP2Ac and vimentin phosphorylation, thereby stabilizing or destabilizing vimentin. Phosphorylation may result in depolymerization of vimentin, leading to nonfilamentous particle formation. We propose that a stabilized vimentin might act as an anti-apoptotic molecule when cells are under oxidative stress. PMID:27974994

  12. Nitric-oxide supplementation for treatment of long-term complications in argininosuccinic aciduria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is required for the synthesis and channeling of L-arginine to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for nitric oxide (NO) production. Congenital ASL deficiency causes argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), the second most common urea cycle disorder, and leads to deficiency of both urea...

  13. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure ofmore » hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.« less

  14. Nitric oxide fumigation for control of bulb mites on flower bulbs and tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide fumigation was studied for efficacy to control bulb mites in the genus Rhizoglyphus and effects on germination and growth of flower bulbs and tubers. Bulb mites on infested peanuts were fumigated with nitric oxide at different concentrations under ultralow oxygen conditions in 1.9L jar...

  15. Prospect of nitric oxide as a new fumigant for postharvest pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant for postharvest pest control. In laboratory tests, complete control was achieved against all insect and mite species tested to date with 0.2% to 5% NO fumigations in 2 h to 48 h at 2 to 25°C depending on species and life stages. Nitric oxide reacts ...

  16. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  17. Role of nitric oxide in methamphetamine neurotoxicity: protection by 7-nitroindazole, an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Di Monte, D A; Royland, J E; Jakowec, M W; Langston, J W

    1996-12-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO.) in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH) was evaluated using 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a potent inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Treatment of mice with 7-NI (50 mg/kg) almost completely counteracted the loss of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity observed 5 days after four injections of 10 or 7.5 mg/kg METH. With the higher dose of METH, this protection at 5 days occurred despite the fact that combined administration of METH and 7-NI significantly increased lethality and exacerbated METH-induced dopamine release (as indicated by a greater dopamine depletion at 90 min and 1 day). Combined treatment with 4 x 10 mg/kg METH and 7-NI also slightly increased the body temperature of mice as compared with METH alone. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of 7-NI are independent from lethality, are not likely to be related to a reduction of METH-induced dopamine release, and are not due to a decrease in body temperature. These results indicate that NO. formation is an important step leading to METH neurotoxicity, and suggest that the cytotoxic properties of NO. may be directly involved in dopaminergic terminal damage.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase generates nitric oxide locally to regulate compartmentalized protein S-nitrosylation and protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Iwakiri, Yasuko; Satoh, Ayano; Chatterjee, Suvro; Toomre, Derek K.; Chalouni, Cecile M.; Fulton, David; Groszmann, Roberto J.; Shah, Vijay H.; Sessa, William C.

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly diffusible and short-lived physiological messenger. Despite its diffusible nature, NO modifies thiol groups of specific cysteine residues in target proteins and alters protein function via S-nitrosylation. Although intracellular S-nitrosylation is a specific posttranslational modification, the defined localization of an NO source (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with protein S-nitrosylation has never been directly demonstrated. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) is localized mainly on the Golgi apparatus and in plasma membrane caveolae. Here, we show by using eNOS targeted to either the Golgi or the nucleus that S-nitrosylation is concentrated at the primary site of eNOS localization. Furthermore, localization of eNOS on the Golgi enhances overall Golgi protein S-nitrosylation, the specific S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and reduces the speed of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a reversible manner. These data indicate that local NOS action generates organelle-specific protein S-nitrosylation reactions that can regulate intracellular transport processes. PMID:17170139

  19. Nitric oxide signaling: systems integration of oxygen balance in defense of cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Pitari, Giovanni M; Schulz, Stephanie; Waldman, Scott A

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide has emerged as a ubiquitous signaling molecule subserving diverse pathophysiologic processes, including cardiovascular homeostasis and its decompensation in atherogenesis. Recent insights into molecular mechanisms regulating nitric oxide generation and the rich diversity of mechanisms by which it propagates signals reveal the role of this simple gas as a principle mediator of systems integration of oxygen balance. The molecular lexicon by which nitric oxide propagates signals encompasses the elements of posttranslational modification of proteins by redox-based nitrosylation of transition metal centers and free thiols. Spatial and temporal precision and specificity of signal initiation, amplification, and propagation are orchestrated by dynamic assembly of supramolecular complexes coupling nitric oxide production to upstream and downstream components in specific subcellular compartments. The concept of local paracrine signaling by nitric oxide over subcellular distances for short durations has expanded to include endocrine-like effects over anatomic spatial and temporal scales. From these insights emerges a role for nitric oxide in integrating system responses controlling oxygen supply and demand to defend cell integrity in the face of ischemic challenge. In this context, nitric oxide coordinates the respiratory cycle to acquire and deliver oxygen to target tissues by regulating hemoglobin function and vascular smooth muscle contractility and matches energy supply and demand by down-regulating energy-requiring functions while shifting metabolism to optimize energy production. Insights into mechanisms regulating nitric oxide production and signaling and their integration into responses mediating homeostasis place into specific relief the role of those processes in pathophysiology. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction associated with altered production of nitric oxide regulating tissue integrity contributes to the pathogenesis underlying atherogenesis

  20. Arginase activity and nitric oxide levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832

  1. Nitric oxide protects murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) from cytotoxicity induced by glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pae, H O; Kim, H G; Paik, Y S; Paik, S G; Kim, Y M; Oh, G S; Chung, H T

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of nitric oxide on cell death of murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) after glucose deprivation. Endogenous nitric oxide production by BNL CL.2 cells was induced by 6 hr pretreatment with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. We used sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-L-glutathione as exogenous nitric oxide-generating compounds. All agents were used at doses that did not show direct cytotoxicity as measured by crystal violet staining assay. In the BNL CL.2 cells, the viability dropped very steeply after 24 hr incubation with glucose-free media. Endogenous nitric oxide produced by treatment of the cells with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, but did not protect them in the presence of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Exogenous nitric oxide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytoprotection by nitric oxide donors was abolished by the use of nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazole, but not by the soluble guanosine cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. In addition, cytoprotective effects comparable to endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide were not observed when the cells were incubated with dibutyl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Based upon these results, we suggest that nitric oxide may enhance the cell survival of BNL CL.2 cells after glucose deprivation via a guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-independent pathway.

  2. Effect of placental tissue on inhibition of uterine contraction by nitric oxide donors.

    PubMed

    Syal, A; Okawa, T; Vedernikov, Y; Chwalisz, K; Saade, G R; Garfield, R E

    1999-08-01

    Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that placental tissue modulates the effect of nitric oxide on spontaneous uterine contractility in pregnant rats. Rings (approximately 4 mm) of uterus taken from rats on day 14 (midpregnancy, n = 6), day 18 (late pregnancy, n = 4), and day 22 (term, n = 4) of gestation were placed in organ chambers filled with Krebs-bicarbonate buffer bubbled with 5% carbon dioxide in air (37 degrees C, pH approximately 7.4) for isometric tension recording. In some rings a piece of placenta was left attached to the uterine wall. In the other rings the fetuses, placentas, and membranes were removed completely. Change of spontaneous contractions of the rings (percentage change of basal integral activity for 10 minutes) in response to cumulative concentrations of the nitric oxide donors diethylamine-nitric oxide and nitroglycerin (10(-6) mol/L to 10(-4) mol/L) were compared between rings with and without placenta. Diethylamine-nitric oxide and nitroglycerin inhibited spontaneous uterine contractions in rings from midpregnancy, in both the absence and the presence of placenta. In rings from midpregnancy, the maximal inhibition of contractions by diethylamine-nitric oxide but not by nitroglycerin was significantly (P <.05) higher in the presence (26.7% +/- 3.5% of basal activity) than in the absence (39. 6% +/- 3.3%) of placenta. Inhibition of contraction by nitric oxide donors in rings from late and term pregnancy was less than in midpregnancy, and the presence of placental tissue did not influence the responses. The presence of placental tissue enhances inhibition of uterine contractility by agents that spontaneously release nitric oxide, such as diethylamine-nitric oxide, but not by nitroglycerin, which requires metabolic transformation for nitric oxide to be released. Refractoriness to nitric oxide near or at term does not depend on the presence or absence of placental tissue.

  3. Nitric oxide is cytoprotective to breast cancer spheroids vulnerable to estrogen-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Yana; Zurgil, Naomi; Ravid-Hermesh, Orit; Sobolev, Maria; Afrimzon, Elena; Hakuk, Yaron; Shainberg, Asher; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen-induced apoptosis has become a successful treatment for postmenopausal metastatic, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Nitric oxide involvement in the response to this endocrine treatment and its influence upon estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer progression is still unclear. Nitric oxide impact on the MCF7 breast cancer line, before and after estrogen-induced apoptosis, was investigated in 3D culture systems using unique live-cell imaging methodologies. Spheroids were established from MCF7 cells vulnerable to estrogen-induced apoptosis, before and after exposure to estrogen. Spheroids derived from estrogen-treated cells exhibited extensive apoptosis levels with downregulation of estrogen receptor expression, low proliferation rate and reduced metabolic activity, unlike spheroids derived from non-treated cells. In addition to basic phenotypic differences, these two cell cluster types are diverse in their reactions to exogenous nitric oxide. A dual effect of nitric oxide was observed in the breast cancer phenotype sensitive to estrogen-induced apoptosis. Nitric oxide, at the nanomolar level, induced cell proliferation, high metabolic activity, downregulation of estrogen receptor and enhanced collective invasion, contributing to a more aggressive phenotype. Following hormone supplementation, breast cancer 3D clusters were rescued from estrogen-induced apoptosis by these low nitric oxide-donor concentrations, since nitric oxide attenuates cell death levels, upregulates survivin expression and increases metabolic activity. Higher nitric oxide concentrations (100nM) inhibited cell growth, metabolism and promoted apoptosis. These results suggest that nitric oxide, in nanomolar concentrations, may inhibit estrogen-induced apoptosis, playing a major role in hormonal therapy. Inhibiting nitric oxide activity may benefit breast cancer patients and ultimately reduce tumor recurrence. PMID:29312577

  4. Immediate Force Loss after Eccentric Contractions is Increased with L-NAME Administration, a Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    myopathic conditions (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy ). NO has been shown to play a role in muscle regeneration after injury. However, less is known about...and CHRISTOPHER P. INGALLS, PhD Muscle Biology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA...Abstract Introduction—Nitric oxide (NO) signaling regulates many biological processes in skeletal muscle , wherein aberrant signaling contributes to

  5. Metallo Protoporphyrin Functionalized Microelectrodes for Electrocatalytic Sensing of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Zhong; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Zhang, Wenbo; Scafa, Nikki; Zhang, Xueji

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered as an important bio-regulatory molecule in the physiological process. All the existing methods often employed for NO measurement are mainly indirect and not suitable for in vivo conditions. In this paper, we report a systematic study of electrocatalytic NO reduction by comparing the redox properties of NO at carbon microelectrodes functionalized by Fe, Mn and Co protoporphyrins. The mechanisms of electrocatalytic reduction of NO by different metalloporphyrins have been proposed and compared. In addition, by varying the metallic cores of the metalloporphyrins, NO exhibits voltammograms in which the cathodic peak current occur at different potential. A comparative study on the electrochemical behavior of each of these metalloporphyrin (as a result of varying the metallic core) has been performed and a possible mechanism for the observed behavior is proposed. The results confirmed the potential applicability of using metalloporphyrins modified electrodes for voltammetric NO detection. PMID:20526418

  6. REQUIREMENT OF ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE FOR SYSTEMIC NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh CS.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Chen, Yuqing; Garg, Harsha K.; Li, Li; Mian, Asad; Bertin, Terry K.; Black, Jennifer O.; Zeng, Heng; Tang, Yaoping; Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Summar, Marshall; O’Brien, William E.; Harrison, David G.; Mitch, William E.; Marini, Juan C.; Aschner, Judy L.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Lee, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) plays a critical role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We show that a hypomorphic mouse model of argininosuccinate lyase (Asl) deficiency exhibits a distinct phenotype manifest by multi-organ dysfunction and NO deficiency. Loss of Asl leads to reduced NO synthesis due to decreased endogenous arginine synthesis as well as reduced utilization of extracellular arginine for NO production in both humans and mice. Hence, ASL as seen in other species through evolution has a structural function in addition to its catalytic activity. Importantly, therapy with nitrite rescued the tissue autonomous NO deficiency in hypomorphic Asl mice, while a NOS independent NO donor restored NO-dependent vascular reactivity in subjects with ASL deficiency. Our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for ASL in NOS function and NO homeostasis. Hence, ASL may serve as a target for manipulating NO production in experimental models, as well as treatment of NO-related diseases. PMID:22081021

  7. Nitric Oxide Analyzer Quantification of Plant S-Nitrosothiols.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Adil; Yun, Byung-Wook; Loake, Gary J

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small diatomic molecule that regulates multiple physiological processes in animals, plants, and microorganisms. In animals, it is involved in vasodilation and neurotransmission and is present in exhaled breath. In plants, it regulates both plant immune function and numerous developmental programs. The high reactivity and short half-life of NO and cross-reactivity of its various derivatives make its quantification difficult. Different methods based on calorimetric, fluorometric, and chemiluminescent detection of NO and its derivatives are available, but all of them have significant limitations. Here we describe a method for the chemiluminescence-based quantification of NO using ozone-chemiluminescence technology in plants. This approach provides a sensitive, robust, and flexible approach for determining the levels of NO and its signaling products, protein S-nitrosothiols.

  8. NITRIC OXIDE, MITOCHONDRIAL HYPERPOLARIZATION AND T-CELL ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gyorgy; Koncz, Agnes; Fernandez, David; Perl, Andras

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production that plays an essential role in multiple T cell functions. NO acts as a messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in the transduction signaling pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP), an early and reversible event during both T lymphocyte activation and apoptosis, is regulated by NO. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO-induced MHP represents a molecular switch in multiple T cell signaling pathways. Overproduction of NO in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induces mitochondrial biogenesis and alters Ca2+ signaling. Thus, while NO plays a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may disturb normal T cell function, contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17462531

  9. Corn silk induces nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung A; Choi, Sang Kyu; Choi, Hye Seon

    2004-12-31

    Corn silk has been purified as an anticoagulant previously and the active component is a polysaccharide with a molecular mass of 135 kDa. It activates murine macrophages to induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and generate substantial amounts of NO in time and dose-dependent manners. It was detectable first at 15 h after stimulation by corn silk, peaked at 24 h, and undetectable by 48 h. Induction of NOS is inhibited by pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and genistein, an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and tyrosine kinase, respectively, indicating that iNOS stimulated by corn silk is associated with tyrosine kinase and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. IkappaB-alpha degradation was detectible at 10 min, and the level was restored at 120 min after treatment of corn silk. Corn silk induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB by phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB-alpha.

  10. Nitric oxide regulates Angiopoietin1/Tie2 expression after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zacharek, Alex; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Cui, Xu; Roberts, Cynthia; Jiang, Hao; Teng, Hua; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether the nitric oxide donor, (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) aminio] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONOate), increases expression of Angiopoietin (Ang1)/Tie2, which may play a role in regulating angiogenesis and vascular integrity after stroke in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with or without DETA-NONOate. Stroke rats treated with DETA-NONOate show significantly increased Ang1, Tie2 and Occludin expression in the ischemic border compared with control stroke animals (p < 0.05). Consistent with in vivo data, DETA-NONOate promotes capillary tube formation in cultured brain endothelial cells. Neutralizing Ang1 antibody attenuates DETA-NONOate-induced capillary tube formation. The data suggest that the Ang1/Tie2 axis promotes DETA-NONOate-induced angiogenesis and stabilizes of angiogenic vessels after stroke. PMID:16762501

  11. Curcumin overcomes the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Chan, Marion Man-Ying; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Fong, Dunne

    2005-04-01

    Upon Leishmania infection, macrophages are activated to produce nitrogen and oxygen radicals simultaneously. It is well established that the infected host cells rely on nitric oxide (NO) as the major weapon against the intracellular parasite. In India where leishmaniasis is endemic, the spice turmeric is used prolifically in food and for insect bites. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is a scavenger of NO. This report shows that curcumin protects promastigotes and amastigotes of the visceral species, Leishmania donovani, and promastigotes of the cutaneous species, L. major, against the actions of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) and DETANONOate, which release NO, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), which releases NO and superoxide, and peroxynitrite, which is formed from the reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, curcumin, as an antioxidant, is capable of blocking the action of both NO and NO congeners on the Leishmania parasite.

  12. Exhaled Nitric Oxide is Not a Biomarker for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    López, José W; Loader, Maria-Cristina I; Smith, Daniel; Pastorius, Daniel; Bravard, Marjory; Caviedes, Luz; Romero, Karina M; Clark, Taryn; Checkley, William; Ticona, Eduardo; Friedland, Jon S; Gilman, Robert H

    2018-06-01

    To reduce transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in resource-limited countries where TB remains a major cause of mortality, novel diagnostic tools are urgently needed. We evaluated the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as an easily measured, noninvasive potential biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response in participants with pulmonary TB including multidrug resistant-TB in Lima, Peru. In a longitudinal study however, we found no differences in baseline median FeNO levels between 38 TB participants and 93 age-matched controls (13 parts per billion [ppb] [interquartile range (IQR) = 8-26] versus 15 ppb [IQR = 12-24]), and there was no change over 60 days of treatment (15 ppb [IQR = 10-19] at day 60). Taking this and previous evidence together, we conclude FeNO is not of value in either the diagnosis of pulmonary TB or as a marker of treatment response.

  13. Nitric oxide-mediated pathogenesis during nicotine and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Magwere, T

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is formed by different cell types in response to a variety of physiological and patho-physiological stimuli. The intake of nicotine and/or alcohol has patho-physiological effects on organ function, and the progression of alcohol-/tobacco-related diseases seem to be directly influenced by NO-mediated mechanisms. Nicotine has an adverse influence on blood vessel functionality, repair and maintenance. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages which then activate atherogenic NF-kB target genes in aortic lesions. Alcohol produces NO which speeds up the apoptosis of neutrophils. Alcohol sensitizes the liver to endotoxemic shock. Nitrosative stress and increased basal levels of NO contribute to tumour growth. The progression of disease seems to be directed via a definite NO-mediated mechanism. This review gives an insight into how intake of tobacco and alcohol may affect quality of life.

  14. Nitric oxide prevents a pathogen permissive granulocytic inflammation during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Lovewell, Rustin R.; Olive, Andrew J; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Wenfei; Eugenin, Eliseo; Smith, Clare M; Yao, Jia Phuah; Long, Jarukit E; Dubuke, Michelle L; Palace, Samantha G.; Goguen, Jon D.; Baker, Richard E.; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Mishra, Rabinarayan; Booty, Matthew G; Baer, Christina E.; Shaffer, Scott A; Dartois, Veronique; McCormick, Beth; Chen, Xinchun; Sassetti, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to protection from tuberculosis (TB). It is generally assumed that this protection is due to direct inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, which prevents subsequent pathological inflammation. In contrast, we report NO primarily protects mice by repressing an interleukin-1 and 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent neutrophil recruitment cascade that promotes bacterial replication. Using Mtb mutants as indicators of the pathogen's environment, we inferred that granulocytic inflammation generates a nutrient-replete niche that supports Mtb growth. Parallel clinical studies indicate that a similar inflammatory pathway promotes TB in patients. The human 12/15 lipoxygenase ortholog, ALOX12, is expressed in cavitary TB lesions, the abundance of its products correlate with the number of airway neutrophils and bacterial burden, and a genetic polymorphism that increases ALOX12 expression is associated with TB risk. These data suggest that Mtb exploits neutrophilic inflammation to preferentially replicate at sites of tissue damage that promote contagion. PMID:28504669

  15. Nitric oxide bioavailability in the microcirculation: insights from mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Tsoukias, Nikolaos M

    2008-11-01

    Over the last 30 years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule involved in a number of physiological functions, including in the regulation of microcirculatory tone. Despite significant scientific contributions, fundamental questions about NO's role in the microcirculation remain unanswered. Mathematical modeling can assist in investigations of microcirculatory NO physiology and address experimental limitations in quantifying vascular NO concentrations. The number of mathematical models investigating the fate of NO in the vasculature has increased over the last few years, and new models are continuously emerging, incorporating an increasing level of complexity and detail. Models investigate mechanisms that affect NO availability in health and disease. They examine the significance of NO release from nonendothelial sources, the effect of transient release, and the complex interaction of NO with other substances, such as heme-containing proteins and reactive oxygen species. Models are utilized to test and generate hypotheses for the mechanisms that regulate NO-dependent signaling in the microcirculation.

  16. Reduced Fluoresceinamine as a Fluorescent Sensor for Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Abel J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A new fluorescent sensor for nitric oxide (NO) is presented that is based on its reaction with a non fluorescent substance, reduced fluoresceinamine, producing the highly fluorescent fluoresceinamine. Using a portable homemade stabilized light source consisting of 450 nm LED and fiber optics to guide the light, the sensor responds linearly within seconds in the NO concentration range between about 10–750 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of about 1 μM. The system generated precise intensity readings, with a relative standard deviation of less than 1%. The suitability of the sensor was assessed by monitoring the NO generated by either the nitrous acid decomposition reaction or from a NO-releasing compound. Using relatively high incubation times, the sensor also responds quantitatively to hydrogen peroxide and potassium superoxide, however, using transient signal measurements results in no interfering species. PMID:22294892

  17. Fabrication of nitric oxide-releasing polyurethane glucose sensor membranes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ahyeon; Riccio, Daniel A.; Sun, Bin; Carpenter, Alexis W.; Nichols, Scott P.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite clear evidence that polymeric nitric oxide (NO) release coatings reduce the foreign body response (FBR) and may thus improve the analytical performance of in vivo continuous glucose monitoring devices when used as sensor membranes, the compatibility of the NO release chemistry with that required for enzymatic glucose sensing remains unclear. Herein, we describe the fabrication and characterization of NO-releasing polyurethane sensor membranes using NO donor-modified silica vehicles embedded within the polymer. In addition to demonstrating tunable NO release as a function of the NO donor silica scaffold and polymer compositions and concentrations, we describe the impact of the NO release vehicle and its release kinetics on glucose sensor performance. PMID:21795038

  18. Nitric oxide-dependent neutrophil recruitment: role in nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Cardell, L O; Agustí, C; Nadel, J A

    2000-12-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), an inflammatory mediator, is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils that plays an important role in nasal secretion via release of elastase. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of leucocyte-endothelial cell interactions, endogenously produced in large quantities in the paranasal sinuses. To examine the role of NO in LTB4-stimulated nasal secretion. A newly-developed method for isolating and superfusing a nasal segment in dogs was used. Instillation of LTB4 into the nasal segment caused a time-dependent increase in the volume of airway fluid and in the recruitment of neutrophils. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, prevented LTB4-induced neutrophil recruitment and nasal secretion. These studies show that NO modulates LTB4-induced neutrophil recruitment and subsequent fluid secretion in the nose, and they suggest a therapeutic role for NO inhibitors in modulating neutrophil-dependent nasal secretion.

  19. Nitric Oxide Donor-Based Cancer Therapy: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhangjian; Fu, Junjie; Zhang, Yihua

    2017-09-28

    The increasing understanding of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cancer biology has generated significant progress in the use of NO donor-based therapy to fight cancer. These advances strongly suggest the potential adoption of NO donor-based therapy in clinical practice, and this has been supported by several clinical studies in the past decade. In this review, we first highlight several types of important NO donors, including recently developed NO donors bearing a dinitroazetidine skeleton, represented by RRx-001, with potential utility in cancer therapy. Special emphasis is then given to the combination of NO donor(s) with other therapies to achieve synergy and to the hybridization of NO donor(s) with an anticancer drug/agent/fragment to enhance the activity or specificity or to reduce toxicity. In addition, we briefly describe inducible NO synthase gene therapy and nanotechnology, which have recently entered the field of NO donor therapy.

  20. Modulation of taurine release by glutamate receptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Oja, S S; Saransaari, P

    2000-11-01

    Taurine is held to function as a modulator and osmoregulator in the central nervous system, being of particular importance in the immature brain. In view of the possible involvement of excitatory pathways in the regulation of taurine function in the brain, the interference of glutamate receptors with taurine release from different tissue preparations in vitro and from the brain in vivo is of special interest. The release of taurine from the brain is enhanced by glutamate receptor agonists. This enhancement is inhibited by the respective receptor antagonists both in vitro and in vivo. The ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor agonists appear to be the most effective in enhancing taurine release, their effects being receptor-mediated. Kainate is less effective, particularly in adults. Of the glutamate receptors, the NMDA class seems to be the most susceptible to modulation by nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also modulates taurine release, enhancing the basal release in both immature and mature hippocampus, whereas the K(+)-stimulated release is generally inhibited. Metabotropic glutamate receptors also participate in the regulation of taurine release, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors potentiating the release in the developing hippocampus, while group III receptors may be involved in the adult. Under various cell-damaging conditions, including ischemia, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, taurine release is enhanced, together with an enhanced release of excitatory amino acids. The increase in extracellular taurine upon excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors and under cell-damaging conditions may serve as an important protective mechanism against excitotoxicity, being particularly effective in the immature brain.

  1. Nitric oxide-mediated modulation of the murine locomotor network

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Joshua D.; Dunford, Catherine; Sillar, Keith T.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal motor control networks are regulated by neuromodulatory systems to allow adaptability of movements. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of mammalian spinal locomotor networks. This was investigated with isolated spinal cord preparations from neonatal mice in which rhythmic locomotor-related activity was induced pharmacologically. Bath application of the NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) decreased the frequency and modulated the amplitude of locomotor-related activity recorded from ventral roots. Removal of endogenous NO with coapplication of a NO scavenger (PTIO) and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker [nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of locomotor-related activity. This demonstrates that endogenously derived NO can modulate both the timing and intensity of locomotor-related activity. The effects of DEA/NO were mimicked by the cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP. In addition, the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor ODQ blocked the effects of DEA/NO on burst amplitude and frequency, although the frequency effect was only blocked at low concentrations of DEA/NO. This suggests that NO-mediated modulation involves cGMP-dependent pathways. Sources of NO were studied within the lumbar spinal cord during postnatal development (postnatal days 1–12) with NADPH-diaphorase staining. NOS-positive cells in the ventral horn exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient, with more cells in rostral segments. The number of NOS-positive cells was also found to increase during postnatal development. In summary, we have shown that NO, derived from sources within the mammalian spinal cord, modulates the output of spinal motor networks and is therefore likely to contribute to the fine-tuning of locomotor behavior. PMID:24259545

  2. Role of nitric oxide in cellular iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2003-03-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) which are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO*, a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO+ (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO+-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  3. Salt Inactivates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; White, James; Guo, Ling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiafu; Smart, Eric J.; Li, Xiang-An

    2009-01-01

    There is a 1–4 mmol/L rise in plasma sodium concentrations in individuals with high salt intake and in patients with essential hypertension. In this study, we used 3 independent assays to determine whether such a small increase in sodium concentrations per se alters endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and contributes to hypertension. By directly measuring NOS activity in living bovine aortic endothelial cells, we demonstrated that a 5-mmol/L increase in salt concentration (from 137 to 142 mmol/L) caused a 25% decrease in NOS activity. Importantly, the decrease in NOS activity was in a salt concentration-dependent manner. The NOS activity was decreased by 25, 45, and 70%, with the increase of 5, 10, and 20 mmol/L of NaCl, respectively. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing eNOS, we confirmed the inhibitory effects of salt on eNOS activity. The eNOS activity was unaffected in the presence of equal milliosmol of mannitol, which excludes an osmotic effect. Using an ex vivo aortic angiogenesis assay, we demonstrated that salt attenuated the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent proliferation of endothelial cells. By directly monitoring blood pressure changes in response to salt infusion, we found that in vivo infusion of salt induced an acute increase in blood pressure in a salt concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that eNOS is sensitive to changes in salt concentration. A 5-mmol/L rise in salt concentration, within the range observed in essential hypertension patients or in individuals with high salt intake, could significantly suppress eNOS activity. This salt-induced reduction in NO generation in endothelial cells may contribute to the development of hypertension. PMID:19176751

  4. Salt inactivates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; White, James; Guo, Ling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiafu; Smart, Eric J; Li, Xiang-An

    2009-03-01

    There is a 1-4 mmol/L rise in plasma sodium concentrations in individuals with high salt intake and in patients with essential hypertension. In this study, we used 3 independent assays to determine whether such a small increase in sodium concentrations per se alters endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and contributes to hypertension. By directly measuring NOS activity in living bovine aortic endothelial cells, we demonstrated that a 5-mmol/L increase in salt concentration (from 137 to 142 mmol/L) caused a 25% decrease in NOS activity. Importantly, the decrease in NOS activity was in a salt concentration-dependent manner. The NOS activity was decreased by 25, 45, and 70%, with the increase of 5, 10, and 20 mmol/L of NaCl, respectively. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing eNOS, we confirmed the inhibitory effects of salt on eNOS activity. The eNOS activity was unaffected in the presence of equal milliosmol of mannitol, which excludes an osmotic effect. Using an ex vivo aortic angiogenesis assay, we demonstrated that salt attenuated the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent proliferation of endothelial cells. By directly monitoring blood pressure changes in response to salt infusion, we found that in vivo infusion of salt induced an acute increase in blood pressure in a salt concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that eNOS is sensitive to changes in salt concentration. A 5-mmol/L rise in salt concentration, within the range observed in essential hypertension patients or in individuals with high salt intake, could significantly suppress eNOS activity. This salt-induced reduction in NO generation in endothelial cells may contribute to the development of hypertension.

  5. Decoding the Substrate Supply to Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Habermeier, Alice; Closs, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide, produced by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from L-arginine is an important second messenger molecule in the central nervous system: It influences the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters and plays an important role in long-term potentiation, long-term depression and neuroendocrine secretion. However, under certain pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis, excessive NO production can lead to tissue damage. It is thus desirable to control NO production in these situations. So far, little is known about the substrate supply to human nNOS as a determinant of its activity. Measuring bioactive NO via cGMP formation in reporter cells, we demonstrate here that nNOS in both, human A673 neuroepithelioma and TGW-nu-I neuroblastoma cells can be fast and efficiently nourished by extracellular arginine that enters the cells via membrane transporters (pool I that is freely exchangeable with the extracellular space). When this pool was depleted, NO synthesis was partially sustained by intracellular arginine sources not freely exchangeable with the extracellular space (pool II). Protein breakdown made up by far the largest part of pool II in both cell types. In contrast, citrulline to arginine conversion maintained NO synthesis only in TGW-nu-I neuroblastoma, but not A673 neuroepithelioma cells. Histidine mimicked the effect of protease inhibitors causing an almost complete nNOS inhibition in cells incubated additionally in lysine that depletes the exchangeable arginine pool. Our results identify new ways to modulate nNOS activity by modifying its substrate supply. PMID:23874440

  6. Triazine herbicides inhibit relaxin signaling and disrupt nitric oxide homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Si Eun; Lim, Sa Rang; Choi, Hyung-kyoon

    Triazines are herbicides that are widely used worldwide, and we previously observed that the maternal exposure of mice to simazine (50 or 500 μg/kg) resulted in smaller ovaries and uteri of their female offspring. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism that may account for the reproductive dysfunction induced by simazine. We found that following maternal exposure, simazine is transmitted to the offspring, as evidenced by its presence in the offspring ovaries. Analyses of the simazine-exposed offspring revealed that the expression of the relaxin hormone receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), prominently decreased in their ovaries and uteri. In addition, downstreammore » target genes of the relaxin pathway including nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (Nos2), Nos3, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) were downregulated in their ovaries. Moreover, AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) levels and their phosphorylated active forms decreased in simazine-exposed ovaries. In vitro exposure of the human ovarian granulosa cells (KGN) and uterine endometrium cells (Hec-1A) to very low concentrations (0.001 to 1 nM) of triazines including atrazine, terbuthylazine, and propazine repressed NO production with a concurrent reduction in RXFP1, NOS2, and NOS3. The inhibitory action of triazines on NO release was dependent on RXFP1, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and ERK. Radioligand-binding assay also confirmed that triazines competitively inhibited the binding of relaxin to its receptor. Therefore, the present study suggests that triazine herbicides act as endocrine disrupters by interfering with relaxin hormone signaling. Thus, further evaluation of their impact on human health is imperative. - Highlights: • Triazines downregulate critical molecules involved in the relaxin signaling pathway. • Triazines act as potent antagonists of binding of relaxin to its receptor. • Triazines disrupt nitric

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in hypoxic newborn porcine pulmonary vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, A; Springall, D; Oliveira, H; Pollock, J; Polak, J; Haworth, S

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if the failure of neonatal pulmonary arteries to dilate is due to a lack of nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
METHODS—A monoclonal antibody to endothelial NOS was used to demonstrate the distribution and density of NOS in the developing porcine lung after a period in hypobaric hypoxia. Newborn piglets were made hypertensive by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (50.8 kPa) from < 5 minutes of age to 2.5 days of age, 3-6 days of age or 14-17 days of age. A semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the distribution of endothelial NOS by light microscopy.
RESULTS—NOS was present in the arteries in all hypoxic animals. However, hypoxia from birth caused a reduction in NOS compared with those lungs normal at birth and those normal at 3 days. Hypoxia from 3-6 days led to a high density of NOS compared with normal lungs at 6 days. Hypoxia from 14-17 days had little effect on the amount of NOS. On recovery in room air after exposure to hypoxia from birth there was a transient increase in endothelial NOS after three days of recovery, mirroring that seen at three days in normal animals.
CONCLUSIONS—Suppression of NOS production in the first few days of life may contribute to pulmonary hypertension in neonates.

 Keywords: pulmonary circulation; nitric oxide synthase; hypoxia; endothelium; piglets PMID:9279177

  8. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Dirsch, Verena M

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular function by enhancing NO bioavailability. In this article we first outline common pathways modulating endothelial NO production or bioavailability to provide a basis for subsequent mechanistic discussions. Then we comprehensively review natural products and plant extracts known to positively influence eNOS activity and/or endothelial function in vitro or in vivo. We will discuss red wine, highlighting polyphenols, oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol as modulators of endothelial NO production. Other dietary products and their active components known to activate eNOS include cocoa (OPC and its monomer (-)-epicatechin), pomegranates (polyphenols), black and green tea (flavanoids, especially epigallocatechin gallate), olive oil (oleic acid and polyphenols), soy (genistein), and quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in plants. In addition, phytomedical preparations made from ginkgo, hawthorn and ginseng, as well as formulations used in traditional Chinese Medicine, have been shown to affect endothelial NO production. Recurring phytochemical patterns among active fractions and purified compounds are discussed. In summary, there is increasing evidence that several single natural products and plant extracts influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Doxycycline reduces nitric oxide production in guinea pig inner ears.

    PubMed

    Helling, Kai; Wodarzcyk, Karl; Brieger, Jürgen; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Gentamicin application is an important therapeutic option to control vertigo spells in Ménière's disease. However, even in the case of low-dose intratympanic application, gentamicin might contribute to a pathological NO-increase leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairment. The study was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) reducing capacity of doxycycline in the inner ear after NO-induction by gentamicin. In a prospective animal study, a single dose of gentamicin (10mg/kg body weight) was injected intratympanically into male guinea pigs (n=48). The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded prior to application and 3, 5 and 7 days afterwards. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall of 42 animals were isolated after 7 days and incubated separately for 6h in cell culture medium. Doxycycline was adjusted to organ cultures of 5 animals. Two NOS inhibitors, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate (l-NMMA), were applied in three different concentrations to the organ cultures of 30 animals in total (5 animals per concentration). As controls, seven animals received no further substance except gentamicin. The NO-production was quantified by chemiluminescence. Additional six gentamicin-treated animals were used for immunohistochemical studies. The ABRs declined continuously from the first to the seventh day after gentamicin application. Doxycycline reduced NO-production in the lateral wall by 54% (p=.029) comparable to the effect of the applied nitric oxide inhibitors. In the organ of Corti, NO-production was reduced by about 41% showing no statistical significance in respect to great inter-animal variations. The application of doxycycline might offer a new therapeutic approach to prevent NO-induced cochlea damage through ototoxic substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thromboresistance Characterization of Extruded Nitric Oxide-Releasing Silicone Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Kagya A.; Archangeli, Christopher; Handa, Hitesh; Major, Terry; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Annich, Gail M.; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular catheters used in clinical practice can activate platelets, leading to thrombus formation and stagnation of blood flow. Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymers have been shown previously to reduce clot formation on a number of blood contacting devices. In this work, trilaminar NO-releasing silicone catheters were fabricated and tested for their thrombogenicity. All catheters had specifications of L = 6 cm, inner diameter = 21 gauge (0.0723 cm), outer diameter = 12 gauge (0.2052 cm), and NO-releasing layer thickness = 200 ± 11 μm. Control and NO-releasing catheters were characterized in vitro for their NO flux and NO release duration by gas phase chemiluminescence measurements. The catheters were then implanted in the right and left internal jugular veins of (N = 6 and average weight = 3 kg) adult male rabbits for 4 hours thrombogenicity testing. Platelet counts and function, methemoglobin (metHb), hemoglobin (Hb), and white cell counts and functional time (defined as patency time of catheter) were monitored as measured outcomes. Nitric oxide-releasing catheters (N = 6) maintained an average flux above (2 ± 0.5) × 10−10 mol/min/cm2 for more than 24 hours, whereas controls showed no NO release. Methemoglobin, Hb, white cell, and platelet counts and platelet function at 4 hours were not significantly different from baseline (α = 0.05). However, clots on controls were visibly larger and prevented blood draws at a significantly (p < 0.05) earlier time (2.3 ± 0.7 hours) into the experiment, whereas all NO-releasing catheters survived the entire 4 hours test period. Results indicate that catheter NO flux levels attenuated thrombus formation in a short-term animal model. PMID:22395119

  11. The Role of Nitric Oxide during Sonoreperfusion of Microvascular Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Francois T.H.; Chen, Xucai; Straub, Adam C.; Pacella, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Microembolization during PCI for acute myocardial infarction can cause microvascular obstruction (MVO). MVO severely limits the success of reperfusion therapies, is associated with additional myonecrosis, and is linked to worse prognosis, including death. We have shown, both in in vitro and in vivo models, that ultrasound (US) and microbubble (MB) therapy (termed “sonoreperfusion” or “SRP”) is a theranostic approach that relieves MVO and restores perfusion, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) during SRP. Methods and results: We first demonstrated in plated cells that US-stimulated MB oscillations induced a 6-fold increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in vitro. We then monitored the kinetics of intramuscular NO and perfusion flow rate responses following 2-min of SRP therapy in the rat hindlimb muscle, with and without blockade of eNOS with LNAME. Following SRP, we found that starting at 6 minutes, intramuscular NO increased significantly over 30 min and was higher than baseline after 13 min. Concomitant contrast enhanced burst reperfusion imaging confirmed that there was a marked increase in perfusion flow rate at 6 and 10 min post SRP compared to baseline (>2.5 fold). The increases in intramuscular NO and perfusion rate were blunted with LNAME. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that NO plays a role in SRP by assessing reperfusion efficacy in a previously described rat hindlimb model of MVO during blockade of eNOS. After US treatment 1, microvascular blood volume was restored to baseline in the MB+US group, but remained low in the LNAME group. Perfusion rates increased in the MB+US group after US treatment 2 but not in the MB+US+LNAME group. Conclusions: These data strongly support that MB oscillations can activate the eNOS pathway leading to increased blood perfusion and that NO plays a significant role in SRP efficacy. PMID

  12. [Ultrasound induced the formation of nitric oxide and nitrosonium ions in water and aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Stepuro, I I; Adamchuk, R I; Stepuro, V I

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide, nitrosonium ions, nitrites, and nitrates are formed in water saturated with air under the action of ultrasound. Nitrosonium ions react with water and hydrogen peroxide to form nitrites and nitrates in sonicated solution, correspondingly. Nitric oxide is practically completely released from sonicated water into the atmosphere and reacts with air oxygen, forming NOx compounds. The oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous medium by hydroxyl radicals and dissolved oxygen is a minor route of the formation of nitrites and nitrates in ultrasonic field.

  13. Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    PACHER, PÁL; BECKMAN, JOSEPH S.; LIAUDET, LUCAS

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review. PMID:17237348

  14. Analytical study of mechanisms for nitric oxide formation during combustion of methane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The role of chemical kinetics in the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of methane was examined analytically by means of a detailed chemical mechanism for the oxidation of methane, for the reaction between hydrocarbon fragments, and for the formation of nitric oxide. By comparing predicted nitric oxide levels with values reported in the literature from jet-stirred combuster experiments, it was determined that the nitric oxide levels observed in fuel-rich flames cannot be described by a mechanism in which the rate of nitric oxide formation is controlled solely by the kinetics of oxygen atom formation. A proposed mechanism for the formation of nitric oxide in methane-rich flames reproduces the observed levels. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide appears to be an important factor in nitric oxide formation.

  15. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  16. Effects of nitric oxide on neuromuscular properties of developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jay, Michael; Bradley, Sophie; McDearmid, Jonathan Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a bioactive signalling molecule that is known to affect a wide range of neurodevelopmental processes. However, its functional relevance to neuromuscular development is not fully understood. Here we have examined developmental roles of nitric oxide during formation and maturation of neuromuscular contacts in zebrafish. Using histochemical approaches we show that elevating nitric oxide levels reduces the number of neuromuscular synapses within the axial swimming muscles whilst inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis has the opposite effect. We further show that nitric oxide signalling does not change synapse density, suggesting that the observed effects are a consequence of previously reported changes in motor axon branch formation. Moreover, we have used in vivo patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of nitric oxide on physiological maturation of zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. We show that developmental exposure to nitric oxide affects the kinetics of spontaneous miniature end plate currents and impacts the neuromuscular drive for locomotion. Taken together, our findings implicate nitrergic signalling in the regulation of zebrafish neuromuscular development and locomotor maturation.

  17. Nitric oxide-mediated blood flow regulation as affected by smoking and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Toda, Hiroshi

    2010-12-15

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, cerebral and coronary vascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Chronic smoking impairs endothelial function by decreasing the formation of nitric oxide and increasing the degradation of nitric oxide via generation of oxygen free radicals. Nitric oxide liberated from efferent nitrergic nerves is also involved in vasodilatation, increased regional blood flow, and hypotension that are impaired through nitric oxide sequestering by smoking-induced factors. Influence of smoking on nitric oxide-induced blood flow regulation is not necessarily the same in all organs and tissues. However, human studies are limited mainly to the forearm blood flow measurement that assesses endothelial function under basal and stimulated conditions and also determination of penile tumescence and erection in response to endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide. Therefore, information about blood flow regulation in other organs, such as the brain and placenta, has been provided mainly from studies on experimental animals. Nicotine, a major constituent of cigarette smoke, acutely dilates cerebral arteries and arterioles through nitric oxide liberated from nitrergic neurons, but chronically interferes with endothelial function in various vasculatures, both being noted in studies on experimental animals. Cigarette smoke constituents other than nicotine also have some vascular actions. Not only active but also passive smoking is undoubtedly harmful for both the smokers themselves and their neighbors, who should bear in mind that they can face serious diseases in the future, which may result in lengthy hospitalization, and a shortened lifespan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Consequences of MnSOD interactions with nitric oxide: nitric oxide dismutation and the generation of peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Filipović, Milos R; Stanić, Dragana; Raicević, Smiljana; Spasić, Mihajlo; Niketić, Vesna

    2007-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) (Escherichia coli), binds nitric oxide (*NO) and stimulates its decay under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results indicate that previously observed MnSOD-catalyzed *NO disproportionation (dismutation) into nitrosonium (NO+) and nitroxyl (NO-) species under anaerobic conditions is also operative in the presence of molecular oxygen. Upon sustained aerobic exposure to *NO, MnSOD-derived NO- species initiate the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) leading to enzyme tyrosine nitration, oxidation and (partial) inactivation. The results suggest that both ONOO- decomposition and ONOO(-)-dependent tyrosine residue nitration and oxidation are enhanced by metal centre-mediated catalysis. We show that the generation of ONOO- is accompanied by the formation of substantial amounts of H2O2. MnSOD is a critical mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, which has been found to undergo tyrosine nitration and inactivation in various pathologies associated with the overproduction of *NO. The results of the present study can account for the molecular specificity of MnSOD nitration in vivo. The interaction of *NO with MnSOD may represent a novel mechanism by which MnSOD protects the cell from deleterious effects associated with overproduction of *NO.

  19. Elevated nitric oxide in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis - association with clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Alvendal, Cathrin; Ehrström, Sophia; Brauner, Annelie; Lundberg, Jon O; Bohm-Starke, Nina

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is defined as having three to four episodes per year and causes substantial suffering. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to relapses in otherwise healthy women. Nitric oxide is part of the nonspecific host defense and is increased during inflammation. Nitric oxide levels were measured and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed in the vagina during an acute episode of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and after treatment with fluconazole. Twenty-eight women with symptoms of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were enrolled together with 31 healthy controls. Nitric oxide was measured with an air-filled 25-mL silicon catheter balloon incubated in the vagina for five minutes and then analyzed by chemiluminescence technique. Vaginal biopsies were analyzed for the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Symptoms and clinical findings were surveyed using a scoring system. The measurements and biopsies were repeated in patients after six weeks of fluconazole treatment. Nitric oxide levels were increased during acute infection (median 352 ppb) compared with controls (median 6 ppb), p < 0.0001. The levels decreased after treatment (median 18 ppb) but were still higher than in controls. Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was observed in the epithelial basal layer in patients before and after treatment compared with controls. Before treatment, there were positive correlations between nitric oxide and symptom (r s  = 0.644) and examination scores (r s  = 0.677), p < 0.001. Nitric oxide is significantly elevated in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis during acute episodes of infection and decreases after antifungal treatment. The results illustrate the pronounced inflammatory response in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis correlating to symptoms of pain and discomfort. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Endothelial cell expression of haemoglobin α regulates nitric oxide signalling.

    PubMed

    Straub, Adam C; Lohman, Alexander W; Billaud, Marie; Johnstone, Scott R; Dwyer, Scott T; Lee, Monica Y; Bortz, Pamela Schoppee; Best, Angela K; Columbus, Linda; Gaston, Benjamin; Isakson, Brant E

    2012-11-15

    Models of unregulated nitric oxide (NO) diffusion do not consistently account for the biochemistry of NO synthase (NOS)-dependent signalling in many cell systems. For example, endothelial NOS controls blood pressure, blood flow and oxygen delivery through its effect on vascular smooth muscle tone, but the regulation of these processes is not adequately explained by simple NO diffusion from endothelium to smooth muscle. Here we report a new model for the regulation of NO signalling by demonstrating that haemoglobin (Hb) α (encoded by the HBA1 and HBA2 genes in humans) is expressed in human and mouse arterial endothelial cells and enriched at the myoendothelial junction, where it regulates the effects of NO on vascular reactivity. Notably, this function is unique to Hb α and is abrogated by its genetic depletion. Mechanistically, endothelial Hb α haem iron in the Fe(3+) state permits NO signalling, and this signalling is shut off when Hb α is reduced to the Fe(2+) state by endothelial cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3, also known as diaphorase 1). Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of CYB5R3 increases NO bioactivity in small arteries. These data reveal a new mechanism by which the regulation of the intracellular Hb α oxidation state controls NOS signalling in non-erythroid cells. This model may be relevant to haem-containing globins in a broad range of NOS-containing somatic cells.

  1. Hydroxyurea enhances SMN2 gene expression through nitric oxide release.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Chen, Xin; Grzeschik, Susanna M; Ganta, Madhuri; Wang, Ching H

    2011-02-01

    Small molecules that increase full-length survivor motor neuron (SMN) gene transcript are promising therapeutic candidates for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Hydroxyurea (HU) has recently been shown to increase full-length SMN transcript in cultured lymphocytes from patients with SMA. We investigate the mechanism by which HU enhances full-length SMN2 gene expression in SMA lymphocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major intracellular metabolite of HU. We test whether NO donors can themselves enhance full-length SMN2 expression. Eighteen cell lines (five type I, five type II, six type III SMA, and two non-SMA controls) were treated with or without NO donors for 48 h. SMA cells treated with HU and three NO donors: two long-acting donors, Deta-NONOate and S-nitrosoglutathione, and one short-acting donor, 3-ethyl-3-(ethylaminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene, resulted in significant increase in full-length SMN2 mRNA. These effects were abolished by co-treatment with an NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide. One short-acting NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, failed to show significant effect on full-length SMN2 expression, possibly due to high degree of cytotoxicity. These results were observed using both densitometry and quantitative PCR methods. We conclude that HU enhances SMN2 expression through the release of NO. NO donors may themselves be considered as new therapeutic candidates for SMA.

  2. Effect of caffeine coadministration and of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on the antinociceptive action of ketorolac.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F J; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Flores-Murrieta, F J; Granados-Soto, V

    1996-07-25

    The effects of caffeine and nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on the antinociceptive action of ketorolac were assessed using the pain-induced functional impairment model in the rat. Nociception was induced by the intra-articular injection of uric acid. Ketorolac, but not caffeine, produced an antinociceptive effect which was reduced by NG nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. Caffeine coadministration potentiated the ketorolac effect. L-NAME induced a dose-dependent reduction of this potentiation. The results suggest the participation of the L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in the caffeine potentiation of ketorolac-induced antinociception.

  3. [Studies on the oxidation reaction of octanol-2 with nitric acid by infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Zhao, G; Wang, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S; Lu, F

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, the reaction process of oxidation of octanol-2 with nitric acid has been studied by IR spectroscopy. It is found that the main components of non-sapoifiable matter are different in different oxidation degrees. The relation between oxidation products and the amount of nitric acid are investigated,the reaction mechanism has also been studied. Experimental results show that the oxidation process of octanol-2 is as follows: first, octanol-2 is oxidated to octanone-2, or to nitrate, nitrite and nitrile copmpounds, then these compounds are reoxidated to caproic acid in the meantime some by-products, such as valeric, enanthic acids are also found in oxidated products.

  4. Transnitrosylation: A Factor in Nitric Oxide-Mediated Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Tabitha; La Favor, Justin D.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) signaling can be mediated not only through classical cGMP, but also through S-nitrosylation. The impact of S-nitrosylation on erectile function and in NO regulation and oxidative stress in the penis, however, remains poorly understood. Aims To characterize the role of GSNOR, a major regulator of S-nitrosylation homeostasis, on erection physiology and on eNOS function and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the penis. Materials and Methods Adult GSNOR-deficient and WT mice were used. Erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Total NO in penile homogenates was measured by Griess reaction. Protein S-nitrosylation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS uncoupling, and markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE], malondialdehyde, and nitrotyrosine) in the penis were measured by Western blot. Main outcome measures Erectile function, eNOS function and oxidative stress in the penis of GSNOR-deficient mice. Results Erectile function was intact in GSNOR-deficient mice. Total S-nitrosylated proteins were increased (p<0.05) in the GSNOR−/− compared to WT mouse penis. While eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 did not differ between the GSNOR−/− and WT mouse penis at baseline, electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve increased (p<0.05) P-eNOS in the WT mouse penis, but failed to increase P-eNOS in the GSNOR−/− mouse penis. Total NO production was decreased (p<0.05), while eNOS uncoupling, 4-HNE, malondialdehyde, and nitrotyrosine were increased (p<0.05) in the GSNOR-deficient mouse penis compared to that of WT mice. Conclusion Transnitrosylation mechanisms play an important role in regulating NO bioactivity in the penis. Deficiency of GSNOR leads to eNOS dysfunction and increased oxidative damage, suggesting that homeostatic eNOS function in the penis is governed by transnitrosylation. PMID:27114194

  5. The transport of nitric oxide in the upper atmosphere by planetary waves and the zonal mean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. A.; Avery, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent numerical model was developed and used to study the interaction between planetary waves, the zonal mean circulation, and the trace constituent nitric oxide in the region between 55 km and 120 km. The factors which contribute to the structure of the nitric oxide distribution were examined, and the sensitivity of the distribution to changes in planetary wave amplitude was investigated. Wave-induced changes in the mean nitric oxide concentration were examined as a possible mechanism for the observed winter anomaly. Results indicate that vertically-propagating planetary waves induce a wave-like structure in the nitric oxide distribution and that at certain levels, transports of nitric oxide by planetary waves could significantly affect the mean nitric oxide distribution. The magnitude and direction of these transports at a given level was found to depend not only on the amplitude of the planetary wave, but also on the loss rate of nitric oxide at that level.

  6. Production and consumption of nitric oxide by three methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ren, T; Roy, R; Knowles, R

    2000-09-01

    We studied nitrogen oxide production and consumption by methanotrophs Methylobacter luteus (group I), Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (group II), and an isolate from a hardwood swamp soil, here identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Methylobacter sp. strain T20 (group I). All could consume nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), and produce small amounts of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Only Methylobacter strain T20 produced large amounts of NO (>250 parts per million by volume [ppmv] in the headspace) at specific activities of up to 2.0 x 10(-17) mol of NO cell(-1) day(-1), mostly after a culture became O(2) limited. Production of NO by strain T20 occurred mostly in nitrate-containing medium under anaerobic or nearly anaerobic conditions, was inhibited by chlorate, tungstate, and O(2), and required CH(4). Denitrification (methanol-supported N(2)O production from nitrate in the presence of acetylene) could not be detected and thus did not appear to be involved in the production of NO. Furthermore, cd(1) and Cu nitrite reductases, NO reductase, and N(2)O reductase could not be detected by PCR amplification of the nirS, nirK, norB, and nosZ genes, respectively. M. luteus and M. trichosporium produced some NO in ammonium-containing medium under aerobic conditions, likely as a result of methanotrophic nitrification and chemical decomposition of nitrite. For Methylobacter strain T20, arginine did not stimulate NO production under aerobiosis, suggesting that NO synthase was not involved. We conclude that strain T20 causes assimilatory reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which then decomposes chemically to NO. The production of NO by methanotrophs such as Methylobacter strain T20 could be of ecological significance in habitats near aerobic-anaerobic interfaces where fluctuating O(2) and nitrate availability occur.

  7. Production and Consumption of Nitric Oxide by Three Methanotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tie; Roy, Réal; Knowles, Roger

    2000-01-01

    We studied nitrogen oxide production and consumption by methanotrophs Methylobacter luteus (group I), Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (group II), and an isolate from a hardwood swamp soil, here identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Methylobacter sp. strain T20 (group I). All could consume nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), and produce small amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O). Only Methylobacter strain T20 produced large amounts of NO (>250 parts per million by volume [ppmv] in the headspace) at specific activities of up to 2.0 × 10−17 mol of NO cell−1 day−1, mostly after a culture became O2 limited. Production of NO by strain T20 occurred mostly in nitrate-containing medium under anaerobic or nearly anaerobic conditions, was inhibited by chlorate, tungstate, and O2, and required CH4. Denitrification (methanol-supported N2O production from nitrate in the presence of acetylene) could not be detected and thus did not appear to be involved in the production of NO. Furthermore, cd1 and Cu nitrite reductases, NO reductase, and N2O reductase could not be detected by PCR amplification of the nirS, nirK, norB, and nosZ genes, respectively. M. luteus and M. trichosporium produced some NO in ammonium-containing medium under aerobic conditions, likely as a result of methanotrophic nitrification and chemical decomposition of nitrite. For Methylobacter strain T20, arginine did not stimulate NO production under aerobiosis, suggesting that NO synthase was not involved. We conclude that strain T20 causes assimilatory reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which then decomposes chemically to NO. The production of NO by methanotrophs such as Methylobacter strain T20 could be of ecological significance in habitats near aerobic-anaerobic interfaces where fluctuating O2 and nitrate availability occur. PMID:10966405

  8. Pulmonary Nanoparticle Exposure Disrupts Systemic Microvascular Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Porter, Dale W.; Hubbs, Ann F.; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Castranova, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs is/are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of reactive species and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) after nanoparticle exposure, and determine the relative contribution of hemoproteins and oxidative enzymes in this process. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fine TiO2 (primary particle diameter ∼1 μm) and TiO2 nanoparticles (primary particle diameter ∼21 nm) via aerosol inhalation at depositions of 4–90 μg per rat. As in previous intravital experiments in the spinotrapezius muscle, dose-dependent arteriolar dilations were produced by intraluminal infusions of the calcium ionophore A23187. Nanoparticle exposure robustly attenuated these endothelium-dependent responses. However, this attenuation was not due to altered microvascular smooth muscle NO sensitivity because nanoparticle exposure did not alter arteriolar dilations in response to local sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. Nanoparticle exposure significantly increased microvascular oxidative stress by ∼60%, and also elevated nitrosative stress fourfold. These reactive stresses coincided with a decreased NO production in a particle deposition dose-dependent manner. Radical scavenging, or inhibition of either myeloperoxidase or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (reduced) oxidase partially restored NO production as well as normal microvascular function. These results indicate that in conjunction with microvascular dysfunction, nanoparticle exposure also decreases NO bioavailability through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms that may mutually increase local reactive species. PMID:19270016

  9. Nitric Oxide Improves Internal Iron Availability in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Magdalena; Beligni, María Verónica; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency impairs chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In leaves, most of the iron must cross several biological membranes to reach the chloroplast. The components involved in the complex internal iron transport are largely unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive free radical, can react with transition metals to form metal-nitrosyl complexes. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize (Zea mays) plants growing with an iron concentration as low as 10 μm Fe-EDTA in the nutrient solution. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, another NO donor, as well as gaseous NO supply in a translucent chamber were also able to revert the iron deficiency symptoms. A specific NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, blocked the effect of the NO donors. The effect of NO treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of iron-deficient plants was also studied. Electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize plants revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. In contrast, in NO-treated maize plants, mesophyll chloroplast appeared completely developed. NO treatment did not increase iron content in plant organs, when expressed in a fresh matter basis, suggesting that root iron uptake was not enhanced. NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and methylene blue promoted interveinal chlorosis in iron-replete maize plants (growing in 250 μm Fe-EDTA). Even though results support a role for endogenous NO in iron nutrition, experiments did not establish an essential role. NO was also able to revert the chlorotic phenotype of the iron-inefficient maize mutants yellow stripe1 and yellow stripe3, both impaired in the iron uptake mechanisms. All together, these results support a biological action of NO on the availability and/or delivery of metabolically active iron within the plant. PMID:12481068

  10. Nitric oxide alleviates wheat yield reduction by protecting photosynthetic system from oxidation of ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Caihong; Song, Yanjie; Guo, Liyue; Gu, Xian; Muminov, Mahmud A; Wang, Tianzuo

    2018-05-01

    Accelerated industrialization has been increasing releases of chemical precursors of ozone. Ozone concentration has risen nowadays, and it's predicted that this trend will continue in the next few decades. The yield of many ozone-sensitive crops suffers seriously from ozone pollution, and there are abundant reports exploring the damage mechanisms of ozone to these crops, such as winter wheat. However, little is known on how to alleviate these negative impacts to increase grain production under elevated ozone. Nitric oxide, as a bioactive gaseous, mediates a variety of physiological processes and plays a central role in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide in wheat leaves was found to increase in response to ozone. To study the functions of nitric oxide, its precursor sodium nitroprusside was spayed to wheat leaves under ozone pollution. Wheat leaves spayed with sodium nitroprusside accumulated less hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under ozone pollution, which can be accounted for by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase than in leaves treated without sodium nitroprusside. Consequently, net photosynthetic rate of wheat treated using sodium nitroprusside was much higher, and yield reduction was alleviated under ozone fumigation. These findings are important for our understanding of the potential roles of nitric oxide in responses of crops in general and wheat in particular to ozone pollution, and provide a viable method to mitigate the detrimental effects on crop production induced by ozone pollution, which is valuable for keeping food security worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric oxide donors for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anthony J; Munson, Christopher; Minden, Lucy

    2011-06-15

    Sometimes it is necessary to bring on labour artificially because of safety concerns for the mother or baby. This review is one of a series of reviews of methods of labour induction using a standardised protocol.Induction of labour occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies in the UK. The ideal agent for induction of labour would induce cervical ripening without causing uterine contractions. Currently most commonly used cervical ripening or induction agents result in uterine activity or contractions, or both. Cervical ripening without uterine contractility could occur safely in an outpatient setting and it may be expected that this would result in greater maternal satisfaction and lower costs. To determine the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour, in comparison with placebo or no treatment or other treatments from a predefined hierarchy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trial reports and reviews. Clinical trials comparing NO donors for cervical ripening or labour induction to other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. The trials include some form of random allocation to either group; and report one or more of the prestated outcomes. NO donors (isosorbide mononitrate, nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside) are compared to other methods listed above it on a predefined list of methods of labour induction. This review is part of a series of reviews focusing on methods of induction of labour. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We considered 19 trials; we included 10 (including a total of 1889 women) trials, excluded eight trials and one trial report is awaiting classification. Included studies compared NO donors to placebo, vaginal prostaglandin E2, intracervical PGE2 and vaginal misoprostol. All included studies

  12. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelle, Paul A.; Aneja, Viney P.

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3--N<256 mg N kg -1 dry weight, NH 3-N˜23,080 mg N kg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N˜41,700 mg N kg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9 ng N m -2 s -1. Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±1.7 ng N m -2 s -1. The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0 ng N m -2 s -1. An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space

  13. Nitric oxide-cytokinin interplay influences selenite sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lehotai, Nóra; Feigl, Gábor; Koós, Ágnes; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Pető, Andrea; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2016-10-01

    Selenite oppositely modifies cytokinin and nitric oxide metabolism in Arabidopsis organs. A mutually negative interplay between the molecules exists in selenite-exposed roots; and their overproduction causes selenite insensitivity. Selenium-induced phytotoxicity is accompanied by developmental alterations such as primary root (PR) shortening. Growth changes are provoked by the modulation of hormone status and signalling. Cytokinin (CK) cooperates with the nitric oxide (NO) in many aspects of plant development; however, their interaction under abiotic stress has not been examined. Selenite inhibited the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and reduced root meristem size through cell division arrest. The CK-dependent pARR5::GUS activity revealed the intensification of CK signalling in the PR tip, which may be partly responsible for the root meristem shortening. The selenite-induced alterations in the in situ expressions of cytokinin oxidases (AtCKX4::GUS, AtCKX5::GUS) are associated with selenite-triggered changes of CK signalling. In wild-type (WT) and NO-deficient nia1nia2 root, selenite led to the diminution of NO content, but CK overproducer ipt-161 and -deficient 35S:CKX2 roots did not show NO decrease. Exogenous NO (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, SNAP) reduced the pARR5::GFP and pTCS::GFP expressions. Roots of the 35S:CKX and cyr1 plants suffered more severe selenite-triggered viability loss than the WT, while in ipt-161 and gsnor1-3 no obvious viability decrease was observed. Exogenous NO ameliorated viability loss, but benzyladenine intensified it. Based on the results, selenite impacts development by oppositely modifying CK signalling and NO level. In the root system, CK signalling intensifies which possibly contributes to the nitrate reductase-independent NO diminution. A mutually negative CK-NO interplay exists in selenite-exposed roots; however, overproduction of both molecules worsens selenite sensing. Hereby, we suggest novel regulatory interplay and

  14. Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2003-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

  15. Pharmacology and potential therapeutic applications of nitric oxide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and related nitric oxide-donating drugs

    PubMed Central

    Keeble, J E; Moore, P K

    2002-01-01

    This review examines the biological significance, therapeutic potential and mechanism(s) of action of a range of nitric oxide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAID) and related nitric oxide-releasing donating drugs (NODD). The slow release of nitric oxide (NO) from these compounds leads to subtle changes in the profile of pharmacological activity of the parent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). For example, compared with NSAID, NO-NSAID cause markedly diminished gastrointestinal toxicity and improved anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive efficacy. In addition, nitroparacetamol exhibits hepatoprotection as opposed to the hepatotoxic activity of paracetamol. The possibility that NO-NSAID or NODD may be of therapeutic benefit in a wide variety of disease states including pain and inflammation, thrombosis and restenosis, neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, colitis, cancer, urinary incontinence, liver disease, impotence, bronchial asthma and osteoporosis is discussed. PMID:12237248

  16. Nitric oxide enhances development of lateral roots in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Xiao, Wendan; Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Chongwei; Chai, Rushan; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2013-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO₂) has been shown to enhance the growth and development of plants, especially of roots. Amongst them, lateral roots play an important role in nutrient uptake, and thus alleviate the nutrient limitation to plant growth under elevated CO₂. This paper examined the mechanism underlying CO₂ elevation-induced lateral root formation in tomato. The endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in roots was detected by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA). We suggest that CO₂ elevation-induced NO accumulation was important for lateral root formation. Elevated CO₂ significantly increased the activity of nitric oxide synthase in roots, but not nitrate reductase activity. Moreover, the pharmacological evidence showed that nitric oxide synthase rather than nitrate reductase was responsible for CO₂ elevation-induced NO accumulation. Elevated CO₂ enhanced the activity of nitric oxide synthase and promoted production of NO, which was involved in lateral root formation in tomato under elevated CO₂.

  17. Coupling Between the Thermosphere and the Stratosphere: the Role of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, G.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand the lower ionosphere and its probable control by dynamical processes, the behavior of nitric oxide below 100 km was investigated. A two dimensional model with coupled chemical and dynamical processes was constructed. Calculations based on the model reveal that the chemical conditions at the stratopause are related to the state of the thermosphere. This coupling mechanism can be partly explained by the downward transport of nitric oxide during the winter season, and consequently depends on the dynamical conditions in the mesosphere and in the lower thermosphere (mean circulation and waves). In summer, the photodissociation of nitric oxide plays an important role and the thermospheric NO abundance modulates the radiation field reaching the upper stratosphere. Perturbations in the nitric oxide concentration above the mesopause could therefore have an impact in the vicinity of the stratopause.

  18. Nitric oxide releasing plasma polymer coating with bacteriostatic properties and no cytotoxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Michl, Thomas D; Coad, Bryan R; Doran, Michael; Osiecki, Michael; Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Hüsler, Amanda; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-04-25

    We report a stable plasma polymer coating, using isopentyl nitrite as a volatile precursor, which releases nitric oxide at bacteriostatic concentrations when contacted with water, inhibiting bacterial growth without cytotoxic side effects to human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

  19. Nitric oxide mediates insect cellular immunity via phospholipase A2 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Se...

  20. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with μ-Opioid Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the μ-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the μ-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on μ-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 μM), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent μ-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 μM). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

  1. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with μ-Opioid Agonist Activity.

    PubMed

    Renton, Paul; Green, Brenda; Maddaford, Shawn; Rakhit, Suman; Andrews, John S

    2012-03-08

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the μ-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the μ-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on μ-opioid receptor function. Structure-activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 μM), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent μ-opioid binding affinity, K i = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 μM). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain.

  2. Nitric Oxide Mediates Glutamate-Linked Enhancement of cGMP Levels in the Cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredt, David S.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1989-11-01

    Nitric oxide, which mediates influences of numerous neurotransmitters and modulators on vascular smooth muscle and leukocytes, can be formed in the brain from arginine by an enzymatic activity that stoichiometrically generates citrulline. We show that glutamate and related amino acids, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate, markedly stimulate arginine-citrulline transformation in cerebellar slices stoichiometrically with enhancement of cGMP levels. Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine blocks the augmentation both of citrulline and cGMP with identical potencies. Arginine competitively reverses both effects of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine with the same potencies. Hemoglobin, which complexes nitric oxide, prevents the stimulation by N-methyl-D-aspartate of cGMP levels, and superoxide dismutase, which elevates nitric oxide levels, increases cGMP formation. These data establish that nitric oxide mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cGMP formation.

  3. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... problems with long-term lung health, brain development, and brain function. Nitric oxide is a chemical... and brain development and function. Since its approval, researchers have examined expanding the use of...

  4. EXAMINING THE TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the temporal variability of airborne emissions of ammonia from livestock operations and fertilizer application and nitric oxide from soils. In the United States, the livestock operations and fertilizer categories comprise the majority of the ammonia emissions...

  5. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Pulmonary Disorders of the Term and Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Gregory M.; Konduri, G. Ganesh; Van Meurs, Krisa P.

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century began with the FDA approval of inhaled nitric oxide therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension in recognition of the two randomized clinical trials demostrating a significant reduction in the need for extracorporeal support in the term and near-term infant. Inhaled nitric oxide is one of only a few therapeutic agents approved for use through clinical investigations primarily in the neonate. This article provides an overview of the pertinent biology and chemistry of nitric oxide, discusses potential toxicities, and reviews the results of pertinent clinical investigations and large randomized clinical trials including neurodevelopmental follow-up in term and preterm neonates. The clinical investigations conducted by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research Network will be discussed and placed in context with other pertinent clinical investigations exploring the efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide therapy in neonatal hypoxic respiratory failure. PMID:27480246

  6. Thermospheric Nitric Oxide Response to Shock-led Storms

    PubMed Central

    Knipp, D. J.; Pette, D. V.; Kilcommons, L. M.; Isaacs, T. L.; Cruz, A. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Lin, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-year superposed epoch study of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry nitric oxide (NO) emission data. NO is a trace constituent in the thermosphere that acts as cooling agent via infrared (IR) emissions. The NO cooling competes with storm time thermospheric heating resulting in a thermostat effect. Our study of nearly 200 events reveals that shock-led interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are prone to early and excessive thermospheric NO production and IR emissions. Excess NO emissions can arrest thermospheric expansion by cooling the thermosphere during intense storms. The strongest events curtail the interval of neutral density increase and produce a phenomenon known as thermospheric ‘overcooling’. We use Defense Meteorological Satellite Program particle precipitation data to show that interplanetary shocks and their ICME drivers can more than double the fluxes of precipitating particles that are known to trigger the production of thermospheric NO. Coincident increases in Joule heating likely amplify the effect. In turn, NO emissions more than double. We discuss the roles and features of shock/sheath structures that allow the thermosphere to temper the effects of extreme storm time energy input and explore the implication these structures may have on mesospheric NO. Shock-driven thermospheric NO IR cooling likely plays an important role in satellite drag forecasting challenges during extreme events. PMID:28824340

  7. Nitric oxide in red blood cell adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yajin; Wang, Xiang; Noviana, Milody; Hou, Man

    2018-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) appears to be involved in virtually every aspect of cardiovascular biology. Most attention has been focused on the role of endothelial-derived NO in basal blood flow regulation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle; however, it is now known that NO derived from red blood cells (RBCs) plays a fundamental role in vascular homeostasis by enhancing oxygen (O2) release at the cellular and physiological level. Hypoxia is an often seen problem in diverse conditions; systemic adaptations to hypoxia permit people to adjust to the hypoxic environment at high altitudes and to disease processes. In addition to the cardiopulmonary and hematologic adaptations that support systemic O2 delivery in hypoxia, RBCs assist through newly described NO-based mechanisms, in line with their vital role in O2 transport and delivery. Furthermore, to increase the local blood flow in proportion to metabolic demand, NO regulates membrane mechanical properties thereby modulating RBC deformability and O2 carrying-releasing function. In this review article, we focus on the effect of NO bioactivity on RBC-based mechanisms that regulate blood flow and RBC deformability. RBC adaptations to hypoxia are summarized, with particular attention to NO-dependent S-nitrosylation of membrane proteins and hemoglobin (S-nitrosohemoglobin). The NO/S-nitrosylation/RBC vasoregulatory cascade contributes fundamentally to the molecular understanding of the role of NO in human adaptation to hypoxia and may inform novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Direct scavenging of nitric oxide and superoxide by green tea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Yokozawa, T

    2002-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects of green tea extract and green tea tannin mixture and its components using a nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) generating system in vitro. Green tea extract showed direct scavenging activity against NO and O(2)(-) and green tea tannin mixture, at the same concentration, showed high scavenging activity. Comparison of the activities of seven pure compounds isolated from green tea tannin mixture showed that (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg) and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg) had higher scavenging activities than (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C), showing the importance of the structure of flavan-3-ol linked to gallic acid for this activity. Among the gallate-free tannins, EGC and GC were more effective O(2)(-) scavengers than EC and C, indicating the O-trihydroxy structure in the B ring is an important determinant of such activity. However, this structure did not affect the NO scavenging activity. These findings confirm that green tea tannin has excellent antioxidant properties, which may be involved in the beneficial effect of this compound.

  9. Quantum Cascade Lasers-Based Detection of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Mandon, Julien; Harren, Frans J M; Mur, Luis A J; Cristescu, Simona M; Prats, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Despite the established importance of nitric oxide (NO) in many physiological and molecular processes in plants, most methods for quantifying NO are open to criticism This reflects the differing methods either lacking specificity or sensitivity, or even from an undue dependence of results on experimental conditions (i.e., chemical concentrations, pH, etc.). In this chapter we describe a protocol to measure gaseous NO produced by a biological sample using quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based spectroscopy. This technique is based on absorption of the laser light by the NO molecules which have been passed from a biological sample into an optical s cell that is equipped with two mirrors placed at both ends. This design greatly increases the interaction path length with the NO molecules due to multiple reflections of the light coupled inside the cell. Thus, the method is able to provide online, in planta measurements of the dynamics of NO production, being highly selective and sensitive (down to ppbv levels;1 ppbv = part per billion by volume mixing ratio = 1:10 -9 ).

  10. Nitric Oxide (NO) Measurements in Stomatal Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Agurla, Srinivas; Gayatri, Gunja; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells acquired great importance, in view of the multifaceted function and involvement of NO as a signal in various plant processes. Monitoring of NO in guard cells is quite simple because of the large size of guard cells and ease of observing the detached epidermis under microscope. Stomatal guard cells therefore provide an excellent model system to study the components of signal transduction. The levels and functions of NO in relation to stomatal closure can be monitored, with the help of an inverted fluorescence or confocal microscope. We can measure the NO in guard cells by using flouroprobes like 4,5-diamino fluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA). This fluorescent dye, DAF-2DA, is cell permeable and after entry into the cell, the diacetate group is removed by the cellular esterases. The resulting DAF-2 form is membrane impermeable and reacts with NO to generate the highly fluorescent triazole (DAF-2T), with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 530 nm, respectively. If time-course measurements are needed, the epidermis can be adhered to a cover-glass or glass slide and left in a small petri dishes. Fluorescence can then be monitored at required time intervals; with a precaution that excitation is done minimally, only when a fluorescent image is acquired. The present method description is for the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum and should work with most of the other dicotyledonous plants.

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide in paediatric asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, J O; Nordvall, S L; Weitzberg, E; Kollberg, H; Alving, K

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled air of humans. This NO is mostly produced in the upper airways, whereas basal NO excretion in the lower airways is low. Children with Kartagener's syndrome have an almost total lack of NO in nasally derived air, whereas adult asthmatics have increased NO in orally exhaled air. NO excretion was measured in the nasal cavity and in orally exhaled air in 19 healthy children, in 36 age matched subjects with asthma, and in eight children with cystic fibrosis. NO levels in orally exhaled air were similar in controls and in children with cystic fibrosis, at 4.8 (SD 1.2) v 5.8 (0.8) parts per billion (ppb), but were increased in asthmatic children who were untreated or were being treated only with low doses of inhaled steroids (13.8 (2.5) ppb). Nasal NO levels were reduced by about 70% in children with cystic fibrosis compared to controls and asthmatics. Measurements of airway NO release in different parts of the airways may be useful in non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:8984919

  12. Nitric oxide pathology and therapeutics in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Gladwin, Mark T

    2018-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutant form of hemoglobin that polymerizes under hypoxic conditions which leads to red blood cell (RBC) distortion, calcium-influx mediated RBC dehydration, increased RBC adhesivity, reduced RBC deformability, increased RBC fragility, and hemolysis. These impairments in RBC structure and function result in multifaceted downstream pathology including inflammation, endothelial cell activation, platelet and leukocyte activation and adhesion, and thrombosis, all of which contribute vascular occlusion and substantial morbidity and mortality. Hemoglobin released upon RBC hemolysis scavenges nitric oxide (NO) and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby decreases bioavailability of this important signaling molecule. As the endothelium-derived relaxing factor, NO acts as a vasodilator and also decreases platelet, leukocyte, and endothelial cell activation. Thus, low NO bioavailability contributes to pathology in sickle cell disease and its restoration could serve as an effective treatment. Despite its promise, clinical trials based on restoring NO bioavailability have so far been mainly disappointing. However, particular "NO donating" agents such as nitrite, which unlike some other NO donors can improve sickle RBC properties, may yet prove effective.

  13. Role of nitric oxide in regulating stomatal apertures

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Dimas M; Bright, Jo; Confraria, Ana; Harrison, Judith; Barros, Raimundo S; Desikan, Radhika; Neill, Steven J; Hancock, John T

    2009-01-01

    During stomatal closure, nitric oxide (NO) operates as one of the key intermediates in the complex, abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, guard cell signaling network that regulates this process. However, data concerning the role of NO in stomatal closure that occurs in turgid vs. dehydrated plants is limited. The data presented demonstrate that, while there is a requirement for NO during the ABA-induced stomatal closure of turgid leaves, such a requirement does not exist for ABA-enhanced stomatal closure observed to occur during conditions of rapid dehydration. The data also indicate that the ABA signaling pathway must be both functional and to some degree activated for guard cell NO signaling to occur. These observations are in line with the idea that the effects of NO in guard cells are mediated via a Ca2+-dependent rather than a Ca2+-independent ABA signaling pathway. It appears that there is a role for NO in the fine tuning of the stomatal apertures of turgid leaves that occurs in response to fluctuations in the prevailing environment. PMID:19816112

  14. Nitric oxide-releasing antibacterial albumin plastic for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander; Pant, Jitendra; Lee, Eliza; Goudie, Marcus J; Gruzd, Alexey; Mansfield, Joel; Mandal, Abhyuday; Sharma, Suraj; Handa, Hitesh

    2018-06-01

    Designing innovative materials for biomedical applications is desired to prevent surface fouling and risk of associated infections arising in the surgical care patient. In the present study, albumin plastic was fabricated and nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), was incorporated through a solvent swelling process. The albumin-SNAP plastic was evaluated in terms of mechanical and thermal properties, and bacterial adhesion to the plastic surface. Thermal and viscoelastic analyses showed no significant difference between albumin-SNAP plastics and pure, water-plasticized albumin samples. Bacteria adhesion tests revealed that albumin-SNAP plastic can significantly reduce the surface-bound viable gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells by 98.7 and 98.5%, respectively, when compared with the traditional polyvinyl chloride medical grade tubing material. The results from this study demonstrate NO-releasing albumin plastic's potential as a material for biomedical device applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1535-1542, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intracellular formation of "undisruptable" dimers of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejski, Pawel J; Rashid, Mohammad B; Eissa, N Tony

    2003-11-25

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. iNOS is active only as a homodimer. Dimerization of iNOS represents a potentially critical target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we show that intracellular iNOS forms dimers that are "undisruptable" by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents. Undisruptable (UD) dimers are clearly distinguishable from the easily dissociated dimers formed by iNOS in vitro. UD dimers do not form in Escherichia coli-expressed iNOS and could not be assembled in vitro, which suggests that an in vivo cellular process is required for their formation. iNOS UD dimers are not affected by intracellular depletion of H4B. However, the mutation of Cys-115 (critical for zinc binding) greatly affects the formation of UD dimers. This study reveals insight into the mechanisms of in vivo iNOS dimer formation. UD dimers represent a class of iNOS dimers that had not been suspected. This unanticipated finding revises our understanding of the mechanisms of iNOS dimerization and lays the groundwork for future studies aimed at modulating iNOS activity in vivo.

  16. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Variation of nitric oxide concentration before the Kobe earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Ikeya, Motoji

    The variation and spatial distribution of the atmospheric concentration of nitric oxide (NO) near the epicenter of the Kobe earthquake at local time 5:46, 17 January 1995 have been studied using data at monitoring stations of the local environmental protection agencies. The concentration of NO 8 days before the earthquake was 199 ppb, about ten times larger than the average peak level of 19 ppb, accompanying the retrospectively reported precursory earthquake lightning, increase of radon concentration in well water and of the counts of electromagnetic (EM) signals. The reported thunderstorm over the Japan Sea about 150 km away was too far for the thunder-generated NO to reach the epicenter area. The concentration of NO was also found to have increased before other major earthquakes (Magnitude>5.0) in Japan. Atmospheric discharges by electric charges or EM waves before earthquakes may have generated NO. However, the generation of NO by human activities of fuel combustion soon after holidays is enormously high every year, which makes it difficult to clearly link the increase with the earthquakes. The increase soon after the earthquake due to traffic jams is clear. The concentration of NO should be monitored at a several sites away from human activities as background data of natural variation and to study its generation at a seismic area before a large earthquake.

  18. Nitric oxide: a multitasked signaling gas in plants.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patricia; Prado, Ana Margarida; Wong, Aloysius; Gehring, Christoph; Feijo, Jose A

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has evolved as a signaling hormone in many physiological processes in animals. In plants it has been demonstrated to be a crucial regulator of development, acting as a signaling molecule present at each step of the plant life cycle. NO has also been implicated as a signal in biotic and abiotic responses of plants to the environment. Remarkably, despite this plethora of effects and functional relationships, the fundamental knowledge of NO production, sensing, and transduction in plants remains largely unknown or inadequately characterized. In this review we cover the current understanding of NO production, perception, and action in different physiological scenarios. We especially address the issues of enzymatic and chemical generation of NO in plants, NO sensing and downstream signaling, namely the putative cGMP and Ca(2+) pathways, ion-channel activity modulation, gene expression regulation, and the interface with other ROS, which can have a profound effect on both NO accumulation and function. We also focus on the importance of NO in cell-cell communication during developmental processes and sexual reproduction, namely in pollen tube guidance and embryo sac fertilization, pathogen defense, and responses to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides as Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary amine-functionalized chitosan oligosaccharides of different molecular weights (i.e., ~2500, 5000, 10000) were synthesized by grafting 2-methyl aziridine from the primary amines on chitosan oligosaccharides, followed by reaction with nitric oxide (NO) gas under basic conditions to yield N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The total NO storage, maximum NO flux, and half-life of the resulting NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides were controlled by the molar ratio of 2-methyl aziridine to primary amines (e.g., 1:1, 2:1) and the functional group surrounding the N-diazeniumdiolates (e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains), respectively. The secondary amine-modified chitosan oligosaccharides greatly increased the NO payload over existing biodegradable macromolecular NO donors. In addition, the water-solubility of the chitosan oligosaccharides enabled their penetration across the extracellular polysaccharides matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and association with embedded bacteria. The effectiveness of these chitosan oligosaccharides at biofilm eradication was shown to depend on both the molecular weight and ionic characteristics. Low molecular weight and cationic chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited rapid association with bacteria throughout the entire biofilm, leading to enhanced biofilm killing. At concentrations resulting in 5-log killing of bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, the NO-releasing and control chitosan oligosaccharides elicited no significant cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L929 cells in vitro. PMID:24268196

  20. REGULATION OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE BY NITRIC OXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sansbury, Brian E.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has quickly become a world-wide pandemic with few tangible and safe treatment options. While it is generally accepted that the primary cause of obesity is energy imbalance, i.e., the calories consumed are greater than are utilized, understanding how caloric balance is regulated has proven a challenge. Many “distal” causes of obesity, such as the structural environment, occupation, and social influences, are exceedingly difficult to change or manipulate. Hence, molecular processes and pathways more proximal to the origins of obesity—those that directly regulate energy metabolism or caloric intake—appear to be more feasible targets for therapy. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a central regulator of energy metabolism and body composition. NO bioavailability is decreased in animal models of diet-induced obesity and in obese and insulin resistant patients, and increasing NO output has remarkable effects on obesity and insulin resistance. This review discusses the role of NO in regulating adiposity and insulin sensitivity and places its modes of action into context with the known causes and consequences of metabolic disease. PMID:24878261

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of nitric oxide in myoglobin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Meuwly, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ligand migration of photodissociated nitric oxide (NO) in and around the active sites in myoglobin (Mb) are investigated. A distributed multipolar model for open-shell systems is developed and used, which allows one to realistically describe the charge distribution around the diatomic probe molecule. The IR spectra were computed from the trajectories for two conformational substates at various temperatures. The lines are narrow (width of 3–7 cm–1 at 20–100 K), in agreement with the experimental observations where they have widths of 4–5 cm–1 at 4 K. It is found that within one conformational substate (B or C) the splitting of the spectrum can be correctly described compared with recent experiments. Similar to photodissociated CO in Mb, additional substates exist for NO in Mb, which are separated by barriers below 1 kcal/mol. Contrary to full quantum mechanical calculations, however, the force field and mixed QM/MM simulations do not correctly describe the relative shifts between the B- and C-states relative to gas-phase NO. Free energy simulations establish that NO preferably localizes in the distal site and the barrier for migration to the neighboring Xe4 pocket is ΔGB→C = 1.7–2.0 kcal/mol. The reverse barrier is ΔGB←C = 0.7 kcal/mol, which agrees well with the experimental value of 0.7 kcal/mol, estimated from kinetic data.

  2. Nitric Oxide-Dependent Posttranslational Modification in Plants: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Astier, Jeremy; Lindermayr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an essential regulator of several physiological processes in plants. The understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying its critical role constitutes a major field of research. NO can exert its biological function through different ways, such as the modulation of gene expression, the mobilization of second messengers, or interplays with protein kinases. Besides this signaling events, NO can be responsible of the posttranslational modifications (PTM) of target proteins. Several modifications have been identified so far, whereas metal nitrosylation, the tyrosine nitration and the S-nitrosylation can be considered as the main ones. Recent data demonstrate that these PTM are involved in the control of a wide range of physiological processes in plants, such as the plant immune system. However, a great deal of effort is still necessary to pinpoint the role of each PTM in plant physiology. Taken together, these new advances in proteomic research provide a better comprehension of the role of NO in plant signaling. PMID:23203119

  3. Circular dichroism in photoelectron images from aligned nitric oxide molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Ananya; Pratt, S. T.; Reid, K. L.

    2017-05-03

    We have used velocity map photoelectron imaging to study circular dichroism of the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of nitric oxide following two-color resonanceenhanced two-photon ionization via selected rotational levels of the A 2Σ +, v' = 0 state. By using a circularly polarized pump beam and a counter-propagating, circularly polarized probe beam, cylindrical symmetry is preserved in the ionization process, and the images can be reconstructed using standard algorithms. The VMI set up enables individual ion rotational states to be resolved with excellent collection efficiency, rendering the measurements considerably simpler to perform than previous measurements conducted with a conventional photoelectronmore » spectrometer. The results demonstrate that circular dichroism is observed even when cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and serve as a reminder that dichroism is a general feature of the multiphoton ionization of atoms and molecules. Furthermore, the observed PADs are in good agreement with calculations based on parameters extracted from previous experimental results obtained by using a time-offlight electron spectrometer.« less

  4. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y.; Salmond, Robert J.; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y.

    2014-01-01

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4+ T cells. NO de-represses the tumor suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGFβR and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2−/− mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared to wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells. PMID:25099390

  5. Nitric oxide enhances Th9 cell differentiation and airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Gaelle; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sonego, Fabiane; Yip, Edwin; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Fukada, Sandra Y; Salmond, Robert J; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias; Ryffel, Bernhard; Liew, Foo Y

    2014-08-07

    Th9 cells protect hosts against helminthic infection but also mediate allergic disease. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) promotes Th9 cell polarization of murine and human CD4(+) T cells. NO de-represses the tumour suppressor gene p53 via nitrosylation of Mdm2. NO also increases p53-mediated IL-2 production, STAT5 phosphorylation and IRF4 expression, all essential for Th9 polarization. NO also increases the expression of TGFβR and IL-4R, pivotal to Th9 polarization. OVA-sensitized mice treated with an NO donor developed more severe airway inflammation. Transferred Th9 cells induced airway inflammation, which was exacerbated by NO and blocked by anti-IL-9 antibody. Nos2(-/-) mice had less Th9 cells and developed attenuated eosinophilia during OVA-induced airway inflammation compared with wild-type mice. Our data demonstrate that NO is an important endogenous inducer of Th9 cells and provide a hitherto unrecognized mechanism for NO-mediated airway inflammation via the expansion of Th9 cells.

  6. Cortical actin nanodynamics determines nitric oxide release in vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Fels, Johannes; Jeggle, Pia; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Oberleithner, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The release of the main vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a hallmark of endothelial function. We aim at elucidating the underlying mechanism how eNOS activity depends on cortical stiffness (К(cortex)) of living endothelial cells. It is hypothesized that cortical actin dynamics determines К(cortex) and directly influences eNOS activity. By combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence imaging we generated mechanical and optical sections of single living cells. This approach allows the discrimination between К(cortex) and bulk cell stiffness (К(bulk)) and, additionally, the simultaneous analysis of submembranous actin web dynamics. We show that К(cortex) softens when cortical F-actin depolymerizes and that this shift from a gel-like stiff cortex to a soft G-actin rich layer, triggers the stiffness-sensitive eNOS activity. The results implicate that stiffness changes in the ∼100 nm phase of the submembranous actin web, without affecting К(bulk), regulate NO release and thus determines endothelial function.

  7. Statins and nitric oxide donors affect thrombospondin 1-induced chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Keri; Stein, Jeffrey; Han, Xuan; Maier, Kristopher G; Gahtan, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and intimal hyperplasia. Statins and nitric oxide (NO) donors decrease intimal hyperplasia. We previously showed that statins (long-term exposure) and NO donors inhibit TSP-1-induced VSMC chemotaxis. (1) Pretreatment with short-term statin will inhibit TSP-1-induced VSMC chemotaxis and (2) NO donors will enhance statin inhibition of TSP-1-induced or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC chemotaxis. We examined these treatment effects on TSP-1-induced VSMC chemotaxis: (1) long-term (20 hours) versus short-term (20 minutes) pravastatin, (2) diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO) or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in combination with pravastatin, and (3) comparison of TSP-1 to PDGF as a chemoattractant. Pravastatin (long term or short term) inhibited TSP-1-induced chemotaxis. Diethylenetriamine NONOate and SNAP impeded statin inhibition of TSP-1-induced chemotaxis. Platelet-derived growth factor and TSP-1 had opposite effects on DETA/NO-pravastatin treatment. Short-term statin pretreatment inhibited TSP-1-induced VSMC chemotaxis, suggesting a pleiotropic effect. High-dose NO reversed statin inhibition of TSP-1-induced chemotaxis, suggesting NO and statin combination therapies warrant further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Low nitric oxide: a key factor underlying copper deficiency teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Keen, Carl L.; Lanoue, Louise; Rucker, Robert B.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) deficiency-induced teratogenicity is characterized by major cardiac, brain and vascular anomalies, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cu deficiency decreases superoxide dismutase activity, and increases superoxide anions which can interact with nitric oxide (NO), reducing the NO pool size. Given the role of NO as a developmental signaling molecule, we tested the hypothesis that low NO levels, secondary to Cu deficiency, represent a developmental challenge. Gestation day 8.5 embryos from Cu adequate (Cu+) or Cu deficient (Cu−) dams were cultured for 48 h in Cu+ or Cu− medium, respectively. We report that NO levels were low in conditioned media from Cu−/Cu− embryos and yolk sacs, compared to Cu+/Cu+ controls under basal conditions, and with NO synthase (NOS) agonists. The low NO production was associated with low endothelial NOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 and cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations in the Cu−/Cu− group. The altered NO levels in Cu deficient embryos are functionally significant, as the administration of the NO donor, DETA/NONOate, increased cGMP and ameliorated embryo and yolk sac abnormalities. These data support the concept that Cu deficiency limits NO availability and alters NO-dependent signaling which contributes to abnormal embryo and yolk sac development. PMID:18037129

  9. Nitric oxide signaling: classical, less classical, and nonclassical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2011-07-01

    Although nitric oxide (NO) was identified more than 150 years ago and its effects were clinically tested in the form of nitroglycerine, it was not until the decades of 1970-1990 that it was described as a gaseous signal transducer. Since then, a canonical pathway linked to cyclic GMP (cGMP) as its quintessential effector has been established, but other modes of action have emerged and are now part of the common body of knowledge within the field. Classical (or canonical) signaling involves the selective activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, the generation of cGMP, and the activation of specific kinases (cGMP-dependent protein kinases) by this cyclic nucleotide. Nonclassical signaling alludes to the formation of NO-induced posttranslational modifications (PTMs), especially S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and tyrosine nitration. These PTMs are governed by specific biochemical mechanisms as well as by enzymatic systems. In addition, a less classical but equally important pathway is related to the interaction between NO and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which might have important implications for cell respiration and intermediary metabolism. Cross talk trespassing these necessarily artificial conceptual boundaries is progressively being identified and hence an integrated systems biology approach to the comprehension of NO function will probably emerge in the near future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circular dichroism in photoelectron images from aligned nitric oxide molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ananya; Pratt, S. T.; Reid, K. L.

    We have used velocity map photoelectron imaging to study circular dichroism of the photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of nitric oxide following two-color resonanceenhanced two-photon ionization via selected rotational levels of the A 2Σ +, v' = 0 state. By using a circularly polarized pump beam and a counter-propagating, circularly polarized probe beam, cylindrical symmetry is preserved in the ionization process, and the images can be reconstructed using standard algorithms. The VMI set up enables individual ion rotational states to be resolved with excellent collection efficiency, rendering the measurements considerably simpler to perform than previous measurements conducted with a conventional photoelectronmore » spectrometer. The results demonstrate that circular dichroism is observed even when cylindrical symmetry is maintained, and serve as a reminder that dichroism is a general feature of the multiphoton ionization of atoms and molecules. Furthermore, the observed PADs are in good agreement with calculations based on parameters extracted from previous experimental results obtained by using a time-offlight electron spectrometer.« less

  11. Rectal nitric oxide and fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Claudia A; Jonkers, Daisy; Janson, Emmellie A; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Hellström, Per M; Lundberg, Jon O

    2007-10-01

    The assessment of intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains a difficult challenge. Both rectal nitric oxide (NO) and fecal calprotectin can be measured using non-invasive methods and are emerging as promising inflammatory markers in IBD. In this study the aim was to compare calprotectin and NO levels in IBD patients. Rectal NO was measured tonometrically in 23 healthy volunteers and 32 patients with IBD. In addition, we collected stool samples from all subjects for measurement of fecal calprotectin and nitrate/nitrite (NO metabolites). Patients with IBD had greatly increased NO and calprotectin levels compared to healthy volunteers (p <0.001). In addition, the nitrate levels were slightly increased in IBD patients. A weak correlation was found between rectal NO levels, disease activity and number of loose stools in IBD patients (Spearman's rho 0.37 and 0.51, respectively; p <0.05). Fecal calprotectin correlated only with age (Spearman's rho 0.51; p <0.01). However, no correlation was found between NO and calprotectin. Both rectal NO and fecal calprotectin are greatly increased during bowel inflammation, but they may reflect different parts of the inflammatory process. Future studies will elucidate the clinical usefulness of these two markers.

  12. Nitric oxide cycle in mammals and the cyclicity principle.

    PubMed

    Reutov, V P

    2002-03-01

    This paper continues a series of reports considering nitric oxide (NO) and its cyclic conversions in mammals. Numerous facts are summarized with the goal of developing a general concept that would allow the statement of the multiple effects of NO on various systems of living organisms in the form of a short and comprehensive law. The current state of biological aspects of NO research is analyzed in term of elucidation of possible role of these studies in the system of biological sciences. The general concept is based on a notion on cyclic conversions of NO and its metabolites. NO cycles in living organisms and nitrogen turnover in the biosphere and also the Bethe nitrogen-carbon cycle in star matter are considered. A hypothesis that the cyclic organization of processes in living organisms and the biosphere reflects the evolution of life is proposed: the development of physiological functions and metabolism are suggested to be closely related to space and evolution of the Earth as a planet of the Solar System.

  13. Sodium nitrite: the "cure" for nitric oxide insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Bryan, Nathan S

    2012-11-01

    This process of "curing" food is a long practice that dates back thousands of years long before refrigeration or food safety regulations. Today food safety and mass manufacturing are dependent upon safe and effective means to cure and preserve foods including meats. Nitrite remains the most effective curing agent to prevent food spoilage and bacterial contamination. Despite decades of rigorous research on its safety and efficacy as a curing agent, it is still regarded by many as a toxic undesirable food additive. However, research within the biomedical science community has revealed enormous therapeutic benefits of nitrite that is currently being developed as novel therapies for conditions associated with nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency. Much of the same biochemistry that has been understood for decades in the meat industry has been rediscovered in human physiology. This review will highlight the fundamental biochemistry of nitrite in human physiology and highlight the risk benefit evaluation surrounding nitrite in food and meat products. Foods or diets enriched with nitrite can have profound positive health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitric oxide production by hemocytes of the ascidian Styela plicata.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; de Carvalho, Danielle Ronald; Andrade, Leonardo R; Pavão, Mauro Sérgio G; Allodi, Silvana

    2009-10-01

    Ascidian hemolymph contains various types of blood cells (hemocytes), which are believed to be involved in defense mechanisms. We have studied nitric-oxide (NO) synthase activity in hemocytes of the ascidian Styela plicata after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate which cell types are involved in NO production, we first identified, by electron microscopy, the types of hemocytes previously described, mainly by light microscopy, by others. Five types of blood cells could be recognized in the hemolymph: granulocytes, hemoblasts, lymphocyte-like cells, morula cells, and pigment cells. The lymphocyte-like cells produced the most NO. In agreement with studies of other invertebrates, nitrite generation did not change after LPS stimulation in assays in vitro, under either different concentrations of LPS or different time periods. Therefore, we performed an in vivo assay by injecting a known quantity of Escherichia coli into the tunic of the ascidians in order to investigate possible differences in NO levels. No increase of NO occurred accompanying the inflammatory reaction suggesting that another molecule in the pathway was involved. We found that nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) was activated. Since NFkappaB is involved in the production of many substances related to immune responses, additional molecules might also be generated in response to E. coli infection. These observations may improve our understanding of the reaction of animals to eutrophic conditions.

  15. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-09-23

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O₂ at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity.

  16. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial. Here wemore » present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Lastly, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.« less

  17. Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors, and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species, and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)═NO(-)], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates.

  18. Nitric Oxide Regulates Protein Methylation during Stress Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiliang; Yang, Huanjie; Mu, Jinye; Lu, Tiancong; Peng, Juli; Deng, Xian; Kong, Zhaosheng; Bao, Shilai; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zuo, Jianru

    2017-08-17

    Methylation and nitric oxide (NO)-based S-nitrosylation are highly conserved protein posttranslational modifications that regulate diverse biological processes. In higher eukaryotes, PRMT5 catalyzes Arg symmetric dimethylation, including key components of the spliceosome. The Arabidopsis prmt5 mutant shows severe developmental defects and impaired stress responses. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the PRMT5 activity. Here, we report that NO positively regulates the PRMT5 activity through S-nitrosylation at Cys-125 during stress responses. In prmt5-1 plants, a PRMT5 C125S transgene, carrying a non-nitrosylatable mutation at Cys-125, fully rescues the developmental defects, but not the stress hypersensitive phenotype and the responsiveness to NO during stress responses. Moreover, the salt-induced Arg symmetric dimethylation is abolished in PRMT5 C125S /prmt5-1 plants, correlated to aberrant splicing of pre-mRNA derived from a stress-related gene. These findings define a mechanism by which plants transduce stress-triggered NO signal to protein methylation machinery through S-nitrosylation of PRMT5 in response to environmental alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis modulates rat immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Budec, Mirela; Marković, Dragana; Djikić, Dragoslava; Mitrović, Olivera; Drndarević, Neda; Koko, Vesna; Todorović, Vera

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of this signal molecule on the rat immunoglobulin A (IgA) system using Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits the activity of all isoforms of NO synthase. The experiments were performed on adult female Wistar rats showing diestrus day 1 that were treated with L-NAME (30 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.). Untreated and saline-injected animals were used as controls. The rats were sacrificed 3 h following L-NAME or saline administration. The concentration of IgA in serum and intestinal extracts was determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of IgA-expressing cells per area unit of Peyer's patches and the intestinal lamina propria was evaluated using stereological analysis. The results showed that L-NAME decreased the level of IgA in serum and elevated its concentration in intestinal extracts. Additionally, the increased number of IgA+ cells was found in the intestinal lamina propria in both experimental groups. Obtained findings imply that endogenous NO may modulate the IgA system in the rat. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effects of nitric oxide on red blood cell deformability.

    PubMed

    Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Meiselman, Herbert J; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2003-05-01

    In addition to its known action on vascular smooth muscle, nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested to have cardiovascular effects via regulation of red blood cell (RBC) deformability. The present study was designed to further explore this possibility. Human RBCs in autologous plasma were incubated for 1 h with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors [N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and S-methylisothiourea], NO donors [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylenetriamine (DETA)-NONOate], an NO precursor (l-arginine), soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitors (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and methylene blue), and a potassium channel blocker [triethylammonium (TEA)]. After incubation, RBC deformability at various shear stresses was determined by ektacytometry. Both NOS inhibitors significantly reduced RBC deformability above a threshold concentration, whereas the NO donors increased deformability at optimal concentrations. NO donors, as well as the NO precursor l-arginine and the potassium blocker TEA, were able to reverse the effects of NOS inhibitors. Guanylate cyclase inhibition reduced RBC deformation, with both SNP and DETA-NONOate able to reverse this effect. These results thus indicate the importance of NO as a determinant of RBC mechanical behavior and suggest its regulatory role for normal RBC deformability.

  1. Photo-crosslinked Biodegradable Elastomers for Controlled Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Kibbe, Melina R.; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of nitric oxide (NO) has important applications in medicine, especially for procedures that involve the vasculature. We report photo-curable biodegradable poly(diol citrate) elastomers capable of slow release of NO. A methacrylated poly(diol citrate) macromonomer was prepared by polycondensation of citric acid with 1, 8-octanediol or 1, 12-dodecanediol followed by functionalization with 2-aminoethyl methacrylate. A miscible NO donor, diazeniumdiolated N, N-diethyldiethylenetriamine, was synthesized and incorporated into the polymer matrix. An elastomeric network was obtained via photo-polymerization of macromonomers upon UV irradiation within three minutes. Films and tubes of the NO-releasing crosslinked macromonomers exhibited strong tensile strength and radial compressive strength, respectively. They also exhibited cell compatibility and biodegradability in vitro. Sustained NO release under physiological conditions was achieved for at least one week. NO release enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells but inhibited the proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells. Photo-polymerizable NO-releasing materials provide a new approach for the localized and sustained delivery of NO to treat thrombosis and restenosis in the vasculature. PMID:24707352

  2. Thermospheric Nitric Oxide Response to Shock-led Storms.

    PubMed

    Knipp, D J; Pette, D V; Kilcommons, L M; Isaacs, T L; Cruz, A A; Mlynczak, M G; Hunt, L A; Lin, C Y

    2017-02-01

    We present a multi-year superposed epoch study of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry nitric oxide (NO) emission data. NO is a trace constituent in the thermosphere that acts as cooling agent via infrared (IR) emissions. The NO cooling competes with storm time thermospheric heating resulting in a thermostat effect. Our study of nearly 200 events reveals that shock-led interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are prone to early and excessive thermospheric NO production and IR emissions. Excess NO emissions can arrest thermospheric expansion by cooling the thermosphere during intense storms. The strongest events curtail the interval of neutral density increase and produce a phenomenon known as thermospheric 'overcooling'. We use Defense Meteorological Satellite Program particle precipitation data to show that interplanetary shocks and their ICME drivers can more than double the fluxes of precipitating particles that are known to trigger the production of thermospheric NO. Coincident increases in Joule heating likely amplify the effect. In turn, NO emissions more than double. We discuss the roles and features of shock/sheath structures that allow the thermosphere to temper the effects of extreme storm time energy input and explore the implication these structures may have on mesospheric NO. Shock-driven thermospheric NO IR cooling likely plays an important role in satellite drag forecasting challenges during extreme events.

  3. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  4. Contemporary approaches to modulating the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraehling, Jan R.; Sessa, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial cells lining the vessel wall control important aspects of vascular homeostasis. In particular, the production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase promotes endothelial quiescence and governs vasomotor function and proportional remodeling of blood vessels. Here, we discuss novel approaches to improve endothelial nitric oxide generation and preserve its bioavailability. We also discuss therapeutic opportunities aimed at activation of soluble guanylate cyclase for multiple cardiovascular indications. PMID:28360348

  5. Contemporary Approaches to Modulating the Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kraehling, Jan R; Sessa, William C

    2017-03-31

    Endothelial cells lining the vessel wall control important aspects of vascular homeostasis. In particular, the production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase promotes endothelial quiescence and governs vasomotor function and proportional remodeling of blood vessels. Here, we discuss novel approaches to improve endothelial nitric oxide generation and preserve its bioavailability. We also discuss therapeutic opportunities aimed at activation of soluble guanylate cyclase for multiple cardiovascular indications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Rodríguez, Alonso; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    (-)-Epicatechin increases indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells and myocardium. We investigated endothelial nitric oxide synthase involvement on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal-glucose and high-glucose media, as well as to restore indicators of cardiac mitochondria from the effects of simulated diabetes. Here, we demonstrate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors and sirtuin 1 under normal-glucose conditions. In simulated diabetes endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, mitochondrial function-associated and biogenesis-associated indicators were adversely impacted by high glucose, effects that were reverted by (-)-epicatechin. As an animal model of type 2 diabetes, 2-month old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Fasting and fed blood glucose levels were increased and NO plasma levels decreased. High-fat-diet-fed mice myocardium revealed endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial activity and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. The administration of 1 mg/kg (-)-epicatechin for 15 days by oral gavage shifted these endpoints towards control mice values. Results suggest that endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates (-)-epicatechin-induced increases of indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells. (-)-Epicatechin also counteracts the negative effects that high glucose or simulated type 2 diabetes has on endothelial nitric oxide synthase function. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Expression of nitric oxide synthase-2 in the lungs decreases airway resistance and responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Hjoberg, Josephine; Shore, Stephanie; Kobzik, Lester; Okinaga, Shoji; Hallock, Arlene; Vallone, Joseph; Subramaniam, Venkat; De Sanctis, George T; Elias, Jack A; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Silverman, Eric S

    2004-07-01

    Individuals with asthma have increased levels of nitric oxide in their exhaled air. To explore its role, we have developed a regulatable transgenic mouse capable of overexpressing inducible nitric oxide synthase in a lung-specific fashion. The CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mouse contains two transgenes, a reverse tetracycline transactivator under the control of the Clara cell protein promoter and the mouse nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) coding region under control of a tetracycline operator. Addition of doxycycline to the drinking water of CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mice causes an increase in nitric oxide synthase-2 that is largely confined to the airway epithelium. The fraction of expired nitric oxide increases over the first 24 h from approximately 10 parts per billion to a plateau of approximately 20 parts per billion. There were no obvious differences between CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mice, with or without doxycycline, and wild-type mice in lung histology, bronchoalveolar protein, total cell count, or count differentials. However, airway resistance was lower in CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mice with doxycycline than in CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mice without doxycycline or wild-type mice with doxycycline. Moreover, doxycycline-treated CC10-rtTA-NOS-2 mice were hyporesponsive to methacholine compared with other groups. These data suggest that increased nitric oxide in the airways has no proinflammatory effects per se and may have beneficial effects on pulmonary function.

  8. Laser absorption of nitric oxide for thermometry in high-enthalpy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    The design and demonstration of a laser absorption sensor for thermometry in high-enthalpy air is presented. The sensor exploits the highly temperature-sensitive and largely pressure-independent concentration of nitric oxide in air at chemical equilibrium. Temperature is thus inferred from an in situ measurement of nascent nitric oxide. The strategy is developed by utilizing a quantum cascade laser source for access to the strong fundamental absorption band in the mid-infrared spectrum of nitric oxide. Room temperature measurements in a high-pressure static cell validate the suitability of the Voigt lineshape model to the nitric oxide spectra at high gas densities. Shock-tube experiments enable calibration of a collision-broadening model for temperatures between 1200-3000 K. Finally, sensor performance is demonstrated in a high-pressure shock tube by measuring temperature behind reflected shock waves for both fixed-chemistry experiments where nitric oxide is seeded, and for experiments involving nitric oxide formation in shock-heated mixtures of N2 and O2. Results show excellent performance of the sensor across a wide range of operating conditions from 1100-2950 K and at pressures up to 140 atm.

  9. Real-time electrical detection of nitric oxide in biological systems with sub-nanomolar sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Xue, Teng; Liu, Yuan; Nel, Andre; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems and immune responses. Here we report a new design of nitric oxide sensors based on hemin-functionalized graphene field-effect transistors. With its single atom thickness and the highest carrier mobility among all materials, graphene holds the promise for unprecedented sensitivity for molecular sensing. The non-covalent functionalization through π-π stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with a sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their practical functionality in complex biological systems.

  10. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  11. Is endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide involved in cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation-related damage?

    PubMed

    Rus, A; Peinado, M A; Blanco, S; Del Moral, M L

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to act both as a destructive and a protective agent in the pathogenesis of the injuries that occur during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). It has been suggested that this dual role of NO depends directly on the isoform of NO synthase (NOS) involved. In this work, we investigate the role that NO derived from endothelial NOS (eNOS) plays in cardiac H/R-induced injury. Wistar rats were submitted to H/R (hypoxia for 30 min; reoxygenation of 0 h, 12 h and 5 days), with or without prior treatment using the selective eNOS inhibitor L-NIO (20 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and protein nitration, as well as NO production (NOx), were analysed. The results showed that L-NIO administration lowered NOx levels in all the experimental groups. However, no change was found in the lipid peroxidation level, the percentage of apoptotic cells or nitrated protein expression, implying that eNOS-derived NO may not be involved in the injuries occurring during H/R in the heart. We conclude that LNIO would not be useful in alleviating the adverse effects of cardiac H/R.

  12. Demonstration of nitric oxide synthase activity in crustacean hemocytes and anti-microbial activity of hemocyte-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Feng-Ching; Wu, Su-Hua; Lai, Chi-Yung; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2006-05-01

    We determined the biochemical characteristics of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in hemocytes of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii and investigated the roles of hemocyte-derived NO in host defense. Biochemical analysis indicated the presence of a Ca2+ -independent NOS activity, which was elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. When bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and hemocytes were co-incubated, adhesion of bacteria to hemocytes was observed. NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly increased the numbers of hemocytes to which bacteria adhered. Similarly, LPS elicited bacterial adhesion and the LPS-induced adhesion was prevented by NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Finally, plate count assay demonstrated that addition of LPS to the hemocytes/bacteria co-incubation resulted in a significant decrease in bacterial colony forming unit (CFU), and that L-NMMA reversed the decreasing effect of LPS on CFU. The combined results demonstrate the presence of a Ca2+ -independent LPS-inducible NOS activity in crayfish hemocytes and suggest that hemocyte-derived NO is involved in promoting bacterial adhesion to hemocytes and enhancing bactericidal activity of hemocytes.

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase evoked nitric oxide counteracts capsaicin-induced airway smooth muscle contraction, but exacerbates plasma extravasation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping-Chia; Shaw, Chen-Fu; Kuo, Tin-Fan; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2005-04-18

    The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to capsaicin-evoked airway responses was investigated in rats. The measurement of plasma NO level, airway dynamics, airway smooth muscle electromyogram, and plasma extravasation by India ink and Evans blue leakage technique was adapted. Capsaicin-evoked hypotension, bronchoconstriction, trachea plasma extravasation as well as increases in plasma NO level in a dose-dependent manner. L-732138 (NK1 receptor antagonist) or SR-48968 (NK2 receptor antagonist) pretreatment reduced capsaicin-enhanced hypotension, bronchoconstriction, plasma extravasation, and plasma NO level. N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.v.), a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or aminoguanidine (10 mg/kg, i.v.), a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, reduced capsaicin-induced increases in plasma NO level and protected against capsaicin-induced plasma extravasation, whereas L-arginine (150 mg/kg, i.v.), a NO precursor, enhanced capsaicin-evoked plasma NO level and plasma extravasation. L-Arginine pretreatment ameliorated capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction, whereas L-NAME and aminoguanidine exaggerated capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction. In summary, NK1 and NK2 receptors and iNOS play a role in NO formation and on capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction and plasma extravasation. NO generated by iNOS counteracts tachykinin-mediated bronchoconstriction, but exacerbates tachykinin-mediated plasma extravasation.

  14. Studies on the oxidation of hexamethylbenzene 1: Oxidation of hexamethylbenzene with nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiba, K.; Tomura, S.; Mizuno, T.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidative reaction of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) with nitric acid was studied, and the hitherto unknown polymethylbenzenepolycarboxylic acids were isolated: tetramethylphthalic anhydride, tetramethylisophthalic acid, 1,3,5-, 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids. When HMB was warmed with 50% nitric acid at about 80 C, tetramethylphthalic anhydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were initially produced. The continued reaction led to the production of trimethylbenzenetricarboxylic acids, but only slight amounts of dimethylbenzenetetracarboxylic acids were detected in the reaction mixture. Whereas tetramethylphthalic anydride and tetramethylisophthalic acid were obtained, pentamethylbenzoic acid, a possible precursor of them, was scarcely produced. On the other hand, a yellow material extracted with ether from the initial reaction mixture contained bis-(nitromethyl)prehnitene (CH3)4C6(CH2NO2)2, which was easily converted into the phthalic anhydride.

  15. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  16. Vascular smooth muscle relaxation mediated by nitric oxide donors: a comparison with acetylcholine, nitric oxide andnitroxyl ion

    PubMed Central

    Wanstall, Janet C; Jeffery, Trina K; Gambino, Agatha; Lovren, Fina; Triggle, Christopher R

    2001-01-01

    Vasorelaxant properties of three nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs (glyceryl trinitrate, sodium nitroprusside and spermine NONOate) in mouse aorta (phenylephrine pre-contracted) were compared with those of endothelium-derived NO (generated with acetylcholine), NO free radical (NO·; NO gas solution) and nitroxyl ion (NO−; from Angeli's salt). The soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-(1,2,4-)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)-quinoxalin-1-one; 0.3, 1 and 10 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited responses to all agents. 10 μM ODQ abolished responses to acetylcholine and glyceryl trinitrate, almost abolished responses to sodium nitroprusside but produced parallel shifts (to a higher concentration range; no depression in maxima) in the concentration-response curves for NO gas solution, Angeli's salt and spermine NONOate. The NO· scavengers, carboxy-PTIO, (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; 100 μM) and hydroxocobalamin (100 μM), both inhibited responses to NO gas solution and to the three NO donor drugs, but not Angeli's salt. Hydroxocobalamin, but not carboxy-PTIO, also inhibited responses to acetylcholine. The NO− inhibitor, L-cysteine (3 mM), inhibited responses to Angeli's salt, acetylcholine and the three NO donor drugs, but not NO gas solution. The data suggest that, in mouse aorta, responses to all three NO donors involve (i) activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, but to differing degrees and (ii) generation of both NO· and NO−. Glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside, which generate NO following tissue bioactivation, have profiles resembling the profile of endothelium-derived NO more than that of exogenous NO. Spermine NONOate, which generates NO spontaneously outside the tissue, was the drug that most closely resembled (but was not identical to) exogenous NO. PMID:11588100

  17. Off-line exhaled nitric oxide measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Barreto, M; Villa, M P; Martella, S; Falasca, C; Guglielmi, F; Pagani, J; Darder, M T; Ronchetti, R

    2001-08-01

    The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful marker of asthmatic bronchial inflammation. eNO can now be measured away from the laboratory (off-line), even in children. Short exhalation maneuvers (8 sec) and small samples (1 L) of exhaled gas are probably sufficient in children, but more information is needed about the effect of different measurement conditions. As a preliminary step before conducting epidemiological studies in schoolchildren, we investigated the effects of expiratory flow, dead space, and expiratory time on eNO concentrations collected in 1-L mylar collection bags. We studied 101 cooperative subjects (62 males) aged 5-18 years (30 healthy volunteers, 51 asthmatics, and 20 children with various other respiratory diseases) in our pulmonary function laboratory. On-line and off-line eNO were compared in a single session, and analyzed with a Sievers NOA 280 nitric oxide analyzer. For both methods of collecting expired gas, subjects did a single exhalation without breath-holding against an expiratory pressure 10 cm H(2)O. We investigated the effects of expiratory flow, dead space, and exhalation time on eNO; we also compared on-line and off-line eNO measurements, and the repeatability of both techniques at a given flow rate. Expiratory flows of 58 mL/sec provided more reproducible data than lower flows (coefficient of repeatability 1.1 ppb for 58 mL/sec vs. 2.8 for 27 mL/sec vs. 5.7 for 18 mL/sec). eNO concentrations were about 25% higher in off-line than in on-line recordings if the initial 250 mL of exhaled gas were not eliminated, and 37% higher if exhalation lasted longer (16 sec vs. 8 sec). Eliminating 250 mL of dead space and shortening the filling time to 8 sec yielded off-line eNO values close to those on-line (geometric mean off-line eNO 14.4 ppb, 95% confidence interval: 12.2-17.0) vs. on-line eNO 13.8 ppb (95% confidence interval: 11.6-16.5). On-line and off-line results were highly correlated (r = 0.996, P = 0.000) and had

  18. Nitric oxide synthetic capacity in relation to dialysate temperature.

    PubMed

    Beerenhout, Charles H; Noris, Marina; Kooman, Jeroen P; Porrati, Francesca; Binda, Elena; Morigi, Marina; Bekers, Otto; van der Sande, Frank M; Todeschini, Marta; Macconi, Daniela; Leunissen, Karel M L; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    During hemodialysis, vascular reactivity is impaired, which can be corrected by lowering dialysate temperature. It has also been shown that nitric oxide (NO) is related to intradialytic hypotension. As NO synthesis may be temperature-dependent, this study addressed the influence of dialysate temperature on the NO synthetic capacity of plasma. NO synthetic capacity was studied during hemodialysis with a dialysate temperature of 37.5 degrees C (dialysis-37.5 degrees C) and programmed extracorporeal blood cooling (cool dialysis; Blood Temperature Monitor; Fresenius C) in 12 stable patients. NO synthetic capacity was assessed ex vivo by [3H]L-citrulline formation from [3H]L-arginine in cultured endothelial cells after incubation with plasma samples obtained during the respective sessions. Core temperature decreased (-0.32 +/- 0.10 degrees C) and energy transfer rate was significantly lower (-27.5 +/- 2.8 W; p < 0.05) during cool dialysis compared to dialysis-37.5 degrees C (0.19 +/- 0.06 degrees C and -0.8 +/- 1.2 W respectively; p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure decreased during dialysis-37.5 degrees C (-19 +/- 4 mm Hg; p < 0.05), but not during cool dialysis (-6 +/- 5 mm Hg). NO synthetic capacity increased during dialysis-37.5 degrees C (55.5 +/- 9.3 to 73.5 +/- 10.2 pmol/10(5) cells; p < 0.05), in contrast to cool dialysis (67.3 +/- 11.1 to 66.2 +/- 10.8 pmol/10(5) cells). The stimulatory effect of uremic plasma on endothelial NO synthesis was augmented during dialysis-37.5 degrees C but not during cool dialysis. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Oxygen tension limits nitric oxide synthesis by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Li, W P; Calero, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have established that constitutive calcium-dependent ('low-output') nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is regulated by oxygen tension. We have investigated the role of oxygen tension in the synthesis of NO by the 'high-output' calcium-independent NOS in activated macrophages. Hypoxia increased macrophage NOS gene expression in the presence of one additional activator, such as lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma, but not in the presence of both. Hypoxia markedly reduced the synthesis of NO by activated macrophages (as measured by accumulation of nitrite and citrulline), such that, at 1% oxygen tension, NO accumulation was reduced by 80-90%. The apparent K(m) for oxygen calculated from cells exposed to a range of oxygen tensions was found to be 10.8%, or 137 microM, O(2) This value is considerably higher than the oxygen tension in tissues, and is virtually identical to that reported recently for purified recombinant macrophage NOS. The decrease in NO synthesis did not appear to be due to diminished arginine or cofactor availability, since arginine transport and NO synthesis during recovery in normoxia were normal. Analysis of NO synthesis during hypoxia as a function of extracellular arginine indicated that an altered V(max), but not K(m)(Arg), accounted for the observed decrease in NO synthesis. We conclude that oxygen tension regulates the synthesis of NO in macrophages by a mechanism similar to that described previously for the calcium-dependent low-output NOS. Our data suggest that oxygen tension may be an important physiological regulator of macrophage NO synthesis in vivo. PMID:10970783

  20. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fligger, J M; Waldvogel, A S; Pfister, H; Jungi, T W

    1999-09-01

    The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC-II), CD68, and the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 (also called MRP8 and MRP14, respectively) was assessed in lung tissues from cattle that succumbed to pneumonia. Expression patterns of these markers were related to the types of lung lesion. iNOS expression was only observed in lungs infected with Arcanobacterium pyogenes or Pasteurella haemolytica but not in lungs from cattle with subacute chronic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia due to Escherichia coli infection. High levels of iNOS were expressed by cells (probably leukocytes) surrounding necrotic foci. Occasionally, iNOS was expressed by intraalveolar macrophages in viable parenchyma, by leukocytes within the airways, and by some chondrocytes in the supporting cartilage of bronchi. Cells expressing MHC-II were distributed relatively evenly throughout areas of inflammation and did not display any clear association with necrotic foci. Cell types expressing MHC-II included type II alveolar epithelial cells, spindle-shaped cells of the interstitium, cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and leukocytes in lymph and blood vessels but largely excluded iNOS-positive cells. Likewise, CD68-positive cells were rarely positive for iNOS and were not confined to the areas surrounding necrotic tissue. As with MHC-II and CD68, there was little if any coexpression of iNOS and either of the S100 proteins tested. Thus, in cattle with necrotizing bronchopneumonia, iNOS-expressing cells were largely restricted to the cellular zone surrounding necrotic areas.

  1. Nitric Oxide Synthase-3 Promotes Embryonic Development of Atrioventricular Valves

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Lu, Xiangru; Xiang, Fu-Li; Lu, Man; Feng, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase-3 (NOS3) has recently been shown to promote endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in the developing atrioventricular (AV) canal. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NOS3 in embryonic development of AV valves. We hypothesized that NOS3 promotes embryonic development of AV valves via EndMT. To test this hypothesis, morphological and functional analysis of AV valves were performed in wild-type (WT) and NOS3−/− mice at postnatal day 0. Our data show that the overall size and length of mitral and tricuspid valves were decreased in NOS3−/− compared with WT mice. Echocardiographic assessment showed significant regurgitation of mitral and tricuspid valves during systole in NOS3−/− mice. These phenotypes were all rescued by cardiac specific NOS3 overexpression. To assess EndMT, immunostaining of Snail1 was performed in the embryonic heart. Both total mesenchymal and Snail1+ cells in the AV cushion were decreased in NOS3−/− compared with WT mice at E10.5 and E12.5, which was completely restored by cardiac specific NOS3 overexpression. In cultured embryonic hearts, NOS3 promoted transforming growth factor (TGFβ), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) and Snail1expression through cGMP. Furthermore, mesenchymal cell formation and migration from cultured AV cushion explants were decreased in the NOS3−/− compared with WT mice. We conclude that NOS3 promotes AV valve formation during embryonic heart development and deficiency in NOS3 results in AV valve insufficiency. PMID:24204893

  2. Picosecond rotationally resolved stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanjaroon, Chakree; Reeve, Scott W.; Ford, Alan; Murry, W. Dean; Lyon, Kevin; Yount, Bret; Britton, Dan; Burns, William A.; Allen, Susan D.; Bruce Johnson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) experiments were performed on the nitric oxide molecule in a flow cell environment using lasers with pulse widths of 17-25 ps. A lambda excitation scheme, or ''pump-dump" arrangement, was employed with the pump laser tuned to the T 00 vibronic band origin ( λ=226.35(1)nm) of the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') ← X2Π1/2( v″ = 0, J″) and the dump laser scanned from 246-248 nm within the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') → X2Π1/2( v″ = 2, J″) transition. The rotationally resolved SEP spectra were measured by observing the total fluorescence within the A2Σ+( v' = 0, J') → X2Π1/2( v″ = 1, J″) transition between 235 nm and 237.2 nm while scanning the dump laser wavelengths. Multiple rotational states were excited due to the broad laser bandwidth. Measurements showed that the resolved rotational structure depended on the energy and bandwidth of the applied pump and dump laser pulses. Analysis of the observed fluorescence depletion signals yielded an average percent fluorescence depletion of about 19% when λ=226.35(1)nm and λ=247.91(1)nm. This value reflects the percent transfer of the NO population from the A2Σ+( V' = 0, J') excited electronic state to the X2Π1/2( v″ = 2, J″) ground electronic state. The maximum expected depletion is 50% in the limit of dump saturation. Selective excitation of NO at the bandhead provides good spectral discrimination from the background emission and noise and unambiguously confirms the identity of the emitter.

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring in COPD using a portable analyzer.

    PubMed

    de Laurentiis, Guglielmo; Maniscalco, Mauro; Cianciulli, Flavia; Stanziola, Anna; Marsico, Serafino; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Sofia, Matteo

    2008-08-01

    The exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. A very recent statement has suggested FeNO as potential outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, a new hand-held FeNO analyzer (NIOX MINO) has been developed. We have evaluated the NIOX MINO in COPD patients and monitored FeNO levels during 1-year assessment in the outpatient setting. Short-term variability in FeNO was compared using a NIOX MINO and a stationary chemiluminescence analyzer (NOA, Sensormedics) in healthy volunteers and COPD patients on two consecutive months. Long-term FeNO variability was assessed on a cohort of 70 COPD outpatients measuring FeNO for 1 year. The intra-individual FeNO coefficient of variation (eNOCoV) was taken as index FeNO long-term variability. In COPD there were no significant differences between NIOX MINO and NOA FeNO values recorded at baseline and 1 month later. Ninety five percent limits of agreement between NIOX MINO and NOA were-2.7 and 1.9ppb with significant reliability (r=0.96, p<0.0001). Mean FeNO at baseline was 15.0+/-9.5ppb. Over the 1-year period the overall mean FeNO was 15.5+/-10.1ppb. The long-term eNOCoV was 33.9+/-16.4% (range 8.1-83.1%), and it was significantly associated with exacerbation rate (r=0.57, p<0.0001). FeNO electrochemical hand-held analyzer is feasible in COPD showing good agreement with stationary chemiluminescence analyzer. COPD patients exhibit a wide range of FeNO levels and a high variability of FeNO over time, which was positively associated with the number of exacerbations.

  4. Can we use portable nitric oxide analyzer in young children?

    PubMed

    Kalliola, Satu; Malmberg, Pekka; Rito, Tuija; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2011-07-01

    Management of asthma could be improved by measuring exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Portable hand-held FENO analyzer (NIOX MINO) is practical and small and could be used also in the primary care office. It has demonstrated good repeatability and correlation with stationary device (NIOX) in adults and school aged children, but so far there have been no reports on young children. The aim of this study was to compare conventional chemiluminescence device (NIOX) with a hand-held electrochemical device (NIOX MINO) in young children. Paired measurements of FENO were performed with the stationary chemiluminescence-based analyzer (NIOX) and with portable electrochemical device (NIOX MINO) in children with asthmatic symptoms and age-matched controls. Fifty-five children with mean (range) age of 5.7 (3.9-8.5) years were evaluated with both devices. Measurements were successful with both devices in 40 out of 57 children. NIOX MINO was more difficult to use than NIOX in this age group, success rates being 73% and 93%, respectively (P = 0.004). The reproducibility was similar and there was a close correlation between FENO measured by the two devices (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman plot demonstrated limits of agreement that were relatively wide compared to low levels of FENO in the sample. Both devices were sensitive enough to distinguish higher FENO levels in children with asthmatic symptoms, compared to healthy controls. We conclude that NIOX MINO can be used as a screening tool for the assessment of airway inflammation in children from the age of 4 years, but its applicability is limited by lower measurement success rate and relatively poor accuracy and detection limit at low levels of FENO. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Thyroid status and nitric oxide in rat arterial vessels.

    PubMed

    McAllister, R M; Albarracin, I; Price, E M; Smith, T K; Turk, J R; Wyatt, K D

    2005-04-01

    Thyroid disease has profound effects on cardiovascular function. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism, for example, are associated with reduced and increased maximal endothelium-dependent vasodilation respectively. We therefore hypothesized that the capacity for vascular nitric oxide (NO) formation is decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. To test this hypothesis, rats were made hypothyroid (HYPO) with propylthiouracil or hyperthyroid (HYPER) with triiodothyronine over 3-4 months. Compared with euthyroid control rats (EUT), HYPO exhibited blunted growth and lower citrate synthase activity in the soleus muscle; HYPER exhibited left ventricular hypertrophy and higher citrate synthase activity in the soleus muscle (P<0.05 for all effects). The capacity for NO formation was determined in aortic extracts by formation of [3H]L-citrulline from [3H]L-arginine, i.e. NO synthase (NOS) activity. Thyroid status modulated NOS activity (EUT, 36.8 +/- 5.5 fmol/h per mg protein; HYPO, 26.0 +/- 7.9; HYPER, 64.6 +/- 12.7; P<0.05, HYPER vs HYPO). Expression of endothelial and neural isoforms of NOS was modulated by thyroid status in a parallel fashion. Capacity for responding to NO was also determined via measuring cGMP concentration in aortae incubated with sodium nitroprusside. Stimulated cGMP formation was also modulated by thyroid status (EUT, 73.0 +/- 20.2 pmol/mg protein; HYPO, 152.4 +/- 48.7; HYPER, 10.4 +/- 2.6; P<0.05, HYPER vs HYPO). These data indicate that thyroid status alters capacities for both formation of and responding to NO. The former finding may contribute to previous findings concerning vascular function in thyroid disease states.

  6. Intraprotein Electron Transfer in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Holoenzyme

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Changjian; Dupont, Andrea L.; Nahm, Nickolas J.; Spratt, Donald E.; Hazzard, James T.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Guillemette, J. Guy; Tollin, Gordon; Ghosh, Dipak K.

    2008-01-01

    Intraprotein electron transfer (IET) from flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to heme is essential in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by NO synthase (NOS). Our previous laser flash photolysis studies provided a direct determination of the kinetics of the FMN–heme IET in a truncated oxyFMN construct of murine inducible NOS (iNOS), in which only the oxygenase and FMN domains along with the calmodulin (CaM) binding site are present [Feng et al. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 3808-3811]. Here we report the kinetics of the IET in a human iNOS oxyFMN construct, a human iNOS holoenzyme and a murine iNOS holoenzyme, using CO photolysis in comparative studies on partially reduced NOS and a NOS oxygenase construct that lacks the FMN domain. The IET rate constants for the human and murine iNOS holoenzymes are 34 ± 5 s-1 and 35 ± 3 s-1, respectively, thereby providing a direct measurement of this IET between the catalytically significant redox couples of FMN and heme in the iNOS holoenzyme. These values are approximately an order of magnitude smaller than that in the corresponding iNOS oxyFMN construct, suggesting that in the holoenzyme the rate-limiting step in the IET is the conversion of the shielded electron-accepting (input) state to a new electron-donating (output) state. The fact that there is no rapid IET component in the kinetic traces obtained with the iNOS holoenzyme implies that the enzyme remains mainly in the input state. The IET rate constant value for the iNOS holoenzyme is similar to that obtained for a CaM-bound neuronal NOS (nNOS) holoenzyme, suggesting that CaM activation effectively removes the inhibitory effect of the unique autoregulatory insert in nNOS. PMID:18830722

  7. Nitric oxide contributes to the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Curry, Timothy B; Eisenach, John H; Wilkins, Brad W; Joyner, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide (NO) contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise and (2) the combined inhibition of NO production and adenosine receptor activation would attenuate the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise more than NO inhibition alone. In separate protocols subjects performed forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n= 12), subjects received intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). In protocol 2 (n= 10), subjects received intra-arterial saline (control) and combined l-NMMA–aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist) administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min−1 (100 mmHg)−1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (ml min−1) and blood pressure (mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (Δ from normoxic baseline) due to hypoxia under resting conditions and during hypoxic exercise was substantially lower with l-NMMA administration compared to saline (control; P < 0.01). In protocol 2, administration of combined l-NMMA–aminophylline reduced the ΔFVC due to hypoxic exercise compared to saline (control; P < 0.01). However, the relative reduction in ΔFVC compared to the respective control (saline) conditions was similar between l-NMMA only (protocol 1) and combined l-NMMA–aminophylline (protocol 2) at 10% (−17.5 ± 3.7 vs.−21.4 ± 5.2%; P= 0.28) and 20% (−13.4 ± 3.5 vs.−18.8 ± 4.5%; P= 0.18) hypoxic exercise. These findings suggest that NO contributes to the augmented vasodilatation observed during hypoxic exercise independent of adenosine. PMID:19948661

  8. Nitric Oxide and Mitochondrial Function in Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Mayasi, Yunis; Hannoun, Anas; Eslami, Seyed Majid; Carandang, Raphael

    2018-04-15

    Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play crucial roles in the energy production and regulation of cellular metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial activity can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). As a key neurotransmitter in biologic systems, NO mediates the majority of its function through activation of the cyclic guanylyl cyclase (cGC) signaling pathway and S-nitrosylation of a variety of proteins involved in cellular functioning including those involved in mitochondrial biology. Moreover, excess NO or the formation of reactive NO species (RNS), e.g., peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), impairs mitochondrial functioning and this, in conjunction with nuclear events, eventually affects neuronal cell metabolism and survival, contributing to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we highlight the possible mechanisms underlying the noxious effects of excess NO and RNS on mitochondrial function including (i) negative effects on electron transport chain (ETC); (ii) ONOO - -mediated alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition; (iii) enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy through S-nitrosylation of key proteins involved in this process such as dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP-1) and Parkin/PINK1 (protein phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced kinase 1) complex; (iv) alterations in the mitochondrial metabolic pathways including Krebs cycle, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and urea cycle; and finally (v) mitochondrial ONOO - -induced nuclear toxicity and subsequent release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, causing neuronal cell death. These proposed mechanisms highlight the multidimensional nature of NO and its signaling in the mitochondrial function. Understanding the mechanisms by which NO mediates mitochondrial (dys)function can provide new insights into the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Antibiofilm efficacy of nitric oxide on soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Ju; Park, Joo-Hee; Kim, Marth; Park, Choul Yong

    2017-11-21

    To investigate the antibiofilm efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) on soft contact lenses. Nitrite (NO precursor) release from various concentrations (0-1000 μM) of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2, NO donor) was measured by Griess Assay. Cell viability assay was performed using human corneal epithelial cell under various concentration (0-1000 μM) of NaNO 2 . Biofilm formation on soft contact lenses was achieved by adding Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the culture media. Various concentrations of NaNO 2 (0-1000 μM) were added to the culture media, each containing soft contact lens. After incubation in NaNO 2 containing culture media for 1, 3, or 7 days, each contact lens was transferred to a fresh, bacteria-free media without NaNO 2 . The bacteria in the biofilm were dispersed in the culture media for planktonic growth. After reculturing the lenses in the fresh media for 24 h, optical density (OD) of media was measured at 600 nm and colony forming unit (CFU) was counted by spreading media on tryptic soy agar plate for additional 18 h. Nitrite release from NaNO 2 showed dose-dependent suppressive effect on biofilm formation. Most nitrite release from NaNO 2 tended to occur within 30 min. The viability of human corneal epithelial cells was well maintained at tested NaNO 2 concentrations. The bacterial CFU and OD showed dose-dependent decrease in the NaNO 2 treated samples on days 1, 3 and 7 for both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NO successfully inhibited the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa on soft contact lenses in dose-dependent manner.

  10. Nitric oxide, antioxidants and prooxidants in plant defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Felicitas; Durner, Jörg; Gaupels, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the free radical nitric oxide (NO) interacts both with anti- as well as prooxidants. This review provides a short survey of the central roles of ascorbate and glutathione—the latter alone or in conjunction with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase—in controlling NO bioavailability. Other major topics include the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by NO and the interplay between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under stress conditions NO regulates antioxidant enzymes at the level of activity and gene expression, which can cause either enhancement or reduction of the cellular redox status. For instance chronic NO production during salt stress induced the antioxidant system thereby increasing salt tolerance in various plants. In contrast, rapid NO accumulation in response to strong stress stimuli was occasionally linked to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a subsequent rise in hydrogen peroxide levels. Moreover, during incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae interactions ROS burst and cell death progression were shown to be terminated by S-nitrosylation-triggered inhibition of NADPH oxidases, further highlighting the multiple roles of NO during redox-signaling. In chemical reactions between NO and ROS reactive nitrogen species (RNS) arise with characteristics different from their precursors. Recently, peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide has attracted much attention. We will describe putative functions of this molecule and other NO derivatives in plant cells. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHb) were proposed to act in NO degradation. Additionally, like other oxidases nsHb is also capable of catalyzing protein nitration through a nitrite- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent process. The physiological significance of the described findings under abiotic and biotic stress conditions will be discussed with a special emphasis on pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:24198820

  11. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Freschi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception, and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates, and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO–phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic, and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO–phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed. PMID:24130567

  12. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  13. Starved Escherichia coli preserve reducing power under nitric oxide stress

    SciTech Connect

    Gowers, Glen-Oliver F.; Robinson, Jonathan L.; Brynildsen, Mark P., E-mail: mbrynild@princeton.edu

    Nitric oxide (NO) detoxification enzymes, such as NO dioxygenase (NOD) and NO reductase (NOR), are important to the virulence of numerous bacteria. Pathogens use these defense systems to ward off immune-generated NO, and they do so in environments that contain additional stressors, such as reactive oxygen species, nutrient deprivation, and acid stress. NOD and NOR both use reducing equivalents to metabolically deactivate NO, which suggests that nutrient deprivation could negatively impact their functionality. To explore the relationship between NO detoxification and nutrient deprivation, we examined the ability of Escherichia coli to detoxify NO under different levels of carbon source availabilitymore » in aerobic cultures. We observed failure of NO detoxification under both carbon source limitation and starvation, and those failures could have arisen from inabilities to synthesize Hmp (NOD of E. coli) and/or supply it with sufficient NADH (preferred electron donor). We found that when limited quantities of carbon source were provided, NO detoxification failed due to insufficient NADH, whereas starvation prevented Hmp synthesis, which enabled cells to maintain their NADH levels. This maintenance of NADH levels under starvation was confirmed to be dependent on the absence of Hmp. Intriguingly, these data show that under NO stress, carbon-starved E. coli are better positioned with regard to reducing power to cope with other stresses than cells that had consumed an exhaustible amount of carbon. -- Highlights: •Carbon source availability is critical to aerobic E. coli NO detoxification. •Carbon source starvation, under NO stress, preserves intracellular NADH levels. •Preservation of NADH depends on starvation-dependent inhibition of Hmp induction.« less

  14. Dissecting structural and electronic effects in inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; Page, Richard C; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Bolisetty, Karthik; Yu, Zhihao; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are haem-thiolate enzymes that catalyse the conversion of L-arginine (L-Arg) into NO and citrulline. Inducible NOS (iNOS) is responsible for delivery of NO in response to stressors during inflammation. The catalytic performance of iNOS is proposed to rely mainly on the haem midpoint potential and the ability of the substrate L-Arg to provide a hydrogen bond for oxygen activation (O-O scission). We present a study of native iNOS compared with iNOS-mesohaem, and investigate the formation of a low-spin ferric haem-aquo or -hydroxo species (P) in iNOS mutant W188H substituted with mesohaem. iNOS-mesohaem and W188H-mesohaem were stable and dimeric, and presented substrate-binding affinities comparable to those of their native counterparts. Single turnover reactions catalysed by iNOSoxy with L-Arg (first reaction step) or N-hydroxy-L-arginine (second reaction step) showed that mesohaem substitution triggered higher rates of Fe(II)O₂ conversion and altered other key kinetic parameters. We elucidated the first crystal structure of a NOS substituted with mesohaem and found essentially identical features compared with the structure of iNOS carrying native haem. This facilitated the dissection of structural and electronic effects. Mesohaem substitution substantially reduced the build-up of species P in W188H iNOS during catalysis, thus increasing its proficiency towards NO synthesis. The marked structural similarities of iNOSoxy containing native haem or mesohaem indicate that the kinetic behaviour observed in mesohaem-substituted iNOS is most heavily influenced by electronic effects rather than structural alterations.

  15. DISSECTING STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC EFFECTS IN INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Page, Richard C.; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Bolisetty, Karthik; Yu, Zhihao; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are haem-thiolate enzymes that catalyse the conversion of L-Arginine (LArg) into NO and citrulline. Inducible NOS (iNOS) is responsible for delivery of NO in response to stressors during inflammation. The catalytic performance of iNOS is proposed to rely mainly on the haem midpoint potential and the ability of the substrate L-Arg to provide an H-bond for oxygen activation (O-O scission). We present a comparative study of native iNOS versus iNOS-mesohaem, and investigate the formation of a low-spin ferric haem-aquo or -hydroxo species (P) in iNOS mutant W188H substituted with mesohaem. iNOS-mesohaem and W188H-mesohaem were stable and dimeric, and presented substrate-binding affinities comparable to their native counterparts. Single turnover reactions catalysed by iNOSoxy with LArg (first reaction step) or N-hydroxyarginine (second reaction step) showed that mesohaem substitution triggered faster rates of FeIIO2 conversion and altered other key kinetic parameters. We elucidated the first crystal structure of a NOS substituted with mesohaem and found essentially identical features compared to the structure of iNOS carrying native haem. This facilitated the dissection of structural and electronic effects. Mesohaem substitution substantially reduced the build-up of species P in W188H iNOS during catalysis, thus increasing its proficiency toward NO synthesis. The marked structural similarities of iNOSoxy containing native haem or mesohaem indicate that the kinetic behaviour observed in mesohaem-substituted iNOS is most heavily influenced by electronic effects rather than structural alterations. PMID:25608846

  16. Haptoglobin Preserves Vascular Nitric Oxide Signaling during Hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Christian A; Deuel, Jeremy W; Schildknecht, Daniela; Mahmoudi, Leila; Garcia-Rubio, Ines; Owczarek, Catherine; Schauer, Stefan; Kissner, Reinhard; Banerjee, Uddyalok; Palmer, Andre F; Spahn, Donat R; Irwin, David C; Vallelian, Florence; Buehler, Paul W; Schaer, Dominik J

    2016-05-15

    Hemolysis occurs not only in conditions such as sickle cell disease and malaria but also during transfusion of stored blood, extracorporeal circulation, and sepsis. Cell-free Hb depletes nitric oxide (NO) in the vasculature, causing vasoconstriction and eventually cardiovascular complications. We hypothesize that Hb-binding proteins may preserve vascular NO signaling during hemolysis. Characterization of an archetypical function by which Hb scavenger proteins could preserve NO signaling during hemolysis. We investigated NO reaction kinetics, effects on arterial NO signaling, and tissue distribution of cell-free Hb and its scavenger protein complexes. Extravascular translocation of cell-free Hb into interstitial spaces, including the vascular smooth muscle cell layer of rat and pig coronary arteries, promotes vascular NO resistance. This critical disease process is blocked by haptoglobin. Haptoglobin does not change NO dioxygenation rates of Hb; rather, the large size of the Hb:haptoglobin complex prevents Hb extravasation, which uncouples NO/Hb interaction and vasoconstriction. Size-selective compartmentalization of Hb functions as a substitute for red blood cells after hemolysis and preserves NO signaling in the vasculature. We found that evolutionarily and structurally unrelated Hb-binding proteins, such as PIT54 found in avian species, functionally converged with haptoglobin to protect NO signaling by sequestering cell-free Hb in large protein complexes. Sequential compartmentalization of Hb by erythrocytes and scavenger protein complexes is an archetypical mechanism, which may have supported coevolution of hemolysis and normal vascular function. Therapeutic supplementation of Hb scavengers may restore vascular NO signaling and attenuate disease complications in patients with hemolysis.

  17. Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Guido T; Garhofer, Gerhard; Kiss, Barbara; Polska, Elzbieta; Polak, Kaija; Riva, Charles E; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of basal nitric oxide (NO) on retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, we set out to elucidate the role of NO in flicker-induced retinal vasodilation in humans. Twelve healthy young subjects were studied in a three-way crossover design. Subjects received an intravenous infusion of either placebo or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 3 or 6 mg/kg over 5 min), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Thereafter, diffuse luminance flicker was consecutively performed for 16, 32, and 64 s at a frequency of 8 Hz. The effect of L-NMMA on retinal arterial and venous diameter was assessed under resting conditions and during the hyperemic flicker response. Retinal vessel diameter was measured with a Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. L-NMMA significantly reduced arterial diameter (3 mg/kg: -2%; 6 mg/kg: -4%, P < 0.001) and venous diameter (3 mg/kg: -5%; 6 mg/kg: -8%, P < 0.001). After placebo infusion, flicker induced a significant increase in retinal vessel diameter (P < 0.001). At a flicker duration of 64 s, arterial diameter increased by 4% and venous diameter increased by 3%. L-NMMA did not abolish these hyperemic responses but blunted venous vasodilation (P = 0.017) and arterial vasodilation (P = 0.02) in response to flicker stimulation. Our data indicate that NO contributes to basal retinal vascular tone in humans. In addition, NO appears to play a role in flicker-induced vasodilation of the human retinal vasculature.

  18. Regulation of adrenomedullin and nitric oxide production by periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Q A; McKay, I J; Gonzales-Marin, C; Allaker, R P

    2015-10-01

    In periodontitis the host response to bacterial challenge includes activity of the multifunctional molecules adrenomedullin (AM) and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of periodontal bacteria in regulating the production of these molecules from cultured cells. Regulation of AM and NO production from oral keratinocytes when challenged with culture supernatants from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Veillonella atypica, Streptococcus salivarius and Candida albicans was examined. AM and NO were measured in cell culture supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the nitrate/nitrite (NO metabolites) Griess assay respectively. Cellular production of AM and inducible NO synthase was also analysed in target cells by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. The inter-relationship of AM and NO production were further investigated with macrophages. A. actinomycetemcomitans and C. rectus induced maximal levels of both AM and NO after 6 and 48 h respectively from oral keratinocytes. AM production in macrophages was upregulated in response to the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione and partially blocked by the inducible NO synthase inhibitor, N(ω) -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Likewise, NO production was increased upon exposure to AM, while the AM receptor antagonist AM 22-52 reduced the release of NO. Pathogens associated with aggressive periodontitis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and C. rectus, were more effective than those associated with chronic periodontitis, P. gingivalis and Prev. intermedia, and commensals, S. salivarius and V. atypica, as regards the upregulation of AM and NO production from oral keratinocytes. Interaction between these molecules was also demonstrated with macrophages. Understanding the coordinated regulation of AM and NO production in response to periodontal bacteria may identify

  19. Role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2000-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the role of nitric oxide in long-term potentiation induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by high-frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. The nitric oxide scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide ] and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester were administered before and after induction of potentiation. Both drugs completely prevented long-term potentiation, whereas they did not impede the potentiation build-up, or affect the already established potentiation. These results demonstrate that the induction, but not the maintenance of vestibular long-term potentiation, depends on the synthesis and release into the extracellular medium of nitric oxide. In addition, we analysed the effect of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside on vestibular responses. Sodium nitroprusside induced long-term potentiation, as evidenced through the field potential enhancement and unit peak latency decrease. This potentiation was impeded by D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, and was reduced under blockade of synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors by ginkgolide B and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors by (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid. When reduced, potentiation fully developed following the washout of antagonist, demonstrating an involvement of platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in its full development. Potentiation induced by sodium nitroprusside was also associated with a decrease in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, which persisted under ginkgolide B, indicating that nitric oxide increases glutamate release independently of platelet-activating factor-mediated presynaptic events. We suggest that nitric oxide, released after the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, acts as a retrograde messenger leading to an enhancement of glutamate release to a

  20. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  1. Oleic acid-dependent modulation of Nitric oxide associated 1 protein levels regulates nitric oxide-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conserved cellular metabolites nitric oxide (NO) and oleic acid (18:1) are well-known regulators of disease physiologies in diverse organism. We show that NO production in plants is regulated via 18:1. Reduction in 18:1 levels, via a genetic mutation in the 18:1-synthesizing gene SUPPRESSOR OF S...

  2. Improvement of Tissue Survival of Skin Flaps by 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ajami, Marjan; Asadi, Yasin; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Gorjipour, Fazel; Malekloo, Roya; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin flap grafting is a popular approach for reconstruction of critical skin and underlying soft tissue injuries. In a previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of two 5α-reductase inhibitors, azelaic acid and finasteride, on tissue survival in a rat model of skin flap grafting. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in graft survival mediated by these agents. Methods: A number of 42 male rats were randomly allocated into six groups: 1, normal saline topical application; 2, azelaic acid (100 mg/flap); 3, finasteride (1 mg/flap); 4, injection of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (i.p., 20 mg/kg); 5, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + azelaic acid (100 mg/flap, topical); 6, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + finasteride (1 mg/flap, topical). Tissue survival, level of nitric oxide, and iNOS expression in groups were measured. Results: Our data revealed that azelaic acid and finasteride significantly increased the expression of iNOS protein and nitric oxide (NO) levels in graft tissue (P < 0.05). These increases in iNOS expression and NO level were associated with higher survival of the graft tissue. Conclusion: It appears that alterations of the NO metabolism are implicated in the azelaic acid- and finasteride-mediated survival of the skin flaps. PMID:25864816

  3. Pu-erh Tea Reduces Nitric Oxide Levels in Rats by Inhibiting Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression through Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Guan; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Hang; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pu-erh tea undergoes a unique fermentation process and contains theabrownins, polysaccharides and caffeine; although it is unclear about which component is associated with the down regulation of nitric oxide levels or how this process is mediated. To address this question we examined the effects of pu-erh tea on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes. Cohorts of rats were separately given four-week treatments of water as control, pu-erh tea, or the tea components: theabrownins, caffeine or polysaccharides. Five experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce nitric oxide (NO) production, while the corresponding five control groups were injected with saline as a negative control. The serum and liver NO concentrations were examined and the NOS expression of both mRNA and protein was measured in liver. The results showed that the rats which were fed pu-erh tea or polysaccharides had lower levels of NO which corresponded with the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We further demonstrate that this effect is mediated through reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Thus we find that the polysaccharide components in pu-erh tea reduce NO levels in an animal model by inhibiting the iNOS expression via signaling through TLR4. PMID:22837686

  4. Intracellular redox state determines whether nitric oxide is toxic or protective to rat oligodendrocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, P A; Li, Y; Ali, S; Altiok, N; Back, S A; Volpe, J J

    1999-08-01

    We found that several nitric oxide donors had similar potency in killing mature and immature forms of oligodendrocytes (OLs). Because of the possibility of interaction of nitric oxide with intracellular thiols, we tested the effect of the nitrosonium ion donor S-nitrosylglutathione (SNOG) in OL cultures in the setting of cystine deprivation, which has been shown to cause intracellular glutathione depletion. Surprisingly, the presence of 200 microM SNOG completely protected OLs against the toxicity of cystine depletion. This protection appeared to be due to nitric oxide, because it could be blocked by hemoglobin and potentiated by inclusion of superoxide dismutase. We tested the effect of three additional NO* donors and found that protection was not seen with diethylamine NONOate, a donor with a half-life measured in minutes, but was seen with dipropylenetriamine NONOate and diethylaminetriamine NONOate, donors with half-lives measured in hours. This need for donors with longer half-lives for the protective effect suggested that NO* was required when intracellular thiol concentrations were falling, a process evolving over hours in medium depleted of cystine. These studies suggest a novel protective role for nitric oxide in oxidative stress injury and raise the possibility that intracerebral nitric oxide production might be a mechanism of defense against oxidative stress injury in OLs.

  5. Nitrous-acid-mediated synthesis of iron-nitrosyl-porphyrin: pH-dependent release of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-11-01

    Two iron-nitrosyl-porphyrins, nitrosyl[meso-tetrakis(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylporphyrin]iron(II) acetic acid solvate (3) and nitrosyl[meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenylporphyrin]iron(II) CH(2)Cl(2) solvate (4), were synthesized in quantitative yield by using a modified procedure with nitrous acid, followed by oxygen-atom abstraction by triphenylphosphine under an argon atmosphere. These nitrosyl porphyrins are in the {FeNO}(7) class. Under an argon atmosphere, these compounds are relatively stable over a broad range of pH values (4-8) but, under aerobic conditions, they release nitric oxide faster at high pH values than that at low pH values. The generated nitric-oxide-free iron(III)-porphyrin can be re-nitrosylated by using nitrous acid and triphenylphosphine. The rapid release of NO from these Fe(II) complexes at high pH values seems to be similar to that in nitrophorin, a nitric-oxide-transport protein, which formally possesses Fe(III). However, because the release of NO occurs from ferrous-nitrosyl-porphyrin under aerobic conditions, these compounds are more closely related to nitrobindin, a recently discovered heme protein. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander; Ji, Yajing

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to suchmore » injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.« less

  7. Nitric Oxide Accumulation: The Evolutionary Trigger for Phytopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Margarida M.; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Cruz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Many publications highlight the importance of nitric oxide (NO) in plant–bacteria interactions, either in the promotion of health and plant growth or in pathogenesis. However, the role of NO in the signaling between bacteria and plants and in the fate of their interaction, as well as the reconstruction of their interactive evolution, remains largely unknown. Despite the complexity of the evolution of life on Earth, we explore the hypothesis that denitrification and aerobic respiration were responsible for local NO accumulation, which triggered primordial antagonistic biotic interactions, namely the first phytopathogenic interactions. N-oxides, including NO, could globally accumulate via lightning synthesis in the early anoxic ocean and constitute pools for the evolution of denitrification, considered an early step of the biological nitrogen cycle. Interestingly, a common evolution may be proposed for components of denitrification and aerobic respiration pathways, namely for NO and oxygen reductases, a theory compatible with the presence of low amounts of oxygen before the great oxygenation event (GOE), which was generated by Cyanobacteria. During GOE, the increase in oxygen caused the decrease of Earth’s temperature and the consequent increase of oxygen dissolution and availability, making aerobic respiration an increasingly dominant trait of the expanding mesophilic lifestyle. Horizontal gene transfer was certainly important in the joint expansion of mesophily and aerobic respiration. First denitrification steps lead to NO formation through nitrite reductase activity, and NO may further accumulate when oxygen binds NO reductase, resulting in denitrification blockage. The consequent transient NO surplus in an oxic niche could have been a key factor for a successful outcome of an early denitrifying prokaryote able to scavenge oxygen by NO/oxygen reductase or by an independent heterotrophic aerobic respiration pathway. In fact, NO surplus could result in toxicity

  8. Arginine supplementation induces myoblast fusion via augmentation of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Long, Jodi H D; Lira, Vitor A; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Betters, Jenna L; Sellman, Jeff E; Criswell, David S

    2006-01-01

    The semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), is the substrate for endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that is involved in myoblast proliferation and fusion. Since L-Arg supply may limit nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in endothelial cells, we examined L-Arg supplementation in differentiating mouse myoblasts and tested the hypothesis that L-Arg exerts direct effects on myoblast fusion via augmentation of endogenous nitric oxide production. C(2)C(12) myoblasts in differentiation media received one of the following treatments for 120 h: 1 mM L-Arg, 0.1 mM N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), L-Arg + L-NAME, 10 mM L-Lysine, or no supplement (Control). Cultures were fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microphotometric image analysis of myotube density, nuclear density, and fusion index (% of total nuclei in myotubes). Endogenous production of nitric oxide during the treatment period peaked between 24 and 48 h. L-Arg amplified nitric oxide production between 0 and 24 h and increased myotube density, total nuclei number, and nuclear fusion index. These L-Arg effects were prevented by the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. Further, L-Lysine, a competitive inhibitor of L-Arg uptake, repressed nitric oxide production and reduced myotube density and fusion index. In summary, L-Arg augments myotube formation and increases nitric oxide production in a process limited by cellular L-Arg uptake.

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solution of nitric oxide in different formal oxidation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Rocha, Willian R.

    2015-10-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the early chemical events involved in the dynamics of nitric oxide (NOrad), nitrosonium cation (NO+) and nitroxide anion (NO-) in aqueous solution. The NO+ ion is very reactive in aqueous solution having a lifetime of ∼4 × 10-13 s, which is shorter than the value of 3 × 10-10 s predicted experimentally. The NO+ reacts generating the nitrous acid as an intermediate and the NO2- ion as the final product. The dynamics of NOrad revealed the reversibly formation of a transient anion radical species HONOrad -.

  10. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshigai, Emi; Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization; Machida, Toru

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),more » which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.« less

  11. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Rutherford, Daniel; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator in both health and disease. In addition to its effects on vascular tone and platelet function, it plays roles in inflammation and pain perception that may be of relevance in osteoarthritis. Many patients with osteoarthritis take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) long term for pain control. Over recent years concern has been raised about the possible cardiovascular side effects of NSAIDs. The reasons for this possible increased cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs are not yet entirely clear, although changes in blood pressure, renal salt handling and platelet function may contribute. Recently, drugs that chemically link a NSAID with a NO donating moiety (cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting NO-donating drugs [CINODs]) were developed. NO is an important mediator of endothelial function, acting as a vasodilator and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and having anti-inflammatory properties. The potential benefits of CINODs include the combination of effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with NO release, which might counterbalance any adverse cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Effects of CINODs in animal studies include inhibition of vasopressor responses, blood pressure reduction in hypertensive rats and inhibition of platelet aggregation. CINODs may also reduce ischemic damage to compromised myocardial tissue. In addition, endothelial dysfunction is a recognized feature of inflammatory arthritides, and therefore a drug that might provide slow release of NO to the vasculature while treating pain is an attractive prospect in these conditions. Further studies of the effects of CINODs in humans are required, but these agents represent a potential exciting advance in the management of osteoarthritis.

  12. Reproductive tissue regression: involvement of caspases, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide during moulting in White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Anish, D; Sastry, K V H; Sundaresan, N R; Saxena, V K; Singh, R; Mohan, J

    2008-03-03

    Moulting is a natural physiological process where the reproductive system of birds undergoes complete remodeling in preparation for the next laying cycle. In domestic chickens, moulting is artificially induced by feed withdrawal to recycle the old laying flock for best profit margins. This has received severe criticism from animal welfare organizations, forcing several countries to stop this practice. Several alternative methods to feed withdrawal methods were developed but were found to produce inconsistent results. Understanding the actual mechanism of moulting would help in designing a new animal welfare friendly method. The present investigation attempted to study the molecular mechanism of moulting in White Leghorn hens. Eighty-four layers (75 weeks) were divided into two groups. The birds in the first group were subjected to moulting by feed withdrawal (FW) while the other group received high dietary Zn (ZnF) treatment for 10 days. Six birds from each group were sacrificed on 0, 1-4, 6 and 10 days of moulting and mRNA expression of caspases-1, -2 and iNOS, along with the apoptotic ladder pattern and nitric oxide (NO) in the ovary and oviduct, was investigated. The mRNA expression of iNOS was upregulated with a corresponding increase in NO levels. Caspases-1 and -2 were differentially upregulated in the ovary and oviduct of moulted birds. A constant decline in serum estradiol and progesterone levels was also observed. It can be concluded that the pattern of reproductive regression during moulting by the two methods is different, as the expression of genes studied in the present investigation is different.

  13. Nitric oxide, can it be only good? Increasing the antioxidant properties of nitric oxide in hepatocytes by YC-1 compound.

    PubMed

    Aharoni-Simon, Michal; Anavi, Sarit; Beifuss, Uwe; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Nitric oxide (NO) on redox changes and fat accumulation in hepatocytes. AML-12 hepatocytes were exposed to the NO donor Diethylenetriamine-NONOate (DETA-NO). DETA-NO led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in lipid accumulation in the cells, measured by Nile red fluorescence. Exposure of the cells to 1mM DETA-NO for 24h increased reactive oxygen species production, mainly peroxides. At the same time, NO induced elevation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and a mild activation of the antioxidant transcription factors Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2). We used 100 μM YC-1 to inhibit HIF1α activity and induce activation of soluble Guanylate Cyclase (sGC). YC-1 alone did not affect fat accumulation, and only moderately increased the expression of Nrf-2-targeted genes Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) (Nqo1) and Glutathione S-transferase α1 (Gstα1). However, YC-1 abolished the negative effect of NO on fat accumulation when administered together. Strikingly, YC-1 potentiated the effect of NO on Nrf-2 activation, thus increasing dramatically the antioxidant properties of NO. Moreover, YC-1 intensified the effect of NO on the expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis markers. This study suggests that YC-1 may shift the deleterious effects of NO into the beneficial ones, and may improve the antioxidant properties of NO. 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  14. Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation is nitric oxide dependent. A novel action of insulin to increase nitric oxide release.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H O; Brechtel, G; Johnson, A; Fineberg, N; Baron, A D

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether insulin's effect to vasodilate skeletal muscle vasculature is mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific inhibitor of NO synthase, was administered directly into the femoral artery of normal subjects at a dose of 16 mg/min and leg blood flow (LBF) was measured during an infusion of saline (NS) or during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (HIC) designed to approximately double LBF. In response to the intrafemoral artery infusion of L-NMMA, LBF decreased from 0.296 +/- 0.032 to 0.235 +/- 0.022 liters/min during NS and from 0.479 +/- 0.118 to 0.266 +/- 0.052 liters/min during HIC, P < 0.03. The proportion of NO-dependent LBF during NS and HIC was approximately 20% and approximately 40%, respectively, P < 0.003 (NS vs. HIC). To elucidate whether insulin increases EDNO synthesis/release or EDNO action, vasodilative responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (MCh) or the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were studied in normal subjects during either NS or HIC. LBF increments in response to intrafemoral artery infusions of MCh but not SNP were augmented during HIC versus NS, P < 0.03. In summary, insulin-mediated vasodilation is EDNO dependent. Insulin vasodilation of skeletal muscle vasculature most likely occurs via increasing EDNO synthesis/release. Thus, insulin appears to be a novel modulator of the EDNO system.

  15. The Semireduced Mechanism for Nitric Oxide Reduction by Non-Heme Diiron Complexes: Modeling Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductases.

    PubMed

    White, Corey J; Speelman, Amy L; Kupper, Claudia; Demeshko, Serhiy; Meyer, Franc; Shanahan, James P; Alp, E Ercan; Hu, Michael; Zhao, Jiyong; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2018-02-21

    Flavodiiron nitric oxide reductases (FNORs) are a subclass of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) capable of preferential binding and subsequent reduction of NO to N 2 O. FNORs are found in certain pathogenic bacteria, equipping them with resistance to nitrosative stress, generated as a part of the immune defense in humans, and allowing them to proliferate. Here, we report the spectroscopic characterization and detailed reactivity studies of the diiron dinitrosyl model complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr)(NO) 2 ](OTf) 2 for the FNOR active site that is capable of reducing NO to N 2 O [Zheng et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4902-4905]. Using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and spectro-electrochemistry, we show that one reductive equivalent is in fact sufficient for the quantitative generation of N 2 O, following a semireduced reaction mechanism. This reaction is very efficient and produces N 2 O with a first-order rate constant k > 10 2 s -1 . Further isotope labeling studies confirm an intramolecular N-N coupling mechanism, consistent with the rapid time scale of the reduction and a very low barrier for N-N bond formation. Accordingly, the reaction proceeds at -80 °C, allowing for the direct observation of the mixed-valent product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, the initial reaction product is unstable and decays, ultimately generating the diferrous complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr) 2 ](OTf) and an unidentified ferric product. These results combined offer deep insight into the mechanism of NO reduction by the relevant model complex [Fe 2 (BPMP)(OPr)(NO) 2 ] 2+ and provide direct evidence that the semireduced mechanism would constitute a highly efficient pathway to accomplish NO reduction to N 2 O in FNORs and in synthetic catalysts.

  16. Nitric oxide-sensing actuators for modulating structure in lipid-based liquid crystalline drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingtao; Hu, Jinming; Whittaker, Michael R; Davis, Thomas P; Boyd, Ben J

    2017-12-15

    Herein we report on the development of a nitric oxide-sensing lipid-based liquid crystalline (LLC) system specifically designed to release encapsulated drugs on exposure to NO through a stimulated phase change. A series of nitric oxide (NO)-sensing lipids compatible with phytantriol and GMO cubic phases were designed and synthesized, and utilized in enabling nitric oxide-sensing LLC systems. The nitric oxide (NO)-sensing lipids react with nitric oxide, resulting in hydrolysis of these lipids and phase transition of the LLC system. Specifically, the N-3-aminopyridinyl myristylamine (NAPyM)+phytantriol mixture formed a lamellar phase in excess aqueous environment. The NAPyM+phytantriol LLC responded to the nitric oxide gas as a chemical stimulus which triggers a phase transition from lamellar phase to inverse cubic and hexagonal phase. The nitric oxide-triggered phase transition of the LLC accelerated the release of encapsulated model drug from the LLC bulk phase, resulting in a 15-fold increase in the diffusion coefficient compared to the starting lamellar structure. The nitric oxide-sensing LLC system has potential application in the development of smart medicines to treat nitric oxide implicated diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic Consequences of a Genetic Predisposition to Enhanced Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    PubMed

    Emdin, Connor A; Khera, Amit V; Klarin, Derek; Natarajan, Pradeep; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Nomura, Akihiro; Haas, Mary; Aragam, Krishna; Ardissino, Diego; Wilson, James G; Schunkert, Heribert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Elosua, Roberto; Bown, Matthew J; Samani, Nilesh J; Baber, Usman; Erdmann, Jeanette; Gormley, Padhraig; Palotie, Aarno; Stitziel, Nathan O; Gupta, Namrata; Danesh, John; Saleheen, Danish; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2018-01-16

    Nitric oxide signaling plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and platelet activation. Here, we seek to understand the impact of a genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling on risk for cardiovascular diseases, thus informing the potential utility of pharmacological stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway as a therapeutic strategy. We analyzed the association of common and rare genetic variants in 2 genes that mediate nitric oxide signaling (Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 [ NOS3 ] and Guanylate Cyclase 1, Soluble, Alpha 3 [ GUCY1A3 ]) with a range of human phenotypes. We selected 2 common variants (rs3918226 in NOS3 and rs7692387 in GUCY1A3 ) known to associate with increased NOS3 and GUCY1A3 expression and reduced mean arterial pressure, combined them into a genetic score, and standardized this exposure to a 5 mm Hg reduction in mean arterial pressure. Using individual-level data from 335 464 participants in the UK Biobank and summary association results from 7 large-scale genome-wide association studies, we examined the effect of this nitric oxide signaling score on cardiometabolic and other diseases. We also examined whether rare loss-of-function mutations in NOS3 and GUCY1A3 were associated with coronary heart disease using gene sequencing data from the Myocardial Infarction Genetics Consortium (n=27 815). A genetic predisposition to enhanced nitric oxide signaling was associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.45; P =5.5*10 -26 ], peripheral arterial disease (odds ratio 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.68; P =0.0005), and stroke (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.76; P =0.0006). In a mediation analysis, the effect of the genetic score on decreased coronary heart disease risk extended beyond its effect on blood pressure. Conversely, rare variants that inactivate the NOS3 or GUCY1A3 genes were associated with a 23 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI, 12-34; P =5.6*10 -5

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, M K; Howarth, P H

    2001-03-01

    Nitric oxide is known to be present in the exhaled air of normal subjects and at higher concentrations in asthmatics. The aim of this study was to measure exhaled nitric oxide levels in patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or with pneumonia. Within 24 hours of admission exhaled nitric oxide levels were measured by a chemiluminescent analyzer in 11 patients with acute sever asthma, 19 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in 12 patients with pneumonia. In asthmatics measurements were made on 3 occasions, at day 1, 4, and 28 and were related to changes in peak expiratory flow rate. On admission median exhaled nitric oxide levels (range) were significantly higher in asthmatics 22 (9.3-74) parts per billion in comparison to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 10.3 (2.7-34) parts per billion; p < 0.01, pneumonia 7 (4-17) parts per billion; p<0.001, and normal subjects 8.7 (5-13.3) parts per billion; p < 0.001. Following treatment the asthmatics had a significant reduction in their exhaled nitric oxide levels from 22 (9.3-74) parts per billion on day 1 to 9.7 (5.7-18.3) parts per billion on day 28; p = 0.005. Peak expiratory flow rate measurements increased from 200 (120-280) l/min on day 1 to 280 (150-475) l/min on day 4; p < 0.05 and to 390 (150-530) l/min on day 28; p < 0.01. A strong negative correlation existed between peak expiratory flow rate measurements and exhaled nitric oxide levels in asthmatics on day 28 (r = -0.70; p = 0.017). Acute exacerbations of asthma are associated with increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide in contrast to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute pneumonia. Exhaled nitric oxide may be a useful indirect marker of asthmatic airway inflammation. The differing time course of response of nitric oxide to peak flow measures suggests that these two measures are reflecting differing airway

  19. Remote sensing of nitric oxide emissions from planes, trains and automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Peter John

    Remote sensing has been proven as an effective method for measuring in-use mobile source emissions. This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source nitric oxide, based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver for measuring carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The new remote sensor makes use of a high-speed ultraviolet spectrometer to quantify nitric oxide by absorption spectroscopy at 226 nm in the ultraviolet region. The high-speed spectrometer is coupled to an existing FEAT remote sensor, for the simultaneous measurement of CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons by non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The utility of the instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of nitric oxide emissions from automobiles, commercial aircraft, and railroad locomotives. The remote sensor was used to measure nitric oxide emissions from motor vehicles in Chicago in 1997 and 1998, as part of a five-year study to characterize motor vehicle emissions and deterioration in that city. Emissions data were collected for over 19,000 vehicles in 1997 and almost 23,000 vehicles in 1998. All of these records contained valid measurements for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, in addition to nitric oxide. In September of 1997, a study was conducted with the cooperation of British Airways and the British Airports Authority to demonstrate the capability of the remote sensor in measuring nitric oxide emissions from in-use commercial aircraft. In two days of sampling at London Heathrow Airport, a total of 122 measurements were made of 90 different aircraft, ranging in size from Gulfstream executive jets to Boeing 747-400s. The measured nitric oxide emission indices were not inconsistent with commercial aircraft emission indices published by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The utility of the remote sensor in measuring nitric oxide emissions from railroad locomotives was demonstrated in January of 1999, in a study conducted with

  20. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in ovine model of acute lung injury*

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Connelly, Rhykka; Wang, Jianpu; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Horvath, Eszter; Szabo, Csaba; Jaroch, Stefan; Hölscher, Peter; Hillmann, Margrit; Traber, Lillian D.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury is a serious complication of burn patients with concomitant smoke inhalation injury. Nitric oxide has been shown to play a major role in pulmonary dysfunction from thermal damage. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase could ameliorate the severity of acute lung injury using our well-established ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animals study. Setting Investigational intensive care unit at university hospital. Subjects Adult female sheep Interventions Female sheep (n = 16) were surgically prepared for the study. Seven days after surgery, all sheep were randomly allocated into three study groups: sham (noninjured, nontreated, n = 6); control (injured, treated with saline, n = 6); and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (injured, treated with specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, ZK 234238 (n = 4). Control and neuronal nitric oxide synthase groups were given a cutaneous burn (40% of total body surface, third degree) and insufflated with cotton smoke (48 breaths, <40°C) under halothane anesthesia. Animals in sham group received fake injury also under halothane anesthesia. After injury or fake injury procedure, all sheep were placed on ventilators and resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase group was administered with continuous infusion of ZK 234238 started 1 hr postinjury with a dose of 100 μg/kg/hr. Sham and control groups received same amount of saline. Measurements and Main Results Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics monitored during the 24-hr experimental time period was stable in the sham group. Control sheep developed multiple signs of acute lung injury. This pathophysiology included decreased pulmonary gas exchange and lung compliance, increased pulmonary edema, and inflammatory indices, such as interleukin-8. Treatment of

  1. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide reductases: from the last universal common ancestor to modern bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Bäumler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical gradient that ensues from the enzymatic activity of cytochromes such as nitrate reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and quinol oxidase contributes to the bioenergetics of the bacterial cell. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by bacterial pathogens can, however, be uncoupled from proton translocation and biosynthesis of ATP or NH4+, but still linked to quinol and NADH oxidation. Ancestral nitric oxide reductases, as well as cytochrome coxidases and quinol bo oxidases evolved from the former, are capable of binding and detoxifying nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. The NO-metabolizing activity associated with these cytochromes can be a sizable source of antinitrosative defense in bacteria during their associations with host cells. Nitrosylation of terminal cytochromes arrests respiration, reprograms bacterial metabolism, stimulates antioxidant defenses and alters antibiotic cytotoxicity. Collectively, the bioenergetics and regulation of redox homeostasis that accompanies the utilization of nitrogen oxides and detoxification of nitric oxide by cytochromes of the electron transport chain increases fitness of many Gram-positive and –negative pathogens during their associations with invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:26426528

  2. Shear stress increases nitric oxide production in thick ascending limbs

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Pablo D.; Hong, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    We showed that luminal flow stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production in thick ascending limbs. Ion delivery, stretch, pressure, and shear stress all increase when flow is enhanced. We hypothesized that shear stress stimulates NO in thick ascending limbs, whereas stretch, pressure, and ion delivery do not. We measured NO in isolated, perfused rat thick ascending limbs using the NO-sensitive dye DAF FM-DA. NO production rose from 21 ± 7 to 58 ± 12 AU/min (P < 0.02; n = 7) when we increased luminal flow from 0 to 20 nl/min, but dropped to 16 ± 8 AU/min (P < 0.02; n = 7) 10 min after flow was stopped. Flow did not increase NO in tubules from mice lacking NO synthase 3 (NOS 3). Flow stimulated NO production by the same extent in tubules perfused with ion-free solution and physiological saline (20 ± 7 vs. 24 ± 6 AU/min; n = 7). Increasing stretch while reducing shear stress and pressure lowered NO generation from 42 ± 9 to 17 ± 6 AU/min (P < 0.03; n = 6). In the absence of shear stress, increasing pressure and stretch had no effect on NO production (2 ± 8 vs. 8 ± 8 AU/min; n = 6). Similar results were obtained in the presence of tempol (100 μmol/l), a O2− scavenger. Primary cultures of thick ascending limb cells subjected to shear stresses of 0.02 and 0.55 dyne/cm2 produced NO at rates of 55 ± 10 and 315 ± 93 AU/s, respectively (P < 0.002; n = 7). Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (5 mmol/l) blocked the shear stress-induced increase in NO production. We concluded that shear stress rather than pressure, stretch, or ion delivery mediates flow-induced stimulation of NO by NOS 3 in thick ascending limbs. PMID:20719980

  3. S-Nitrosation and regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Douglas A; Erwin, Phillip A; Michel, Thomas; Marletta, Michael A

    2005-03-29

    The inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and three zinc tetrathiolate mutants (C104A, C109A, and C104A/C109A) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The mutants were found by ICP-AES and the zinc-specific PAR colorimetric assay to be zinc free, whereas the wild-type iNOS zinc content was 0.38 +/- 0.01 mol of Zn/mol of iNOS dimer. The cysteine mutants (C104A and C109A) had an activity within error of wild-type iNOS (2.24 +/- 0.12 micromol of NO min(-1) mg(-1)), but the double cysteine mutant had a modestly decreased activity (1.75 +/- 0.14 micromol of NO min(-1) mg(-1)). To determine if NO could stimulate release of zinc and dimer dissociation, wild-type protein was allowed to react with an NO donor, DEA/NO, followed by buffer exchange. ICP-AES of samples treated with 10 microM DEA/NO showed a decrease in zinc content (0.23 +/- 0.01 to 0.09 +/- 0.01 mol of Zn/mol of iNOS dimer) with no loss of heme iron. Gel filtration of wild-type iNOS treated similarly resulted in approximately 20% more monomeric iNOS compared to a DEA-treated sample. Only wild-type iNOS had decreased activity (42 +/- 2%) after reaction with 50 microM DEA/NO compared to a control sample. Using the biotin switch method under the same conditions, only wild-type iNOS had increased levels of S-biotinylation. S-Biotinylation was mapped to C104 and C109 on wild-type iNOS using LysC digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Immunoprecipitation of iNOS from the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW-264.7, and the biotin switch method were used to confirm endogenous S-nitrosation of iNOS. The data show that S-nitrosation of the zinc tetrathiolate cysteine results in zinc release from the dimer interface and formation of inactive monomers, suggesting that this mode of inhibition might occur in vivo.

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 μg/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and

  5. Heart Failure, Left Ventricular Remodeling, and Circulating Nitric Oxide Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Julio A; Akers, Scott R; Trieu, Lien; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Tariq, Ali; Vassim, Izzah; Koppula, Maheswara R; Syed, Amer Ahmed; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Townsend, Raymond R; Cappola, Thomas P; Margulies, Kenneth B; Zamani, Payman

    2016-10-14

    Stable plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO M ), composed predominantly of nitrate and nitrite, are attractive biomarkers of NO bioavailability. NO M levels integrate the influence of NO-synthase-derived NO production/metabolism, dietary intake of inorganic nitrate/nitrite, and clearance of NO M . Furthermore, nitrate and nitrite, the most abundant NO M , can be reduced to NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. We compared serum NO M among subjects without heart failure (n=126), subjects with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; n=43), and subjects with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; n=32). LV mass and extracellular volume fraction were measured with cardiac MRI. Plasma NO M levels were measured after reduction to NO via reaction with vanadium (III)/hydrochloric acid. Subjects with HFpEF demonstrated significantly lower unadjusted levels of NO M (8.0 μmol/L; 95% CI 6.2-10.4 μmol/L; ANOVA P=0.013) than subjects without HF (12.0 μmol/L; 95% CI 10.4-13.9 μmol/L) or those with HFrEF (13.5 μmol/L; 95% CI 9.7-18.9 μmol/L). There were no significant differences in NO M between subjects with HFrEF and subjects without HF. In a multivariable model that adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, and glomerular filtration rate, HFpEF remained a predictor of lower NO M (β=-0.43; P=0.013). NO M did not correlate with LV mass, or LV diffuse fibrosis. HFpEF, but not HFrEF, is associated with reduced plasma NO M , suggesting greater endothelial dysfunction, enhanced clearance, or deficient dietary ingestion of inorganic nitrate. Our findings may underlie the salutary effects of inorganic nitrate supplementation demonstrated in recent clinical trials in HFpEF. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Mars’ seasonal mesospheric transport seen through nitric oxide nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milby, Zachariah; Stiepen, Arnaud; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Stevens, Michael H.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Evans, J. Scott; Stewart, A. Ian; Chaffin, Michael; Crismani, Matteo; McClintock, William E.; Clarke, John T.; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Forget, Francois; Lo, Daniel Y.; Hubert, Benoît; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet nightglow in the atmosphere of Mars through nitric oxide (NO) δ and γ band emissions as observed by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft when it is at apoapse and periapse.In the dayside thermosphere of Mars, solar extreme-ultraviolet radiation dissociates CO2 and N2 molecules. O(3P) and N(4S) atoms are carried from the dayside to the nightside by the day-night hemispheric transport process, where they descend through the nightside mesosphere and can radiatively recombine to form NO(C2Π). The excited molecules rapidly relax by emitting photons in the UV δ and γ bands. These emissions are indicators of the N and O atom fluxes from the dayside to Mars’ nightside and the descending circulation pattern from the nightside thermosphere to the mesosphere (e.g. Bertaux et al., 2005 ; Bougher et al., 1990 ; Cox et al., 2008 ; Gagné et al., 2013 ; Gérard et al., 2008 ; Stiepen et al., 2015, 2017).Observations of these emissions are gathered from a large dataset spanning different seasonal conditions.We present discussion on the variability in the brightness and altitude of the emission with season, geographical position (longitude), and local time, along with possible interpretation by local and global changes in the mesosphere dynamics. We show the possible impact of atmospheric waves forcing longitudinal variability and data-to-model comparisons indicating a wave-3 structure in Mars’ nightside mesosphere. Quantitative comparison with calculations of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-Mars Global Climate Model (LMD-MGCM) suggests the model reproduces both the global trend of NO nightglow emission and its seasonal variation. However, it also indicates large discrepancies, with the emission up to a factor 50 times fainter in the model, suggesting that the predicted transport is too efficient toward the night winter pole in the thermosphere by

  7. Antibacterial activity of nitric oxide releasing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, Amedea B.; Manosalva, Nixson; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Pelegrino, Milena T.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Rubilar, Olga; Duran, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known potent antimicrobial agents. Similarly, the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has important antibacterial activity, and due to its instability, the combination of NO and nanomaterials has been applied in several biomedical applications. The aim of this work was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of a new NO-releasing AgNPs. Herein, AgNPs were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by catechin, a natural polyphenol and potent antioxidant agent, derived from green tea extract. Catechin acts as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule on the surface of AgNPs, minimizing particle agglomeration. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. The results showed the formation of AgNPs with average hydrodynamic size of 44 nm, polydispersity index of 0.21, and zeta potential of -35.9 mV. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of the AgNP core and cathecin as capping agent. The low molecular weight mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which contain free thiol group, was added on the surface of catechin-AgNPs, leading to the formation of MSA-catechin-AgNPs (the NO precursor nanoparticle). Free thiol groups of MSA-catechin-AgNPs were nitrosated leading to the formation of S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA), the NO donor. The amount of 342 ± 16 µmol of NO was released per gram of S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs. The antibacterial activities of catechin-AgNPs, MSA-catechin-AgNPs, and S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs were evaluated towards different resistant bacterial strains. The results demonstrated an enhanced antibacterial activity of the NO-releasing AgNP. For instance, the minimal inhibitory concentration values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) incubated with AgNPs-catechin, AgNPs-catechin-MSA, and AgNPs-catechin-S-nitroso-MSA were found to be 62, 125 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. While in the case of

  8. Modeling of the Nitric Oxide Transport in the Human Lungs.

    PubMed

    Karamaoun, Cyril; Van Muylem, Alain; Haut, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    In the human lungs, nitric oxide (NO) acts as a bronchodilatator, by relaxing the bronchial smooth muscles and is closely linked to the inflammatory status of the lungs, owing to its antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the molar fraction of NO in the exhaled air has been shown to be higher for asthmatic patients than for healthy patients. Multiple models have been developed in order to characterize the NO dynamics in the lungs, owing to their complex structure. Indeed, direct measurements in the lungs are difficult and, therefore, these models are valuable tools to interpret experimental data. In this work, a new model of the NO transport in the human lungs is proposed. It belongs to the family of the morphological models and is based on the morphometric model of Weibel (1963). When compared to models published previously, its main new features are the layered representation of the wall of the airways and the possibility to simulate the influence of bronchoconstriction (BC) and of the presence of mucus on the NO transport in lungs. The model is based on a geometrical description of the lungs, at rest and during a respiratory cycle, coupled with transport equations, written in the layers composing an airway wall and in the lumen of the airways. First, it is checked that the model is able to reproduce experimental information available in the literature. Second, the model is used to discuss some features of the NO transport in healthy and unhealthy lungs. The simulation results are analyzed, especially when BC has occurred in the lungs. For instance, it is shown that BC can have a significant influence on the NO transport in the tissues composing an airway wall. It is also shown that the relation between BC and the molar fraction of NO in the exhaled air is complex. Indeed, BC might lead to an increase or to a decrease of this molar fraction, depending on the extent of the BC and on the possible presence of mucus. This should be confirmed experimentally and might

  9. ExoMol line list - XXI. Nitric Oxide (NO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andy; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Bernath, Peter; Müller, Holger S. P.; McConkey, Stephanie; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Line lists for the X 2Π electronic ground state for the parent isotopologue of nitric oxide (14N16O) and five other major isotopologues (14N17O, 14N18O, 15N16O, 15N17O and 15N18O) are presented. The line lists are constructed using empirical energy levels (and line positions) and high-level ab initio intensities. The energy levels were obtained using a combination of two approaches, from an effective Hamiltonian and from solving the rovibronic Schrödinger equation variationally. The effective Hamiltonian model was obtained through a fit to the experimental line positions of NO available in the literature for all six isotopologues using the programs spfit and spcat. The variational model was built through a least squares fit of the ab initio potential and spin-orbit curves to the experimentally derived energies and experimental line positions of the main isotopologue only using the duo program. The ab initio potential energy, spin-orbit and dipole moment curves (PEC, SOC and DMC) are computed using high-level ab initio methods and the marvel method is used to obtain energies of NO from experimental transition frequencies. The line lists are constructed for each isotopologue based on the use of the most accurate energy levels and the ab initio DMC. Each line list covers a wavenumber range from 0 to 40 000 cm-1 with approximately 22 000 rovibronic states and 2.3-2.6 million transitions extending to Jmax = 184.5 and vmax = 51. Partition functions are also calculated up to a temperature of 5000 K. The calculated absorption line intensities at 296 K using these line lists show excellent agreement with those included in the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. The computed NO line lists are the most comprehensive to date, covering a wider wavenumber and temperature range compared to both the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. These line lists are also more accurate than those used in HITEMP. The full line lists are available from the CDS http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr and ExoMol www

  10. Connection between the striatal neurokinin-1 receptor and nitric oxide formation during methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Wenjing; Ali, Syed F; Angulo, Jesus A

    2008-10-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used "club drug" that produces neural damage in the brain, including the loss of some neurons. METH-induced striatal neuronal loss has been attenuated by pretreatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist WIN-51,708 in mice. Using a histologic method, we have observed the internalization of the neurokinin-1 receptor into endosomes in the striatal somatostatin/NPY/nitric oxide synthase interneurons. To investigate the role of this interneuron in the striatal cell death induced by METH, we assessed by immunohistochemistry the number of striatal nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons in the presence of METH at 8 and 16 hours after systemic injection of a bolus of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.). We found the number of striatal nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons unchanged at these time points after METH. In a separate experiment we measured the levels of striatal 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) by HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography) as an indirect index of nitric oxide synthesis. METH increased the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in the striatum and this increase was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist. These observations suggest a causal relationship between the neurokinin-1 receptor and the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase that warrants further investigation.

  11. Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, T. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide can inhibit cytoskeletal breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by inhibiting calpain cleavage of talin. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside prevented many of the effects of calcium ionophore on C(2)C(12) muscle cells, including preventing talin proteolysis and release into the cytosol and reducing loss of vinculin, cell detachment, and loss of cellular protein. These results indicate that nitric oxide inhibition of calpain protected the cells from ionophore-induced proteolysis. Calpain inhibitor I and a cell-permeable calpastatin peptide also protected the cells from proteolysis, confirming that ionophore-induced proteolysis was primarily calpain mediated. The activity of m-calpain in a casein zymogram was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, and this inhibition was reversed by dithiothreitol. Previous incubation with the active site-targeted calpain inhibitor I prevented most of the sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of m-calpain activity. These data suggest that nitric oxide inhibited m-calpain activity via S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine. The results of this study indicate that nitric oxide produced endogenously by skeletal muscle and other cell types has the potential to inhibit m-calpain activity and cytoskeletal proteolysis.

  12. Monoclonal L-citrulline immunostaining reveals nitric oxide-producing vestibular neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, G. R.; Friedrich, V. L. Jr; Martinelli, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide is an unstable free radical that serves as a novel messenger molecule in the central nervous system (CNS). In order to understand the interplay between classic and novel chemical communication systems in vestibular pathways, the staining obtained using a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline was compared with the labeling observed using more traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide. Brainstem tissue from adult rats was processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, a polyclonal antiserum against neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and/or NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Our findings demonstrate that L-citrulline can be fixed in situ by vascular perfusion, and can be visualized in fixed CNS tissue sections by immunocytochemistry. Further, the same vestibular regions and cell types are labeled by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase antiserum, and by our anti-L-citrulline antibody. Clusters of L-citrulline-immunoreactive neurons are present in subregions of the vestibular nuclei, including the caudal portion of the inferior vestibular nucleus, the magnocellular portion of the medial vestibular nucleus, and the large cells in the ventral tier of the lateral vestibular nucleus. NADPH-diaphorase histochemical staining of these neurons clearly demonstrated their multipolar, fusiform and globular somata and long varicose dendritic processes. These results provide support for the suggestion that nitric oxide serves key roles in both vestibulo-autonomic and vestibulo-spinal pathways.

  13. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, H T; Solares, G J; Kim, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2015-02-01

    Boosting nitric oxide production during exercise by various means has been found to improve exercise performance. We investigated the effects of a nitric oxide releasing lozenge with added caffeine (70 mg) on oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise and cycling time trial performance using a double-blinded randomized, crossover experimental design. 15 moderately trained cyclists (7 females and 8 males) were randomly assigned to ingest the caffeinated nitric oxide lozenge or placebo 5 min before exercise. Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were assessed at rest and at 50%, 65% and 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise performance was assessed by time to complete a simulated 20.15 km cycling time-trial course. No significant treatment effects for oxygen consumption or blood lactate at rest or during steady-state exercise were observed. However, time-trial performance was improved by 2.1% (p<0.01) when participants consumed the nitric oxide lozenge (2,424±69 s) compared to placebo (2,476±78 s) and without a significant difference in rating of perceived exertion. These results suggest that acute supplementation with a caffeinated nitric oxide releasing lozenge may be a practical and effective means of improving aerobic exercise performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The role of nitric oxide in the reversal of hemorrhagic shock by oxotremorine.

    PubMed

    Gören, M Z; Akici, A; Karaalp, A; Aker, R; Oktay, S

    2001-10-05

    In the present study, the effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), on the antishock actions of oxotremorine was investigated in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock under urethane anesthesia. L-citrulline production in the AV3V region, as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection throughout the experiment. The rats were pretreated with either intravenous (i.v.) physiological saline or L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg) before bleeding. L-NAME potentiated the reversal of hypotension by oxotremorine (25 microg/kg, i.v.). However, oxotremorine either alone or in combination with L-NAME did not produce any significant change in 60-min survival rate at this low dose. Analysis of microdialysis samples collected from the AV3V region showed that L-citrulline concentration increased during bleeding and that this increase was abolished by L-NAME pretreatment. These results may suggest that nitric oxide production contributes to hypotension in rats bled to shock since nitric oxide levels in the AV3V region increased in response to bleeding and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition abolished this increase and potentiated the oxotremorine-induced reversal of hypotension.

  15. Study on relationship of nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic chole-cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Fu; Cai, Dong; Zhu, You-Gen; Yang, Jin-Lu; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Yu, Yang-Hai

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study relationship of injury induced by nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: The values of plasma nitric oxide (P-NO), plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma β-carotene (P-β-CAR), plasma lipoperoxides (P-LPO), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD), erythrocyte catalase (E-CAT), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSH-Px) activities and erythrocyte lipoperoxides (E-LPO) level in 77 patients with chro nic cholecystitis and 80 healthy control subjects were determined, differences of the above average values between t he patient group and the control group and differences of the average values bet ween preoperative and postoperative patients were analyzed and compared, linear regression and correlation of the disease course with the above determination values as well as the stepwise regression and correlation of the course with th e values were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO, E-LPO were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px decreased (P < 0.01) in the patient group. The analysis of the lin ear regression and correlation s howed that with prolonging of the course, the values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO in the patients were gradually ascended and the values of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px descended (P < 0.01). The analysis of the stepwise regression and correlation indicated that the correlation of the course with P-NO, P-VE and P-β-CAR values was the closest. Compared with the preoperative patients, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO were significantly decre ased (P < 0.01) and the average values of P-VC, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px in postoperative pa tients increased (P < 0.01) in postoperative patients. But there was no signif icant difference in the average values of P-VE, P-β-CAR preope rative and postoperative patients. CONCLUSION: Chronic

  16. Nitric oxide and related factors linked to oxidation and inflammation as possible biomarkers of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bonafede, Roberto; Manucha, Walter

    As a prevalent cardiovascular disease, heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality. Therefore, there is a special interest in the study of efficient markers associated with risk and / or prediction of cardiovascular events. Multiple candidates are proposed, especially those involved in oxidative and inflammatory processes typical of cardiovascular disease, such as superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite. There is a lack of knowledge on the potential usefulness of these systems as biomarkers. This review aims to contribute to a better understanding of these systems, as well as an improved patient profile. Furthermore, a deep knowledge of these complex systems would also allow proposing new lines of research for the development of new therapeutic tools as a promising start for new approaches to this disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitric Oxide Decreases Acute Kidney Injury and Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chong; Berra, Lorenzo; Rezoagli, Emanuele; Yu, Binglan; Dong, Hailong; Yu, Shiqiang; Hou, Lihong; Chen, Min; Chen, Wensheng; Wang, Hongbing; Zheng, Qijun; Shen, Jie; Jin, Zhenxiao; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Rong; Christie, Emily; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Nordio, Francesco; Bonventre, Joseph V; Xiong, Lize; Zapol, Warren M

    2018-06-22

    No medical intervention has been identified that decreases acute kidney injury and improves renal outcome at 1-year after cardiac surgery. To determine whether administration of nitric oxide reduces the incidence of post-operative acute kidney injury and improves long-term kidney outcomes after multiple cardiac valve replacement requiring prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. 244 Patients undergoing elective, multiple valve replacement surgery mostly due to rheumatic fever were randomized to receive either nitric oxide (treatment) or nitrogen (control). Nitric oxide and nitrogen were administered via the gas exchanger during cardiopulmonary bypass and by inhalation for 24h post-operatively. Primary outcome: Oxidation of ferrous plasma oxyhemoglobin to ferric methemoglobin was associated to a reduced post-operative acute kidney injury from 64% (control group) to 50% (nitric oxide) (RR, 95% CI; 0.78, 0.62-0.97;P=0.014). At 90-days, transition to stage 3 chronic kidney disease was reduced from 33% in the controls to 21% in the treatment group (RR, 95%CI; 0.64, 0.41 - 0.99;P=0.024); and at 1-year, from 31% to 18% (RR, 95% CI; 0.59, 0.36 - 0.96;P=0.017). Nitric oxide treatment reduced the overall major adverse kidney events at 30-days (RR, 95% CI; 0.40, 0.18 - 0.92;P=0.016, 90-days (RR, 95% CI; 0.40, 0.17 - 0.92;P=0.015 and 1-year (RR, 95% CI; 0.47, 0.20-1.10;P=0.041). In patients undergoing multiple valve replacement and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass, administration of nitric oxide decreased the incidence of acute kidney injury, transition to stage 3 chronic kidney disease and major adverse kidney events at 30-days, 90-days, and 1-year. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01802619).

  18. Molecular biological effects of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition in ovine lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Wang, Jianpu; Pazdrak, Konrad; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Hamahata, Atsumori; Jonkam, Collette C.; Lange, Matthias; Connelly, Rhykka L.; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Cox, Robert A.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Horvath, Eszter; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D.; Whorton, Elbert; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is critically involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury resulting from combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. We hypothesized that 7-nitroindazole, a selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, blocks central molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of this double-hit insult. Twenty-five adult ewes were surgically prepared and randomly allocated to 1) an uninjured, untreated sham group (n = 7), 2) an injured control group with no treatment (n = 7), 3) an injury group treated with 7-nitroindazole from 1-h postinjury to the remainder of the 24-h study period (n = 7), or 4) a sham-operated group subjected only to 7-nitroindazole to judge the effects in health. The combination injury was associated with twofold increased activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and oxidative/nitrosative stress, as indicated by significant increases in plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations, 3-nitrotyrosine (an indicator of peroxynitrite formation), and malondialdehyde lung tissue content. The presence of systemic inflammation was evidenced by twofold, sixfold, and threefold increases in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, IL-8, and myeloperoxidase lung tissue concentrations, respectively (each P < 0.05 vs. sham). These molecular changes were linked to tissue damage, airway obstruction, and pulmonary shunting with deteriorated gas exchange. 7-Nitroindazole blocked, or at least attenuated, all these pathological changes. Our findings suggest 1) that nitric oxide formation derived from increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity represents a pivotal reactive agent in the patho-physiology of combined burn and smoke inhalation injury and 2) that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition represents a goal-directed approach to attenuate the degree of injury. PMID:19965980

  19. Nitric oxide-mediated oxidative damage and the progressive demise of motor neurons in ALS.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Derek A; Estévez, Alvaro G; Barbeito, Luis; Beckman, Joseph S

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative damage is a common and early feature of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and other neurodegenerative disorders. Dr. Mark Smith and his colleagues have built the case for oxidative stress being a primary progenitor rather than a secondary end-stage epiphenomenon of neurodegeneration. They proposed that reactive oxygen species contribute to the "age-related cascade of neurodegeneration," whereby accumulative oxidative damage with age promotes other characteristic pathological changes in afflicted brain regions, including protein aggregation, metabolic deficiencies, and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) likely plays a critical role in this age-related cascade. NO is a major signaling molecule produced in the central nervous system to modulate neurological activity through stimulating cyclic GMP synthesis. However, the same physiological concentrations of NO, relevant in cellular signaling, may also initiate and amplify oxidative damage by diffusion-limited reactions with superoxide (O(2)(•-)) to produce peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). This is perhaps best illustrated in ALS where physiological levels of NO promote survival of motor neurons, but the same concentrations can stimulate motor neuron apoptosis and glial cell activation under pathological conditions. While these changes represent a complex mechanism involving multiple cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, they also reveal general processes underlying neurodegeneration.

  20. A meta-analysis of biomarkers related to oxidative stress and nitric oxide pathway in migraine.

    PubMed

    Neri, Monica; Frustaci, Alessandra; Milic, Mirta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fini, Massimo; Bonassi, Stefano; Barbanti, Piero

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress are considered key events in the still unclear pathophysiology of migraine. Studies comparing the level of biomarkers related to nitric oxide (NO) pathway/oxidative stress in the blood/urine of migraineurs vs. unaffected controls were extracted from the PubMed database. Summary estimates of mean ratios (MR) were carried out whenever a minimum of three papers were available. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analyses, accounting for more than 1000 patients and controls, and compared with existing literature. Most studies measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed lower activity in cases, although the meta-analysis in erythrocytes gave null results. On the contrary, plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an aspecific biomarker of oxidative damage, showed a meta-MR of 2.20 (95% CI: 1.65-2.93). As for NOs, no significant results were found in plasma, serum and urine. However, higher levels were shown during attacks, in patients with aura, and an effect of diet was found. The analysis of glutathione precursor homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NO synthase inhibitor, gave inconclusive results. The role of the oxidative pathway in migraine is still uncertain. Interesting evidence emerged for TBARS and SOD, and concerning the possible role of diet in the control of NOx levels. © International Headache Society 2015.

  1. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  2. Understanding the Latitude Structure of Nitric Oxide in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to understand the latitude structure of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The problem was portrayed by a clear difference between predictions of the nitric oxide distribution from chemical/dynamical models and data from observations made by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SMEE) in the early to mid eighties. The data exhibits a flat latitude structure of NO, the models tend to produce at equatorial maximum. The first task was to use the UARS-HALOE data to confirm the SME observations. The purpose of this first phase was to verify the UARS-NO structure is consistent with the SME data. The next task was to determine the cause of the discrepancy between modeled and observed nitric oxide latitude structure. The result from the final phase indicated that the latitude structure in the Photo-Electron (PE) production rate was the most important.

  3. BIOCHEMISTRY OF MOBILE ZINC AND NITRIC OXIDE REVEALED BY FLUORESCENT SENSORS

    PubMed Central

    Pluth, Michael D.; Tomat, Elisa; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Biologically mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation of these two species has emerged in several areas of human physiology, providing additional incentive for developing adequate detection systems for Zn(II) ions and NO in biological specimens. Fluorescent probes for both of these bioinorganic analytes provide excellent tools for their detection, with high spatial and temporal resolution. We review the most widely used fluorescent sensors for biological zinc and nitric oxide, together with promising new developments and unmet needs of contemporary Zn(II) and NO biological imaging. The interplay between zinc and nitric oxide in the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems is highlighted to illustrate the contributions of selective fluorescent probes to the study of these two important bioinorganic analytes. PMID:21675918

  4. Investigation on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships of a Series of Inducible Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh C; Sharma, S

    2016-12-01

    A series of 2-dihydro-4-quinazolin with potent highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase activities was subjected to quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) analysis. Statistically significant equations with high correlation coefficient (r 2  = 0.8219) were developed. The k-nearest neighbor model has showed good cross-validated correlation coefficient and external validation values of 0.7866 and 0.7133, respectively. The selected electrostatic field descriptors the presence of blue ball around R1 and R4 in the quinazolinamine moiety showed electronegative groups favorable for nitric oxide synthase activity. The QSAR models may lead to the structural requirements of inducible nitric oxide compounds and help in the design of new compounds.

  5. Possible involvement of nitric oxide in pilocarpine induced seminal emission in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomé, A R; da Silva, J C; Souza, A A; Mattos, J P; Vale, M R; Rao, V S

    1999-12-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (0.75-3.0 mg/kg) caused a dose-related seminal emission in adult male rats. The seminal emission response to 3 mg/kg of pilocarpine was greatly reduced in atropinized (5 and 10 mg/kg, SC) animals, suggesting a cholinomimetic effect. Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, SC), a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, also inhibited the pilocarpine-induced seminal emission, which was reversed by L-arginine (600 mg/kg, SC) or by coinjection of sodium nitroprusside (0.5 mg/kg, SC). Urine analysis for levels of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-), showed marked alterations in accordance with the drug treatments. The results suggest that nitric oxide mediates the inhibitory neurotransmission responsible for seminal emission in pilocarpine stimulated rats.

  6. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is reduced in cystic fibrosis murine and human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, T J; Drumm, M L

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that exhaled nitric oxide levels are reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have examined the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the airways by immunostaining and found that iNOS is constitutively expressed in the airway epithelia of non-CF mouse and human tissues but essentially absent in the epithelium of CF airways. We explored potential consequences of lost iNOS expression and found that iNOS inhibition significantly increases mouse nasal trans-epithelial potential difference, and hindered the ability of excised mouse lungs to prevent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The absence of continuous nitric oxide production in epithelial cells of CF airways may play a role in two CF-associated characteristics: hyperabsorption of sodium and susceptibility to bacterial infections. PMID:9739054

  7. Nitric Oxide in the Crustacean Brain: Regulation of Neurogenesis and Morphogenesis in the Developing Olfactory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Benton, J.L.; Sandeman, D.C.; Beltz, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays major roles during development and in adult organisms. We examined the temporal and spatial patterns of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appearance in the embryonic lobster brain to localize sources of NO activity; potential NO targets were identified by defining the distribution of NO-induced cGMP. Staining patterns are compared with NOS and cyclic 3,5 guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) distribution in adult lobster brains. Manipulation of NO levels influences olfactory glomerular formation and stabilization, as well as levels of neurogenesis among the olfactory projection neurons. In the first 2 days following ablation of the lateral antennular flagella in juvenile lobsters, a wave of increased NOS immunoreactivity and a reduction in neurogenesis occur. These studies implicate nitric oxide as a developmental architect and also support a role for this molecule in the neural response to injury in the olfactory pathway. PMID:17948307

  8. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Placebo neural systems: nitric oxide, morphine and the dopamine brain reward and motivation circuitries.

    PubMed

    Fricchione, Gregory; Stefano, George B

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the placebo response is related to the tonic effects of constitutive nitric oxide in neural, vascular and immune tissues. Constitutive nitric oxide levels play a role in the modulation of dopamine outflow in the nigrostriatal movement and the mesolimbic and mesocortical reward and motivation circuitries. Endogenous morphine, which stimulates constitutive nitric oxide, may be an important signal molecule working at mu receptors on gamma aminobutyric acid B interneurons to disinhibit nigral and tegmental dopamine output. We surmise that placebo induced belief will activate the prefrontal cortex with downstream stimulatory effects on these dopamine systems as well as on periaqueductal grey opioid output neurons. Placebo responses in Parkinson's disease, depression and pain disorder may result. In addition, mesolimbic/mesocortical control of the stress response systems may provide a way for the placebo response to benefit other medical conditions.

  10. Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Hyde, Embriette; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A.; Viirre, Erik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrates, such as cardiac therapeutics and food additives, are common headache triggers, with nitric oxide playing an important role. Facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity may contribute migraine-triggering levels of nitric oxide through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, we detected observable and significantly higher abundances of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide reductase genes in migraineurs versus nonmigraineurs in samples collected from the oral cavity and a slight but significant difference in fecal samples. IMPORTANCE Recent work has demonstrated a potentially symbiotic relationship between oral commensal bacteria and humans through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway (C. Duncan et al., Nat Med 1:546–551, 1995, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0695-546). Oral nitrate-reducing bacteria contribute physiologically relevant levels of nitrite and nitric oxide to the human host that may have positive downstream effects on cardiovascular health (V. Kapil et al., Free Radic Biol Med 55:93–100, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.11.013). In the work presented here, we used 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing to determine whether a connection exists between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, nitrates for cardiovascular disease, and migraines, which are a common side effect of nitrate medications (U. Thadani and T. Rodgers, Expert Opin Drug Saf 5:667–674, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.5.5.667). PMID:27822557

  11. [Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in monitoring and therapeutic management of asthma].

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno; Costa, Patrício; Afonso, Ariana; Machado, Vânia; Moreira, Carla; Gonçalves, Augusta; Gonçalves, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by hyper-responsiveness and bronchial inflammation. The bronchial inflammation in these patients can be monitored by measuring the fractional exhaled nitric oxide. This study aims to determine fractional exhaled nitric oxide association with peak expiratory flow and with asthma control inferred by the Global Initiative for Asthma. Observational, analytical and cross-sectional study of children with asthma, 6-12 years-old, followed in the Outpatient Respiratory Pathology of Braga Hospital. Sociodemographic and clinical information were collected through a questionnaire. fractional exhaled nitric oxide and peak expiratory flow were determined by portable analyzer Niox Mino® and flow meter, respectively. The sample is constituted by 101 asthmatic children, 63 (62.4%) of males and 38 (37.6%) females. The mean age of participants in the sample is 9.18 (1.99) years. The logistic regression performed with the cutoff value obtained by ROC curve, revealed that fractional exhaled nitric oxide (b(FENO classes) = 0.85; χ(2)Wald (1) = 8.71; OR = 2.33; p = 0.003) has a statistical significant effect on the probability of changing level of asthma control. The odds ratio of going from "controlled" to "partly controlled/uncontrolled" is 2.33 per each level of fractional exhaled nitric oxide. The probability of an asthmatic children change their level of asthma control, from 'controlled' to 'partly controlled/uncontrolled', taking into account a change in their fractional exhaled nitric oxide level, increases 133%.

  12. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Goad, John T.

    2007-03-15

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with nomore » significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation.« less

  13. Iron(II) porphyrins induced conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting Ting; Liu, Yong Dong; Zhong, Ru Gang

    2015-09-01

    Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by heme proteins was reported as a protective mechanism to hypoxic injury in mammalian physiology. In this study, the pathways of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrin (P) complexes, which were generally recognized as models for heme proteins, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). In view of two type isomers of combination of nitrite and Fe(II)(P), N-nitro- and O-nitrito-Fe(II)-porphyrin complexes, and two binding sites of proton to the different O atoms of nitrite moiety, four main pathways for the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide mediated by iron(II) porphyrins were proposed. The results indicate that the pathway of N-bound Fe(II)(P)(NO2) isomer into Fe(III)(P)(NO) and water is similar to that of O-bound isomer into nitric oxide and Fe(III)(P)(OH) in both thermodynamical and dynamical aspects. Based on the initial computational studies of five-coordinate nitrite complexes, the conversion of nitrite into NO mediated by Fe(II)(P)(L) complexes with 14 kinds of proximal ligands was also investigated. Generally, the same conclusion that the pathways of N-bound isomers are similar to those of O-bound isomer was obtained for iron(II) porphyrin with ligands. Different effects of ligands on the reduction reactions were also found. It is notable that the negative proximal ligands can improve reactive abilities of N-nitro-iron(II) porphyrins in the conversion of nitrite into nitric oxide compared to neutral ligands. The findings will be helpful to expand our understanding of the mechanism of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide by iron(II) porphyrins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension in Lambs Transfused with Stored Blood is Prevented by Breathing Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Baron, David M.; Yu, Binglan; Lei, Chong; Bagchi, Aranya; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Stowell, Christopher P.; Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2012-01-01

    Background During extended storage, erythrocytes undergo functional changes. These changes reduce the viability of erythrocytes leading to release of oxyhemoglobin, a potent scavenger of nitric oxide. We hypothesized that transfusion of ovine packed erythrocytes (PRBC) stored for prolonged periods would induce pulmonary vasoconstriction in lambs, and that reduced vascular nitric oxide concentrations would increase this vasoconstrictor effect. Methods We developed a model of autologous stored blood transfusion in lambs (n=36). Leukoreduced blood was stored for either 2 days (fresh PRBC) or 40 days (stored PRBC). Fresh or stored PRBC were transfused into donors instrumented for awake hemodynamic measurements. Hemodynamic effects of PRBC transfusion were also studied after infusion of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester (25 mg/kg) or during inhalation of nitric oxide (80 ppm). Results Cell-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the supernatant of stored PRBC than in supernatant of fresh PRBC (Mean±SD, 148±20 versus 41±13 mg/dl, respectively, P<0.001). Pulmonary artery pressure during transfusion of stored PRBC transiently increased from 13±1 to 18±1 mmHg (P<0.001) and was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin concentrations. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester potentiated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure induced by transfusing stored PRBC, whereas inhalation of nitric oxide prevented the vasoconstrictor response. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with reduced vascular nitric oxide levels due to endothelial dysfunction may be more susceptible to adverse effects of transfusing blood stored for prolonged periods. These patients might benefit from transfusion of fresh PRBC, when available, or inhaled nitric oxide supplementation to prevent the pulmonary hypertension associated with transfusion of stored PRBC. PMID:22293717

  15. Experimental and analytical study of nitric oxide formation during combustion of propane in a jet-stirred combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.; Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    A jet-stirred combustor, constructed of castable zirconia and with an Inconel injector, was used to study nitric oxide formation in propane-air combustion with residence times in the range from 3.2 to 3.3 msec and equivalence ratios varying from 0.7 to 1.4. Measurements were made of combustor operating temperature and of nitric oxide concentration. Maximum nitric oxide concentrations of the order of 55 ppm were found in the range of equivalence ratio from 1.0 to 1.1. A finite-rate chemical kinetic mechanism for propane combustion and nitric oxide formation was assembled by coupling an existing propane oxidation mechanism with the Zeldovich reactions and reactions of molecular nitrogen with hydrocarbon fragments. Analytical studies using this mechanism in a computer simulation of the experimental conditions revealed that the hydrocarbon-fragment-nitrogen reactions play a significant role in nitric oxide formation during fuel-rich combustion.

  16. Carboxyhemoglobin formation secondary to nitric oxide therapy in the setting of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruisi, Phillip; Ruisi, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been widely recognized as an exogenous poison, although endogenous mechanisms for its formation involve heme-oxygenase (HO) isoforms, more specifically HO-1, in the setting of oxidative stress such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, trauma, and nitric oxide use have been studied. In patients with refractory hypoxemia, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy is used to selectively vasodilate the pulmonary vasculature and improve ventilation-perfusion match. Inhaled nitric oxide is rapidly inactivated on binding to hemoglobin in the formation of nitrosyl- and methemoglobin in the pulmonary vasculature. Hence, inhaled nitric oxide has minimal systemic dissemination. Several experimental design studies involving lab rats have demonstrated increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin and exhaled CO as a result of nitric oxide HO-1 induction.

  17. Ferulic acid and its water-soluble derivatives inhibit nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kikugawa, Masaki; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported that two water-soluble derivatives of ferulic acid (1-feruloyl glycerol, 1-feruloyl diglycerol) previously developed by our group exhibited protective effects against amyloid-β-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we aimed to further understand this process by examining the derivatives' ability to suppress abnormal activation of astrocytes, the key event of neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) derivatives on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat primary astrocytes. The results showed that these compounds inhibited NO production and iNOS expression in a concentration-dependent manner and that the mechanism underlying these effects was the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. This evidence suggests that FA and its derivatives may be effective neuroprotective agents and could be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  18. Mycobacterial glycolipids di-O-acylated trehalose and tri-O-acylated trehalose downregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cueto, Patricia; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Magallanes-Puebla, Alejandro; López-Marín, Luz María; Segura-Salinas, Erika; Mancilla, Raúl

    2015-06-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious human health problem that affects millions of people in the world. Understanding the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is essential for tackling this devastating disease. Mtb possesses a very complex cell envelope containing a variety of lipid components that participate in the establishment of the infection. We have previously demonstrated that di-O-acylated trehalose (DAT), a non-covalently linked cell wall glycolipid, inhibits the proliferation of T lymphocytes and the production of cytokines. In this work we show that DAT and the closely related tri-O-acylated trehalose (TAT) inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophages (MØ). These findings show that DAT and TAT are cell-wall located virulence factors that downregulate an important effector of the immune response against mycobacteria.

  19. Investigating the sensitivity of nitric oxide infrared emissions to electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M. J.; Allan, M.

    2008-05-01

    Integral cross sections for low energy electron excitation of the 0→1, 0→2 and 0→3 vibrational modes in nitric oxide have quite recently become available [Trevisan et al. PRA 71, 052714 (2005)]. In this study we adapt our recent work [Campbell and Brunger GRL, in press (2007)], to look at the effect of these new cross sections on the production of nitric oxide infrared radiation. Predictions from our model are compared with measurements from Espy et al. [Planet. Space Sci. 36, 543 (1988)], with the inclusion of the new cross sections improving the agreement of the shape of the spectrum with the measurements.

  20. Delivery of nitric oxide to the interior of mammalian cell by carbon nanotube: MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Raczyński, Przemysław; Górny, Krzysztof; Dawid, Aleksander; Gburski, Zygmunt

    2014-07-15

    Computer simulations have been performed to study the nanoindentation of phospholipid bilayer by the single-walled armchair carbon nanotube, filled with the nitric oxide molecules. The process has been simulated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) technique at physiological temperature T = 310 K with a constant pulling velocity of the nanotube. The force acting on the nanotube during membrane penetration has been calculated. We show that the indentation by carbon nanotube does not permanently destroy the membrane structure (self-sealing of the membrane occurs). The mobility of nitric oxide molecules during the membrane nanoindentation is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Yomogin, an inhibitor of nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J H; Lee, H J; Jeong, Y S; Ryu, S Y; Han, Y N

    1998-08-01

    In activated macrophages the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) generates high amounts of toxic mediator, nitric oxide (NO) which contributes to the circulatory failure associated with septic shock. A sesquiterpene lactone compound (yomogin) isolated from medicinal plant Artemisia princeps Pampan inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing i-NOS enzyme expression. Thus, yomogin may be a useful candidate for the development of new drugs to treat endotoxemia and inflammation accompanied by the overproduction of NO.

  2. In vitro inducible nitric oxide synthesis inhibitory active constituents from Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Kim, N Y; Pae, H O; Ko, Y S; Yoo, J C; Choi, B M; Jun, C D; Chung, H T; Inagaki, M; Higuchi, R; Kim, Y C

    1999-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an H2O extract of the barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla has furnished two inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory compounds, ferulaldehyde (1) and scopoletin (3) together with a coumarin, fraxidin (2). Compounds 1 and 3 showed inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in a dose-dependent manner by murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibition of NO synthesis of 1 was reflected in the decreased amount of iNOS protein, as determined by Western blotting.

  3. Nitric oxide alleviates oxidative damage induced by enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation in cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lingui; Li, Shiweng; Sheng, Hongmei; Feng, Huyuan; Xu, Shijian; An, Lizhe

    2007-10-01

    To study the role of nitric oxide (NO) on enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm)-induced damage of Cyanobacterium, the growth, pigment content, and antioxidative activity of Spirulina platensis-794 cells were investigated under enhanced UV-B radiation and under different chemical treatments with or without UV-B radiation for 6 h. The changes in chlorophyll-a, malondialdehyde content, and biomass confirmed that 0.5 mM: sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), could markedly alleviate the damage caused by enhanced UV-B. Specifically, the biomass and the chlorophyll-a content in S. platensis-794 cells decreased 40% and 42%, respectively under enhanced UV-B stress alone, but they only decreased 10% and 18% in the cells treated with UV-B irradiation and 0.5 mM: SNP. Further experiments suggested that NO treatment significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the accumulation of O (2)(-) in enhanced UV-B-irradiated cells. SOD and CAT activity increased 0.95- and 6.73-fold, respectively. The accumulation of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased during treatment with 0.5 mM: SNP in normal S. platensis cells, but SNP treatment could inhibit the increase of GSH in enhanced UV-B-stressed S. platensis cells. Thus, these results suggest that NO can strongly alleviate oxidative damage caused by UV-B stress by increasing the activities of SOD, peroxidase, CAT, and the accumulation of GSH, and by eliminating O (2)(-) in S. platensis-794 cells. In addition, the difference of NO origin between plants and cyanobacteria are discussed.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and hypertension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goonasekera, C D; Rees, D D; Woolard, P; Frend, A; Shah, V; Dillon, M J

    1997-08-01

    To establish the role played by the circulating nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), asymmetrical dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) and its association with hypertension of children and adolescents. We measured plasma concentrations of L-NMMA, ADMA and SDMA in 38 hypertensives (median age 7.7 years) and in nine healthy normotensive controls (median age 8.2 years) using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, their plasma renin activity was determined. The subjects' glomerular filtration rates were calculated from plasma creatinine and height measurements. To determine the vasoactive potency of the arginine analogues, concentration-response curves were plotted for the responses in isolated endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded mouse aortic rings that had been pre-contracted by administration of a threshold concentration of phenylephrine. Plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations in members of the hypertensive group [0.23 +/- 0.03 and 1.37 +/- 0.06 micromol/l, respectively (means +/- SEM)] were significantly higher than those in members of the control group (ADMA 0.10 +/- 0.01 micromol/l and SDMA 1.18 +/- 0.06 micromol/l). Plasma concentrations of L-NMMA were similar in members of the hypertensive (0.21 +/- 0.01 micromol/l) and control (0.18 +/- 0.02 micromol/l) groups. The glomerular filtration rate of the hypertensive group was below normal [70.4 +/- 5.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (mean +/- SEM)] and was significantly associated with elevated plasma concentrations of ADMA (r = -0.77, P < 0.001), SDMA (r = -0.38, P = 0.02) and L-NMMA (r = 0.35, P = 0.03). Higher plasma ADMA concentrations were associated with a lower plasma renin activity (r = -0.36, P = 0.04). The vasoactive potencies of ADMA (concentration for half-maximal effect with the endothelium intact 25.4 +/- 7.1 micromol/l) and L-NMMA (concentration for half-maximal effect with the endothelium intact 8.2 +/- 2.9 micromol/l) was

  5. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1β-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo, E-mail: ryoosw08@kangwon.ac.kr

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1β-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1β-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1β stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1β incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)more » mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1β stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1β-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1β-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1β abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner.« less

  6. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  7. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  8. Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase Deficiency Impairs the Long-Term Memory of Olfactory Fear Learning and Increases Odor Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Heldt, Scott A.; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    Experience-induced changes associated with odor learning are mediated by a number of signaling molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), which is predominantly synthesized by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of nNOS in the acquisition and retention of conditioned olfactory fear. Mice…

  9. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  10. Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.

  11. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  12. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  13. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-08-15

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  14. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Pathways in the Pathophysiology of Dengue: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Sophie; Lam, Phung Khanh; Huynh, Trieu Trung; Nguyen Ho, Hong Hanh; Dong Thi, Hoai Tam; Van, Nguyen Thu; Lien, Le Thi; Ha, Quyen Nguyen Than; Le, Duyen Huynh Thi; Mongkolspaya, Juthathip; Culshaw, Abigail; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Wertheim, Heiman; Simmons, Cameron; Screaton, Gavin; Wills, Bridget

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue can cause increased vascular permeability that may lead to hypovolemic shock. Endothelial dysfunction may underlie this; however, the association of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathways with disease severity is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective observational study in 2 Vietnamese hospitals, assessing patients presenting early (<72 hours of fever) and patients hospitalized with warning signs or severe dengue. The reactive hyperemic index (RHI), which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilation and is a surrogate marker of endothelial function and NO bioavailability, was evaluated using peripheral artery tonometry (EndoPAT), and plasma levels of l-arginine, arginase-1, and asymmetric dimethylarginine were measured at serial time-points. The main outcome of interest was plasma leakage severity. Results Three hundred fourteen patients were enrolled; median age of the participants was 21(interquartile range, 13–30) years. No difference was found in the endothelial parameters between dengue and other febrile illness. Considering dengue patients, the RHI was significantly lower for patients with severe plasma leakage compared to those with no leakage (1.46 vs 2.00; P < .001), over acute time-points, apparent already in the early febrile phase (1.29 vs 1.75; P = .012). RHI correlated negatively with arginase-1 and positively with l-arginine (P = .001). Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction/NO bioavailability is associated with worse plasma leakage, occurs early in dengue illness and correlates with hypoargininemia and high arginase-1 levels. PMID:28673038

  15. Hypothalamic Nitric Oxide in Hypoglycemia Detection and Counterregulation: A Two-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhentao; Vazirani, Reema P.; Beuve, Annie; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypoglycemia is the main complication for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving intensive insulin therapy. In addition to the obvious deleterious effects of acute hypoglycemia on brain function, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia (RH) have an even more insidious effect. RH impairs the ability of the brain to detect and initiate an appropriate counterregulatory response (CRR) to restore euglycemia in response to subsequent hypoglycemia. Knowledge of mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia detection and counterregulation has significantly improved over the past 20 years. Glucose sensitive neurons (GSNs) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may play a key role in the CRR. VMH nitric oxide (NO) production has recently been shown to be critical for both the CRR and glucose sensing by glucose-inhibited neurons. Interestingly, downstream effects of NO may also contribute to the impaired CRR after RH. In this review, we will discuss current literature regarding the molecular mechanisms by which VMH GSNs sense glucose. Putative roles of GSNs in the detection and initiation of the CRR will then be described. Finally, hypothetical mechanisms by which VMH NO production may both facilitate and subsequently impair the CRR will be discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 505–517. PMID:20518706

  16. Red Blood Cell Function and Dysfunction: Redox Regulation, Nitric Oxide Metabolism, Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Viktoria; Diederich, Lukas; Keller, T.C. Stevenson; Kramer, Christian M.; Lückstädt, Wiebke; Panknin, Christina; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Isakson, Brant E.; Kelm, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, and inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important interorgan communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic nitric oxide metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology, and viscosity. In this article, we aim to revise and discuss the potential impact of these noncanonical functions of RBCs and their dysfunction in the cardiovascular system and in anemia. Critical Issues: The mechanistic links between changes of RBC functional properties and cardiovascular complications related to anemia have not been untangled so far. Future Directions: To allow a better understanding of the complications associated with anemia in CVD, basic and translational science studies should be focused on identifying the role of noncanonical functions of RBCs in the cardiovascular system and on defining intrinsic and/or systemic dysfunction of RBCs in anemia and its relationship to CVD both in animal models and clinical settings. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 718–742. PMID:27889956

  17. Angiotensin receptors modulate the renal hemodynamic effects of nitric oxide in conscious newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Vinturache, Angela E.; Smith, Francine G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to elucidate the roles of both angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors – type 1 (AT1Rs) and type 2 (AT2Rs) – separately and together in influencing hemodynamic effects of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) during postnatal development. In conscious, chronically instrumented lambs aged ~1 week (8 ± 1 days, N = 8) and ~6 weeks (41 ± 2 days, N = 8), systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP) and venous pressure (MVP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured in response to the l‐arginine analog, l‐NAME after pretreatment with either the AT1R antagonist, ZD 7155, the AT2R antagonist, PD 123319, or both antagonists. The increase in SAP, DAP, and MAP by l‐NAME was not altered by either ATR antagonist in either age group. The increase in RBF after l‐NAME was, however, altered by both ATR antagonists in an age‐dependent manner, which was mediated predominantly through AT2Rs in newborn lambs. These findings reveal that there is an age‐dependent interaction between the renin–angiotensin (RAS) and the NO pathway in regulating renal but not systemic hemodynamics through both ATRs, whereas AT2Rs appear to be important in the renal hemodynamic effects of NO early in life. PMID:24872358

  18. Nitric Oxide and Interlukin-6 Levels in Intellectual Disability Adults with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Beiker, Reut; Morad, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) are highly reactive mediators that have been shown to play different roles in a variety of different biological process. The role of NO and IL-6 in the neuropathogenesis of brain seizures is still questionable. In order to evaluate the role of NO and IL-6 in neurological disorders such as seizures, we…

  19. INCORPORATION OF LABELED NITRIC OXIDE INTO RESPIRATORY TRACT LINING FLUIDS AND BLOOD PLASMA DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporation of labeled nitric oxide (N18O) into respiratory tract lining fluids and blood plasma during lung inflammation. Slade, R., Norwood, J., Crissman, K., McKee, J., Hatch, G. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Res. Tri. Pk., NC

    Our earlier studies have demonstrated t...

  20. Detoxification of nitric oxide by Fusarium verticillioides is linked to denitrification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent cellular signaling molecule and a byproduct of nitrogen metabolism. High concentrations of NO are a form of nitrosative stress, and to alleviate this stress, organisms utilize flavohemoglobins to convert NO into nontoxic nitrate ions. We have investigated the capacity o...

  1. Medicinal chemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of nitric oxide-releasing NSAI drugs.

    PubMed

    Koç And, Esra; Küçükgüzel, S Güniz

    2009-05-01

    Nitric Oxide, which acts as a non-specific cytotoxic mediator and a biological messenger on immunological competence, has been gaining significantly increasing importance. As an alternative to conventional NSAIDs having significant side effects, pharmacologically improved and therapeutically enhanced NO releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with less side effects are being planned to produce.

  2. Efficacy and residue analysis of nitric oxide fumigation of strawberries for control of Drosophila suzukii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an effective fumigant against various insect pests on postharvest products under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions. NO showed efficacy against all life stages of insect pests with varied fumigation time and temperature, and had feasible cost-effectiveness to...

  3. Proinflammatory and Antimicrobial Nitric Oxide in Gingival Fluid of Diabetic Patients with Periodontal Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Skaleric, Uros; Gaspirc, Boris; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Masera, Andrej; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, increased inducible NO synthase in inflamed gingiva correlated with NO in gingival crevicular fluid. Although increased NO reflected more-severe inflammation, it was associated with reductions in CFU of Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, highlighting dual roles for NO. PMID:17015454

  4. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  5. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (nitric oxide) has protective actions in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, W.K.; Wallace, J.L.; Cirino, G.

    1989-01-01

    The role that nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, may play in the regulation of gastric mucosal defense was investigated by assessing the potential protective actions of this factor against the damage caused by ethanol in an ex vivo chamber preparation of the rat stomach. Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside, which have been shown to release nitric oxide, markedly reduced the area of 70% ethanol-induced hemorrhagic damage. Topical application of a 0.01% solution of authentic nitric oxide also significantly reduced the severity of mucosal damage. Pretreatment with indomethacin precluded the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in the protectivemore » effects of these agents. The protective effects of NO were transient, since a delay of 5 minutes between NO administration and ethanal administration resulted in a complete loss of the protective activity. The protection against ethanol afforded by 10 ug/ml nitroprusside could be completely reversed by intravenous infusion of either 1% methylene blue or 1 mM hemoglobin, both of which inhibit vasodilation induced by nitric oxide. Intravenous infusion of 1% methylene blue significantly increased the susceptibility of the mucosa to damage induced by topical 20% ethanol.« less

  6. Acute electroacupuncture inhibits nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeoung Hoon; Bai, Sun Joon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Zang Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2010-02-01

    To examine the effects of electroacupuncture stimulation on behavioral changes and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat spinal cord after nerve injury. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neuropathic surgery by tightly ligating and cutting the left tibial and sural nerves. Behavioral responses to mechanical stimulation were tested for 2 weeks post-operatively. At the end of behavioral testing, electroacupuncture stimulation was applied to ST36 (Choksamni) and SP9 (Eumleungcheon) acupoints. Immunocytochemical staining was performed to investigate changes in the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the L4-5 spinal cord. Mechanical allodynia was observed by nerve injury. The mechanical allodynia was decreased after electroacupuncture stimulation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was also decreased in L4-5 spinal cord by electroacupuncture treatment. These results suggest that electroacupuncture relieves mechanical allodynia in the neuropathic rats possibly by the inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord.

  7. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides involves flavohemoglobins and the denitrification pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly mobile and potent signaling molecule, yet as a free radical it can also cause nitrosative stress to cells. To alleviate negative effects from excessive accumulation of endogenous NO or from potential exogenous sources, flavohemoglobin proteins can convert NO into nonto...

  8. Detoxification of nitric oxide by flavohemoglobin and the denitrification pathway in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ephemeral nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, highly reactive, environmentally rare, and a potent signaling molecule in organisms across kingdoms of life. This gaseous small molecule can freely transverse membranes and has been implicated in aspects of pathogenicity both in animal and plant ho...

  9. The effect of nitric oxide releasing cream on healing pressure ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Saidkhani, Vahid; Asadizaker, Marziyeh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Latifi, Sayed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcer is one of the main concerns of nurses in medical centers around the world, which, if untreated, causes irreparable problems for patients. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an effective method for wound healing. This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitric oxide on pressure ulcer healing. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 58 patients with pressure ulcer at hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences were homogenized and later divided randomly into two groups of treatment (nitric oxide cream; n = 29) and control (placebo cream; n = 29). In this research, the data collection tool was the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH). At the outset of the study (before using the cream), the patients' ulcers were examined weekly in terms of size, amount of exudates, and tissue type using the PUSH tool for 3 weeks. By integrating these three factors, wound healing was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Although no significant difference was found in terms of the mean of score size, the amount of exudates, and the tissue type between the two groups, the mean of total score (healing) between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Nitric oxide cream seems to accelerate wound healing. Therefore, considering its easy availability and cost-effectiveness, it can be used for treating pressure ulcers in the future. PMID:27186212

  10. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence

    EPA Science Inventory

    •The proposed new FRM measurement principle for ozone is based on quantitative measurement of the chemiluminescence emission from the gas-phase reaction of ozone in an air sample with nitric oxide (NO).•The chemiluminescence from the NO-O3 reaction (with excess NO) is p...

  11. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE FLUX FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured from the summer of 1994 to the spring of 1995 from an intensively managed agricultural soil using a dynamic flow through chamber technique in order to study the seasonal variability in the emissions of NO. The measurements were made on a ...

  12. DEPENDENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS ON VEHICLE LOAD: RESULTS FROM THE GTRP INSTRUMENTED VEHICLE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discussed the dependence of nitric oxide (NO) emissions on vehicle load, bases on results from an instrumented-vehicle program. The accuracy and feasibility of modal emissions models depend on algorithms to allocate vehicle emissions based on a vehicle operation...

  13. Residual analysis of nitric oxide fumigation on fresh fruit and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a newly discovered fumigant which is effective against a wide range of postharvest pests. To register NO with US EPA for commercial use as a pesticide and to ensure its safety to consumers, it is necessary to analyze residues of NO fumigated products. In this study, we analyzed ...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES CONTROLLING NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work...

  15. Efficacy and safety of nitric oxide fumigation for controlling codling moth in apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were...

  16. Caveolin versus calmodulin. Counterbalancing allosteric modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Michel, J B; Feron, O; Sase, K; Prabhakar, P; Michel, T

    1997-10-10

    Nitric oxide is synthesized in diverse mammalian tissues by a family of calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthases. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is targeted to the specialized signal-transducing membrane domains termed plasmalemmal caveolae. Caveolin, the principal structural protein in caveolae, interacts with eNOS and leads to enzyme inhibition in a reversible process modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (Michel, J. B., Feron, O., Sacks, D., and Michel, T. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15583-15586). Caveolin also interacts with other structurally distinct signaling proteins via a specific region identified within the caveolin sequence (amino acids 82-101) that appears to subserve the role of a "scaffolding domain." We now report that the co-immunoprecipitation of eNOS with caveolin is completely and specifically blocked by an oligopeptide corresponding to the caveolin scaffolding domain. Peptides corresponding to this domain markedly inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in endothelial membranes and interact directly with the enzyme to inhibit activity of purified recombinant eNOS expressed in Escherichia coli. The inhibition of purified eNOS by the caveolin scaffolding domain peptide is competitive and completely reversed by Ca2+-calmodulin. These studies establish that caveolin, via its scaffolding domain, directly forms an inhibitory complex with eNOS and suggest that caveolin inhibits eNOS by abrogating the enzyme's activation by calmodulin.

  17. S-nitrosylation mediates nitric oxide -auxin crosstalk in auxin signaling and polar auxin transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin phytohormone cross talk has been implicated in plant development and growth. Addition and removal of NO moieties to cysteine residues of proteins, is termed S-nitrosylation and de-nitrosylation, respectively and functions as an on/off switch of protein activity. This dyna...

  18. Testing a Conceptual Model of Soil Emissions of Nitrous and Nitric Oxides

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Davidson; Michael Keller; Heather E. Erickson; Verchot NO-VALUE; Edzo Veldkamp

    2000-01-01

    Nitrous and nitric oxides are often studied separately by atmospheric chemists because they play such different roles in the atmosphere. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere; Ramanathan et al. 1985), but it participates in photochemical reactions in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) that destroy ozone (Crutzen 1970). In contrast...

  19. [Potential protective role of nitric oxide and Hsp70 linked to functional foods in the atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Camargo, Alejandra B; Manucha, Walter

    Atherosclerosis, one of the main pathologic entities considered epidemic and a worldwide public health problem, is currently under constant review as regards its basic determining mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities. In this regard, all patients afflicted with the disease exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation. Interestingly, nitric oxide - a known vasoactive messenger gas - has been closely related to the inflammatory, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunctional process that characterizes atherosclerosis. In addition, it has recently been demonstrated that alterations in the bioavailability of nitric oxide would induce the expression of heat shock proteins. This agrees with the use of functional foods as a strategy to prevent both vascular aging and the development of atherosclerosis. Finally, a greater knowledge regarding the mechanisms implied in the development of atherosclerosis will enable proposing new and possible hygiene, health and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity: implications for nitric oxide homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Torregrossa, Ashley C; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

  2. Salmonella enterica biofilm-mediated dispersal by nitric oxide donors in association with cellulose nanocrystal hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Durie, Ian A; McLamore, Eric S; Vanegas, Diana C; Chaturvedi, Prachee

    2015-01-01

    Protected by extracellular polymers, microbes within biofilms are significantly more resistant to disinfectants. Current research has been instrumental in identifying nitric oxide donors and hydrogels as potential disinfectant additives. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are considered a very promising molecule as biofilm dispersal agents and hydrogels have recently attracted a lot of interest due to their biocompatible properties and ability to form stable thin films. When the NO donor MAHMA NONOate was dissolved in phosphate saline buffer, it was able to reduce the biomass of well-established biofilms up to 15% for at least 24 h of contact time. Encapsulation of MAHMA NONOate and molsidomine within a hydrogel composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) has shown a synergistic effect in dispersing well-established biofilms: after 2 h of exposure, moderate but significant dispersion was measured. After 6 h of exposure, the number of cells transitioning from the biofilm to the planktonic state was up to 0.6 log higher when compared with non-treated biofilms. To further explore the transport processes of NO donors within hydrogels, we measured the nitric oxide flux from gels, at 25°C for a composite of 0.1 µM MAHMA NONOate-CNC. Nitric oxide diffuses up to 500 µm from the hydrogel surface, with flux decreasing according to Fick's law. 60% of NO was released from the hydrogel composite during the first 23 min. These data suggest that the combined treatments with nitric oxide donor and hydrogels may allow for new sustainable cleaning strategies.

  3. Nitric oxide synthase expression in foetal placentas of cows with retained fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Shixin, Fu; Li, Zhang; Chunhai, Luo; Chuang, Xu; Cheng, Xia; Zhe, Wang; Xiaobing, Li

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate relationship of retained fetal membranes (RFM) to expression of NOS and NOS mRNA and to analyze pathohistological changes and the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in foetal placentas of cows with RFM. Twenty cows were assigned to two groups, a control group (no retained fetal membranes, NRFM, n = 10) and a diseased group (RFM, n = 10). The endpoint method was used to detect the nitric oxide (NO) content and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in foetal placental tissue fluid and the fluorescent quantitation PCR was used to measure the expression of NOS mRNA. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin staining were used to observe pathohistological changes. Tissue from RFM cows showed fibronecrosis of the chorionic villi, and a decreased number of trophoblastic cells. The majority of trophoblastic cells displayed vacuolar degeneration. Interstitium vessels were distended and congested. Expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and iNOS mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the cytoplasm of placental villus trophoblastic cells in the RFM group. But expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and eNOS mRNA was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the RFM group. The NO content and NOS activity of cows with RFM were significantly higher (P < 0.05). A high expression of iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA in the cow foetal placenta could produce high content of NO, which might inhibit uterine contraction. So over expression of iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA might be an important agent of retained fetal membranes in cows, and it may be a potential diagnosis biomarker. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The production of nitric oxide in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robyn E; Weigent, Douglas A

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is produced by immunocompetent cells and has been implicated in the regulation of a multiplicity of functions in the immune system involved in growth and activation. However, the actions of endogenous or lymphocyte GH and its contribution to immune reactivity when compared with those of serum or exogenous GH are still unclear. In the present study, we overexpressed lymphocyte GH in EL4 lymphoma cells, which lack the GH receptor (GHR), to determine the role of endogenous GH in nitric oxide (NO) production and response to genotoxic stress. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the levels of GH increased approximately 40% in cells overexpressing GH (GHo) when compared with cells with vector alone. The results also show a substantial increase in NO production in cells overexpressing GH that could be blocked by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an L-arginine analogue that competitively inhibits all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). No evidence was obtained to support an increase in peroxynitrite in cells overexpressing GH. Overexpression of GH increased NOS activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter activity, and iNOS protein expression, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein levels were essentially unchanged. In addition, cells overexpressing GH showed increased arginine transport ability and intracellular arginase activity when compared with control cells. GH overexpression appeared to protect cells from the toxic effects of the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. This possibility was suggested by maintenance of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in cells overexpressing GH when compared with control cells that could be blocked by L-NMMA. Taken together, the data support the notion that lymphocyte GH, independently of the GH receptor, may play a key role in the survival of lymphocytes exposed to stressful stimuli via the production of NO.

  5. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase Pathways: A Complex Interplay in Cellular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The cellular reaction to external challenges is a tightly regulated process consisting of integrated processes mediated by a variety of signaling molecules, generated as a result of modulation of corresponding biosynthetic systems. Both, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) systems, consist of constitutive forms (NOS1, NOS3 and COX-1), which are mostly involved in housekeeping tasks, and inducible forms (NOS2 and COX-2), which shape the cellular response to stress and variety of bioactive agents. The complex interplay between NOS and COX pathways can be observed at least at three levels. Firstly, products of NOS and Cox systems can mediate the regulation and the expression of inducible forms (NOS2 and COX-2) in response of similar and dissimilar stimulus. Secondly, the reciprocal modulation of cyclooxygenase activity by nitric oxide and NOS activity by prostaglandins at the posttranslational level has been shown to occur. Mechanisms by which nitric oxide can modulate prostaglandin synthesis include direct S-nitrosylation of COX and inactivation of prostaglandin I synthase by peroxynitrite, product of superoxide reaction with nitric oxide. Prostaglandins, conversely, can promote an increased association of dynein light chain (DLC) (also known as protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase) with NOS1, thereby reducing its activity. The third level of interplay is provided by intracellular crosstalk of signaling pathways stimulated by products of NOS and COX which contributes significantly to the complexity of cellular signaling. Since modulation of COX and NOS pathways was shown to be principally involved in a variety of pathological conditions, the dissection of their complex relationship is needed for better understanding of possible therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on implications of interplay between NOS and COX for cellular function and signal integration.

  6. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    SciTech Connect

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlyingmore » the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of

  7. Dysregulated nitric oxide signaling as a candidate mechanism of fragile X syndrome and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Steven M; Kwan, Kenneth Y

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology underpinning psychiatric disorders is essential for the development of targeted molecular therapies. For fragile X syndrome (FXS), recent mechanistic studies have been focused on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling pathway. This line of research has led to the discovery of promising candidate drugs currently undergoing various phases of clinical trial, and represents a model of how biological insights can inform therapeutic strategies in neurodevelopmental disorders. Although mGluR signaling is a key mechanism at which targeted treatments can be directed, it is likely to be one of many mechanisms contributing to FXS. A more complete understanding of the molecular and neural underpinnings of the disorder is expected to inform additional therapeutic strategies. Alterations in the assembly of neural circuits in the neocortex have been recently implicated in genetic studies of autism and schizophrenia, and may also contribute to FXS. In this review, we explore dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing neocortex as a novel candidate mechanism of FXS. This possibility stems from our previous work demonstrating that neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1 or nNOS) is regulated by the FXS protein FMRP in the mid-fetal human neocortex. Remarkably, in the mid-late fetal and early postnatal neocortex of human FXS patients, NOS1 expression is severely diminished. Given the role of nitric oxide in diverse neural processes, including synaptic development and plasticity, the loss of NOS1 in FXS may contribute to the etiology of the disorder. Here, we outline the genetic and neurobiological data that implicate neocortical dysfunction in FXS, review the evidence supporting dysregulated nitric oxide signaling in the developing FXS neocortex and its contribution to the disorder, and discuss the implications for targeting nitric oxide signaling in the treatment of FXS and other psychiatric illnesses.

  8. iNOS-derived nitric oxide promotes glycolysis by inducing pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Zhu, Lingqun; Hao, Bingtao; Gao, Wenwen; Wang, Qianli; Li, Keyi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Mengqiu; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Qiaohong; Li, Xiqing; Zhong, Zhuo; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Guanghui; Xu, Yang; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Qiuzhen

    2017-05-16

    Aerobic glycolysis is essential for tumor growth and survival. Activation of multiple carcinogenic signals contributes to metabolism reprogramming during malignant transformation of cancer. Recently nitric oxide has been noted to promote glycolysis but the mechanism remains elusive. We report here the dual role of nitric oxide in glycolysis: low/physiological nitric oxide (≤ 100 nM) promotes glycolysis for ATP production, oxidative defense and cell proliferation of ovary cancer cells, whereas excess nitric oxide (≥ 500 nM) inhibits it. Nitric oxide has a positive effect on glycolysis by inducing PKM2 nuclear translocation in an EGFR/ERK2 signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, iNOS induced by mild inflammatory stimulation increased glycolysis and cell proliferation by producing low doses of nitric oxide, while hyper inflammation induced iNOS inhibited it by producing excess nitric oxide. Finally, iNOS expression is abnormally increased in ovarian cancer tissues and is correlated with PKM2 expression. Overexpression of iNOS is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor survival outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Our study indicated that iNOS/NO play a dual role of in tumor glycolysis and progression, and established a bridge between iNOS/NO signaling pathway and EGFR/ERK2/PKM2 signaling pathway, suggesting that interfering glycolysis by targeting the iNOS/NO/PKM2 axis may be a valuable new therapeutic approach of treating ovarian cancer.

  9. iNOS-derived nitric oxide promotes glycolysis by inducing pyruvate kinase M2 nuclear translocation in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Bingtao; Gao, Wenwen; Wang, Qianli; Li, Keyi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Mengqiu; Liu, Zhengjun; Yang, Qiaohong; Li, Xiqing; Zhong, Zhuo; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Guanghui; Xu, Yang; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Qiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is essential for tumor growth and survival. Activation of multiple carcinogenic signals contributes to metabolism reprogramming during malignant transformation of cancer. Recently nitric oxide has been noted to promote glycolysis but the mechanism remains elusive. We report here the dual role of nitric oxide in glycolysis: low/physiological nitric oxide (≤ 100 nM) promotes glycolysis for ATP production, oxidative defense and cell proliferation of ovary cancer cells, whereas excess nitric oxide (≥ 500 nM) inhibits it. Nitric oxide has a positive effect on glycolysis by inducing PKM2 nuclear translocation in an EGFR/ERK2 signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, iNOS induced by mild inflammatory stimulation increased glycolysis and cell proliferation by producing low doses of nitric oxide, while hyper inflammation induced iNOS inhibited it by producing excess nitric oxide. Finally, iNOS expression is abnormally increased in ovarian cancer tissues and is correlated with PKM2 expression. Overexpression of iNOS is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor survival outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Our study indicated that iNOS/NO play a dual role of in tumor glycolysis and progression, and established a bridge between iNOS/NO signaling pathway and EGFR/ERK2/PKM2 signaling pathway, suggesting that interfering glycolysis by targeting the iNOS/NO/PKM2 axis may be a valuable new therapeutic approach of treating ovarian cancer. PMID:28380434

  10. Phosphine polymerization by nitric oxide: experimental characterization and theoretical predictions of mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Lei; Flora, Jason W; Thweatt, William David; Garrison, Stephen L; Gonzalez, Carlos; Houk, K N; Marquez, Manuel

    2009-02-02

    A yellow solid material [P(x)H(y)] has been obtained in the reaction of phosphine (PH(3)) and nitric oxide (NO) at room temperature and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. In this work using complete basis set (CBS-QB3) methods a plausible mechanism has been investigated for phosphine polymerization in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). Theoretical explorations with the ab initio method suggest (a) instead of the monomer the nitric oxide dimer acts as an initial oxidant, (b) the resulting phosphine oxides (H(3)P=O <--> H(3)P(+)O(-)) in the gas phase draw each other via strong dipolar interactions between the P-O groups, and (c) consequently an autocatalyzed polymerization occurs among the phosphine oxides, forming P-P chemical bonds and losing water. The possible structures of polyhydride phosphorus polymer were discussed. In the calculations a series of cluster models was computed to simulate polymerization.

  11. Nitric oxide is an obligate bacterial nitrification intermediate produced by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Caranto, Jonathan D; Lancaster, Kyle M

    2017-08-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 )-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) emit substantial amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), both of which contribute to the harmful environmental side effects of large-scale agriculture. The currently accepted model for AOB metabolism involves NH 3 oxidation to nitrite (NO 2 - ) via a single obligate intermediate, hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH). Within this model, the multiheme enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of NH 2 OH to NO 2 - We provide evidence that HAO oxidizes NH 2 OH by only three electrons to NO under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. NO 2 - observed in HAO activity assays is a nonenzymatic product resulting from the oxidation of NO by O 2 under aerobic conditions. Our present study implies that aerobic NH 3 oxidation by AOB occurs via two obligate intermediates, NH 2 OH and NO, necessitating a mediator of the third enzymatic step.

  12. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  13. Soil fluxes of methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide from aggrading forests in coastal Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Heather E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil exchanges of greenhouse and other gases are poorly known for Pacific Northwest forests where gradients in nutrient availability and soil moisture may contribute to large variations in fluxes. Here we report fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) over multiple seasons from three naturally N-rich, aggrading forests of coastal Oregon, USA. Mean methane uptake rates (3.2 mg CH4 m−2 d−1) were high compared with forests globally, negatively related to water-filled pore space (WFPS), but unrelated to N availability or temperature. Emissions of NO (6.0 μg NO–N m−2 h−1) exceeded N2O (1.4 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1), except when WFPS surpassed 55%. Spatial variation in NO fluxes correlated positively with soil nitrate concentrations (which generally exceeded ammonium concentrations, indicating the overall high N status for the sites) and negatively with soil pH, and at one site increased with basal area of N2-fixing red alder. Combined NO and N2O emissions were greatest from the site with highest annual net N mineralization and lowest needle litterfall C/N. Our findings of high CH4 uptake and NO/N2O ratios generally >1 most likely reflect the high porosity of the andic soils underlying the widespread regenerating forests in this seasonally wet region.

  14. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L -1 ) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH -1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. The effects of fire on biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Boston, Penelope J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Sebacher, Shirley

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) before and after a controlled burn conducted in a chaparral ecosystem on June 22, 1987, showed significantly enhanced emissions of both gases after the burn. Mean NO emissions from heavily burned and wetted (to simulate rainfall) sites exceeded 40 ng N/sq m s, and increase of 2 to 3 compared to preburn wetted site measurements. N2O emissions from burned and wetted sites ranged from 9 to 22 ng N/sq m s. Preburn N2O emissions from these wetted sites were all below the detection level of the instrumentation, indicating a flux below 2 ng N/sq m s. The flux of NO exceeded the N2O flux from burned wetted sites by factors ranging from 2.7 to 3.4. These measurements, coupled with preburn and postburn measurements of ammonium and nitrate in the soil of this chaparral ecosystem and measurements of NO and N2O emissions obtained under controlled laboratory conditions, suggest that the postfire enhancement of NO and N2O emissions is due to production of these gases by nitrifying bacteria.

  16. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara; Costamagna, Costanzo; Doublier, Sophie

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to thosemore » observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.« less

  17. Simulation of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from tropical primary forests in the Costa Rican Atlantic Zone

    Treesearch

    Shuguanga Liu; William A. Reiners; Michael Keller; Davis S. Schimel

    2000-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are important atmospheric trace gases participating in the regulation of global climate and environment. Predictive models on the emissions of N2O and NO emissions from soil into the atmosphere are required. We modified the CENTURY model (Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51 (1987) 1173) to simulate the emissions of N2O and NO from...

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species/Nitric Oxide Mediated Inter-Organ Communication in Skeletal Muscle Wasting Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Lucia M.; Wilson, Rebecca J.; Yan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome that is associated with underlying illness and a loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. This disease is associated with a high incidence with chronic diseases such as heart failure, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), among others. Since there is currently no effective treatment available, cachectic patients have a poor prognosis. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is, therefore, an important medical task. Recent Advances: There is accumulating evidence that the diseased organs such as heart, lung, kidney, or cancer tissue secrete soluble factors, including Angiotensin II, myostatin (growth differentiation factor 8 [GDF8]), GDF11, tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ), which act on skeletal muscle. There, they induce a set of genes called atrogenes, which, among others, induce the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to protein degradation. Moreover, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels due to modulation of NADPH oxidases (Nox) and mitochondrial function contribute to disease progression, which is characterized by loss of muscle mass, exercise resistance, and frailty. Critical issues: Although substantial progress was achieved to elucidate the pathophysiology of cachexia, effectice therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Future Directions: With the identification of key components of the aberrant inter-organ communication leading to cachexia, studies in mice and men to inhibit ROS formation, induction of anti-oxidative superoxide dismutases, and upregulation of muscular nitric oxide (NO) formation either by pharmacological tools or by exercise are promising approaches to reduce the extent of skeletal muscle wasting. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 700–717. PMID:27835923

  19. Endogenous S-sulfhydration of PTEN helps protect against modification by nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Kazuki; Okuda, Kosaku; Uehara, Takashi, E-mail: uehara@pharm.okayama-u.ac.jp

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • PTEN is S-sulfhydrated endogenously in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. • Preventing this modification by knocking down CBS renders PTEN sensitive to NO. • pAkt levels are increased significantly in CBS siRNA-transfected cells. • H{sub 2}S functions as an endogenous regulator of PTEN in neuronal cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a gaseous regulatory factor produced by several enzymes, and plays a pivotal role in processes such as proliferation or vasodilation. Recent reports demonstrated the physiological and pathophysiological functions of H{sub 2}S in neurons. PTEN is a target of nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen peroxide, and themore » oxidative modification of cysteine (Cys) residue(s) attenuates its enzymatic activity. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H{sub 2}S on the direct modification of PTEN and the resulting downstream signaling. A modified biotin switch assay in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells revealed that PTEN is S-sulfhydrated endogenously. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that both Cys71 and Cys124 in PTEN are targets for S-sulfhydration. Further, the knockdown of cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) using siRNA decreased this modification in a manner that was correlated to amount of H{sub 2}S. PTEN was more sensitive to NO under these conditions. These results suggest that the endogenous S-sulfhydration of PTEN via CBS/H{sub 2}S plays a role in preventing the S-nitrosylation that would inhibition its enzymatic activity under physiological conditions.« less

  20. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-κB DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242

  1. Electron transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CP1 in electrochemical reduction of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; He, Jiaxin; Li, Han; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-10-01

    This study reports catalytic electro-chemical reduction of nitric oxide (NO) enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CP1. The current generated in the presence of bacteria was 4.36times that in the absence of the bacteria. The strain was able to catalyze electro-chemical reduction of NO via indirect electron transfer with an electrode, revealed by a series of cyclic voltammetry experiments. Soluble electron shuttles secreted into solution by live bacteria were responsible for the catalytic effects. The enhancement of NO reduction was also confirmed by detection of nitrous oxide; the level of this intermediate was 46.4% higher in the presence of bacteria than in controls, illustrated that the electron transfer pathway did not directly reduce nitric oxide to N2. The findings of this study may offer a new model for bioelectrochemical research in the field of NO removal by biocatalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of selective inhibition of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase on renal blood flow and function in experimental hyperdynamic sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ken; Calzavacca, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bailey, Michael; May, Clive N

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide plays an important role in the control of renal blood flow and renal function. In sepsis, increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase produce excessive nitric oxide, which may contribute to the development of acute kidney injury. We, therefore, examined the effects of intrarenal infusion of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in a large animal model of hyperdynamic sepsis in which acute kidney injury occurs in the presence of increased renal blood flow. Prospective crossover randomized controlled interventional studies. University-affiliated research institute. Twelve unilaterally nephrectomized Merino ewes. Infusion of a selective (1400W) and a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (aminoguanidine) into the renal artery for 2 hrs after the induction of sepsis, and comparison with a nonselective inhibitor (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In sheep with nonhypotensive hyperdynamic sepsis, creatinine clearance halved (32 to 16 mL/min, ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.51 [0.28-0.92]) despite increased renal blood flow (241 to 343 mL/min, difference [95% confidence interval] 102 [78-126]). Infusion of 1400W did not change renal blood flow, urine output, or creatinine clearance, whereas infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and a high dose of aminoguanidine normalized renal blood flow, but did not alter creatinine clearance. In hyperdynamic sepsis, intrarenal infusion of a highly selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor did not reduce the elevated renal blood flow or improve renal function. In contrast, renal blood flow was reduced by infusion of a nonselective NOS inhibitor or a high dose of a partially selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The renal vasodilatation in septic acute kidney injury may be due to nitric oxide derived from the endothelial and neural isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, but their blockade did not restore renal function.

  3. Enhancement of fracture healing in the rat, modulated by compounds that stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase: Acceleration of fracture healing via inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Rajfer, R A; Kilic, A; Neviaser, A S; Schulte, L M; Hlaing, S M; Landeros, J; Ferrini, M G; Ebramzadeh, E; Park, S-H

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects on fracture healing of two up-regulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a rat model of an open femoral osteotomy: tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and the recently reported nutraceutical, COMB-4 (consisting of L-citrulline, Paullinia cupana, ginger and muira puama), given orally for either 14 or 42 days. Unilateral femoral osteotomies were created in 58 male rats and fixed with an intramedullary compression nail. Rats were treated daily either with vehicle, tadalafil or COMB-4. Biomechanical testing of the healed fracture was performed on day 42. The volume, mineral content and bone density of the callus were measured by quantitative CT on days 14 and 42. Expression of iNOS was measured by immunohistochemistry. When compared with the control group, the COMB-4 group exhibited 46% higher maximum strength ( t -test, p = 0.029) and 92% higher stiffness ( t -test, p = 0.023), but no significant changes were observed in the tadalafil group. At days 14 and 42, there was no significant difference between the three groups with respect to callus volume, mineral content and bone density. Expression of iNOS at day 14 was significantly higher in the COMB-4 group which, as expected, had returned to baseline levels at day 42. This study demonstrates an enhancement in fracture healing by an oral natural product known to augment iNOS expression. Cite this article: R. A. Rajfer, A. Kilic, A. S. Neviaser, L. M. Schulte, S. M. Hlaing, J. Landeros, M. G. Ferrini, E. Ebramzadeh, S-H. Park. Enhancement of fracture healing in the rat, modulated by compounds that stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase: Acceleration of fracture healing via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Bone Joint Res 2017:6:-97. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0164.R2. © 2017 Park et al.

  4. The lethal effects of cytokine-induced nitric oxide on cardiac myocytes are blocked by nitric oxide synthase antagonism or transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, D J; Cai, B; Yang, X; Rodriguez, C; Sciacca, R R; Cannon, P J

    1995-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is cytotoxic to invading organisms and has an important role in host defense. Recent studies have demonstrated inducible NO production within the heart, and that cytokine-induced NO mediates alterations in cardiac contractility, but the cytotoxic potential of nitric oxide with respect to the heart has not been defined. To evaluate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on cardiac myocyte cytotoxicity, we exposed adult rat cardiac myocytes to either cytokines alone or to activated J774 macrophages in coculture. Increased expression of both iNOS message and protein was seen in J774 macrophages treated with IFN gamma and LPS and cardiac myocytes treated with TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN gamma. Increased NO synthesis was confirmed in both the coculture and isolated myocyte preparations by increased nitrite production. Increased NO synthesis was associated with a parallel increase in myocyte death as measured by CPK release into the culture medium as well as by loss of membrane integrity, visualized by trypan blue staining. Addition of the competitive NO synthase inhibitor L-NMMA to the culture medium prevented both the increased nitrite production and the cytotoxicity observed after cytokine treatment in both the isolated myocyte and the coculture experiments. Because transforming growth-factor beta modulates iNOS expression in other cell types, we evaluated its effects on cardiac myocyte iNOS expression and NO-mediated myocyte cytotoxicity. TGF-beta reduced expression of cardiac myocyte iNOS message and protein, reduced nitrite production, and reduced NO-mediated cytotoxicity in parallel. Taken together, these experiments show the cytotoxic potential of endogenous NO production within the heart, and suggest a role for TGF-beta or NO synthase antagonists to mute these lethal effects. These findings may help explain the cardiac response to sepsis or allograft rejection, as well as the progression of

  5. Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Mandon, Julien; Persijn, Stefan; Cristescu, Simona M.; Moshkov, Igor E.; Novikova, Galina V.; Hall, Michael A.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Gupta, Kapuganti J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims After a series of seminal works during the last decade of the 20th century, nitric oxide (NO) is now firmly placed in the pantheon of plant signals. Nitric oxide acts in plant–microbe interactions, responses to abiotic stress, stomatal regulation and a range of developmental processes. By considering the recent advances in plant NO biology, this review will highlight certain key aspects that require further attention. Scope and conclusions The following questions will be considered. While cytosolic nitrate reductase is an important source of NO, the contributions of other mechanisms, including a poorly defined arginine oxidizing activity, need to be characterized at the molecular level. Other oxidative pathways utilizing polyamine and hydroxylamine also need further attention. Nitric oxide action is dependent on its concentration and spatial generation patterns. However, no single technology currently available is able to provide accurate in planta measurements of spatio-temporal patterns of NO production. It is also the case that pharmaceutical NO donors are used in studies, sometimes with little consideration of the kinetics of NO production. We here include in planta assessments of NO production from diethylamine nitric oxide, S-nitrosoglutathione and sodium nitroprusside following infiltration of tobacco leaves, which could aid workers in their experiments. Further, based on current data it is difficult to define a bespoke plant NO signalling pathway, but rather NO appears to act as a modifier of other signalling pathways. Thus, early reports that NO signalling involves cGMP—as in animal systems—require revisiting. Finally, as plants are exposed to NO from a number of external sources, investigations into the control of NO scavenging by such as non-symbiotic haemoglobins and other sinks for NO should feature more highly. By crystallizing these questions the authors encourage their resolution through the concerted efforts of the plant

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Unable to Express Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Propagate Tuberculosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Reece, Stephen T; Vogelzang, Alexis; Tornack, Julia; Bauer, Wolfgang; Zedler, Ulrike; Schommer-Leitner, Sandra; Stingl, Georg; Melchers, Fritz; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2018-04-23

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human bone marrow stem cells has been identified as a potential bacterial niche during latent tuberculosis. Using a murine model of tuberculosis, we show here that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagated tuberculosis when transferred to naive mice, given that both transferred cells and recipient mice were unable to express inducible nitric oxide synthase, which mediates killing of intracellular bacteria via nitric oxide. Our findings suggest that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagate hallmarks of disease if nitric oxide-mediated killing of bacteria is defective.

  7. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  8. Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on bacterial growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Mckay, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    While it is generally thought that the bactericidal effects of NO and NO2 derive from their reaction with water to form nitrous and nitric acids (Shank et al., 1962), this appears to be true only at high concentrations. The data presented here suggest that at low NO and NO2 concentrations, acids are not present in high enough concentrations to act as toxic agents. Reference is made to a study by Grant et al. (1979), which found that exposing acid forest soil to 1 ppm of NO2 did not cause the soil pH to drop. The results presented here show that at low concentrations of NO and NO2, the NO is bacteriostatic for some organisms and not for others, whereas NO2 may protect some bacteria from the inhibitory effects of NO. Since it has been shown that bacteria can divide while airborne (Dimmick et al., 1979), the present results suggest that NO at the low concentrations found in the atmosphere can select for resistant bacteria in the air and affect the viable airborne bacterial population.

  9. Activation by nitric oxide of an oxidative-stress response that defends Escherichia coli against activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Nunoshiba, T; deRojas-Walker, T; Wishnok, J S; Tannenbaum, S R; Demple, B

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a free radical (NO) formed biologically through the oxidation of L-arginine by nitric oxide synthases. NO is produced transiently in mammalian cells for intercellular signaling and in copious quantities to cause cytostasis and cytotoxicity. In the latter situation, NO is a deliberate cytotoxic product of activated macrophages, along with other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-). Escherichia coli has a complex set of responses to H2O2 and O2- that involves approximately 80 inducible proteins; we wondered whether these bacteria might induce analogous defenses against nitric oxide. We show here that a multigene system controlled by the redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator SoxR is activated by NO in vivo. This induction confers bacterial resistance to activated murine macrophages with kinetics that parallel the production of NO by these cells. Elimination of specific SoxR-regulated genes diminishes the resistance of these bacteria to the cytotoxic macrophages. The required functions include manganese-containing superoxide dismutase, endonuclease IV (a DNA-repair enzyme for oxidative damage), and micF, an antisense regulator of the outer membrane porin OmpF. These results demonstrate that SoxR is a sensor for cellular exposure to NO, and that the soxRS response system may contribute to bacterial virulence. PMID:8234347

  10. Apigenin attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats via suppressing oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Jing; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Our present investigation aimed to determine the neuroprotection of apigenin (API) against diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) a diabetic rat model and exploring its potential mechanism. Diabetic rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. All experiment animals treated with vehicle or API by doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for seven weeks. Firstly, the body weight and blood glucose levels were detected. We used Morris water maze test to evaluate learning and memory function. The oxidative indicators (malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)), cNOS, iNOS, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. API can increase body weight, reduce the blood glucose levels, and improve the cognitive function in rats induced by diabetes. API decrease the MDA content, and increase SOD activity and GSH level of diabetic animals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. Meanwhile, constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3/9 were markedly exhibited in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats. In summary, our current work discloses that API attenuates DACD in rats via suppressing oxidative stress, nitric oxide and apoptotic cascades synthase pathway. PMID:26629041

  11. MODULATION OF HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION BY ERYTHROCYTIC NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    American Heart Association 2001

    Modulation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Erythrocytic NO
    McMahon TJ1, Gow AJ1, Huang YCT4, Stamler JS1,2,3
    Departments of Medicine1 and Biochemistry2, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute3,
    Duke University Med...

  12. Targeting Nitric Oxide with Natural Derived Compounds as a Therapeutic Strategy in Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Maurizio; Damato, Antonio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Puca, Annibale A.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Frati, Giacomo; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Within the family of endogenous gasotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO) is the smallest gaseous intercellular messenger involved in the modulation of several processes, such as blood flow and platelet aggregation control, essential to maintain vascular homeostasis. NO is produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and its effects are mediated by cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests a crosstalk between the NO signaling and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the onset and progression of vascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, ischemia, and stroke. For these reasons, NO is considered as an emerging molecular target for developing therapeutic strategies for cardio- and cerebrovascular pathologies. Several natural derived compounds, such as polyphenols, are now proposed as modulators of NO-mediated pathways. The aim of this review is to highlight the experimental evidence on the involvement of nitric oxide in vascular homeostasis focusing on the therapeutic potential of targeting NO with some natural compounds in patients with vascular diseases. PMID:27651855

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal Proton Transfer Pathways in Cytochrome C-Dependent Nitric Oxide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Pisliakov, Andrei V.; Hino, Tomoya; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sugita, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide reductases (NORs) are membrane proteins that catalyze the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a critical step of the nitrate respiration process in denitrifying bacteria. Using the recently determined first crystal structure of the cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR) [Hino T, Matsumoto Y, Nagano S, Sugimoto H, Fukumori Y, et al. (2010) Structural basis of biological N2O generation by bacterial nitric oxide reductase. Science 330: 1666–70.], we performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of cNOR within an explicit membrane/solvent environment to fully characterize water distribution and dynamics as well as hydrogen-bonded networks inside the protein, yielding the atomic details of functionally important proton channels. Simulations reveal two possible proton transfer pathways leading from the periplasm to the active site, while no pathways from the cytoplasmic side were found, consistently with the experimental observations that cNOR is not a proton pump. One of the pathways, which was newly identified in the MD simulation, is blocked in the crystal structure and requires small structural rearrangements to allow for water channel formation. That pathway is equivalent to the functional periplasmic cavity postulated in cbb 3 oxidase, which illustrates that the two enzymes share some elements of the proton transfer mechanisms and confirms a close evolutionary relation between NORs and C-type oxidases. Several mechanisms of the critical proton transfer steps near the catalytic center are proposed. PMID:22956904

  14. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  15. Comparison of nitric oxide-induced oxidation of recombinant oxyhemoglobin subunits using a competition experiment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Lin; Huang, Kuang-Tse

    2009-08-01

    A low reaction rate with nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important characteristics of hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers. The reaction rate between oxyHb and NO is usually measured by stopped-flow spectrophotometry. However, the reported rates vary due to the difficulty of accurately determining the NO concentration and the limit of the instrument dead time. To circumvent these problems, we developed an experiment using oxymyoglobin (oxyMb) to compete with oxyHb for NO that is released from an NO donor. Determination of the rate constants in the competition experiment no longer depends on accurate measurement of time or NO concentration, since this approach instead measures the ratio of rate constants for the reaction of oxyHb and oxyMb with NO. For recombinant mutant Hb alpha(L29F)beta the rates for alpha(L29F) and beta are approximately 15- and 1.6-fold smaller than for wild-type Hb. In conclusion, the competition experiment provides an alternative method for determination of relative reaction rates of recombinant Hb subunits with NO.

  16. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress is associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and retinal structural alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashi; Saxena, Sandeep; Srivastav, Khushboo; Shukla, Rajendra K; Mishra, Nibha; Meyer, Carsten H; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine plasma nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in diabetic retinopathy and its association with severity of disease. Prospective observational study. A total of 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls were included. Severity of retinopathy was graded according to early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) classification. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band (ISel) disruption and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alteration were graded using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Data were statistically analyzed. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, NO assay and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured using standard protocol. Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increase in plasma levels of LPO (P < 0.05), NO (P < 0.001) and decrease in plasma levels of GSH (P < 0.0001), ISel disruption (P < 0.001) and RPE topographic alteration (P < 0.01). Increased plasma NO levels are associated with increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that increased plasma LPO, NO and decreased GSH levels are associated with in vivo structural changes in inner segment ellipsoid and RPE. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Nitric Oxide-Iron Oxide magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Palladino, M. V.; Justo, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    The present work is focused on the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). SPIONs have been proposed for an increasing number of biomedical applications, such as drug-delivery. To this end, toxicological studies of their potential effects in biological systems must be better evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of thiolated (SH) and S-nitrosated (S-NO) SPIONs in cancer cell lines. SPIONs were prepared by the coprecipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were coated with thiol containing molecule cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of an aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH- SPIONs). These particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results obtained showed that Cys-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm at solid state and present super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature. Thiol groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were nitrosated through the addition of sodium nitrite leading to the formation of S-NOCys-SPIONs (S-nitrosated-Cys-SPIONs), which act as spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) donor). The cytotoxicity of thiolated and S-nitrosated nanoparticles was evaluated in acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) and Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells. The results showed that at low concentrations thiolated (Cys) and S- nitrosated (S-NOCyst) SPIONs display low cytotoxicity in both cell types. However, at higher concentrations, Cys-SPIONs exhibited cytotoxic effects, whereas S-NOCys-SPIONs protected them, and also promoted cell proliferation.

  19. Oxidized LDL at low concentration promotes in-vitro angiogenesis and activates nitric oxide synthase through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shan; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Wong, Siu Ling

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-concentration oxidized LDL enhances angiogenesis through nitric oxide (NO). {yields} Oxidized LDL increases intracellular NO levels via eNOS phosphorylation. {yields} Akt/PI3K signaling mediates oxidized LDL-induced eNOS phosphorylation. -- Abstract: It has long been considered that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes endothelial dysfunction and is remarkably related to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of oxLDL at very low concentration (<10 {mu}g/ml) on the endothelial cells remains speculative. Nitric oxide (NO) has a crucial role in the endothelial cell function. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxLDL at low concentration on NO production and proliferation,more » migration, tube formation of the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Results showed that oxLDL at 5 {mu}g/ml enhanced HCAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. These phenomena were accompanied by an increased intracellular NO production. L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor), LY294002 and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors) could abolish oxLDL-induced angiogenic effects and prevent NO production in the HCAEC. The phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K and eNOS were up-regulated by oxLDL, which was attenuated by LY294002. Our results suggested that oxLDL at low concentration could promote in-vitro angiogenesis and activate nitric oxide synthesis through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in HCAEC.« less

  20. Human endogenous retrovirus W env increases nitric oxide production and enhances the migration ability of microglia by regulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ran; Li, Shan; Cao, Qian; Wang, Xiuling; Yan, Qiujin; Tu, Xiaoning; Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Fan

    2017-06-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env. Moreover, HERV-W env increased the expression and function of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (hiNOS) and enhanced the promoter activity of hiNOS. Microglial migration was also enhanced. These data revealed that HERV-W env might contribute to increase NO production and microglial migration ability in neuropsychological disorders by regulating the expression of inducible NOS. Results from this study might lead to the identification of novel targets for the treatment of neuropsychological diseases, including neuroinflammatory diseases, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. A Metronidazole-Resistant Isolate of Blastocystis spp. Is Susceptible to Nitric Oxide and Downregulates Intestinal Epithelial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a Novel Parasite Survival Mechanism ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Haris; Wu, Zhaona; Kidwai, Fahad; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Blastocystis, one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, noninvasive, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. Blastocystis infections can be asymptomatic or cause intestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although chronic infections are frequently reported, Blastocystis infections have also been reported to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. Characterizing the host innate response to Blastocystis would lead to a better understanding of the parasite's pathogenesis. Intestinal epithelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), primarily on the apical side, in order to target luminal pathogens. In this study, we show that NO production by intestinal cells may be a host defense mechanism against Blastocystis. Two clinically relevant isolates of Blastocystis, ST-7 (B) and ST-4 (WR-1), were found to be susceptible to a range of NO donors. ST-7 (B), a metronidazole-resistant isolate, was found to be more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Using the Caco-2 model of human intestinal epithelium, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) but not ST-4 (WR-1) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of Caco-2 NO production, and this was associated with downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite its higher susceptibility to NO, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) may have evolved unique strategies to evade this potential host defense by depressing host NO production. This is the first study to highlight a strain-to-strain variation in the ability of Blastocystis to evade the host antiparasitic NO response. PMID:21930763

  2. Relevance of Chemical Kinetics for Medicine: The Case of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, Alexandru T.; Seitz, William

    2003-06-01

    Nitric oxide, NO, is central to many physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure and nerve signal transmission. Enzymes in endothelial cells and in the brain of mammals continuously synthesize it—generally in low and carefully regulated concentrations. The well known reaction of NO with oxygen to produce toxic nitrogen dioxide, NO2, has a rate which is bimolecular in NO. High concentrations of NO, as are found often in industrial plants or cigarettes, react rapidly with oxygen to produce toxic NO2. However, the half-life of NO at low NO concentrations as found in solutions and gases occurring in blood vessels, brains, and lungs is sufficiently long for biochemical purposes. Kinetics, then, determines the harmful versus helpful aspects of nitric oxide. At concentrations below 80 ppm NO is used in hospitals for lung vasodilation of preterm newborns and patients with pulmonary distress.

  3. Antimicrobial and Physicochemical Characterization of Biodegradable, Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanocellulose-Chitosan Packaging Membranes.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jaya; Pant, Jitendra; Goudie, Marcus J; Mani, Sudhagar; Handa, Hitesh

    2016-06-29

    Biodegradable composite membranes with antimicrobial properties consisting of nanocellulose fibrils (CNFs), chitosan, and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (SNAP) were developed and tested for food packaging applications. As a nitric oxide donor, SNAP was encapsulated into completely dispersed chitosan in 100 mL of 0.1 N acetic acid and was thoroughly mixed with CNFs to produce a composite membrane. The fabricated membranes had a uniform dispersion of chitosan and SNAP within the CNFs, which was confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs and a chemiluminescence nitric oxide analyzer. The membranes prepared without SNAP showed lower water vapor permeability than that of the membranes with SNAP. The addition of SNAP resulted in a decrease in Young's modulus for both two- and three-layer membrane configurations. Antimicrobial property evaluation of SNAP-incorporated membranes showed an effective zone of inhibition against bacterial strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes and demonstrated its potential applications for food packaging.

  4. Neural crest development and craniofacial morphogenesis is coordinated by nitric oxide and histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yawei; Grimaldi, Michael; Curtin, Eugene; Dougherty, Max; Kaufman, Charles; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Liao, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are patterned and coalesce to facial prominences that undergo convergence and extension to generate the craniofacial form. We applied a chemical genetics approach to identify pathways that regulate craniofacial development during embryogenesis. Treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor TRIM abrogated first pharyngeal arch structures and induced ectopic ceratobranchial formation. TRIM promoted a progenitor CNC fate and inhibited chondrogenic differentiation, which were mediated through impaired nitric oxide (NO) production without appreciable effect on global protein S-nitrosylation. Instead, TRIM perturbed hox gene patterning and caused histone hypoacetylation. Rescue of TRIM phenotype was achieved with over-expression of histone acetyltransferase kat6a, inhibition of histone deacetylase, and complimentary NO. These studies demonstrate that NO signaling and histone acetylation are coordinated mechanisms that regulate CNC patterning, differentiation and convergence during craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:24684905

  5. Association of arginase I or nitric oxide-related factors with job strain in healthy workers

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Eri; Nagaoka, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between job strain and arginase I in 378 healthy Japanese factory workers by a cross-sectional study measuring nitric oxide (NO)-related parameters (arginase I, L-arginine, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and NOx), clinical parameters, and job strain using a Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek. Arginase I and FEV1% were negatively correlated with job strain and positively correlated with job control and social support. FeNO and hs-CRP were negatively correlated with job strain. Multiple regression analysis showed negative association of arginase I with job strain and positive association with job control and social support in females. It is concluded that serum levels of arginase I may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of job stress in healthy female workers, although many factors can be influencing the data. PMID:28403218

  6. Detection of nitric oxide in the dark cloud L134N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgonagle, D.; Irvine, W. M.; Minh, Y. C.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The first detection of interstellar nitric oxide (NO) in a cold dark cloud, L134N is reported. Nitric oxide was observed by means of its two 2 Pi 1/2, J = 3/2 - 1/2, rotational transitions at 150.2 and 150.5 GHz, which occur because of Lambda-doubling. The inferred column density for L134N is about 5 x 10 to the 14th/sq cm toward the SO peak in that cloud. This value corresponds to a fractional abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of about 6 x 10 to the -8th and is in good agreement with predictions of quiescent cloud ion-molecule chemistry. NO was not detected toward the dark cloud TMC-1 at an upper limit of 3 x 10 to the -8th or less.

  7. Role of excited N2 in the production of nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Cartwright, D. C.; Brunger, M. J.

    2007-08-01

    Excited N2 plays a role in a number of atmospheric processes, including auroral and dayglow emissions, chemical reactions, recombination of free electrons, and the production of nitric oxide. Electron impact excitation of N2 is followed by radiative decay through a series of excited states, contributing to auroral and dayglow emissions. These processes are intertwined with various chemical reactions and collisional quenching involving the excited and ground state vibrational levels. Statistical equilibrium and time step atmospheric models are used to predict N2 excited state densities and emissions (as a test against previous models and measurements) and to investigate the role of excited nitrogen in the production of nitric oxide. These calculations predict that inclusion of the reaction N2[A3Σu +] + O, to generate NO, produces an increase by a factor of up to three in the calculated NO density at some altitudes.

  8. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  9. Mid-Ir Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer for Biological Trace Nitric Oxide Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Vincent; Ragab, Ahemd; Stsiapura, Vitali; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2011-06-01

    S-nitrosothiols have received much attention in biochemistry and medicine as donors of nitrosonium ion (NO^+) and nitric oxide (NO) - physiologically active molecules involved in vasodilation and signal transduction. Determination of S-nitrosothiols content in cells and tissues is of great importance for fundamental research and medical applications. We will report on our ongoing development of a instrument to measure trace levels of nitric oxide gas (NO), released from S-nitrosothiols after exposure to UV light (340 nm) or reaction with L-Cysteine+CuCl mixture. The instrument uses the method of cavity ring-down spectroscopy, probing rotationally resolved lines in the vibrational fundamental transition near 5.2 μm. The laser source is a continuous-wave, room temperature external cavity quantum cascade laser. An acousto-optic modulator is used to abruptly turn off the optical power incident on the cavity when the laser and cavity pass through resonance.

  10. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits seven members of the caspase family via S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Billiar, T R; Talanian, R V; Kim, Y M

    1997-11-17

    The caspases are a family of at least 10 human cysteine proteases that participate in cytokine maturation and in apoptotic signal transduction and execution mechanisms. Peptidic inhibitors of these enzymes are capable of blocking cytokine maturation and apoptosis, demonstrating their crucial roles in these processes. We have recently discovered that nitric oxide (NO), produced either extracellularly by NO donors or intracellularly by the inducible nitric oxide synthase, prevented apoptosis in hepatocytes. Caspase-3-like activity was found to be inhibited under these conditions. To investigate further the interaction between NO and caspases, we utilized purified human recombinant caspases and examined the effect of NO on enzymatic activities of different caspases. We report here that of the seven caspases studied, all were reversibly inhibited by NO. Dithiothreitol was able to reverse the NO inhibition, indicating direct S-nitrosylation of caspase catalytic cysteine residue by NO. Our results support the concept that NO is an endogenous regulator of caspase activity.

  11. Analogues of 2-aminopyridine-based selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase with increased bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Graham R.; Ranaivo, Hantamalala Ralay; Chico, Laura K.; Ji, Haitao; Xue, Fengtian; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Watterson, D. Martin; Silverman, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently designed potent and isoform selective inhibitors of nNOS, but the lead compound contains several basic functional groups. A large number of charges and hydrogen bond donors can impede the ability of molecules to cross the blood brain barrier and thereby limit the effectiveness of potential neurological therapeutics. Replacement of secondary amines in our lead compound with neutral ether and amide groups was made to increase bioavailability and to determine if the potency and selectivity of the inhibitor would be impacted. An ether analogue has been identified that retains a similar potency and selectivity to that of the lead compound, and shows increased ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier. PMID:19268602

  12. Effect of thalidomide on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkyue; Levis, William R; Greig, Nigel; Jung, Euisun; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2010-04-01

    Thalidomide is anti-inflammatory under some conditions, yet has been reported to up-regulate Th1 (T helper 1) immunity measured by increased IL-2 (Interleukin-2) and gamma interferon. The authors have assessed the effect of thalidomide and analogues, di- and tri-thiothalidomide, on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated macrophage cell line (RAW 246.7 cells). The authors' findings showed that nitric oxide (NO) was significantly inhibited by thalidomide (15%) and its analogues (di-thiothalidomide; 15%, tri-thiothalidomide; 32%). The proinflammatory molecules TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and IL-6 were not significantly inhibited. Pretreatment with thalidomide and analogues before activation was not different from simultaneous treatment. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may prove to be an important target for the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of thalidomide and related immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).

  13. Effect of Thalidomide on Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunkyue; Levis, WR; Greig, NH; Euisun, Jung; Schuller-Levis, G

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is anti-inflammatory under some conditions, yet has been reported to up regulate TH1 immunity measured by increased IL-2 and gamma interferon. We have assessed the effect of thalidomide and analogues, di- and tri-thiothalidomide, on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated macrophage cell line (RAW 246.7 cells). Our findings showed that nitric oxide (NO) was significantly inhibited by thalidomide (15%) and its analogues (di-thiothalidomide; 15%, tri-thiothalidomide; 32%). The proinflammatory molecules TNF-α and IL-6 were not significantly inhibited. Pretreatment with thalidomide and analogues before activation was not different from simultaneous treatment. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may prove to be an important target for the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of thalidomide and related immunomodulatory drugs (IMIDs). PMID:20514789

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide in mylar balloons: influence of storage time, humidity and temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Bodini, Alessandro; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W H; Boner, Atillio L; de Jongste, Johan C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mylar balloons are used to collect exhaled air for analysis of fractional nitric oxide concentration (FENO). AIM: We studied the effect of storage conditions on the stability of nitric oxide (NO) in mylar balloons. METHODS: Exhaled air samples and calibration gases were stored in mylar balloons at 4, 21 and 37 degrees C, with or without silica gel. NO was measured after 0, 6, 9, 24 and 48 h. Scheffe F-tests were used to compare NO values. RESULTS: NO remained stable in balloons for 9 h at all temperatures, without silica gel. NO increased between 9 and 48 h, but only with low initial FENO. Silica gel increased variability. CONCLUSIONS: FENO in mylar balloons is stable for at least 9 h. The storage temperature is not critical, but silica gel increases variability. PMID:12745548

  15. Involvement of the nitric oxide in melatonin-mediated protection against injury.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenguo; He, Yifan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gu, Wenzhen; Wu, Zhi; Zhu, Xiao; Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen

    2018-05-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly synthesized by the pineal gland in vertebrates and known well as an endogenous regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. It has been demonstrated that melatonin is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes showing antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions. Accumulating evidence has clearly revealed that melatonin regulates NO/NOS system through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article reviews the latest evidence for the effects of melatonin on NO/NOS regulation in different organs and disease conditions, the potential cellular mechanisms by which melatonin is involved in organ protection are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitric oxide prevents a pathogen-permissive granulocytic inflammation during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Lovewell, Rustin R; Olive, Andrew J; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Wenfei; Eugenin, Eliseo; Smith, Clare M; Phuah, Jia Yao; Long, Jarukit E; Dubuke, Michelle L; Palace, Samantha G; Goguen, Jon D; Baker, Richard E; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Mishra, Rabinarayan; Booty, Matthew G; Baer, Christina E; Shaffer, Scott A; Dartois, Veronique; McCormick, Beth A; Chen, Xinchun; Sassetti, Christopher M

    2017-05-15

    Nitric oxide contributes to protection from tuberculosis. It is generally assumed that this protection is due to direct inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, which prevents subsequent pathological inflammation. In contrast, we report that nitric oxide primarily protects mice by repressing an interleukin-1- and 12/15-lipoxygenase-dependent neutrophil recruitment cascade that promotes bacterial replication. Using M. tuberculosis mutants as indicators of the pathogen's environment, we inferred that granulocytic inflammation generates a nutrient-replete niche that supports M. tuberculosis growth. Parallel clinical studies indicate that a similar inflammatory pathway promotes tuberculosis in patients. The human 12/15-lipoxygenase orthologue, ALOX12, is expressed in cavitary tuberculosis lesions; the abundance of its products correlates with the number of airway neutrophils and bacterial burden and a genetic polymorphism that increases ALOX12 expression is associated with tuberculosis risk. These data suggest that M. tuberculosis exploits neutrophilic inflammation to preferentially replicate at sites of tissue damage that promote contagion.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in human fetal membranes: a possible role in parturition.

    PubMed

    Dennes, W J; Slater, D M; Bennett, P R

    1997-04-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous smooth-muscle relaxant. It is synthesised from 1-arginine by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Whilst it is clear that the uterus responds to NO by relaxation, NOS expression has not been investigated in fetal membranes or myometrium in human pregnancy. This study has shown, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression of cNOS mRNA in human amnion, chorion-decidua, and placenta. iNOS mRNA expression was demonstrated in human amnion, chorion-decidua, and placenta. It is possible that NO synthesised in fetal membranes may act either directly to inhibit myometrial contractility or indirectly to interact with other labour-associated genes, such as cyclo-oxygenase, to coordinate the onset of labour.

  18. Inhibition of the adrenomedullin/nitric oxide signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan J; Giove, Thomas J; Favazza, Tara L; Akula, James D; Eldred, William D

    2011-06-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway is integrally involved in visual processing and changes in the NO pathway are measurable in eyes of diabetic patients. The small peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) can activate a signaling pathway to increase the enzyme activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). ADM levels are elevated in eyes of diabetic patients and therefore, ADM may play a role in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The goal of this research was to test the effects of inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy. Inhibition of this pathway decreased NO production in high-glucose retinal cultures. Treating diabetic mice with the PKC β inhibitor ruboxistaurin for 5 weeks lowered ADM mRNA levels and ADM-like immunoreactivity and preserved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography. The results of this study indicate that inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway prevents neuronal pathology and functional losses in early diabetic retinopathy.

  19. Bench-to-bedside review: Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in adults

    PubMed Central

    Creagh-Brown, Benedict C; Griffiths, Mark JD; Evans, Timothy W

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous mediator of vascular tone and host defence. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) results in preferential pulmonary vasodilatation and lowers pulmonary vascular resistance. The route of administration delivers NO selectively to ventilated lung units so that its effect augments that of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and improves oxygenation. This 'Bench-to-bedside' review focuses on the mechanisms of action of iNO and its clinical applications, with emphasis on acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Developments in our understanding of the cellular and molecular actions of NO may help to explain the hitherto disappointing results of randomised controlled trials of iNO. PMID:19519946

  20. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-06-23

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future.

  1. Calcium mobilization in HeLa cells induced by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which nitric oxide modulates cancer cell growth and metastasis on cellular and molecular level is still not fully understood. This work utilized confocal microscopy and fluorescence microplate reader to investigate the effects of exogenous NO on the mobilization of calcium, which is one of the regulators of cell migration, in HeLa cells. The results show that NO elevates calcium in concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells. And the elevation of calcium induced by NO is due to calcium influx and calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Moreover, calcium release from intracellular stores is dominant. Furthermore, calcium release from mitochondria is one of the modulation pathways of NO. These findings would contribute to recognizing the significance of NO in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  3. Redox and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Sensory Neuron Ion Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) can intimately control neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by regulating the function of many ion channels. In peripheral sensory neurons, such regulation contributes towards the control of somatosensory processing; therefore, understanding the mechanisms of such regulation is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies and for the treatment of sensory dysfunctions, such as chronic pain. Recent Advances: Tremendous progress in deciphering nitric oxide (NO) and ROS signaling in the nervous system has been made in recent decades. This includes the recognition of these molecules as important second messengers and the elucidation of their metabolic pathways and cellular targets. Mounting evidence suggests that these targets include many ion channels which can be directly or indirectly modulated by ROS and NO. However, the mechanisms specific to sensory neurons are still poorly understood. This review will therefore summarize recent findings that highlight the complex nature of the signaling pathways involved in redox/NO regulation of sensory neuron ion channels and excitability; references to redox mechanisms described in other neuron types will be made where necessary. Critical Issues: The complexity and interplay within the redox, NO, and other gasotransmitter modulation of protein function are still largely unresolved. Issues of specificity and intracellular localization of these signaling cascades will also be addressed. Future Directions: Since our understanding of ROS and RNS signaling in sensory neurons is limited, there is a multitude of future directions; one of the most important issues for further study is the establishment of the exact roles that these signaling pathways play in pain processing and the translation of this understanding into new therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 486–504. PMID:24735331

  4. Metabolic activation of sodium nitroprusside to nitric oxide in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kowaluk, E A; Seth, P; Fung, H L

    1992-09-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is thought to exert its vasodilating activity, at least in part, by vascular activation to nitric oxide (NO), but the activation mechanism has not been delineated. This study has examined the potential for vascular metabolism of SNP to NO in bovine coronary arterial smooth muscle subcellular fractions using a sensitive and specific redox-chemiluminescence assay for NO. SNP was readily metabolized to NO in subcellular fractions, and the dominant site of metabolism appeared to be located in the membrane fractions. NO-generating activity was significantly enhanced by, but did not absolutely require, the addition of a NADPH-regenerating system, NADPH per se, NADH or cysteine. A correlation analysis of NO-generating activity (in the presence of a NADPH-regenerating system) with marker enzyme activities indicated that the SNP-directed NO-generating activity was primarily membrane-associated. Radiation inactivation target-size analysis revealed that the microsomal SNP-directed NO-generating activity was relatively insensitive to inactivation by radiation exposure, suggesting that the functioning catalytic unit might be quite small. A molecular weight of 5 to 11 kDa was estimated. NO-generating activity could be solubilized from the crude microsomes with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)- dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate, and the solubilized extract was subjected to gel filtration chromatography. NO-generating activity was eluted in two peaks: one peak corresponding to an approximate molecular weight of 4 kDa, thus confirming the existence of a small molecular weight NO-generating activity, and a second activity peak corresponding to a molecular weight of 112 to 169 kDa, the functional significance of which is unclear at present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effect of diabetes and elevated glucose on nitric oxide-mediated neurotransmission in rat anococcygeus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Way, K. J.; Reid, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated neurotransmission is impaired in anococcygeus muscle from 8-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This study investigated the effects of insulin treatment, and the duration of diabetes on this impairment. In addition, the effect of in vitro exposure to elevated glucose has been investigated on NO-mediated relaxations, in muscles from untreated rats. 2. Relaxant responses to field stimulation (0.5-5 Hz, 10s train), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 5 and 10 nM) and NO (1 and 3 microM) were significantly impaired in anococcygeus muscles from 8-week diabetic rats, compared to responses from control rats. Insulin treatment (5 u Lente day-1, s.c.) of diabetic rats prevented the development of this impairment. 3. Consistent with findings in 8-week diabetic rats, relaxation induced by field stimulation, SNP and NO were attenuated in tissues from 2-week and 4-week diabetic rats compared to corresponding control responses, whereas relaxations to papaverine (3 and 10 microM) were not reduced. In contrast, diabetes of 3-days duration did not affect relaxations to field stimulation, SNP or NO. 4. Incubation of anococcygeus muscles from untreated rats in medium containing elevated glucose (44.1 mM) for 6 h, significantly impaired relaxations to field stimulation compared to responses obtained after normal glucose (11.1 mM) incubation. Relaxations to SNP and to NO were not affected by 6 h exposure to elevated glucose. Similarly, incubation in hyperosmolar solutions containing mannose or sucrose for 6 h, impaired relaxations to field stimulation, but not to SNP or NO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582450

  6. Use of microelectrodes for electrochemical measurement of nitric oxide in natural seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengbin; Xing, Lei; Cai, Weijun; Ren, Chunyan; Jiang, Liqing

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the application of a homemade Nafion and Co(Salen) modified platinum microelectrode and an ISO-NOPMC microsensor (World Precision Instruments, USA) to measure nitric oxide in natural seawater is reported. These two microelectrodes are suitable for the measurement. In natural seawater, the sensitivity and stability of the ISO-NOPMC microsensor are higher than that of the homemade Nafion and Co(Salen) modified platinum microelectrode.

  7. Role of nitric oxide in pheromone-mediated intraspecific communication in mice.

    PubMed

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-12-07

    Nitric oxide is known to take part in the control of sexual and agonistic behaviours. This is usually attributed to its role in neural transmission in the hypothalamus and other structures of the limbic system. However, socio-sexual behaviours in rodents are mainly directed by chemical signals detected by the vomeronasal system, and nitric oxide is abundant in key structures along the vomeronasal pathway. Thus, here we check whether pharmacological treatments interfering with nitrergic transmission could affect socio-sexual behaviour by impairing the processing of chemical signals. Treatment with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis (Nomega-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, L-NAME, 100mg/kg) blocks the innate preference displayed by female mice for sexual pheromones contained in male-soiled bedding, with a lower dose of the drug (50mg/kg) having no effect. Animals treated with the high dose of L-NAME show no reduction of olfactory discrimination of male urine in a habituation-dishabituation test, thus suggesting that the effect of the drug on the preference for male pheromones is not due to an inability to detect male urine. Alternatively, it may result from an alteration in processing the reinforcing value of pheromones as sexual signals. These results add a new piece of evidence to our understanding of the neurochemistry of intraspecific chemical communication in rodents, and suggest that the role of nitric oxide in socio-sexual behaviours should be re-evaluated taking into account the involvement of this neuromodulator in the processing of chemical signals.

  8. Umbilical mesenchymal stromal cells provide intestinal protection through nitric oxide dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Amanda R; Drucker, Natalie A; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Markel, Troy A

    2018-04-01

    Umbilical-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (USCs) have shown promise in the protection of ischemic organs. We hypothesized that USCs would improve mesenteric perfusion, preserve intestinal histological architecture, and limit inflammation by nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms following intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Adult wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock out (eNOS KO) mice were used: (1) WT IR + vehicle, (2) WT IR + USC, (3) eNOS KO IR + vehicle, and (4) eNOS KO IR + USC. Mice were anesthetized, and a midline laparotomy was performed. The superior mesenteric artery was clamped with a nonoccluding clamp for 60-min. Following IR, mice were treated with an injection of 250 μL phosphate buffered saline or 2 × 10 6 USCs suspended in 250-μL phosphate buffered saline solution. Mesenteric perfusion images were acquired using laser Doppler imaging. Perfusion was analyzed as a percentage of baseline. At 24 h, mice were euthanized, and intestines were harvested. Intestines were evaluated for injury, and data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Intestinal mesenteric perfusion was significantly improved in WT mice treated with USC therapy compared with eNOS KOs. Intestinal histological architecture was preserved with USC therapy in WT mice. However, in eNOS KO mice, this benefit was abolished. Finally, the presence of several cytokines and growth factors were significantly improved in WT mice compared with eNOS KO mice treated with USCs. The benefits of USC-mediated therapy following intestinal IR injury likely occur via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Further studies are required to define the molecular mechanisms by which USCs activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase to bring about their protective effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition by sodium nitroprusside of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Mariotto, S; Cuzzolin, L; Adami, A; Del Soldato, P; Suzuki, H; Benoni, G

    1995-01-01

    A well-known nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), decreases in a dose-dependent manner NO synthase (NOS) activity induced in rat neutrophils by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This inhibitory action of SNP seems not to be due to its direct effect on the enzyme activity. The strong nitrosonium ion (NO+) character of SNP could be responsible for its inhibition of NOS induction in neutrophils. PMID:7542530

  10. Toxicity of chemically generated nitric oxide towards pancreatic islet cells can be prevented by nicotinamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kallmann, B.; Burkart, V.; Kolb, H.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide is involved in the lysis of pancreatic islet cells by inflammatory macrophages. Here the authors show that the incubation of islet cells with chemical NO-donors leads to cell lysis in a concentration and time dependent way. Islet cell death could be prevented by nicotinamide and 3-aminobenzamide, which are known to inhibit ADP-ribosylation, while several scavengers of oxygen radicals, N-acetylcysteine, dihydrolipoic acid, dimethylthiourea and citiolone, provided no protection.

  11. The role of nitric oxide radicals in removal of hyper-radiosensitivity by priming irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Edin, Nina Jeppesen; Sandvik, Joe Alexander; Vollan, Hilde Synnøve; Reger, Katharina; Görlach, Agnes; Pettersen, Erik Olai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a mechanism in which low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is permanently removed, induced by low-dose-rate (LDR) (0.2–0.3 Gy/h for 1 h) but not by high-dose-rate priming (0.3 Gy at 40 Gy/h) was investigated. One HRS-negative cell line (NHIK 3025) and two HRS-positive cell lines (T-47D, T98G) were used. The effects of different pretreatments on HRS were investigated using the colony assay. Cell-based ELISA was used to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels, and microarray analysis to compare gene expression in primed and unprimed cells. The data show how permanent removal of HRS, previously found to be induced by LDR priming irradiation, can also be induced by addition of nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEANO combined with either high-dose-rate priming or exposure to prolonged cycling hypoxia followed by reoxygenation, a treatment not involving radiation. The removal of HRS appears not to involve DNA damage induced during priming irradiation as it was also induced by LDR irradiation of cell-conditioned medium without cells present. The permanent removal of HRS in LDR-primed cells was reversed by treatment with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W. Furthermore, 1400W could also induce HRS in an HRS-negative cell line. The data suggest that LDR irradiation for 1 h, but not 15 min, activates iNOS, and also that sustained iNOS activation is necessary for the permanent removal of HRS by LDR priming. The data indicate that nitric oxide production is involved in the regulatory processes determining cellular responses to low-dose-rate irradiation. PMID:23685670

  12. Nitric oxide signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of spontaneous activity in the guinea pig prostate.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anupa; Lang, Richard J; Exintaris, Betty

    2012-06-01

    We investigated nitric oxide mediated inhibition of spontaneous activity recorded in young and aging guinea pig prostates. Conventional intracellular microelectrode and tension recording techniques were used. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (10 μM) abolished spontaneous contractions and slow wave activity in 5 young and 5 aging prostates. Upon adding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (10 μM) the frequency of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity was significantly increased in each age group. This increase was significantly larger in 4 to 8 preparations of younger vs aging prostates (about 40% to 50% vs about 10% to 20%, 2-way ANOVA p<0.01). Other measured parameters, including the duration, amplitude and membrane potential of spontaneous electrical and contractile activity, were not altered from control values. The guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 μM) significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous activity by 10% to 30% in 6 young guinea pig prostates (Student paired t test p<0.05). However, it had no effect on aging prostates. The cGMP analogue 8-Br-GMP (1 μM) and the PDE5 inhibitor dipyridamole (1 μM) significantly decreased the frequency of contractile activity by about 70% in 4 to 9 young and older prostates (Student paired t test p<0.05). The decrease in the response to L-NAME in spontaneous contractile and slow wave activity in aging prostate tissue compared to that in young prostates suggests that with age there is a decrease in nitric oxide production. This may further explain the increase in prostatic smooth muscle tone observed in age related prostate specific conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tolerance and withdrawal to anticonvulsant action of clonazepam: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Bhargava, V K; Pandhi, P

    2000-05-01

    The use of clonazepam in the long-term treatment of epilepsy is greatly inhibited by its capacity to induce tolerance and dependence. A means of preventing or minimizing the tolerance and dependence inducing properties is required. Here the role of nitric oxide in preventing the development of tolerance and withdrawal hyperexcitability was studied. In Wistar rats, clonazepam at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg i.p. twice daily produced tolerance to its anticonvulsant action in 28 days. After sudden cessation of therapy it produced hyperexcitability. Tolerance was shown by a decrease in seizure threshold to near control value while withdrawal hyperexcitability was evidenced by a significant decrease in seizure threshold below the control value. L-Arginine (a donor of nitric oxide) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) were given in doses of 150 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg, respectively on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 with clonazepam. Withdrawal hyperexcitability was seen on day 1, 2 and 4 after cessation of drug therapy. Electroshock was used as a model of epilepsy and seizure thresholds were determined by an up and down method of Kimball et al. L-Arginine was found to inhibit the development tolerance as well as withdrawal hyperexcitability when administered with clonazepam while N omega-L-arginine did not prevent either the development of tolerance or withdrawal hyperexcitability in the electroshock model. In the PTZ model, however, L-arginine had no effect on the anticonvulsant action and withdrawal hyperexcitability while inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis prevented withdrawal hyperexcitability in PTZ-induced seizures.

  14. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Harrell, John W.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P < 0.01), and this effect was not different between men and women (P = 0.41). l-NMMA infusion had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated dilation in men (P > 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P < 0.01) and women (P = 0.04) and this rise was lost with subsequent l-NMMA infusion (men, P < 0.01; women, P < 0.05). β-Adrenergic vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease. PMID:26747505

  15. Maternal serum nitric oxide levels associated with biochemical and clinical parameters in hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bartha, J L; Comino-Delgado, R; Bedoya, F J; Barahona, M; Lubian, D; Garcia-Benasach, F

    1999-02-01

    To measure maternal serum concentrations of total nitrites, as an index of nitric oxide synthesis, in normal and hypertensive pregnant women, and to examine the correlation between these concentrations and several variables of clinical interest. A total of 60 women in four different groups were studied: 10 normotensive pregnant women, 17 pregnant women with preeclampsia, 18 pregnant women with gestational hypertension and 15 pregnant women with chronic hypertension. Serum nitrite levels were determined using the Griess reaction after reduction with nitrate reductase. Serum nitrite levels were higher in preeclamptic women (34.11+/-14 micromol/l, P=0.04), lower in chronic hypertensive women (19.56+/-6.46 micromol/l, P=0.04) and similar in women with gestational hypertension (26.97+/-9.44 micromol/l) in comparison to the control group (25.37+/-7.24 micromol/l). Serum nitrite levels in preeclamptic women had significant positive correlations with hematocrit, fasting insulinemia, and apolipoprotein B and negative correlations with platelet count, serum phosphorus and glucose:insulin ratio. In pregnant women with chronic hypertension a negative correlation was found between serum nitrite levels and active partial thromboplastin time. In pregnant women with gestational hypertension, serum nitrite levels had negative correlations with birthweight and 24-h urine calcium, and positive correlations with mean corspuscular hemoglobin, 24-h urine sodium and maternal age. We suggest that in women with preeclampsia, a higher maternal nitric oxide level may act as a compensatory mechanism against hemoconcentration and platelet aggregation and that nitric oxide production may be related to some metabolic events. In women with gestational hypertension, higher serum nitrite levels may be related to clinical and biochemical findings common in preeclampsia. In chronic hypertension, a lower maternal nitric oxide level is related to the status of coagulation.

  16. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees ex