Science.gov

Sample records for abstract orthographic codes

  1. The nature of abstract orthographic codes: evidence from masked priming and magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Liina; Okano, Kana

    2010-05-25

    What kind of mental objects are letters? Research on letter perception has mainly focussed on the visual properties of letters, showing that orthographic representations are abstract and size/shape invariant. But given that letters are, by definition, mappings between symbols and sounds, what is the role of sound in orthographic representation? We present two experiments suggesting that letters are fundamentally sound-based representations. To examine the role of sound in orthographic representation, we took advantage of the multiple scripts of Japanese. We show two types of evidence that if a Japanese word is presented in a script it never appears in, this presentation immediately activates the ("actual") visual word form of that lexical item. First, equal amounts of masked repetition priming are observed for full repetition and when the prime appears in an atypical script. Second, visual word form frequency affects neuromagnetic measures already at 100-130 ms whether the word is presented in its conventional script or in a script it never otherwise appears in. This suggests that Japanese orthographic codes are not only shape-invariant, but also script invariant. The finding that two characters belonging to different writing systems can activate the same form representation suggests that sound identity is what determines orthographic identity: as long as two symbols express the same sound, our minds represent them as part of the same character/letter.

  2. Orthographic Coding: Brain Activation for Letters, Symbols, and Digits.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, Manuel; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan Andrés; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-12-01

    The present experiment investigates the input coding mechanisms of 3 common printed characters: letters, numbers, and symbols. Despite research in this area, it is yet unclear whether the identity of these 3 elements is processed through the same or different brain pathways. In addition, some computational models propose that the position-in-string coding of these elements responds to general flexible mechanisms of the visual system that are not character-specific, whereas others suggest that the position coding of letters responds to specific processes that are different from those that guide the position-in-string assignment of other types of visual objects. Here, in an fMRI study, we manipulated character position and character identity through the transposition or substitution of 2 internal elements within strings of 4 elements. Participants were presented with 2 consecutive visual strings and asked to decide whether they were the same or different. The results showed: 1) that some brain areas responded more to letters than to numbers and vice versa, suggesting that processing may follow different brain pathways; 2) that the left parietal cortex is involved in letter identity, and critically in letter position coding, specifically contributing to the early stages of the reading process; and that 3) a stimulus-specific mechanism for letter position coding is operating during orthographic processing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Orthographic and phonemic coding for lexical access: evidence from Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Bentin, S; Bargai, N; Katz, L

    1984-07-01

    In Hebrew script, vowels are represented by small dots appended to the consonants. However, in print the dots are almost always omitted, and because a single consonant string may represent several different words (with different vowels), the reader can assign to it a unique meaning and pronunciation only in relation to the syntactic and semantic contexts. We investigated the role of phonemic mediation for lexical access when printed Hebrew words are presented in isolation. Two experiments manipulated phonemic ambiguity by comparing consonant strings that have only a single meaningful pronunciation with strings that have several meaningful pronunciations. Although naming was slower when several pronunciations were possible, these phonemically ambiguous strings were not recognized more slowly in a lexical-decision task. A third study, in which lexical decisions were made for consonant strings presented with the vowel dots, showed that nonword homographs were rejected more slowly than were nonword homophones. These results suggest that in Hebrew, orthographic codes play a more important role in the process of word recognition than do phonemic codes, especially in comparison with the roles played in other languages.

  4. Statistical Learning as a Key to Cracking Chinese Orthographic Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xinjie; Tong, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    This study examines statistical learning as a mechanism for Chinese orthographic learning among children in Grades 3-5. Using an artificial orthography, children were repeatedly exposed to positional, phonetic, and semantic regularities of radicals. Children showed statistical learning of all three regularities. Regularities' levels of consistency…

  5. Statistical Learning as a Key to Cracking Chinese Orthographic Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xinjie; Tong, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    This study examines statistical learning as a mechanism for Chinese orthographic learning among children in Grades 3-5. Using an artificial orthography, children were repeatedly exposed to positional, phonetic, and semantic regularities of radicals. Children showed statistical learning of all three regularities. Regularities' levels of consistency…

  6. Orthographically influenced abstract phonological representation: evidence from non-rhotic speakers.

    PubMed

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is orthographically influenced. For example, the claim is made that the word "corn" has an underlying /r/ in its phonological representation, even in non-rhotic dialects. The evidence comes from difficulties observed in judgements about the homophony with a target word of a pseudohomophone whose phonology does not match the putative abstract representation of that word. For example, it is hard to say that the pseudohomophone "cawn" is homophonic with "corn". The conclusion that orthography can shape phonological representation is antithetical to both computational models of the conversion of print to sound and linguistic accounts of phonology.

  7. Evidence for the automatic processing of prelexical codes in an orthographic but not a phonological task.

    PubMed

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M; Kahan, Todd A

    2014-12-01

    The automatic activation of phonological and orthographic information in auditory and visual word processing was examined using a task-set procedure. Participants engaged in a phonological task (i.e., determining whether the letter "a" in a word sounded like /e/ or /æ/) or an orthographic task (i.e., determining whether the sound /s/ in a word was spelled with an "s" or a "c"). Participants were cued regarding which task to perform simultaneously with, or 750 ms before, a clear or degraded target. The stimulus clarity effect (i.e., clear words responded to faster than degraded words) was absorbed into the time that it took participants to identify the task on the basis of the cue in a simultaneous cue-target as compared to a delayed cue-target condition, but only for the orthographic task. These data are consistent with the claim that prelexical processing occurs in a capacity-free manner upon stimulus presentation when participants are trying to extract orthographic codes from words presented in the visual and auditory modalities. Such affirmative data were not obtained when participants attempted to extract phonological codes from words, since here the effects of stimulus clarity and cue delay were additive.

  8. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  9. Are word representations abstract or instance-based? Effects of spelling inconsistency in orthographic learning.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Long, Julia

    2011-09-01

    In Experiment 1, 62 10-year-old children studied printed pseudowords with semantic information. The items were later represented in a different format for reading, with half of the items spelled in the same way as before and half displayed in a new phonologically equivalent spelling. In a dictation test, the exposure to an alternative spelling substantially increased the number of errors that matched the alternative spelling, especially in good spellers. Orthographic learning predicted word identification when accuracy on orthographic choice for words was controlled. In Experiment 2, the effects on dictation responses of exposure to a misspelling versus the correct spelling, and the interactive effect of spelling ability, were confirmed relative to a no-exposure control in adults. The results support a single-lexicon view of reading and spelling and have implications for abstractionist and instance-based theories of orthographic representations.

  10. Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

  11. Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

  12. Contrasting Five Different Theories of Letter Position Coding: Evidence from Orthographic Similarity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Five theories of how letter position is coded are contrasted: position-specific slot-coding, Wickelcoding, open-bigram coding (discrete and continuous), and spatial coding. These theories make different predictions regarding the relative similarity of three different types of pairs of letter strings: substitution neighbors,…

  13. Contrasting Five Different Theories of Letter Position Coding: Evidence from Orthographic Similarity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Five theories of how letter position is coded are contrasted: position-specific slot-coding, Wickelcoding, open-bigram coding (discrete and continuous), and spatial coding. These theories make different predictions regarding the relative similarity of three different types of pairs of letter strings: substitution neighbors,…

  14. Contrasting five different theories of letter position coding: evidence from orthographic similarity effects.

    PubMed

    Davis, Colin J; Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2006-06-01

    Five theories of how letter position is coded are contrasted: position-specific slot-coding, Wickelcoding, open-bigram coding (discrete and continuous), and spatial coding. These theories make different predictions regarding the relative similarity of three different types of pairs of letter strings: substitution neighbors, neighbors-once-removed, and double-substitution neighbors. In Experiment 1, we used an illusory word paradigm and found that neighbor-once-removed similarity contexts resulted in fewer illusory word reports than substitution neighbors but more illusory words than double-substitution neighbors. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used a masked form priming technique with a lexical-decision task. The pattern of facilitation was as predicted by spatial coding but was incompatible with slot-coding, Wickelcoding, and both versions of open-bigram coding. These results provide further support for the SOLAR (self-organizing lexical aquisition and recognition) model of visual word identification. Copyright 2006 APA

  15. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  16. Dual coding theory, word abstractness, and emotion: a critical review of Kousta et al. (2011).

    PubMed

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-02-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of abstract concepts. Their dual coding critique is, however, based on impoverished and, in some respects, incorrect interpretations of the theory and its implications. This response corrects those gaps and misinterpretations and summarizes research findings that show predicted variations in the effects of dual coding variables in different tasks and contexts. Especially emphasized is an empirically supported dual coding theory of emotion that goes beyond the Kousta et al. emphasis on emotion in abstract semantics.

  17. Dual Coding Theory, Word Abstractness, and Emotion: A Critical Review of Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of…

  18. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    PubMed

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase.

  19. Learning to Be a Good Orthographic Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have brought about rapid advances in our understanding of reading and how it develops, particularly in relation to the importance of alphabetic coding skills. However, much less has been known about the transition from alphabetic decoding to the rapid and automatic orthographic recognition of words, which is the hallmark of skilled…

  20. The Temporal Courses of Phonological and Orthographic Encoding in Handwritten Production in Chinese: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in written production concerns how phonological codes influence the output of orthographic codes. We used a picture-word interference paradigm combined with the event-related potential technique to investigate the temporal courses of phonological and orthographic activation and their interplay in Chinese writing. Distractors were orthographically related, phonologically related, orthographically plus phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. The behavioral results replicated the classic facilitation effect for all three types of relatedness. The ERP results indicated an orthographic effect in the time window of 370–500 ms (onset latency: 370 ms), a phonological effect in the time window of 460–500 ms (onset latency: 464 ms), and an additive pattern of both effects in both time windows, thus indicating that orthographic codes were accessed earlier than, and independent of, phonological codes in written production. The orthographic activation originates from the semantic system, whereas the phonological effect results from the activation spreading from the orthographic lexicon to the phonological lexicon. These findings substantially strengthen the existing evidence that shows that access to orthographic codes is not mediated by phonological information, and they provide important support for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis. PMID:27605911

  1. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  2. Emergence of an abstract categorical code enabling the discrimination of temporally structured tactile stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Rossi-Pool, Román; Salinas, Emilio; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Vergara, José; Parga, Néstor; Romo, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different. We found that S1 neurons coded the temporal patterns in a literal way and only during the stimulation periods and did not reflect the monkeys’ decisions. In contrast, DPC neurons coded the stimulus patterns as broader categories and signaled them during the working memory, comparison, and decision periods. These results show that the initial sensory representation is transformed into an intermediate, more abstract categorical code that combines past and present information to ultimately generate a perceptually informed choice. PMID:27872293

  3. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  4. How Does Reading Performance Modulate the Impact of Orthographic Knowledge on Speech Processing? A Comparison of Normal Readers and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Nelis, Aubéline; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-01-01

    Studies on proficient readers showed that speech processing is affected by knowledge of the orthographic code. Yet, the automaticity of the orthographic influence depends on task demand. Here, we addressed this automaticity issue in normal and dyslexic adult readers by comparing the orthographic effects obtained in two speech processing tasks that…

  5. Orthographic Learning in Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In order to read fluently, children have to form orthographic representations. Despite numerous investigations, there is no clear answer to the question of the number of times they need to read a word to form an orthographic representation. We used length effect on reading times as a measure, because there are large differences between long and…

  6. Orthographic Learning in Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In order to read fluently, children have to form orthographic representations. Despite numerous investigations, there is no clear answer to the question of the number of times they need to read a word to form an orthographic representation. We used length effect on reading times as a measure, because there are large differences between long and…

  7. Orthographic repetition blindness.

    PubMed

    Harris, C L; Morris, A L

    2000-11-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the failure to report the second occurrence of a repeated word, when words are sequentially and briefly displayed (Kanwisher, 1987). RB is also observed for non-identical words, such as home, dome. Explanations for non-identity RB assume that similarity at the level of the whole word causes the second word to be suppressed ("similarity inhibition"). Three experiments demonstrate that RB is robust for diverse types of orthographic relatedness, including critical words that share only their first initial letter, their last two letters, first three letters, middle three letters, beginning and final letters, three alternating letters, and three non-aligned letters (as in chance hand). The theoretical construct of similarity inhibition may be able to account for these data, although one mechanism previously proposed in the literature, neighbourhood inhibition, is probably not a useful way to explain the data on RB for words sharing only one or two letters. We introduce an alternative explanation for orthographic RB: Only the repeated letters are suppressed, and amount of RB depends on how easily the perceiver can reconstruct the target word from the non-suppressed letters.

  8. Orthographic Projection. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Gordon; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Orthographic Projection program developed by Hobar Publications. (The program--not contained in this document--uses computer graphics to present abstract visual concepts such as points, lines, and planes.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area and hardware requirements (Apple II), indicates its…

  9. Copying Fluency and Orthographic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between stages of orthographic development and writing fluency. Finds that the graphemic output lexicon of beginning readers and writers is not sufficiently detailed to allow a fluent output. (PRA)

  10. Unattentive speech processing is influenced by orthographic knowledge: evidence from mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, José; Colin, Cécile; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-10-01

    How far can acquired knowledge such as orthographic knowledge affect pre-existing abilities such as speech perception? This controversial issue was addressed by investigating the automaticity of the influence of orthographic knowledge on speech processing. Many studies demonstrated this influence in active, lexico-semantic speech processing tasks. However, it has never been observed when speech is unattended. Here, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), an automatic index of experience-dependent auditory traces, was recorded in an unattended oddball paradigm manipulating the orthographic congruency between frequent and deviant spoken riming words. Both orthographically congruent and incongruent deviant words elicited a typical MMN over the fronto-central regions, with a stronger response in the incongruent condition. The finding showed that the orthographic dimension of spoken words influences a physiological marker of speech processing although participants were required not to attend to the auditory input. This provides evidence for an impact of acquiring a written code on speech processing.

  11. The Feedback-related Negativity Codes Components of Abstract Inference during Reward-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andrea M F; Koch, Stefan P; Schröger, Erich; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear. One seminal theory suggests that the so-called feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP peaking 200-300 msec after a feedback stimulus at frontocentral sites of the scalp, codes RPEs. Hitherto, the FRN has been predominantly related to a so-called "model-free" RPE: The difference between the observed outcome and what had been expected. Here, by means of computational modeling of choice behavior, we show that individuals employ abstract, "double-update" inference on the task structure by concurrently tracking values of chosen stimuli (associated with observed outcomes) and unchosen stimuli (linked to fictive outcomes). In a parametric analysis, model-free RPEs as well as their modification because of abstract inference were regressed against single-trial FRN amplitudes. We demonstrate that components related to abstract inference uniquely explain variance in the FRN beyond model-free RPEs. These findings advance our understanding of the FRN and its role in behavioral adaptation. This might further the investigation of disturbed abstract inference, as proposed, for example, for psychiatric disorders, and its underlying neural correlates.

  12. Abstracts of digital computer code packages assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, B.J.; Maskewitz, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This publication, ORNL/RSIC-13, Volumes I to III Revised, has resulted from an internal audit of the first 168 packages of computing technology in the Computer Codes Collection (CCC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). It replaces the earlier three documents published as single volumes between 1966 to 1972. A significant number of the early code packages were considered to be obsolete and were removed from the collection in the audit process and the CCC numbers were not reassigned. Others not currently being used by the nuclear R and D community were retained in the collection to preserve technology not replaced by newer methods, or were considered of potential value for reference purposes. Much of the early technology, however, has improved through developer/RSIC/user interaction and continues at the forefront of the advancing state-of-the-art.

  13. Abstract feature codes: The building blocks of the implicit learning system.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Katharina; Esser, Sarah; Haider, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions. These dimensions have remained underspecified so far. It is especially not clear whether stimulus and response characteristics are processed in separate modules. Here, we suggest that feature dimensions as they are described in the TEC should be viewed as the basic content of modules of implicit learning. This means that the modules process all stimulus and response information related to certain feature dimensions of the perceptual environment. In 3 experiments, we investigated by means of a serial reaction time task the nature of the basic units of implicit learning. As a test case, we used stimulus location sequence learning. The results show that a stimulus location sequence and a response location sequence cannot be learned without interference (Experiment 2) unless one of the sequences can be coded via an alternative, nonspatial dimension (Experiment 3). These results support the notion that spatial location is one module of the implicit learning system and, consequently, that there are no separate processing units for stimulus versus response locations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Three stages during the evolution of the genetic code. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, U.; Oro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A diversification of the genetic code based on the number of codons available for the proteinous amino acids is established. Three groups of amino acids during evolution of the code are distinguished. On the basis of their chemical complexity and a small codon number those amino acids emerging later in a translation process are derived. Both criteria indicate that His, Phe, Tyr, Cys and either Lys or Asn were introduced in the second stage, whereas the number of codons alone gives evidence that Trp and Met were introduced in the third stage. The amino acids of stage one use purines rich codons, thus purines have been retained in their third codon position. All the amino acids introduced in the second stage, in contrast, use pyrimidines in this codon position. A low abundance of pyrimidines during early translation is derived. This assumption is supported by experiments on non enzymatic replication and interactions of DNA hairpin loops with a complementary strand. A back extrapolation concludes a high purine content of the first nucleic acids which gradually decreased during their evolution. Amino acids independently available form prebiotic synthesis were thus correlated to purine rich codons. Conclusions on prebiotic replication are discussed also in the light of recent codon usage data.

  15. Three stages during the evolution of the genetic code. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, U.; Oro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A diversification of the genetic code based on the number of codons available for the proteinous amino acids is established. Three groups of amino acids during evolution of the code are distinguished. On the basis of their chemical complexity and a small codon number those amino acids emerging later in a translation process are derived. Both criteria indicate that His, Phe, Tyr, Cys and either Lys or Asn were introduced in the second stage, whereas the number of codons alone gives evidence that Trp and Met were introduced in the third stage. The amino acids of stage one use purines rich codons, thus purines have been retained in their third codon position. All the amino acids introduced in the second stage, in contrast, use pyrimidines in this codon position. A low abundance of pyrimidines during early translation is derived. This assumption is supported by experiments on non enzymatic replication and interactions of DNA hairpin loops with a complementary strand. A back extrapolation concludes a high purine content of the first nucleic acids which gradually decreased during their evolution. Amino acids independently available form prebiotic synthesis were thus correlated to purine rich codons. Conclusions on prebiotic replication are discussed also in the light of recent codon usage data.

  16. Boosting Orthographic Learning during Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text. The present training study was conducted to assess…

  17. Boosting Orthographic Learning during Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text. The present training study was conducted to assess…

  18. Word regularity affects orthographic learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2012-01-01

    Share's self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic representations are acquired via phonological decoding. A key, yet untested, prediction of this theory is that there should be an effect of word regularity on the number and quality of word-specific orthographic representations that children acquire. Thirty-four Grade 2 children were exposed to the sound and meaning of eight novel words and were then presented with those words in written form in short stories. Half the words were assigned regular pronunciations and half irregular pronunciations. Lexical decision and spelling tasks conducted 10 days later revealed that the children's orthographic representations of the regular words appeared to be stronger and more extensive than those of the irregular words.

  19. Coding of heart failure diagnoses in Saskatchewan: a validation study of hospital discharge abstracts.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, David F; Shnell, Greg; Lamb, Darcy A; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Stang, Mary Rose; Wilson, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Validity of Heart Failure (HF) diagnoses from administrative records has not been extensively evaluated, especially with respect to small / unselected hospitals. To determine the positive predictive value of a primary / most responsible diagnosis of HF among a general population of subjects discharged from Saskatchewan hospitals. Using administrative health records from the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada, we identified subjects experiencing their first HF hospitalization between 1994 and 2003. From this cohort, we randomly selected 500 subjects for individual validation using Framingham and Carlson criteria. The 466 charts available for analysis, 74% (345/466) and 63.9% (298/466) of subjects met criteria for a clinical diagnosis of HF based on Framingham or Carlson criteria, respectively; 57.5% (268/466) met both criterion. Provincial hospitals (located in the largest urban centres) were associated with the highest proportion of confirmed HF diagnoses (87.8% by Framingham criteria) compared to progressively smaller hospitals (regional 77.9%; district 64.2%; and community 60.0%). Accuracy also differed when stratified by physician category. Cardiologists and internists were associated with the highest rates of confirmed diagnoses [(97.5% (39 / 40) and 85.0% (34 / 40)]) compared to general practitioners [(73.1% (95 / 130)]) and other physicians [(69.1% (177 / 256)]), by Framingham criteria. Hospital discharge abstracts indicating HF are frequently inaccurate. These findings have important implications for the epidemiologic study of HF as well as the clinical management of patients.

  20. Orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stéphane; Montant, Marie; Ziegler, Johannes C; Fagot, Joël

    2012-04-13

    Skilled readers use information about which letters are where in a word (orthographic information) in order to access the sounds and meanings of printed words. We asked whether efficient processing of orthographic information could be achieved in the absence of prior language knowledge. To do so, we trained baboons to discriminate English words from nonsense combinations of letters that resembled real words. The results revealed that the baboons were using orthographic information in order to efficiently discriminate words from letter strings that were not words. Our results demonstrate that basic orthographic processing skills can be acquired in the absence of preexisting linguistic representations.

  1. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects in developing readers.

    PubMed

    Zeguers, M H T; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W; Snellings, P

    2017-06-23

    It has been assumed that fluent reading requires efficient integration of orthographic and phonological codes. However, it is thus far unclear how this integration process develops when children learn to become fluent readers. Therefore, we used masked priming to investigate time courses of orthographic and phonological code activation in children at incremental levels of reading development (2nd, 4th and 6th grade). The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. The second study manipulated the strength of the phonological difference between prime and target to clarify whether phonological difference influences phonological priming effects. Results in both studies showed that orthographic priming effects became facilitative at increasingly short durations during reading development, but phonological priming was absent. These results are taken to suggest that development of reading fluency is accompanied by increased automatization of orthographic representations. The absence of phonological priming suggests that developing readers cannot yet activate phonological codes automatically.

  2. Reading Comprehension in Boys with ADHD: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Orthographic Conversion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lauren M; Rapport, Mark D; Raiker, Joseph S; Orban, Sarah A; Eckrich, Samuel J

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension difficulties in children with ADHD are well established; however, limited information exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to these difficulties and the extent to which they interact with one another. The current study examines two broad cognitive processes known to be involved in children's reading comprehension abilities-(a) working memory (i.e., central executive processes [CE], phonological short-term memory [PH STM], and visuospatial short-term memory [VS STM]) and (b) orthographic conversion (i.e., conversion of visually presented text to a phonological code)-to elucidate their unique and interactive contribution to ADHD-related reading comprehension differences. Thirty-one boys with ADHD-combined type and 30 typically developing (TD) boys aged 8 to 12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.22) were administered multiple counterbalanced tasks assessing WM and orthographic conversion processes. Relative to TD boys, boys with ADHD exhibited significant deficits in PH STM (d = -0.70), VS STM (d = -0.92), CE (d = -1.58), and orthographic conversion (d = -0.93). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE and orthographic conversion processes modeled separately mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences partially, whereas PH STM and VS STM did not. CE and orthographic conversion modeled jointly mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences fully wherein orthographic conversion's large magnitude influence on reading comprehension occurred indirectly through CE's impact on the orthographic system. The findings suggest that adaptive cognitive interventions designed to improve reading-related outcomes in children with ADHD may benefit by including modules that train CE and orthographic conversion processes independently and interactively.

  3. Orthographic Learning in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla…

  4. Orthographic Learning in Dyslexic Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Ramos, Sara; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the basic processes of learning to read. Children begin to develop fluency when they are able to form orthographic representations of words, which provide direct, smooth, and fast reading. Dyslexic children of transparent orthographic systems are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency (Cuetos & Suárez-Coalla…

  5. Stimulus-response bindings code both abstract and specific representations of stimuli: evidence from a classification priming design that reverses multiple levels of response representation.

    PubMed

    Horner, A J; Henson, R N

    2011-11-01

    Repetition priming can be caused by the rapid retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. S-R bindings have recently been shown to simultaneously code multiple levels of response representation, from specific Motor-actions to more abstract Decisions ("yes"/"no") and Classifications (e.g., "man-made"/"natural"). Using an experimental design that reverses responses at all of these levels, we assessed whether S-R bindings also code multiple levels of stimulus representation. Across two experiments, we found effects of response reversal on priming when switching between object pictures and object names, consistent with S-R bindings that code stimuli at an abstract level. Nonetheless, the size of this reversal effect was smaller for such across-format (e.g., word-picture) repetition than for within-format (e.g., picture-picture) repetition, suggesting additional coding of format-specific stimulus representations. We conclude that S-R bindings simultaneously represent both stimuli and responses at multiple levels of abstraction.

  6. Oblique orthographic projections and contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Oblique orthographic projections allow model to be viewed in any selected orientation specified by Euler-angle transformation. This transformation resolves coordinate system of model to principal plane on which display is to be plotted.

  7. An Abstract Model of Rogue Code Insertion into Radio Frequency Wireless Networks. The Effects of Computer Viruses on the Program Management Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    ABSTRACT MODEL OF ROGUE CODE INSERTION INTO RADIO FREQUENCY WIRELESS NETWORKS THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER VIRUSES ON THE PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OFICE DIJTR•U N SP...viruses’ to the PNO. Computer viruses continue to be a real threat to all computing systems, to include traditional and wireless based networks. We will...just as software issues alone, can kill them. The rapidly growing popularity of wireless LANs is proliferating intruders’ opportunities to infect

  8. An Adaptive Resonance Theory account of the implicit learning of orthographic word forms.

    PubMed

    Glotin, H; Warnier, P; Dandurand, F; Dufau, S; Lété, B; Touzet, C; Ziegler, J C; Grainger, J

    2010-01-01

    An Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) network was trained to identify unique orthographic word forms. Each word input to the model was represented as an unordered set of ordered letter pairs (open bigrams) that implement a flexible prelexical orthographic code. The network learned to map this prelexical orthographic code onto unique word representations (orthographic word forms). The network was trained on a realistic corpus of reading textbooks used in French primary schools. The amount of training was strictly identical to children's exposure to reading material from grade 1 to grade 5. Network performance was examined at each grade level. Adjustment of the learning and vigilance parameters of the network allowed us to reproduce the developmental growth of word identification performance seen in children. The network exhibited a word frequency effect and was found to be sensitive to the order of presentation of word inputs, particularly with low frequency words. These words were better learned with a randomized presentation order compared with the order of presentation in the school books. These results open up interesting perspectives for the application of ART networks in the study of the dynamics of learning to read.

  9. Orthographic processing in pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Scarf, Damian; Boy, Karoline; Uber Reinert, Anelisie; Devine, Jack; Güntürkün, Onur; Colombo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Learning to read involves the acquisition of letter–sound relationships (i.e., decoding skills) and the ability to visually recognize words (i.e., orthographic knowledge). Although decoding skills are clearly human-unique, given they are seated in language, recent research and theory suggest that orthographic processing may derive from the exaptation or recycling of visual circuits that evolved to recognize everyday objects and shapes in our natural environment. An open question is whether orthographic processing is limited to visual circuits that are similar to our own or a product of plasticity common to many vertebrate visual systems. Here we show that pigeons, organisms that separated from humans more than 300 million y ago, process words orthographically. Specifically, we demonstrate that pigeons trained to discriminate words from nonwords picked up on the orthographic properties that define words and used this knowledge to identify words they had never seen before. In addition, the pigeons were sensitive to the bigram frequencies of words (i.e., the common co-occurrence of certain letter pairs), the edit distance between nonwords and words, and the internal structure of words. Our findings demonstrate that visual systems organizationally distinct from the primate visual system can also be exapted or recycled to process the visual word form. PMID:27638211

  10. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  11. Does a Visual-Orthographic Deficit Contribute to Reading Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badian, Nathlie A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, visual-orthographic skills were defined as the ability to recognize whether letters and numerals are correctly oriented. Aims were to investigate whether visual-orthographic skills would contribute independent variance to reading, and whether children with a visual-orthographic deficit would be more impaired readers than similar…

  12. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  13. An Associative Account of Orthographic Satiation in Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Jie; Carr, Sarah; Ding, Guosheng; Fu, Shimin; Zhang, John Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged inspection of a Chinese character induces a feeling of uncertainty of the character, a phenomenon named as "Orthographic Satiation." However, there has not been direct evidence showing that such satiation does occur at the orthographic level. To investigate whether Chinese satiation occurs at the orthographic level or at other…

  14. Orthographic analogies and developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hanley, J R; Reynolds, C J; Thornton, A

    1997-08-01

    Goswami (1986, 1988) has demonstrated that children can use orthographic analogies (particularly at the onset-rime level) between the spelling patterns in words to help to decode new words (e.g. using 'beak' to read 'peak'). This strategy has been shown in children as young as six years old. Since it is known that children with developmental dyslexia find it particularly difficult to read words that they have not been specifically taught (Lovett, Warren-Chaplin, Ransby & Borden, 1990), the present study investigated whether dyslexic children might be unable to use analogies. Employing a design similar to that used by Goswami (1988), it was hypothesized that dyslexics would find it difficult to transfer spontaneously knowledge of a 'clue' word to decode new words that could be read by analogy with the clue word. The results of Expt 1 indicated that the dyslexic readers read significantly fewer of the analogous words than a reading age-matched comparison group of younger children. Furthermore, none of the nine dyslexic children read as many of the analogous words as the lowest scoring control child. In a second experiment, a design similar to that of Muter, Snowling & Taylor (1994) was used with a new and larger sample of dyslexic children. In this experiment, all the children were brought to criterion in reading the clue words before the analogous words were presented. Once again, the dyslexic children read significantly fewer words that were analogous with the clue words than did a reading age-matched comparison group. The number of analogous words that the dyslexic children read was significantly correlated with their performance on a test that is sensitive to the ability to detect rhyme. It is argued that a failure to make analogies may be one of the main causes of the reading impairment experienced by children with developmental dyslexia.

  15. First- and Second-Language Learnability Explained by Orthographic Depth and Orthographic Learning: A "Natural" Scandinavian Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, Victor H. P.; Wass, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Effects of orthographic depth on orthographic learning ability were examined in 10- to 13-year-old children who learnt to read in similar orthographies differing in orthographic depth, defined as consistency of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. Danish children who learnt to read a deep orthography underperformed their Swedish counterparts who…

  16. First- and Second-Language Learnability Explained by Orthographic Depth and Orthographic Learning: A "Natural" Scandinavian Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, Victor H. P.; Wass, Malin

    2017-01-01

    Effects of orthographic depth on orthographic learning ability were examined in 10- to 13-year-old children who learnt to read in similar orthographies differing in orthographic depth, defined as consistency of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. Danish children who learnt to read a deep orthography underperformed their Swedish counterparts who…

  17. Reconsidering the role of orthographic redundancy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chetail, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Humans are known to continuously extract regularities from the flow of stimulation. This occurs in many facets of behavior, including reading. In spite of the ubiquitous evidence that readers become sensitive to orthographic regularities after very little exposure to print, the role of orthographic regularities receives at best a peripheral status in current theories of orthographic processing. In the present article, after the presentation of previous evidence on orthographic redundancy, the hypothesis that orthographic regularities may play a prominent role in word perception is developed. PMID:26042074

  18. Phonological or orthographic training for children with phonological or orthographic decoding deficits.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2007-08-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special instruction and normal readers, were also included in the study. Results showed strong average training effects on text reading and general word decoding for both phonological and orthographic training, but not significantly higher improvements than for the comparison groups. The main research finding was a double dissociation: children with pronounced phonological problems improved their general word decoding skill more from phonological than from orthographic training, whereas the opposite was observed for children with pronounced orthographic problems. Thus, in this population of children, training should focus on children's relative weakness rather than their relative strength in word decoding.

  19. Orthographic effects in spoken language: on-line activation or phonological restructuring?

    PubMed

    Perre, Laetitia; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Montant, Marie; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2009-06-12

    Previous research has shown that literacy (i.e., learning to read and spell) affects spoken language processing. However, there is an on-going debate about the nature of this influence. Some argued that orthography is co-activated on-line whenever we hear a spoken word. Others suggested that orthography is not activated on-line but has changed the nature of the phonological representations. Finally, both effects might occur simultaneously, that is, orthography might be activated on-line in addition to having changed the nature of the phonological representations. Previous studies have not been able to tease apart these hypotheses. The present study started by replicating the finding of an orthographic consistency effect in spoken word recognition using event-related brain potentials (ERPs): words with multiple spellings (i.e., inconsistent words) differed from words with unique spellings (i.e., consistent words) as early as 330 ms after the onset of the target. We then employed standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to determine the possible underlying cortical generators of this effect. The results showed that the orthographic consistency effect was clearly localized in a classic phonological area (left BA40). No evidence was found for activation in the posterior cortical areas coding orthographic information, such as the visual word form area in the left fusiform gyrus (BA37). This finding is consistent with the restructuring hypothesis according to which phonological representations are "contaminated" by orthographic knowledge.

  20. The SERIOL2 Model of Orthographic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Marton, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The SERIOL model of orthographic analysis proposed mechanisms for converting visual input into a serial encoding of letter order, which involved hemisphere-specific processing at the retinotopic level. As a test of SERIOL predictions, we conducted a consonant trigram-identification experiment, where the trigrams were briefly presented at various…

  1. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  3. Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g.…

  4. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  6. Morpho-orthographic segmentation without semantics.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Johannes C; Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max; Kezilas, Yvette; Grainger, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Masked priming studies have repeatedly provided evidence for a form-based morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism that blindly decomposes any word with the mere appearance of morphological complexity (e.g., corn + er). This account has been called into question by Baayen et al. Psychological Review, 118, 438-482 (2011), who pointed out that the prime words previously tested in the morpho-orthographic condition vary in the extent to which the suffix conveys regular meaning. In the present study, we investigated whether evidence for morpho-orthographic segmentation can be obtained with a set of tightly controlled prime words that are entirely semantically opaque. Using a visual lexical decision task, we compared priming from truly suffixed primes (hunter-HUNT), completely opaque pseudo-suffixed primes (corner-CORN), and non-suffixed primes (cashew-CASH). The results show comparable magnitudes of priming for the truly suffixed and pseudo-suffixed primes, and no priming from non-suffixed primes, and therefore provide further important evidence in support of morpho-orthographic segmentation processes operating in the absence of any possible role for semantics.

  7. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  8. Orthographic and Semantic Processing in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined orthographic and semantic processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the semantic match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…

  9. Gene-environment interaction on neural mechanisms of orthographic processing in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mengmeng; Wang, Jiuju; Maurer, Urs; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Jun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The ability to process and identify visual words requires efficient orthographic processing of print, consisting of letters in alphabetic languages or characters in Chinese. The N170 is a robust neural marker for orthographic processes. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as home literacy, have been shown to influence orthographic processing at the behavioral level, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-by-environment interactions on orthographic processing at the behavioral and neural level in a normal children sample. Sixty 12 year old Chinese children from a 10-year longitudinal sample underwent an implicit visual-word color decision task on real words and stroke combinations. The ERP analysis focused on the increase of the occipito-temporal N170 to words compared to stroke combinations. The genetic analysis focused on two SNPs (rs1419228, rs1091047) in the gene DCDC2 based on previous findings linking these 2 SNPs to orthographic coding. Home literacy was measured previously as the number of children's books at home, when the children were at the age of 3. Relative to stroke combinations, real words evoked greater N170 in bilateral posterior brain regions. A significant interaction between rs1091047 and home literacy was observed on the changes of N170 comparing real words to stroke combinations in the left hemisphere. Particularly, children carrying the major allele “G” showed a similar N170 effect irrespective of their environment, while children carrying the minor allele “C” showed a smaller N170 effect in low home-literacy environment than those in good environment. PMID:26294811

  10. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Loveall, Susan J; Conners, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed that individuals with DS performed similarly to controls on 2 measures of orthographic knowledge, but more poorly on phonological recoding and a third measure of orthographic knowledge. The first two orthographic tasks included real words as stimuli; the third task used letter patterns, not real words. These results suggest that individuals with DS may have a relative strength in word-specific orthographic knowledge but not in general orthographic knowledge.

  11. The Contributions of Orthographic Processing Factors to the Spelling Achievement of Middle-Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radaj, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contributions of "orthographic processing" factors to the spelling achievement of typically developing middle-elementary students. The researcher framed orthographic processing as a multilinguistic, multidimensional construct involving process factors related to procedural orthographic operations and product…

  12. An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, we examined the relative contributions of rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old children. Hierarchical regression revealed that rapid naming, exposure to print, and visual processing were each individually predictive of orthographic functioning when controlling for the other variables. Thus, it appears that both linguistic and visual abilities are related to orthographic functioning. PMID:20574061

  13. Reconstruction of 3D solid objects from 2D orthographic views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomura, Tsukasa

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to design an automatic system for transform 2D orthographic views to 3D solid objects. The input drawing contains geometric information of lines and circles. The reconstructed objects may be boxes, cylinders and their composites. This system used AutoCAD as a drawing tool. An input 2D orthographic view was created by using this package drawing editor. By using data interchange file (DXF) capabilities the application programs can access AutoCAD database. The script facility was used to execute the set of drawing commands which will create a continuous running display for output. The system was implemented in 7 steps. First, the 2D drawing was created and saved in ASCII code. Then DXF file was created and extracted into drawing commands. The transitional sweep operation was used to reconstruct subparts. The relationships between subparts are utilized to compose the final part. Finally the 3D solid object was displayed.

  14. Individual Differences in Phonological Feedback Effects: Evidence for the Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis of Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Share (1995) proposed "phonological recoding" (the translation of letters into sounds) as a self-teaching mechanism through which readers establish complete lexical representations. More recently, McKague et al. (2008) proposed a similar role for "orthographic recoding", that is, feedback from sounds to letters, in building and…

  15. Phonological or Orthographic Training for Children with Phonological or Orthographic Decoding Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special…

  16. Individual Differences in Phonological Feedback Effects: Evidence for the Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis of Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Share (1995) proposed "phonological recoding" (the translation of letters into sounds) as a self-teaching mechanism through which readers establish complete lexical representations. More recently, McKague et al. (2008) proposed a similar role for "orthographic recoding", that is, feedback from sounds to letters, in building and…

  17. Phonological or Orthographic Training for Children with Phonological or Orthographic Decoding Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special…

  18. The Case for Frequency Sensitivity in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Sharon; McVeigh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper positions the importance of frequency sensitivity in the development of orthographic knowledge throughout childhood and promotes learning to spell as a vehicle which may be used effectively to develop this sensitivity. It is suggested that orthographic knowledge is advanced via a process of "frequency sensitivity" to…

  19. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  20. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  1. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  2. Spelling Deficits in Dyslexia: Evaluation of an Orthographic Spelling Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Orthographic spelling is a major difficulty in German-speaking children with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an orthographic spelling training in spelling-disabled students (grade 5 and 6). In study 1, ten children (treatment group) received 15 individually administered weekly intervention sessions (60…

  3. An Examination of Multiple Predictors of Orthographic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesman, Glenn R.; Kibby, Michelle Y.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three variables in terms of how well they predict orthographic functioning. To this end, the authors examined the relative contributions of rapid automatic naming, exposure to print, and visual processing to a composite measure of orthographic functioning in a heterogeneous group of 8- to 12-year-old…

  4. The Case for Frequency Sensitivity in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Sharon; McVeigh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper positions the importance of frequency sensitivity in the development of orthographic knowledge throughout childhood and promotes learning to spell as a vehicle which may be used effectively to develop this sensitivity. It is suggested that orthographic knowledge is advanced via a process of "frequency sensitivity" to…

  5. Spelling Deficits in Dyslexia: Evaluation of an Orthographic Spelling Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Orthographic spelling is a major difficulty in German-speaking children with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an orthographic spelling training in spelling-disabled students (grade 5 and 6). In study 1, ten children (treatment group) received 15 individually administered weekly intervention sessions (60…

  6. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  7. Dermatology and the Brazilian Portuguese language orthographic reform.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ramos, Paulo Müller

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Portuguese language orthographic reform has promoted changes in writing in less than 2% of its lexis. However, these changes have affected medical practice. The authors present in this article the main changes in the orthographic rules and gather a group of words that have had their spelling altered by this new language reform emphasizing the dermatological terms.

  8. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  9. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  10. Orthographic and phonological preview benefits: parafoveal processing in skilled and less-skilled deaf readers.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Nathalie N; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers' processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading.

  11. Orthographic and Phonological Preview Benefits: Parafoveal Processing in Skilled and Less-skilled Deaf Readers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045

  12. Orthographic transparency modulates the grain size of orthographic processing: behavioral and ERP evidence from bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Savill, Nicola; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-10

    Grapheme-to-phoneme mapping regularity is thought to determine the grain size of orthographic information extracted whilst encoding letter strings. Here we tested whether learning to read in two languages differing in their orthographic transparency yields different strategies used for encoding letter-strings as compared to learning to read in one (opaque) language only. Sixteen English monolingual and 16 early Welsh-English bilingual readers undergoing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recordings were asked to report whether or not a target letter displayed at fixation was present in either a nonword (consonant string) or an English word presented immediately before. Bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar behavioural performance on target detection presented in words and nonwords, suggesting similar orthographic encoding in the two groups. By contrast, the amplitude of ERPs locked to the target letters (P3b, 340-570 ms post target onset, and a late frontal positive component 600-1,000 ms post target onset) were differently modulated by the position of the target letter in words and nonwords between bilinguals and monolinguals. P3b results show that bilinguals who learnt to read simultaneously in an opaque and a transparent orthographies encoded orthographic information presented to the right of fixation more poorly than monolinguals. On the opposite, only monolinguals exhibited a position effect on the late positive component for both words and nonwords, interpreted as a sign of better re-evaluation of their responses. The present study shed light on how orthographic transparency constrains grain size and visual strategies underlying letter-string encoding, and how those constraints are influenced by bilingualism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Orthographic Skills Important to Chinese Literacy Development: The Role of Radical Representation and Orthographic Memory of Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year longitudinal study among 239 Chinese students in Grades 2-4 was conducted to investigate the relationships between orthographic skills (including positional and functional knowledge of semantic radicals and phonetic radicals, and orthographic memory of radicals) and Chinese literacy skills (word reading, word spelling, reading…

  14. Orthographic Skills Important to Chinese Literacy Development: The Role of Radical Representation and Orthographic Memory of Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year longitudinal study among 239 Chinese students in Grades 2-4 was conducted to investigate the relationships between orthographic skills (including positional and functional knowledge of semantic radicals and phonetic radicals, and orthographic memory of radicals) and Chinese literacy skills (word reading, word spelling, reading…

  15. Orthographic Learning at a Glance: On the Time Course and Developmental Onset of Self-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined the time course of orthographic learning among Grade 3 children. A single encounter with a novel orthographic string was sufficient to produce reliable recall of orthographic detail. Moreover, newly acquired orthographic information was retained 1 month later. These data support the logistic learning functions featured in…

  16. Phonological priming and orthographic analogies in reading.

    PubMed

    Goswami, U

    1990-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that children can use orthographic analogies between the spelling patterns in words to help in decoding new words (e.g., using beak to read peak; Goswami, 1986, 1988). However, one objection has been that these analogy effects may be due to phonological priming. Two experiments examined the phonological priming alternative. In Experiment 1, a single word reading task compared the use of analogies to read words that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., most-post), that shared orthography only (e.g., most-cost), or that shared phonology only (e.g. most-toast--the phonological priming condition). Limited effects of phonological priming were found. Experiment 2 then presented the same words embedded in prose passages--"real reading." While the orthographic analogy effect remained robust, the small phonological priming effect disappeared. It is argued that phonological priming is an insufficient explanation of the analogy effect at the single word level, and plays no role in the use of analogies in story reading.

  17. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  18. Children reading spoken words: interactions between vocabulary and orthographic expectancy.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne

    2017-07-12

    There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Calibration of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as an orthographic camera.

    PubMed

    Vargas, J; González-Fernandez, L; Quiroga, J Antonio; Belenguer, T

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a method to calibrate a Shack-Hartmann sensor as an orthographic camera. This calibration method permits us to obtain the distance, the rotation matrix between the microlens array and CCD imaging planes, and the projection matrix, which models the projection of the incoming rays to the CCD imaging plane. The proposed calibration method introduces a very compact matrix notation and allows wavefront reconstruction without an explicit centroid search between the reference and distorted spot diagrams. We show a set of simulations in code V that prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Temporal phase unwrapping using orthographic projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Tomislav; Pribanić, Tomislav; Đonlić, Matea

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel temporal phase unwrapping method which is a generalization of the three commonly proposed approaches: hierarchical, heterodyne, and number theoretical phase unwrapping. The proposed unwrapping method is based on the orthographic projection of wrapped phases from the measurement space to the space of co-dimension 1. In the space of co-dimension 1 all unknown integer period-order numbers are computed simultaneously using a nearest-neighbor search on a fixed constellation of points. The proposed method offers new key insights about relationship between unwrapping success rate, noise limit, and maximum unwrapping range. We give example how the proposed method may be applied in the multiple frequency phase shifting profilometry.

  1. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  2. Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Dufau, Stéphane; Fagot, Joël; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords [1]. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process. PMID:24416300

  3. Context effects on orthographic learning of regular and irregular words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate

    2011-05-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of context on orthographic learning and examined whether there were different effects for novel words given regular and irregular pronunciations. Two experiments were conducted using regular and irregular novel words, respectively. Second-grade children were asked to learn eight novel words either in stories or in a list of words. The results revealed no significant effect of context for the regular items. However, in an orthographic decision task, there was a facilitatory effect of context on irregular novel word learning. The findings support the view that contextual information is important to orthographic learning, but only when the words to be learned contain irregular spelling-sound correspondences.

  4. Orthographic representations in spoken word priming: no early automatic activation.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Kolinsky, Régine; Ventura, Paulo; Radeau, Monique; Morais, José

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigated the modulation by orthographic knowledge of the final overlap phonological priming effect, contrasting spoken prime-target pairs with congruent spellings (e.g., 'carreau-bourreau', /karo/-/buro/) to pairs with incongruent spellings (e.g., 'zéro-bourreau', /zero/-/buro/). Using materials and designs aimed at reducing the impact of response biases or strategies, no orthographic congruency effect was found in shadowing, a speech recognition task that can be performed prelexically. In lexical decision, an orthographic effect occurred only when the processing environment reduced the prominence of phonological overlap and thus induced participants to rely on word spelling. Overall, the data do not support the assumption of early, automatic activation of orthographic representations during spoken word recognition.

  5. Orthographic and phonological processing in developing readers revealed by ERPs.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Marianna D; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-01

    The development of neurocognitive mechanisms in single word reading was studied in children ages 8-10 years using ERPs combined with priming manipulations aimed at dissociating orthographic and phonological processes. Transposed-letter (TL) priming (barin-BRAIN vs. bosin-BRAIN) was used to assess orthographic processing, and pseudohomophone (PH) priming (brane-BRAIN vs. brant-BRAIN) was used to assess phonological processing. Children showed TL and PH priming effects on both the N250 and N400 ERP components, and the magnitude of TL priming correlated positively with reading ability, with better readers showing larger TL priming effects. Phonological priming, on the other hand, did not correlate with reading ability. The positive correlations between TL priming and reading ability in children points to a key role for flexible sublexical orthographic representations in reading development, in line with their hypothesized role in the efficient mapping of orthographic information onto semantic information in skilled readers. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Moving beyond Coltheart's N: a new measure of orthographic similarity.

    PubMed

    Yarkoni, Tal; Balota, David; Yap, Melvin

    2008-10-01

    Visual word recognition studies commonly measure the orthographic similarity of words using Coltheart's orthographic neighborhood size metric (ON). Although ON reliably predicts behavioral variability in many lexical tasks, its utility is inherently limited by its relatively restrictive definition. In the present article, we introduce a new measure of orthographic similarity generated using a standard computer science metric of string similarity (Levenshtein distance). Unlike ON, the new measure-named orthographic Levenshtein distance 20 (OLD20)-incorporates comparisons between all pairs of words in the lexicon, including words of different lengths. We demonstrate that OLD20 provides significant advantages over ON in predicting both lexical decision and pronunciation performance in three large data sets. Moreover, OLD20 interacts more strongly with word frequency and shows stronger effects of neighborhood frequency than does ON. The discussion section focuses on the implications of these results for models of visual word recognition.

  7. When phonology fails: orthographic neighbourhood effects in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Johnston, Rhona; Snowling, Margaret J

    2006-03-01

    Both cerebral hemispheres contain phonological, orthographic and semantic representations of words, however there are between-hemisphere differences in the relative engagement and specialization of the different representations. Taking orthographic processing for example, previous studies suggest that orthographic neighbourhood size (N) has facilitatory effects in the right but not the left hemispheres. To pursue the nature of this asymmetric N effect, in particular whether there are individual differences in such specialisation, we examined N in a case of developmental dyslexia, FM. We first describe the nature of his difficulties, which are mainly severe phonological deficits. Employing the divided visual field paradigm with FM revealed a greater sensitivity in the right than in the left hemisphere to orthographic variables, with a significant inhibitory N effect in the left, but not right hemisphere. Such inhibition, to a lesser degree, was found among a group of adults with dyslexia but not among age-matched normal readers. We argue that enhanced sensitivity to orthographic cues is developed in some cases of dyslexia when a normal, phonology-based left hemisphere word recognition processing is not achieved. The interpretation presented here is cast in terms of differences between people with dyslexia and typical readers that originate in the atypical way in which orthographic representations are initially set up.

  8. Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming.

    PubMed

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single-word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50 ms in the fast priming version and 50 ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap) and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing.

  9. Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

    2009-05-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules.

  10. Spelling deficits in dyslexia: evaluation of an orthographic spelling training.

    PubMed

    Ise, Elena; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2010-06-01

    Orthographic spelling is a major difficulty in German-speaking children with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an orthographic spelling training in spelling-disabled students (grade 5 and 6). In study 1, ten children (treatment group) received 15 individually administered weekly intervention sessions (60 min each). A control group (n = 4) did not receive any intervention. In study 2, orthographic spelling training was provided to a larger sample consisting of a treatment group (n = 13) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 14). The main criterion of spelling improvement was analyzed using an integrated dataset from both studies. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that gains in spelling were significantly greater in the treatment group than in the control group. Statistical analyses also showed significant improvements in reading (study 1) and in a measure of participants' knowledge of orthographic spelling rules (study 2). The findings indicate that an orthographic spelling training enhances reading and spelling ability as well as orthographic knowledge in spelling-disabled children learning to spell a transparent language like German.

  11. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  12. Phonological and orthographic demands in the production of handwriting.

    PubMed

    Portier, S J; van Galen, G P; Thomassen, A J

    1993-03-01

    In an experimental handwriting task, with two parts, we varied the phonological and orthographic complexity of visually presented nonwords. Twelve adult subjects had to write these nonwords in shorthand as well as in Latin script. Phonological complexity was varied by presenting a nonword which included two identical vowel characters. These were either phonologically similar (simple condition) or phonologically different (complex condition). Orthographic complexity was varied by using nonwords which either have a graphemic format for shorthand that corresponds with the graphemic format that is applied for Latin script (simple condition) or a graphemic format for shorthand which is discrepant from the Latin script format (complex condition). It appeared that a higher degree of phonological and orthographic complexity led to a slower and less fluent performance in graphemes that preceded the actual locus of complexity of the nonword. Furthermore, complexity effects were by far the strongest under the production of shorthand. The results are interpreted from the point of view of a psychomotor theory of handwriting, which assumes that the spelling process of visually presented nonwords may follow a phonological or an orthographic (sublexical) route. The finding that orthographic complexity interferes with the production of a phonologically oriented task such as shorthand is interpreted as evidence in favour of an interactive transmission of information between these two processing routes.

  13. Learner-generated drawing for phonological and orthographic dyslexic readers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included word recognition task, orthographic task, phonological awareness task, and scenery texts and questions. Comparisons of the four groups of students showed differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control groups in pre- and posttest performance of scenery texts. Differences also existed in relevant questions and the effect of the learner-generated drawing method. The pretest performance showed problems in the dyslexic samples in reading the scenery texts and answering relevant questions. The posttest performance revealed certain differences among phonological dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, double-deficit dyslexia, and the chronological age control group. Finally, all dyslexic groups obtained a great effect from using the learner-generated drawing, particularly orthographic dyslexia. These results suggest that the learner-generated drawing was also useful for dyslexic students, with the potential for use in the classroom for teaching text reading to dyslexic students.

  14. Does Sensitivity to Orthographic Regularities Influence Reading and Spelling Acquisition? A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Ise, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies focused on the influence of orthographic processing on reading and spelling performance. It was found that orthographic processing is an independent predictor of reading and spelling performance in different languages and children of different ages. This study investigated sensitivity to orthographic regularities in German-speaking…

  15. Flexibility in Young Second-Language Learners: Examining the Language Specificity of Orthographic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether orthographic processing transfers across languages to reading when the writing systems under acquisition are sufficiently related. We conducted a study with 76 7-year-old English-first-language children in French immersion. Measures of English and French orthographic processing (orthographic choice tasks) and…

  16. Individual Differences in Children's Literacy Development: The Contribution of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Harris, Nicholas; Williams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Orthographic knowledge is one of several contributors to developing literacy skills. However, our understanding of how orthographic knowledge contributes to both spelling and reading is incomplete due to a lack of consistency in defining and measuring orthographic knowledge. The goal of the present study was to empirically test whether or not…

  17. Does Sensitivity to Orthographic Regularities Influence Reading and Spelling Acquisition? A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Ise, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies focused on the influence of orthographic processing on reading and spelling performance. It was found that orthographic processing is an independent predictor of reading and spelling performance in different languages and children of different ages. This study investigated sensitivity to orthographic regularities in German-speaking…

  18. The use of orthographic analogies in learning to read Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ho, C S; Wong, W L; Chan, W S

    1999-03-01

    Two studies, comprising training in phonological analogy and semantic analogy with pre-and post-training assessments, were conducted to investigate whether young children made orthographic analogies in learning to read a nonalphabetic script, Chinese, as alphabetic readers do. Twenty Chinese first-graders and 20 third-graders participated in each of the studies. The results showed that not only the third-graders, but also the first-graders made phonological analogies by the phonetic (i.e. the orthographic component in a Chinese character that provides sound cues) and semantic analogies by the radical (i.e. the orthographic component that provides meaning cues). It was, therefore, suggested that the roles and functions of the phonetics and radicals could be taught explicitly in school from an early age to help improve children's reading skills.

  19. Dyslexic Children Show Atypical Cerebellar Activation and Cerebro-Cerebellar Functional Connectivity in Orthographic and Phonological Processing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoxia; Li, Le; Zhang, Manli; Yang, Xiujie; Tian, Mengyu; Xie, Weiyi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Li; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have found atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia in either motor-related tasks or language tasks. However, studies investigating atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia have mostly used tasks tapping phonological processing. A question that is yet unanswered is whether the cerebellum in individuals with dyslexia functions properly during orthographic processing of words, as growing evidence shows that the cerebellum is also involved in visual and spatial processing. Here, we investigated cerebellar activation and cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity during word processing in dyslexic readers and typically developing readers using tasks that tap orthographic and phonological codes. In children with dyslexia, we observed an abnormally higher engagement of the bilateral cerebellum for the orthographic task, which was negatively correlated with literacy measures. The greater the reading impairment was for young dyslexic readers, the stronger the cerebellar activation was. This suggests a compensatory role of the cerebellum in reading for children with dyslexia. In addition, a tendency for higher cerebellar activation in dyslexic readers was found in the phonological task. Moreover, the functional connectivity was stronger for dyslexic readers relative to typically developing readers between the lobule VI of the right cerebellum and the left fusiform gyrus during the orthographic task and between the lobule VI of the left cerebellum and the left supramarginal gyrus during the phonological task. This pattern of results suggests that the cerebellum compensates for reading impairment through the connections with specific brain regions responsible for the ongoing reading task. These findings enhance our understanding of the cerebellum's involvement in reading and reading impairment.

  20. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  1. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  2. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  3. Abstract Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Barrie

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create slab planters that are functional clay objects. Discusses how the students prepare their drawings for the planter and how to create the planter. Explains that the subject matter is depicted in a progression from reality to abstraction. (CMK)

  4. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  5. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  6. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  7. Orthographic learning at a glance: on the time course and developmental onset of self-teaching.

    PubMed

    Share, David L

    2004-04-01

    Experiment 1 examined the time course of orthographic learning among Grade 3 children. A single encounter with a novel orthographic string was sufficient to produce reliable recall of orthographic detail. Moreover, newly acquired orthographic information was retained 1 month later. These data support the logistic learning functions featured in contemporary connectionist models of reading rather than a "threshold" model of orthographic learning. Experiments 2 and 3 examined self-teaching among novice readers. In contrast to the findings from less regular orthographies such as English and Dutch, beginning readers of a highly regular orthography (Hebrew) appear to be relatively insensitive to word-specific orthographic detail, reading in a nonlexical "surface" fashion. These results suggest fundamental differences between shallow and deep orthographies in the development of orthographic sensitivity.

  8. Orthographic Quality in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Learning new vocabulary words in a second language is a challenge for the adult learner, especially when the second language writing system differs from the first language writing system. According to the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2001), there are three constituents to word-level knowledge: orthographic, phonological, and…

  9. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  10. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  11. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

  12. Orthographic and Phonological Form Interference during Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Iya Khelm; Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This study reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating form interference during sentence-level silent reading. The items involved reduced and unreduced relative clauses (RCs) with words that were orthographically and phonologically similar "(injection-infection"; O+P+, Experiment 1) as well as with words that were orthographically…

  13. Orthographic Representations in Spoken Word Priming: No Early Automatic Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Kolinsky, Regine; Ventura, Paulo; Radeau, Monique; Morais, Jose

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigated the modulation by orthographic knowledge of the final overlap phonological priming effect, contrasting spoken prime-target pairs with congruent spellings (e.g., "carreau-bourreau", /karo/-/buro/) to pairs with incongruent spellings (e.g., "zero-bourreau", /zero/-/buro/). Using materials and…

  14. Auditory Word Serial Recall Benefits from Orthographic Dissimilarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Lafontaine, Helene; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orthographic knowledge has been consistently observed in speech recognition and metaphonological tasks. The present study provides data suggesting that such influence also pervades other cognitive domains related to language abilities, such as verbal working memory. Using serial recall of auditory seven-word lists, we observed…

  15. Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Treiman, Rebecca; van Ooijen, Brit

    2010-01-01

    The phoneme detection task is widely used in spoken-word recognition research. Alphabetically literate participants, however, are more used to explicit representations of letters than of phonemes. The present study explored whether phoneme detection is sensitive to how target phonemes are, or may be, orthographically realized. Listeners detected…

  16. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

  17. Orthographic Directionality and Thematic Role Illustration in English and Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Saleem, Ahmad; Kendall, Diane; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that people had a bias for drawing agents on the left of a picture when given a verb stimulus targeting an active or passive event (e.g., "kicked" or "is kicked") and that orthographic directionality would influence the way events were illustrated. Monolingual English speakers, who read and write left-to-right, and…

  18. Context Effects on Orthographic Learning of Regular and Irregular Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey; Nation, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic learning takes place via phonological decoding in meaningful texts, that is, in context. Context is proposed to be important in learning to read, especially when decoding is only partial. However, little research has directly explored this hypothesis. The current study looked at the effect of…

  19. Orthographic and Phonological Form Interference during Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Iya Khelm; Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This study reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating form interference during sentence-level silent reading. The items involved reduced and unreduced relative clauses (RCs) with words that were orthographically and phonologically similar "(injection-infection"; O+P+, Experiment 1) as well as with words that were orthographically…

  20. Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Anne; Treiman, Rebecca; van Ooijen, Brit

    2010-01-01

    The phoneme detection task is widely used in spoken-word recognition research. Alphabetically literate participants, however, are more used to explicit representations of letters than of phonemes. The present study explored whether phoneme detection is sensitive to how target phonemes are, or may be, orthographically realized. Listeners detected…

  1. The Developmental Turnpoint of Orthographic Consistency Effects in Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's online auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 4 to the end of Grade 9 by examining the orthographic consistency effect in auditory lexical decision. Fourth-graders showed evidence of a widespread influence of orthography in their spoken word recognition system; words with rimes that…

  2. Phonological and Orthographic Influences on Children's Vowel Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; Boechler, Patricia M.; Steffler, Dorothy J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the role of phonological and orthographic information in vowel selection across grades 1, 2, and 3. Results suggest: (1) beginners make best-guess decisions to spell ambiguous vowels based solely on phonological information; and (2) as they acquire more sound-letter correspondence knowledge, children start to use orthographic…

  3. Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

  4. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  5. Vowel Representation in Written Hebrew: Phonological, Orthographic and Morphological Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates adult Hebrew readers' perception of words containing the grapheme[Hebrew] in different orthographic and morphological contexts. In the first experiment, 38 third-year education students were asked to make lexical decisions regarding 24 pointed words (presented with vowel marks) in a sentential context in two conditions--with…

  6. Visuo-Orthographic Knowledge in Deaf Readers of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Armand, Francoise; Demont, Elisabeth; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated visuo-orthographic knowledge in deaf readers of French compared to age-matched hearing subjects. More specifically, we were interested in knowledge related to the legal position of double consonants and to the fact that double consonants are much more frequent than double vowels in written French. We used a word-likeness…

  7. Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

  8. Visuo-Orthographic Knowledge in Deaf Readers of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Armand, Francoise; Demont, Elisabeth; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated visuo-orthographic knowledge in deaf readers of French compared to age-matched hearing subjects. More specifically, we were interested in knowledge related to the legal position of double consonants and to the fact that double consonants are much more frequent than double vowels in written French. We used a word-likeness…

  9. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…

  10. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  11. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  12. Dutch Dyslexic Adolescents: Phonological-Core Variable-Orthographic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekebrede, Judith; van der Leij, Aryan; Share, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The phonological-core variable-orthographic differences (PCVOD) model [van der Leij, & Morfidi (2006). "Journal of Learning Disabilities," 39, 74-90] has been proposed as an explanation for the heterogeneity among dyslexic readers in their profiles of reading-related subskills. The predictions of this model were investigated in a…

  13. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  14. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…

  15. Orthographic Quality in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Learning new vocabulary words in a second language is a challenge for the adult learner, especially when the second language writing system differs from the first language writing system. According to the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2001), there are three constituents to word-level knowledge: orthographic, phonological, and…

  16. Children Develop Initial Orthographic Knowledge during Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether young children acquire orthographic knowledge during structured adult-led storybook reading even though minimal viewing time is devoted to print. Sixty-two kindergarten children were read 12 storybook "chapters" while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the children quickly acquired initial mental…

  17. Spelling as a Self-Teaching Mechanism in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahar-Yames, Daphna; Share, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the possibility that spelling fulfils a self-teaching function in the acquisition of orthographic knowledge because, like decoding, it requires close attention to letter order and identity as well as to word-specific spelling-sound mapping. We hypothesised that: (i) spelling would lead to significant (i.e. above-chance)…

  18. Global Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ellen J

    2017-10-01

    Editor's note: EMJ has partnered with the journals of multiple international emergency medicine societies to share from each a highlighted research study, as selected by their editors. This edition will feature an abstract from each publication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Sensitivity to Orthographic Familiarity in the Occipito-Temporal Region

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region’s specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity (Kronbichler et al., 2007), and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., “Does it sound like a word?”). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT area for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlate negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  20. [Orthographic similarity or semantic relation? The origin of orthographic neighborhood size effects on the lexical decision to Japanese kanji words].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Rika; Matsui, Takao

    2014-12-01

    It is known that lexical decisions to Japanese kanji words get faster as the orthographic neighborhood size of the words grows. This study aimed to show that this facilitative effect of orthographic neighborhood size is due not only to orthographic similarity but also to semantic relationships between words and their neighbors. In the experiment, common and proper nouns each composed of two kanji characters were used as stimuli, the latter having no semantic relation to their neighbors. Lexical decision times for each type of noun were measured with large and small orthographic neighborhoods. The results showed that lexical decision times for both common and proper nouns with large neighborhoods were shorter than those with small neighborhoods, and that the difference was prominent for common nouns sharing their first characters with neighbors. These results suggest that the semantic relatedness of the first characters of Japanese kanji words and their neighbors also facilitates their lexical decision. Finally, variance of neighborhood effects on lexical decision among writing systems and the need to consider various kanji-specific factors are discussed.

  1. Individual Differences in the Size of Orthographic Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: The Role of Listeners' Orthographic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the extent to which orthography affects spoken word recognition in literate adults is related to their spelling proficiency. The study included two components: an auditory lexical decision task manipulating orthographic consistency of the stimuli and a spelling test. The results replicated…

  2. Tracking orthographic learning in children with different profiles of reading difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Marinus, Eva; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children with reading difficulties need more exposures to acquire the representations needed to support fluent reading than typically developing readers (e.g., Ehri and Saltmarsh, 1995). Building on existing orthographic learning paradigms, we report on an investigation of orthographic learning in poor readers using a new learning task tracking both the accuracy (untimed exposure duration) and fluency (200 ms exposure duration) of learning novel words over trials. In study 1, we used the paradigm to examine orthographic learning in children with specific poor reader profiles (nine with a surface profile, nine a phonological profile) and nine age-matched controls. Both profiles showed improvement over the learning cycles, but the children with surface profile showed impaired orthographic learning in spelling and orthographic choice tasks. Study 2 explored predictors of orthographic learning in a group of 91 poor readers using the same outcome measures as in Study 1. Consistent with earlier findings in typically developing readers, phonological decoding skill predicted orthographic learning. Moreover, orthographic knowledge significantly predicted orthographic learning over and beyond phonological decoding. The two studies provide insights into how poor readers learn novel words, and how their learning process may be compromised by less proficient orthographic and/or phonological skills. PMID:25071504

  3. The nature of orthographic learning in self-teaching: Testing the extent of transfer.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rebecca; Castles, Anne; Laroche, Annie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to test how orthographic learning, or the learning of the spelling patterns of words, happens within the self-teaching paradigm. One possibility is that orthographic learning occurs on a word-specific basis. Two other possibilities are that orthographic learning transfers specifically to the processing of novel words that are morphologically related or that it transfers to novel words that are orthographically similar, regardless of morphological relationship. In an orthographic learning paradigm, we asked children in Grades 3 and 5 to read nonwords embedded in short stories. In a between-participants design, some children read nonwords that were base forms, others read nonwords that were morphologically complex forms, and others read nonwords that were orthographically complex forms (e.g., feap, feaper, and feaple, respectively). Children completed an orthographic choice task with the same items as in the stories. To evaluate transfer of learning, children also completed orthographic choices for the two forms of the nonwords not seen in the stories. Results indicated that children's orthographic learning affected processing of novel items that appeared to be morphologically related as well as those that shared only orthographic structure (e.g., both feaper and feaple). Additional analyses showed that these effects were held across cases when children did and did not successfully decode the novel words in the learning experience, although successful decoding did lead to higher levels of orthographic learning and transfer. Together, the findings suggest that children's prior experiences affect their processing of novel words that share orthographic similarity, likely reflecting a role for orthographic analogies in the self-teaching process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  5. Orthographic neighborhood size effect in Chinese character naming: orthographic and phonological activations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Lin; Bi, Hong-Yan; Wei, Tong-Qi; Chen, Bao-Guo

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of orthographic neighborhood (N) size on the cognitive processes underlying Chinese character reading. Previous research has shown increasing N size facilitates word naming and recognition performance in alphabetic languages. Experiment 1 revealed that a large N size was associated with a general inhibition of processes underlying character reading, in contrast to previous findings with alphabetic languages. This inhibitory effect was influenced by regularity and consistency. Experiment 2 sought to assess the effects of higher-frequency neighbors on character naming performance. The results revealed that higher-frequency neighbors with different pronunciation to the target interfered with the phonological retrieval of targets. We propose that this type of interference may have caused the N size effect observed in Experiment 1. The results of Experiment 3 revealed that a large N size facilitated target naming in the absence of higher-frequency neighbors. The current results shed light on the processes underlying character naming, and we propose possible cognitive mechanisms of the N size effect on Chinese character naming. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  7. Processing abilities associated with phonologic and orthographic skills in adult learning disability.

    PubMed

    Osmon, David C; Braun, Michelle M; Plambeck, Elizabeth A

    2005-07-01

    Measures of orthographic and phonologic skills were related to co-normed Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) cognitive measures in 138 college age, learning problem adults. Only orthographic deficits were associated with a processing disorder (p<.001). Selective processing abilities were associated with phonologic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.053) and orthographic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.047) skills after removal of variance associated with general intelligence. Analyses found common processing abilities across both phonologic and orthographic skills for WJ-R visual processing (-Gv) and short-term memory processing factors (Gsm) (p<.001). Cluster analysis established a phonologic deficit and a double deficit (phonologic and orthographic) group. Discussion relates results to the differences between adult and child reading decoding deficits, the lack of a selective orthographically impaired subtype of dyslexia, and the evidence of visual processing compensation for reading problems.

  8. Phonological and orthographic processing of Hebrew words: electrophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Barnea, A; Breznitz, Z

    1998-12-01

    Brain activity among 15 male, college-level, normal readers in Israel was examined during phonological and orthographic word-recognition tasks. Both electrophysiological (event-related potentials, or ERPs) and behavioral measures were obtained. Data indicated that (a) behavioral accuracy was almost perfect for all the experimental tasks, and (b) although P200 and N400 ERP components were elicited in the experimental tasks, the latencies of those components were significantly longer and their amplitudes significantly higher in the phonological task. Variations in vowel information had no effect on word recognition in either type of task. The results suggest that among skilled readers of Hebrew, phonological processing during word recognition may be more effortful and may demand greater cognitive resources than orthographic processing. Furthermore, the additional phonological information represented in vowels appears to contribute little to word recognition in this population. These findings support earlier research on skilled reading in Hebrew as well as current theoretical models of reading.

  9. Incidental orthographic learning during a color detection task.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Mitsi, Anna; Koustoumbardis, Miltiadis; Tsitsopoulou, Sofia M; Leventi, Marianna; Seitz, Aaron R

    2017-09-01

    Orthographic learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge about specific spelling patterns forming words and about general biases and constraints on letter sequences. It is thought to occur by strengthening simultaneously activated visual and phonological representations during reading. Here we demonstrate that a visual perceptual learning procedure that leaves no time for articulation can result in orthographic learning evidenced in improved reading and spelling performance. We employed task-irrelevant perceptual learning (TIPL), in which the stimuli to be learned are paired with an easy task target. Assorted line drawings and difficult-to-spell words were presented in red color among sequences of other black-colored words and images presented in rapid succession, constituting a fast-TIPL procedure with color detection being the explicit task. In five experiments, Greek children in Grades 4-5 showed increased recognition of words and images that had appeared in red, both during and after the training procedure, regardless of within-training testing, and also when targets appeared in blue instead of red. Significant transfer to reading and spelling emerged only after increased training intensity. In a sixth experiment, children in Grades 2-3 showed generalization to words not presented during training that carried the same derivational affixes as in the training set. We suggest that reinforcement signals related to detection of the target stimuli contribute to the strengthening of orthography-phonology connections beyond earlier levels of visually-based orthographic representation learning. These results highlight the potential of perceptual learning procedures for the reinforcement of higher-level orthographic representations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The case of the neglected alphasyllabary: orthographic processing in Devanagari.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chaitra; Soni, Shweta; Chatterjee Singh, Nandini

    2012-10-01

    We applaud Ram Frost for highlighting the need for multicultural perspectives while developing universal models of visual word recognition. We second Frost's proposal that factors like lexical morphology should be incorporated besides purely orthographic features in modeling word recognition. In support, we provide fresh evidence from Hindi (written in Devanagari), an example of hitherto under-represented alphasyllabic orthographies, in which flexible encoding of aksara (character) position is constrained by the morphological structure of words.

  11. Brand name confusion: Subjective and objective measures of orthographic similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Kelly, Sarah J; Humphreys, Michael S; Weatherall, Kimberlee; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing. Specifically, in a task requiring participants to decide whether 2 words presented in the clear (a probe and a later target) were the same or different, a masked prime word preceding the target shortened response latencies if it shared its initial 3 letters with the target. The ratings of students for word and brand name pairs were strongly predicted by metrics of orthographic similarity from the visual word identification literature based on the number of shared letters and their relative positions. The results indicate a potential use for orthographic metrics in brand name registration and trademark law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Orthographic and Phonological Neighborhood Databases across Multiple Languages.

    PubMed

    Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    The increased globalization of science and technology and the growing number of bilinguals and multilinguals in the world have made research with multiple languages a mainstay for scholars who study human function and especially those who focus on language, cognition, and the brain. Such research can benefit from large-scale databases and online resources that describe and measure lexical, phonological, orthographic, and semantic information. The present paper discusses currently-available resources and underscores the need for tools that enable measurements both within and across multiple languages. A general review of language databases is followed by a targeted introduction to databases of orthographic and phonological neighborhoods. A specific focus on CLEARPOND illustrates how databases can be used to assess and compare neighborhood information across languages, to develop research materials, and to provide insight into broad questions about language. As an example of how using large-scale databases can answer questions about language, a closer look at neighborhood effects on lexical access reveals that not only orthographic, but also phonological neighborhoods can influence visual lexical access both within and across languages. We conclude that capitalizing upon large-scale linguistic databases can advance, refine, and accelerate scientific discoveries about the human linguistic capacity.

  13. The time course of phonological and orthographic processing of acronyms in reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Timothy J; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith

    2006-06-01

    The present experiment presented acronyms preceded by either a or an in a sentence. The key stimuli were acronyms that begin with a consonant such as F, whose letter name begins with a vowel sound, or with the vowel U, whose letter name begins with a consonant sound. The durations of first fixations were influenced solely by phonology: For example, a FBI caused as much disruption (relative to an FBI) as did an CIA (relative to a CIA). Somewhat later processing (most notably go-past time and total time) was influenced by orthography as well, as combinations such as an FBI had longer processing times than did combinations such as a CIA. Although the initial coding of visual stimuli must proceed from an orthographic code to a phonological one, these data indicate that the phonological representation of the acronym is the primary initial code that makes contact with the article that precedes it and suggest that the initial contact with the sentence context is phonological.

  14. The nature of orthographic-phonological and orthographic-semantic relationships for Japanese kana and kanji words.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasushi; Miyamura, Shinobu; Lupker, Stephen J

    2011-12-01

    It is generally assumed that orthographic-phonological (O-P) consistencies are higher for Japanese kana words than for kanji words and that orthographic-semantic (O-S) consistencies are higher for kanji words than for kana words. In order to examine the validity of these assumptions, we attempted to measure the O-P and O-S consistencies for 339 kana words and 775 kanji words. Orthographic neighbors were first generated for each of these words. In order to measure the O-P consistencies of the words, their neighbors were then classified as phonological friends or enemies, based on whether the characters shared with the original word were pronounced the same in the two words. In order to measure the O-S consistencies, the similarity in meaning of each of the neighbors to the original word was rated on a 7-point scale. Based on the ratings, the neighbors were classified as semantic friends or enemies. The results indicated that both the O-P consistencies for kanji words and the O-S consistencies for kana words were greater than previously assumed and that the two scripts were actually quite similar on both types of consistency measures. The implications for the nature of the reading processes for kana and kanji words are discussed.

  15. Orthographic Learning during Reading: The Role of Whole-Word Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Marie-line; Chaves, Nathalie; Largy, Pierre; Valdois, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that knowledge about the orthographic structure of words is acquired incidentally during reading through phonological recoding. The current study assessed whether visual processing skills during reading further contribute to orthographic learning. French children were asked to read pseudowords. The whole…

  16. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  17. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  18. Pre-Orthographic Character String Processing and Parietal Cortex: A Role for Visual Attention in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobier, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-01-01

    The visual front-end of reading is most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of…

  19. Does Poor Spelling Equate to Slow Reading? The Relationship between Reading, Spelling, and Orthographic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Ouellette, Gene; Madden, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    High quality lexical representations in memory, characterized by accuracy and stability, are said to underpin fluent reading. Here, the relationship between orthographic quality and reading speed was examined by asking undergraduates (N = 74) to repeatedly read and spell words. Spelling performance over five trials indicated orthographic quality.…

  20. Influence of First Language Orthographic Experience on Second Language Decoding and Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of first language (L1) orthographic experiences on decoding and semantic information retention of new words in a second language (L2). Hypotheses were that congruity in L1 and L2 orthographic experiences determines L2 decoding efficiency, which, in turn, affects semantic information encoding and retention.…

  1. Orthographic Learning and the Role of Text-to-Speech Software in Dutch Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's…

  2. Does Poor Spelling Equate to Slow Reading? The Relationship between Reading, Spelling, and Orthographic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Ouellette, Gene; Madden, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    High quality lexical representations in memory, characterized by accuracy and stability, are said to underpin fluent reading. Here, the relationship between orthographic quality and reading speed was examined by asking undergraduates (N = 74) to repeatedly read and spell words. Spelling performance over five trials indicated orthographic quality.…

  3. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  4. Orthographic Transparency Modulates the Functional Asymmetry in the Fusiform Cortex: An Artificial Language Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained…

  5. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  6. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  7. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  8. Orthographic Transparency Modulates the Functional Asymmetry in the Fusiform Cortex: An Artificial Language Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained…

  9. Orthographic Learning and the Role of Text-to-Speech Software in Dutch Disabled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's…

  10. Paired-Associate Learning Ability Accounts for Unique Variance in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Wass, Malin; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Paired-associate learning is a dynamic measure of the ability to form new links between two items. This study aimed to investigate whether paired-associate learning ability is associated with success in orthographic learning, and if so, whether it accounts for unique variance beyond phonological decoding ability and orthographic knowledge. A group…

  11. Individual differences in orthographic priming relate to phonological decoding skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Trammel, Emma R

    2017-05-01

    We examined relationships between individual differences in orthographic priming and a battery of measures assessing orthographic processing ability, reading history, current reading ability, and verbal intelligence in university students. Pronounceable and unpronounceable nonword primes preceded word and nonword targets. Individual differences in nonword reading skill and other measures of reading and spelling ability were associated with the degree of orthographic priming. Individuals with less phonological decoding skill benefited more from anagram primes for word targets preceded by unpronounceable primes and nonword targets preceded by pronounceable primes. Analyses of extreme groups revealed that the group with the lowest phonemic decoding efficiency scores showed a general benefit of orthographic relatedness, while the group with the highest phonemic decoding efficiency scores showed a benefit only under certain conditions. Thus, individuals with worse nonword reading skills may have less precise orthographic representations and therefore benefit more from overlapping coarse-grained orthographic information, regardless of the pronounceability of the prime or the lexical status of the target. These findings demonstrate that university students vary in their orthographic processing skill and the degree to which orthographic information is used during word recognition.

  12. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  13. Pre-Orthographic Character String Processing and Parietal Cortex: A Role for Visual Attention in Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobier, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole; Le Bas, Jean-Francois; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-01-01

    The visual front-end of reading is most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of…

  14. Orthographic Facilitation of First Graders' Vocabulary Learning: Does Directing Attention to Print Enhance the Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambré, Susan J.; Ehri, Linnea C.; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Orthographic facilitation refers to the boost in vocabulary learning that is provided when spellings are shown during study periods, but not during testing. The current study examined orthographic facilitation in beginning readers and whether directing their attention to print enhances the effect. In an experiment, first graders (N = 45) were…

  15. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  16. Relationship Between Orthographic-Motor Integration And Computer Use For The Production Of Creative And Well-Structured Written Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Orthographic-motor integration refers to the way in which orthographic knowledge is integrated with fine-motor demands of handwriting. A strong relationship has shown to exist between orthographic-motor integration and students' ability to produce creative and well-structured written text (De La Paz & Graham, 1995). This…

  17. Relationship Between Orthographic-Motor Integration And Computer Use For The Production Of Creative And Well-Structured Written Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Orthographic-motor integration refers to the way in which orthographic knowledge is integrated with fine-motor demands of handwriting. A strong relationship has shown to exist between orthographic-motor integration and students' ability to produce creative and well-structured written text (De La Paz & Graham, 1995). This…

  18. A Comparison of Orthographic Processing in Children with and without Reading and Spelling Disorder in a Regular Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Cornell, Sonia; Ise, Elena; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic processing is a construct that encompasses the skills of recognizing, storing, accessing, and applying the print conventions of a writing system. Few studies have investigated orthographic processing in dyslexic children and it is not yet clear whether lexical and sublexical orthographic processing are both impaired in these children.…

  19. A Comparison of Orthographic Processing in Children with and without Reading and Spelling Disorder in a Regular Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Josefine; Cornell, Sonia; Ise, Elena; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Orthographic processing is a construct that encompasses the skills of recognizing, storing, accessing, and applying the print conventions of a writing system. Few studies have investigated orthographic processing in dyslexic children and it is not yet clear whether lexical and sublexical orthographic processing are both impaired in these children.…

  20. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  1. Lexical and sublexical orthographic processing: an ERP study with skilled and dyslexic adult readers.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Bramão, Inês; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2015-02-01

    This ERP study investigated the cognitive nature of the P1-N1 components during orthographic processing. We used an implicit reading task with various types of stimuli involving different amounts of sublexical or lexical orthographic processing (words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords, nonwords, and symbols), and tested average and dyslexic readers. An orthographic regularity effect (pseudowords-nonwords contrast) was observed in the average but not in the dyslexic group. This suggests an early sensitivity to the dependencies among letters in word-forms that reflect orthographic structure, while the dyslexic brain apparently fails to be appropriately sensitive to these complex features. Moreover, in the adults the N1-response may already reflect lexical access: (i) the N1 was sensitive to the familiar vs. less familiar orthographic sequence contrast; (ii) and early effects of the phonological form (words-pseudohomophones contrast) were also found. Finally, the later N320 component was attenuated in the dyslexics, suggesting suboptimal processing in later stages of phonological analysis.

  2. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Orthographic terrain views using data derived from digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubayah, R. O.; Dozier, J.

    1986-01-01

    A fast algorithm for producing three-dimensional orthographic terrain views uses digital elevation data and co-registered imagery. These views are created using projective geometry and are designed for display on high-resolution raster graphics devices. The algorithm's effectiveness is achieved by (1) the implementation of two efficient gray-level interpolation routines that offer the user a choice between speed and smoothness, and (2) a unique visible surface determination procedure based on horizon angles derived from the elevation data set.

  4. Multispectral high-resolution hologram generation using orthographic projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, I.; Guo, C.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method of synthesizing a digital hologram of three-dimensional (3D) real-world objects from multiple orthographic projection images (OPI). A high-resolution multiple perspectives of 3D objects (i.e., two dimensional elemental image array) are captured under incoherent white light using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) technique and their OPIs are obtained respectively. The reference beam is then multiplied with the corresponding OPI and integrated to form a Fourier hologram. Eventually, a modified phase retrieval algorithm (GS/HIO) is applied to reconstruct the hologram. The principle is validated experimentally and the results support the feasibility of the proposed method.

  5. [Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].

    PubMed

    Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

    2005-01-01

    The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes.

  6. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  7. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  8. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  9. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge.

  10. Discrimination of English and French orthographic patterns by biliterate children.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or a French spelling pattern, and they were asked to decide whether each pseudoword should go in an English dictionary or a French dictionary if it became a real word. Comparison groups of monolingual English children, monolingual French children, and English-French bilingual university students were also tested on the task. French immersion students in both grades were above chance in discriminating between the two types of pseudowords but were well below adult performance on the task. Measures obtained in kindergarten showed that early print knowledge had some ability to predict later ability to discriminate between the orthographic patterns of the two languages. Further analyses indicated that exposure to print in each language in Grades 1 to 3 was strongly related to discrimination performance. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with the statistical learning hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in a colour categorization task.

    PubMed

    Camblats, Anna-Malika; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether and how the strength of reading interference in a colour categorization task can be influenced by lexical competition and the emotional characteristics of words not directly presented. Previous findings showed inhibitory effects of high-frequency orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in the lexical decision task. Here, we examined the effect of orthographic neighbour frequency according to the emotional valence of the higher-frequency neighbour in an emotional orthographic Stroop paradigm. Stimuli were coloured neutral words that had either (1) no orthographic neighbour (e.g. PISTIL [pistil]), (2) one neutral higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. tirade [tirade]/TIRAGE [draw]) or (3) one negative higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. idiome [idiom]/IDIOTE [idiotic]). The results showed that colour categorization times were longer for words with no orthographic neighbour than for words with one neutral neighbour of higher frequency and even longer when the higher-frequency neighbour was neutral rather than negative. Thus, it appears not only that the orthographic neighbourhood of the coloured stimulus words intervenes in a colour categorization task, but also that the emotional content of the neighbour contributes to response times. These findings are discussed in terms of lexical competition between the stimulus word and non-presented orthographic neighbours, which in turn would modify the strength of reading interference on colour categorization times.

  12. Orthographic learning and the role of text-to-speech software in Dutch disabled readers.

    PubMed

    Staels, Eva; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether orthographic learning can be demonstrated in disabled readers learning to read in a transparent orthography (Dutch). In addition, we tested the effect of the use of text-to-speech software, a new form of direct instruction, on orthographic learning. Both research goals were investigated by replicating Share's self-teaching paradigm. A total of 65 disabled Dutch readers were asked to read eight stories containing embedded homophonic pseudoword targets (e.g., Blot/Blod), with or without the support of text-to-speech software. The amount of orthographic learning was assessed 3 or 7 days later by three measures of orthographic learning. First, the results supported the presence of orthographic learning during independent silent reading by demonstrating that target spellings were correctly identified more often, named more quickly, and spelled more accurately than their homophone foils. Our results support the hypothesis that all readers, even poor readers of transparent orthographies, are capable of developing word-specific knowledge. Second, a negative effect of text-to-speech software on orthographic learning was demonstrated in this study. This negative effect was interpreted as the consequence of passively listening to the auditory presentation of the text. We clarify how these results can be interpreted within current theoretical accounts of orthographic learning and briefly discuss implications for remedial interventions. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  13. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: the role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling.

    PubMed

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon.

  14. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  15. [Masked orthographic priming in the recognition of written words: empirical data and theoretical prospects].

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the main studies that have been conducted on the effects of masked orthographic priming in written word recognition. Empirical data accumulated over the last two decades are exposed by considering three factors that play a role in the effects of orthographic priming: prime lexicality, prime duration, and target and/or prime orthographic neighbourhood. The theoretical implications of these data are discussed in light of the two major frameworks of visual word recognition, the serial search and the interactive activation. As a whole, the interactive activation hypothesis seems to be more appropriate to account for the empirical data.

  16. Stress Assignment Errors in Surface Dyslexia: Evidence from Two Italian Patients with a Selective Deficit of the Orthographic Input Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Anna; Cubelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Surface dyslexia designates a selective impairment in reading irregular words, with spared ability to read regular and novel words, following a cerebral damage usually located in the left dominant hemisphere. In Italian language, which is regular at the segmental level, surface dyslexia is characterized by stress assignment errors. Here we report on two cases of Italian surface dyslexic patients who produced stress assignment errors, mainly in reading irregular words. In reading nonwords they usually applied the regular stress pattern. Both patients were also impaired in lexical decision and in semantic discrimination tasks when the processing of homophones was required. Our patients' performance relied almost exclusively on the phonological coding of the stimulus, revealing a deficit in accessing the orthographical input lexicon. In addition, one patient showed a cerebral lesion limited to the right thalamus, providing evidence of a possible role of the right hemisphere in the reading process. PMID:26063963

  17. Words with and without internal structure: what determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing?

    PubMed Central

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or letter-transposition priming are not found in Hebrew. In four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to the fact that Semitic words have an underlying structure that constrains the possible alignment of phonemes and their respective letters. The experiments contrasted typical Semitic words which are root-derived, with Hebrew words of non-Semitic origin, which are morphologically simple and resemble base words in European languages. Using RSVP, TL priming, and form-priming manipulations, we show that Hebrew readers process Hebrew words which are morphologically simple similar to the way they process English words. These words indeed reveal the typical form-priming and TL priming effects reported in European languages. In contrast, words with internal structure are processed differently, and require a different code for lexical access. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of visual word recognition. PMID:21163472

  18. Words with and without internal structure: what determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing?

    PubMed

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or letter-transposition priming are not found in Hebrew. In four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to the fact that Semitic words have an underlying structure that constrains the possible alignment of phonemes and their respective letters. The experiments contrasted typical Semitic words which are root-derived, with Hebrew words of non-Semitic origin, which are morphologically simple and resemble base-words in European languages. Using RSVP, TL priming, and form-priming manipulations, we show that Hebrew readers process Hebrew words which are morphologically simple similar to the way they process English words. These words indeed reveal the typical form-priming and TL priming effects reported in European languages. In contrast, words with internal structure are processed differently, and require a different code for lexical access. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of visual word recognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  20. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language.

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic depth (OD) (i.e., the complexity, consistency, or transparency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in written alphabetic language) plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Correspondingly, developmental dyslexia is characterized by different behavioral manifestations across languages varying in OD. This review focuses on the question of whether these different behavioral manifestations are associated with different functional neuroanatomical manifestations. It provides a review and critique of cross-linguistic brain imaging studies of developmental dyslexia. In addition, it includes an analysis of state-of-the-art functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia together with orthography-specific predictions derived from these models. These predictions should be tested in future brain imaging studies of typical and atypical reading in order to refine the current neurobiological understanding of developmental dyslexia, especially with respect to orthography-specific and universal aspects. PMID:24904383

  2. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language. PMID:28781397

  3. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group's SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages.

  4. Shared orthographic neuronal representations for spelling and reading.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Jiang, Xiong; Eden, Guinevere F

    2017-02-15

    A central question in the study of the neural basis of written language is whether reading and spelling utilize shared orthographic representations. While recent studies employing fMRI to test this question report that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC) are active during both spelling and reading in the same subjects (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), the spatial resolution of fMRI limits the interpretation of these findings. Specifically, it is unknown if the neurons which encode orthography for reading are also involved in spelling of the same words. Here we address this question by employing an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) paradigm designed to examine shared orthographic representations across spelling and reading. First, we identified areas that independently showed adaptation to reading, and adaptation to spelling. Then we identified spatial convergence for these two separate maps via a conjunction analysis. Consistent with previous studies (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), this analysis revealed the left dorsal IFG, vOTC and supplementary motor area. To further validate these observations, we then interrogated these regions using an across-task adaptation technique, and found adaptation across reading and spelling in the left dorsal IFG (BA 44/9). Our final analysis focused specifically on the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the vOTC, whose variability in location among subjects requires the use of subject-specific identification mechanisms (Glezer and Riesenhuber, 2013). Using a functional localizer for reading, we defined the VWFA in each subject, and found adaptation effects for both within the spelling and reading conditions, respectively, as well as across spelling and reading. Because none of these effects were observed during a phonological/semantic control condition, we conclude that the left dorsal IFG and VWFA are involved in accessing

  5. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    PubMed Central

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  6. Orthographic transparency and grapheme-phoneme conversion: An ERP study in Arabic and French readers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Grégory; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2006-08-09

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that orthographic transparency of a language is liable to influence the use of grapheme-phoneme conversion during reading. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of orthographic transparency on event-related potentials was assessed by comparing French to Arab readers. Indeed, French language, contrary to Arabic one, was expected to favor the use of grapheme-phoneme rules during reading. Our results demonstrated that the N320, a component implicated in phonologic transcription, was modulated by orthographic transparency. Indeed, during reading in their mother tongue, only French subjects clearly elicited a N320. Moreover, the comparisons between activations elicited by Arabic words in Arab subjects and French monolingual people also confirm that the N170 component represents an important orthographic stage. The implications of these results on bilinguism and visual word recognition models are discussed.

  7. A Simplified Work Scheme for Using Block Diagrams With the Orthographic Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the steps for drawing a block-diagram from a map in the area of structural geology. The author recommends first platting on the orthographic net, all directional data with respect to geographical reference axes. (Author/SA)

  8. Associative and orthographic neighborhood density effects in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marín, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A group of patients with Alzheimer's disease and a group of healthy elderly controls were tested with a lexical-decision task that included words with dense or sparse orthographic and associative neighborhoods to investigate whether there is automatic orthographic and semantic activation of related representations in these populations similar to that found with younger samples. Although some studies support the idea of deteriorated connections in semantic networks in Alzheimer's disease, other studies propose that the automatic spread of activation at lexicosemantic levels remains intact and that intergroup differences are a consequence of impaired retrieval or attentional deficits. In this study, participants responded to words with dense orthographic and associative neighborhoods faster than they did to words with sparse neighborhoods, providing evidence in favor of a preserved automatic spread of activation through intact orthographic and semantic representations. Furthermore, no differences were found between the two groups regarding the magnitude of the effects, although control participants responded significantly faster than patients.

  9. Visual phonology: the effects of orthographic consistency on different auditory word recognition tasks.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Ferrand, Ludovic; Montant, Marie

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we investigated orthographic influences on spoken word recognition. The degree of spelling inconsistency was manipulated while rime phonology was held constant. Inconsistent words with subdominant spellings were processed more slowly than inconsistent words with dominant spellings. This graded consistency effect was obtained in three experiments. However, the effect was strongest in lexical decision, intermediate in rime detection, and weakest in auditory naming. We conclude that (1) orthographic consistency effects are not artifacts of phonological, phonetic, or phonotactic properties of the stimulus material; (2) orthographic effects can be found even when the error rate is extremely low, which rules out the possibility that they result from strategies used to reduce task difficulty; and (3) orthographic effects are not restricted to lexical decision. However, they are stronger in lexical decision than in other tasks. Overall, the study shows that learning about orthography alters the way we process spoken language.

  10. Temporal stability and representational distinctiveness: Key functions of orthographic working memory

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vanessa; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of working memory research has been to understand the mechanisms that permit working memory systems to effectively maintain the identity and order of the elements held in memory for sufficient time as to allow for their selection and transfer to subsequent processing stages. Based on the performance of two individuals with acquired dysgraphia affecting orthographic WM (the graphemic buffer) we present evidence of two distinct and dissociable functions of orthographic WM. One function is responsible for maintaining the temporal stability of letters held in orthographic WM, while the other is responsible for maintaining their representational distinctiveness. The failure to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness give rise, respectively, to decay and interference effects that manifest themselves in distinctive error patterns, including distinct serial position effects. The findings we report have implications beyond our understanding of orthographic WM, as the need to maintain temporal stability and representational distinctiveness in WM is common across cognitive domains. PMID:22248210

  11. Spelling and reading: using visual sensitivity to explore shared or separate orthographic representations.

    PubMed

    Pammer, Kristen; Connell, Ellen; Kevan, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Do we use the same neurocognitive mechanisms to spell that we do to read? There is a considerable number of conflicting findings, such that evidence has been provided to support common mechanisms for reading and spelling, while other research supports the proposal that reading and spelling utilise unique neurocognitive resources. Sensitivity to visual spatial-frequency doubling (FD) has been demonstrated to correlate with and specifically predict orthographic processing when reading; therefore, if spelling and reading share some elements of orthographic representation, sensitivity to FD should similarly correlate with, and predict, spelling ability by virtue of this shared association. A double dissociation between reading and spelling was found such that sensitivity to the FD task, as mediated by the visual dorsal stream, predicted reading ability but not spelling, while the visual control task predicted spelling but not reading ability, in poor readers/spellers. The results support a dual-orthographic model with separate orthographic representations for reading and spelling.

  12. Orthographic neighborhood effects as a function of word frequency: An event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the mechanisms and time course by which orthographic neighborhood size (ON) influences visual word recognition. ERPs were recorded to words that varied in ON and in word frequency while participants performed a semantic categorization task. ON was measured with the Orthographic Levenshtein Distance (OLD20), a richer metric of orthographic similarity than the traditional Coltheart’s N metric. The N400 effects of ON (260–500 ms) were larger and showed a different scalp distribution for low than for high frequency words, which is consistent with proposals that suggest lateral inhibitory mechanisms at a lexical level. The ERP ON effects had a shorter duration and different scalp distribution than the effects of word frequency (mainly observed between 380–600 ms) suggesting a transient activation of the subset of orthographically similar words in the lexical network compared to the impact of properties of the single words. PMID:22803612

  13. Naming in Noise: The Contribution of Orthographic Knowledge to Speech Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; De Morais, José Junça; Kolinsky, Régine

    2011-01-01

    While the influence of orthographic knowledge on lexical and postlexical speech processing tasks has been consistently observed, it is not the case in tasks that can be performed at the prelexical level. The present study re-examined the orthographic consistency effect in such a task, namely in shadowing. Comparing the situation where the acoustic signal was clearly presented to the situation where it was embedded in noise, we observed that the orthographic effect was restricted to the latter situation and only to high-frequency words. This finding supports the lexical account of the orthographic effects in speech recognition tasks and illustrates the ability of the cognitive system to adjust itself as a function of task difficulty by resorting to the appropriate processing mechanism and information in order to maintain a good level of performance. PMID:22164152

  14. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  15. Left ventral occipitotemporal activation during orthographic and semantic processing of auditory words.

    PubMed

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Schurz, Matthias; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present fMRI study investigated the hypothesis that activation of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) in response to auditory words can be attributed to lexical orthographic rather than lexico-semantic processing. To this end, we presented auditory words in both an orthographic ("three or four letter word?") and a semantic ("living or nonliving?") task. In addition, a auditory control condition presented tones in a pitch evaluation task. The results showed that the left vOT exhibited higher activation for orthographic relative to semantic processing of auditory words with a peak in the posterior part of vOT. Comparisons to the auditory control condition revealed that orthographic processing of auditory words elicited activation in a large vOT cluster. In contrast, activation for semantic processing was only weak and restricted to the middle part vOT. We interpret our findings as speaking for orthographic processing in left vOT. In particular, we suggest that activation in left middle vOT can be attributed to accessing orthographic whole-word representations. While activation of such representations was experimentally ascertained in the orthographic task, it might have also occurred automatically in the semantic task. Activation in the more posterior vOT region, on the other hand, may reflect the generation of explicit images of word-specific letter sequences required by the orthographic but not the semantic task. In addition, based on cross-modal suppression, the finding of marked deactivations in response to the auditory tones is taken to reflect the visual nature of representations and processes in left vOT.

  16. Early use of orthographic information in spoken word recognition: Event-related potential evidence from the Korean language.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Choi, Sungmook; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study examines whether orthographic information is used during prelexical processes in spoken word recognition by investigating ERPs during spoken word processing for Korean words. Differential effects due to orthographic syllable neighborhood size and sound-to-spelling consistency on P200 and N320 were evaluated by recording ERPs from 42 participants during a lexical decision task. The results indicate that P200 was smaller for words whose orthographic syllable neighbors are large in number rather than those that are small. In addition, a word with a large orthographic syllable neighborhood elicited a smaller N320 effect than a word with a small orthographic syllable neighborhood only when the word had inconsistent sound-to-spelling mapping. The results provide support for the assumption that orthographic information is used early during the prelexical spoken word recognition process. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Orthographic projection capillary array fluorescent sensor for mHealth.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-10-01

    To overcome the limited sensitivity of phone cameras for mobile health (mHealth) fluorescent detection, we have previously developed a capillary array which enables a ∼100 × increase in detection sensitivity. However, for an effective detection platform, the optical configuration must allow for uniform measurement sensitivity between channels when using such a capillary array sensor. This is a challenge due to the parallax inherent in imaging long parallel capillary tubes with typical lens configurations. To enable effective detection, we have developed an orthographic projection system in this work which forms parallel light projection images from the capillaries using an object-space telecentric lens configuration. This optical configuration results in a significantly higher degree of uniformity in measurement between channels, as well as a significantly reduced focal distance, which enables a more compact sensor. A plano-convex lens (f=150 mm) was shown to produce a uniform orthographic projection when properly combined with the phone camera's built in lens (f=4mm), enabling measurements of long capillaries (125 mm) to be made from a distance of 160 mm. The number of parallel measurements which can be made is determined by the size of the secondary lens. Based on these results, a more compact configuration with shorter 32 mm capillaries and a plano-convex lens with a shorter focal length (f=10mm) was constructed. This optical system was used to measure serial dilutions of fluorescein with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10nM, similar to the LOD of a commercial plate reader. However, many plate readers based on standard 96 well plate requires sample volumes of 100 μl for measurement, while the capillary array requires a sample volume of less than 10 μl. This optical configuration allows for a device to make use of the ∼100 × increase in fluorescent detection sensitivity produced by capillary amplification while maintaining a compact size and capability to

  18. The Pre-attentive L2 Orthographic Perception Mechanism Utilized by Bilinguals with Different Proficiency Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lijuan; Sharwood Smith, Michael; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Chen, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency is predicted to modulate orthographic-semantic association in second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition, in accordance with the assumptions of the Developmental Bilingual Interactive-Activation model (BIA-d) (Grainger et al., 2010). The current study explored this modulation during pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception. ERPs were recorded from Chinese–English bilinguals with different L2 proficiency during their pre-attentive response to deviant and standard stimuli arranged in the oddball paradigm. Two stimulus types were investigated separately: L2 orthography and L1 orthography. In the L2 orthography condition, a MMN-N400 complex (i.e., deviancy effect) was found in the high L2 proficiency bilinguals, but only a marginally significant reduced negativity in an early time window was found in the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. In the L1 orthography condition, the high and low L2 proficiency bilinguals showed similar deviancy effect in the form of MMN-P3a-LPC complex. The current findings suggest that proficiency modulates pre-attentive L2 orthographic perception, such that the high L2 proficiency bilinguals activate the associated semantic representation instantly upon orthographic decoding, while the orthographic-semantic connection is not activated for the low L2 proficiency bilinguals. This is probably due to their difference in the strength of orthographic-semantic association. These findings contribute to the understanding of orthographic processing by bilinguals at the pre-attentive level and provide supporting evidence for the BIA-d model. PMID:28824521

  19. The development of the orthographic consistency effect in speech recognition: from sublexical to lexical involvement.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Paulo; Morais, José; Kolinsky, Régine

    2007-12-01

    The influence of orthography on children's on-line auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4, by examining the orthographic consistency effect [Ziegler, J. C., & Ferrand, L. (1998). Orthography shapes the perception of speech: The consistency effect in auditory recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 5, 683-689.] in auditory lexical decision and shadowing tasks. Words with rhymes that can be spelled in two different ways (inconsistent) produced longer auditory lexical decision and shadowing times and more errors than did consistent words. A similar consistency effect was also observed on pseudowords. The observation of a general consistency effect, both for words and pseudowords, in lexical decision and in shadowing suggests a widespread influence of orthography in the children's spoken word recognition system. On exactly the same material, with adult listeners we replicated the usual pattern of an orthographic consistency effect restricted to words in lexical decision [Ventura, P., Morais, J., Pattamadilok, C., & Kolinsky, R. (2004). The locus of the orthographic consistency effect in auditory word recognition. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19, 57-95; Ziegler, J. C., & Ferrand, L. (1998). Orthography shapes the perception of speech: The consistency effect in auditory recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 5, 683-689]. A reanalysis of the lexical decision and shadowing results of Ventura et al. [Ventura, P., Morais, J., Pattamadilok, C., & Kolinsky, R. (2004). The locus of the orthographic consistency effect in auditory word recognition. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19, 57-95.] confirmed the discrepancy between the effects of orthographic consistency in child readers and adults. A further control experiment showed that orthographic consistency effects were not present in pre-readers. Results are interpreted considering the coexistence in children's reading of a mechanism of automatic access to well

  20. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: The role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling

    PubMed Central

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon. Hum Brain Mapp, 36:1393–1406, 2015. © 2014 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25504890

  1. Visuoperceptual-orthographic reading abilities: a confirmatory factor analysis study.

    PubMed

    Mano, Quintino R; Osmon, David C

    2008-05-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of a hypothetical visuoperceptual-orthographic (VPO) reading construct in a sample of nonimpaired college students (N = 152). Participants were administered a battery of standardized and experimental measures of VPO, including Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Letter-Word Identification (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001), Visual-Naming Speed (word page of the Stroop), Letter-Identification Task, Same/Different Letter Decision Task, Word Matching Task, Homophone Decision Task, Pseudohomophone Decision Task, and Word Jumble Task. The LISREL 8.54 computer program (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2003) was employed for confirmatory factor analysis to assess the tenability of a multifaceted, unitary VPO reading construct. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicated that VPO is a hierarchically organized construct with one 2nd-order factor (i.e., VPO) and three 1st-order factors (i.e., perceptual processing speed, prelexical accuracy, and lexicosemantic accuracy). Alternative models were tested but produced unsatisfactory goodness-of-fit statistics. Altogether these findings are in agreement with those of previous cognitive and neuroscientific studies and further support the notion that VPO should be viewed as a unique factor in the assessment, diagnosis, and remediation of developmental dyslexia.

  2. Orthographic and morphemic effects in the written syllable counting task.

    PubMed

    Chetail, Fabienne; Quémart, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent hypothesis, the organization of letters into groups of successive consonants and vowels (i.e., CV pattern) constrains the orthographic structure of words. Here, we examined to what extent the morphological structure of words modifies the influence of the CV pattern in a syllable counting task. Participants were presented with written words matched for the number of syllables and comprising either one vowel cluster less than the number of syllables (hiatus words, e.g., création) or the same number of vowel clusters (control words, e.g., crépiter). Participants were slower and less accurate for hiatus than control stimuli, be it words (Experiments 1, 3) or pseudowords (Experiment 2). More importantly, this hiatus effect was present even when the stimuli had a morphemic boundary falling within the hiatus (e.g., ré-agir). The results suggest that the CV pattern of items more strongly influences performance in the syllable counting task than the morphological structure.

  3. Learning Orthographic Structure With Sequential Generative Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; Sperduti, Alessandro; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Learning the structure of event sequences is a ubiquitous problem in cognition and particularly in language. One possible solution is to learn a probabilistic generative model of sequences that allows making predictions about upcoming events. Though appealing from a neurobiological standpoint, this approach is typically not pursued in connectionist modeling. Here, we investigated a sequential version of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), a stochastic recurrent neural network that extracts high-order structure from sensory data through unsupervised generative learning and can encode contextual information in the form of internal, distributed representations. We assessed whether this type of network can extract the orthographic structure of English monosyllables by learning a generative model of the letter sequences forming a word training corpus. We show that the network learned an accurate probabilistic model of English graphotactics, which can be used to make predictions about the letter following a given context as well as to autonomously generate high-quality pseudowords. The model was compared to an extended version of simple recurrent networks, augmented with a stochastic process that allows autonomous generation of sequences, and to non-connectionist probabilistic models (n-grams and hidden Markov models). We conclude that sequential RBMs and stochastic simple recurrent networks are promising candidates for modeling cognition in the temporal domain.

  4. The effect of decreased interletter spacing on orthographic processing.

    PubMed

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in how perceptual factors such as the spacing between letters within words modulate performance in visual word recognition and reading aloud. Extra-large letter spacing can strongly improve the reading performance of dyslexic children, and a small increase with respect to the standard spacing seems beneficial even for skilled word recognition in adult readers. In the present study we examined the effect of decreased letter spacing on perceptual identification and lexical decision tasks. Identification in the decreased spacing condition was slower than identification of normally spaced strings, thereby confirming that the reciprocal interference among letters located in close proximity (crowding) poses critical constraints on visual word processing. Importantly, the effect of spacing was not modulated by string length, suggesting that the locus of the spacing effect is at the level of letter detectors. Moreover, the processing of crowded letters was facilitated by top-down support from orthographic lexical representation as indicated by the fact that decreased spacing affected pseudowords significantly more than words. Conversely, in the lexical decision task only word responses were affected by the spacing manipulation. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that increased crowding is particularly harmful for phonological decoding, thereby adversely affecting reading development in dyslexic children.

  5. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  6. Does Location Uncertainty in Letter Position Coding Emerge Because of Literacy Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In the quest to unveil the nature of the orthographic code, a useful strategy is to examine the transposed-letter effect (e.g., JUGDE is more confusable with its base word, JUDGE, than the replacement-letter nonword JUPTE). A leading explanation of this phenomenon, which is in line with models of visual attention, is that there is perceptual…

  7. Use of Phonological Codes for Chinese Characters: Evidence from Processing of Parafoveal Preview when Reading Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jie-Li; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Hung, Daisy L.; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2004-01-01

    The role of phonological coding for character identification was examined with the benefit of processing parafoveal characters in eye fixations while reading Chinese sentences. In Experiment 1, the orthogonal manipulation of phonological and orthographic similarity can separate two types of phonological benefits for homophonic previews, according…

  8. Perceptual-auditory and orthographic performance of fricative consonants in writing acquisition.

    PubMed

    Schier, Ana Cândida; Berti, Larissa Cristina; Chacon, Lourenço

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the perceptual-auditory and orthographic performances of students regarding identification of contrasts among the fricatives of Brazilian Portuguese, and to investigate the extent to which these two types of performances are related. Data from perceptual-auditory and orthographic performances of 20 children attending the two first grades of elementary education at a public school in Mallet (PR), Brazil, were analyzed. Data collection regarding auditory perception was based on the Assessment Tool in Speech Perception (PERCEFAL), using the software Perceval. Data collection regarding orthography was carried out through dictation of the same words used in the assessment tool PERCEFAL. We observed: more accuracy in perceptual-auditory than in orthographic skills; tendency of shorter response time and lesser variability in the perceptual-auditory hits than in the errors; mismatch of errors in orthographic and auditory perception, since, in perception, the highest percentage of errors involved the point of articulation of fricatives, while in orthography the highest percentage involved voicing. Although related to each other, perceptual-auditory and orthographic performances do not match term by term. Therefore, in clinical practice, attention should focus not only on the aspects that bring these two performances together, but also on the aspects that differentiate them.

  9. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation.

  10. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E.; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word’s letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. PMID:26685156

  11. Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-01-01

    The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

  12. Integration of parafoveal orthographic information during foveal word reading: beyond the sub-lexical level?

    PubMed

    Snell, Joshua; Vitu, Françoise; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Prior research has shown that processing of a given target word is facilitated by the simultaneous presentation of orthographically related stimuli in the parafovea. Here we investigate the nature of such spatial integration processes by presenting orthographic neighbours of target words in the parafovea, considering that neighbours have been shown to inhibit, rather than facilitate, recognition of target words in foveal masked priming research. In Experiment 1, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to manipulate the parafoveal information subjects received while they fixated a target word within a sentence. In Experiment 2, we used the Flanking Letters Lexical Decision paradigm to manipulate parafoveal information while subjects read isolated words. Parafoveal words were either a higher-frequency orthographic neighbour of targets words (e.g., blue-blur) or a high-frequency unrelated word (e.g., hand-blur). We found that parafoveal orthographic neighbours facilitated, rather than inhibited, processing of the target. Thus, the present findings provide further evidence that orthographic information is integrated across multiple words and suggest that either the integration process does not enable simultaneous access to those words' lexical representations, or that lexical representations activated by spatially distinct stimuli do not compete for recognition.

  13. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  14. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  15. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  16. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  17. Quality of Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Jacso, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the factors to be considered in evaluating abstracts. Types of abstracts, content, length, writing style, comprehensive criteria for abstracts, readability, readability testing, compatibility with ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standards, and informativeness are among the topics covered. (12 references) (KRN)

  18. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  19. Orthographic Learning via Self-Teaching in Children Learning to Read English: Effects of Exposure, Durability, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Angell, Philip; Castles, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated orthographic learning via self-teaching in 8- and 9-year-olds learning to read English. Children were exposed to novel words, and following a 1- or 7-day delay interval, orthographic learning was assessed by asking children to select previously seen novel words from an array of visually and phonologically similar…

  20. The Development of Sensitivity to Sublexical Orthographic Constraints: An Investigation of Positional Frequency and Consistency Using a Wordlikeness Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental sequence of the types of orthographic knowledge that children acquire early in reading development is unclear. Following findings of skilled reading, the orthographic constraints of positional frequency and feedback consistency were explored with a wordlikeness judgement task for grades 1-3 English-speaking children. The data…

  1. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  2. The Development of Sensitivity to Sublexical Orthographic Constraints: An Investigation of Positional Frequency and Consistency Using a Wordlikeness Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental sequence of the types of orthographic knowledge that children acquire early in reading development is unclear. Following findings of skilled reading, the orthographic constraints of positional frequency and feedback consistency were explored with a wordlikeness judgement task for grades 1-3 English-speaking children. The data…

  3. The Effects of Orthographic Pattern Intervention on Spelling Performance of Students with Reading Disabilities: A Best Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie E.; Wolter, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the orthographic processing skill of recognizing and producing letters and letter patterns has been established as an important skill for developing spelling, a majority of the research focus has been on early orthographic intervention that did not progress beyond the unit of the letter. The purpose of this article is to provide a best…

  4. Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

  5. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  6. The Effects of Orthographic Pattern Intervention on Spelling Performance of Students with Reading Disabilities: A Best Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie E.; Wolter, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the orthographic processing skill of recognizing and producing letters and letter patterns has been established as an important skill for developing spelling, a majority of the research focus has been on early orthographic intervention that did not progress beyond the unit of the letter. The purpose of this article is to provide a best…

  7. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.

  8. Do reading and spelling share orthographic representations? Evidence from developmental dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Hepner, Christopher; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2017-09-21

    Both spelling and reading depend on knowledge of the spellings of words. Despite this commonality, observed dissociations between spelling and reading in cases of acquired and developmental deficits suggest some degree of independence between the cognitive mechanisms involved in these skills. In this paper, we examine the relationship between spelling and reading in two children with developmental dysgraphia. For both children, we identified significant deficits in spelling that affected the processing of orthographic long-term memory representations of words. We then examined their reading skills for similar difficulties. Even with extensive testing, we found no evidence of a reading deficit for one of the children. We propose that there may be an underlying difficulty that specifically affects the learning of orthographic word representations for spelling. These results lead us to conclude that at least some components of lexical orthographic representation and processing develop with considerable independence in spelling and reading.

  9. A visual-familiarity account of evidence for orthographic processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Jamieson, Randall K

    2014-04-01

    Grainger, Dufau, Montant, Ziegler, and Fagot (2012a) taught 6 baboons to discriminate words from nonwords in an analogue of the lexical decision task. The baboons more readily identified novel words than novel nonwords as words, and they had difficulty rejecting nonwords that were orthographically similar to learned words. In a subsequent test (Ziegler, Hannagan, et al., 2013), responses from the same animals evinced a transposed-letter effect. These three effects, when seen in skilled human readers, are taken as hallmarks of orthographic processing. We show, by simulation of the unique learning trajectory of each baboon, that the results can be interpreted equally well as an example of simple, familiarity-based discrimination of pixel maps without orthographic processing.

  10. Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: principles of lexical organization in a given language.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ram; Kugler, Tamar; Deutsch, Avital; Forster, Kenneth I

    2005-11-01

    Most models of visual word recognition in alphabetic orthographies assume that words are lexically organized according to orthographic similarity. Support for this is provided by form-priming experiments that demonstrate robust facilitation when primes and targets share similar sequences of letters. The authors examined form-orthographic priming effects in Hebrew, Arabic, and English. Hebrew and Arabic have an alphabetic writing system but a Semitic morphological structure. Hebrew morphemic units are composed of noncontiguous phonemic (and letter) sequences in a given word. Results demonstrate that form-priming effects in Hebrew or Arabic are unreliable, whereas morphological priming effects with minimal letter overlap are robust. Hebrew bilingual subjects, by contrast, showed robust form-priming effects with English material, suggesting that Semitic words are lexically organized by morphological rather than orthographic principles. The authors conclude that morphology can constrain lexical organization even in alphabetic orthographies and that visual processing of words is first determined by morphological characteristics.

  11. Measuring orthographic transparency and morphological-syllabic complexity in alphabetic orthographies: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Borleffs, Elisabeth; Maassen, Ben A M; Lyytinen, Heikki; Zwarts, Frans

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to measure differences between language scripts hasn't received much attention so far. This paper therefore reviews metrics proposed in the literature for quantifying orthographic transparency, syllabic complexity, and morphological complexity of alphabetic languages. The review included searches of Web of Science, PubMed, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to orthographic transparency, morphological complexity, and syllabic complexity in relation to reading acquisition, and dyslexia. Although the predictive value of these metrics is promising, more research is needed to validate the value of the metrics discussed and to understand the 'developmental footprint' of orthographic transparency, morphological complexity, and syllabic complexity in the lexical organization and processing strategies.

  12. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  13. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  14. The interlingual identification of Spanish and English vowels: orthographic evidence.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E

    1991-08-01

    When someone who is learning a second language (L2) produces a sound in the L2 using a familiar, native-language (L1) category, the L2 sound is said to have been "identified with" an L1 sound. Although interlingual identification exerts a powerful influence on L2 pronunciation, it is still poorly understood. Orthographic classification was used here to assess the interlingual identification of Spanish and English vowels. Sixty native speakers of Spanish in three experiments judged the vowels /i/, /I/, /e/, and /ae/ in multiple tokens of English words ("beat", "bit", "bet", "bat") spoken by ten native speakers of American English. The subjects labelled each English vowel by circling one of the five letters used to spell the vowel phonemes of Spanish (viz. less than i greater than, less than e greater than, less than a greater than, less than o greater than, less than u greater than) or by circling "none" if they thought they had heard a vowel not found in Spanish. Subjects who spoke English as an L2 used the "none" label more often than did Spanish monolinguals, suggesting that L2 learning heightens bilinguals' awareness of cross-language phonetic differences. Experienced Spanish speakers of English did use the "none" label more often than did inexperienced subjects (42% vs. 18%). A few subjects used the "none" label consistently for /ae/ and /I/, suggesting that they may have regarded these vowels as "new" (i.e., non-Spanish). However, the group data provided little support for the hypothesis that the adult Spanish learners of English treated either /ae/ or /I/ as new. The great majority of subjects, even those highly experienced in English, identified English /ae/ with their Spanish /a/.

  15. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands.

  16. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  17. Retrieval of abstract semantics.

    PubMed

    Noppeney, Uta; Price, Cathy J

    2004-05-01

    Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that abstract and concrete concepts might be represented, retrieved and processed differently in the human brain. Using fMRI, we demonstrate that retrieval of abstract relative to sensory-based semantics during synonym judgements increased activation in a left frontotemporal system that has been associated with semantic processing particularly at the sentence level. Since activation increases were observed irrespective of the degree of difficulty, we suggest that these differential activations might reflect a particular retrieval mechanism or strategy for abstract concepts. In contrast to sensory-based semantics, the meaning of abstract concepts is largely specified by their usage in language rather than by their relations to the physical world. Subjects might therefore generate an appropriate semantic sentential context to fully explore and specify the meaning of abstract concepts. Our results also explain why abstract semantics is vulnerable to left frontotemporal lesions.

  18. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  19. Practices in Code Discoverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, P.; Allen, A.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such as ADS.

  20. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include absenteeism, alcoholism, drug abuse, leisure, disadvantaged, job satisfaction, and others. (SB)

  1. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  2. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  3. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  5. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  6. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  7. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  8. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  9. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  10. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  11. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  12. Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the…

  13. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  14. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  15. Tracking the Time Course of Orthographic Information in Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments evaluated the time course and use of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition using printed words as referents. Participants saw 4 words on a computer screen and listened to spoken sentences instructing them to click on one of the words (e.g., "Click on the word bead"). The printed words appeared…

  16. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  17. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  18. What Exactly is a "Yait" Anyway: The Role of Semantics in Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene; Fraser, Jillian R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether semantic information presented along with novel printed nonwords facilitates orthographic learning and examined predictors of individual differences in this important literacy skill. A sample of 35 fourth graders was tested on a variety of language and literacy tests, and participants were then exposed to 10 target…

  19. RAN Is Not a Measure of Orthographic Processing. Evidence from the Asymmetric German Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Fussenegger, Barbara; Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In three large samples (N = 1248) of children learning to read German we investigated the correlations between rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), phonological decoding (nonword reading fluency), and orthographic processing (word reading fluency and spelling). In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, RAN explained…

  20. Accounting for Children's Orthographic Learning while Reading Text: Do Children Self-Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    Share's "self-teaching" model proposes that readers acquire most knowledge about the orthographic structure of words incidentally while reading independently. In the current study, the self-teaching hypothesis was tested by simulating everyday reading through the use of real words, analyzing the effects of context, and considering the independent…

  1. Chicken or Egg? Untangling the Relationship between Orthographic Processing Skill and Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…

  2. The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word…

  3. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  4. Lexical Competition is Enhanced in the Left Hemisphere: Evidence from Different Types of Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana; Fraga, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in orthographic neighborhood effects. In Experiment 1, we employed two types of words: words with many substitution neighbors (high-"N") and words with few substitution neighbors (low-"N"). Results showed a facilitative effect of…

  5. N300 Indexes Deficient Integration of Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Sandra; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jurgen; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In transparent orthographies, like German, children with developmental dyslexia (DD) are mainly characterized by a reading fluency deficit. The reading fluency deficit might be traced back to a scarce integration of orthographic and phonological representations. In order to address this question, the present study used EEG to investigate the N300,…

  6. Independent Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Facilitation on Spoken Word Production in Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Weekes, Brendan Stuart; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    A picture-word interference paradigm with visually presented distractors was used to investigate the independent effects of orthographic and phonological facilitation on Mandarin monosyllabic word production. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word relationship along different lexical dimensions were varied. We observed a…

  7. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge")…

  8. The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and the Development of Orthographic Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Maureen; Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between phoneme segmentation ability and the development of orthographic representations. Finds that children who were most well equipped to perform phoneme segmentation tasks acquired the new reading vocabulary significantly faster than those who were less phonemically aware. Provides strong support for the thesis…

  9. Measuring Spanish Orthographic Development in Private, Public and Subsidised Schools in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helman, Lori; Delbridge, Anne; Parker, David; Arnal, Martina; Jara Mödinger, Luz

    2016-01-01

    The current study has a twofold purpose: first, to determine the reliability of a tool for assessing orthographic development in Spanish; second, to assess differences in students' performance on the measure across multiple types of primary schools in a large city in Chile. A Spanish developmental spelling inventory that contained words of…

  10. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  11. Orthographic and Phonological Parafoveal Processing of Consonants, Vowels, and Tones when Reading Thai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…

  12. Measuring Spanish Orthographic Development in Private, Public and Subsidised Schools in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helman, Lori; Delbridge, Anne; Parker, David; Arnal, Martina; Jara Mödinger, Luz

    2016-01-01

    The current study has a twofold purpose: first, to determine the reliability of a tool for assessing orthographic development in Spanish; second, to assess differences in students' performance on the measure across multiple types of primary schools in a large city in Chile. A Spanish developmental spelling inventory that contained words of…

  13. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  14. CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu. PMID:22916227

  15. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  16. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  17. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  18. Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

  19. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  20. Investigating Orthographic and Semantic Aspects of Word Learning in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Nation, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then…

  1. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  2. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Explorations of Performance and Variation in Two Transfer Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Stuart, Morag

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the use of orthographic analogies in 6-year-olds. Notes that neither rime nor phoneme awareness measures were correlated with rime inference uses and that vowel, but not rime inference, was correlated with scaffolding errors. Finds that rime detection was the strongest predictor of reading ability, whereas phoneme segmentation was the…

  3. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  4. Orthographic Processing and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Speaking Mainstream and LD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Al-Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Taibah, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Two cohorts of mainstream children (grades 2-5) and one cohort of children with learning disabilities (LD; grades 3-5), all Arabic speaking children in Kuwait, were given measures of reading comprehension fluency and orthographic discrimination to assess the relationship between the two. Additional measures of phonological processing (decoding and…

  5. Differential Disadvantage of Anglophone Weak Readers Due to English Orthographic Complexity and Cognitive Processing Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    The highly regular orthographies (spelling systems) of many nations expedite literacy development, and their children experience a rapid transition from early literacy (learning to read and write) to sophisticated literacy (reading and writing to learn). In contrast, English orthographic complexity impedes literacy development, particularly for…

  6. Artificial Grammar Learning in Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults: Implications for Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Anna; Caravolas, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Potential implicit orthographic learning deficits were investigated in adults with dyslexia. An artificial grammar learning paradigm served to assess dyslexic and typical readers' ability to exploit information about chunk frequency, letter-position patterns, and specific string similarity, all of which have analogous constructs in real…

  7. Tracking the Time Course of Orthographic Information in Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salverda, Anne Pier; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments evaluated the time course and use of orthographic information in spoken-word recognition using printed words as referents. Participants saw 4 words on a computer screen and listened to spoken sentences instructing them to click on one of the words (e.g., "Click on the word bead"). The printed words appeared…

  8. Is the Orthographic/Phonological Onset a Single Unit in Reading Aloud?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Yen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Two main theories of visual word recognition have been developed regarding the way orthographic units in printed words map onto phonological units in spoken words. One theory suggests that a string of single letters or letter clusters corresponds to a string of phonemes (Coltheart, 1978; Venezky, 1970), while the other suggests that a string of…

  9. Stroop interference associated with efficient reading fluency and prelexical orthographic processing.

    PubMed

    Mano, Quintino R; Williamson, Brady J; Pae, Hye K; Osmon, David C

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test involves a dynamic interplay between reading and executive functioning that elicits intuitions of word reading automaticity. One such intuition is that strong reading skills (i.e., more automatized word reading) play a disruptive role within the test, contributing to Stroop interference. However, evidence has accumulated that challenges this intuition. The present study examined associations among Stroop interference, reading skills (i.e., isolated word identification, grapheme-to-phoneme mapping, phonemic awareness, reading fluency) measured on standardized tests, and orthographic skills measured on experimental computerized tasks. Among university students (N = 152), correlational analyses showed greater Stroop interference to be associated with (a) relatively low scores on all standardized reading tests, and (b) longer response latencies on orthographic tasks. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that reading fluency and prelexical orthographic processing predicted unique and significant variance in Stroop interference beyond baseline rapid naming. Results suggest that strong reading skills, including orthographic processing, play a supportive role in resolving Stroop interference.

  10. Considering Linguistic and Orthographic Features in Early Literacy Acquisition: Evidence from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated (1) the role of syllable awareness in word reading and spelling after accounting for the effects of print-related skills (letter-name and letter-sound knowledge, and rapid serial naming), and (2) unique contributions of orthographic, semantic (vocabulary and morphological awareness), phonological, and print-related…

  11. Orthographic Effects in the Word Substitutions of Aphasic Patients: An Epidemic of Right Neglect Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Rita Sloan; Haendiges, Anne N.; Mitchum, Charlotte C.

    2005-01-01

    Aphasic patients with reading impairments frequently substitute incorrect real words for target words when reading aloud. Many of these word substitutions have substantial orthographic overlap with their targets and are classified as ''visual errors'' (i.e., sharing 50% of targets' letters in the same relative position). Fifteen chronic aphasic…

  12. Beyond Language Orders: Orthographic Processing and Word Reading in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Chen, Xi; Luo, Yang; Ramirez, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an empirical test of the hypothesis that transfer of orthographic processing to reading occurs when the scripts under acquisition are written with the same unit (specifically, the same alphabet). We tested 97 Spanish-English bilingual children in Grades 4 and 7. We measured mother's education level, verbal and nonverbal…

  13. An Evaluation of Spelling Pronunciations as a Means of Improving Spelling of Orthographic Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In 4 studies we tested the efficacy of artificial, letter based pronunciations to support poor spellers in building up stable orthographic representations. In all 4 studies children's spelling skills improved during training. However, the experimental group who was trained to articulate a spelling pronunciation before spelling the word did not…

  14. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  15. From Logos to Orthographic Symbols: A Multilevel Fading Computer Program for Teaching Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Shalem, Uri

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a computer-based intervention for teaching orthographic symbols to children with autism. Through a structured seven-step fading procedure, children were taught to identify words from commercially available logos depicting food items. A multiple-probe design across participants was used to examine the effects of…

  16. Orthographic Consistency and Individual Learner Differences in Second Language Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…

  17. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  18. The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word…

  19. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  20. The write way to spell: printing vs. typing effects on orthographic learning

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Gene; Tims, Talisa

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown superior orthographic learning resulting from spelling practice relative to repeated reading. One mechanism proposed to underlie this advantage of spelling in establishing detailed orthographic representations in memory is the motoric component of the manual movements evoked in printing or writing. This study investigated this contention directly by testing the effects of typing vs. printing on the orthographic learning achieved through spelling practice, and further evaluated whether practice modality interacts with pre-existing individual characteristics. Forty students in grade 2 (mean age 7 years 5 months) were introduced to 10 novel non-words. Some of the students practiced spelling the items by printing, while the others practiced spelling them on a keyboard. Participants were tested for recognition and spelling of these items 1 and 7 days later. Results revealed high rates of orthographic learning with no main effects of practice modality, testing time, or post-test modality. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed an interaction between typing proficiency and practice modality, such that pre-existing keyboarding skills constrained or facilitated learning within the typing-practice group. A similar interaction was not found between printing skills and learning within the printing group. Results are discussed with reference to both prominent reading theory and educational applications. PMID:24592247

  1. Orthographic Learning in Learning to Spell: The Roles of Semantics and Type of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of type of practice and presence of semantic representation for orthographic learning in learning to spell. A total of 36 students in Grade 2 (mean age = 7 years 10 months) were exposed to 10 novel nonwords, 5 of which were paired with semantic information. Half of the participants practiced reading these new…

  2. A Behaviour-Genetic Analysis of Orthographic Learning, Spelling and Decoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L.; Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; DeFries, John C.; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G.; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal twin study of literacy and language, we conducted a behaviour-genetic analysis of orthographic learning, spelling and decoding in Grade 2 children (225 identical and 214 fraternal twin pairs) in the United States and Australia. Each variable showed significant genetic and unique environment influences. Multivariate…

  3. A Developmental Study of the Processing of Orthographic Information in Children with Varying Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    A study investigated the development of information processing as it relates to the development of reading skills by studying how good readers and poor readers utilized orthographic information. Subjects, 90 good and poor readers from grades 2, 4, and 6, participated in four 30-minute sessions in which they were required to make a same/different…

  4. Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Recognition and Recall Tasks in a Transparent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justi, Francis R. R.; Jaeger, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The number of orthographic neighbors of a word influences its probability of being retrieved in recognition and free recall memory tests. Even though this phenomenon is well demonstrated for English words, it has yet to be demonstrated for languages with more predictable grapheme-phoneme mappings than English. To address this issue, 4 experiments…

  5. Orthographic Consistency and Individual Learner Differences in Second Language Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…

  6. The Development of the Orthographic Consistency Effect in Speech Recognition: From Sublexical to Lexical Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2007-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's on-line auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4, by examining the orthographic consistency effect [Ziegler, J. C., & Ferrand, L. (1998). Orthography shapes the perception of speech: The consistency effect in auditory recognition. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review",…

  7. Morphological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge, and Spelling Errors: Keys to Understanding Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…

  8. Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquière, Pol

    2008-07-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling skills. In the visual modality, an analogous problem might interfere with literacy development by affecting orthographic skills. In this prospective longitudinal study, we tested dynamic auditory and visual processing, speech-in-noise perception, phonological ability and orthographic ability in 62 five-year-old preschool children. Predictive relations towards first grade reading and spelling measures were explored and the validity of the global magnocellular model was evaluated using causal path analysis. In particular, we demonstrated that dynamic auditory processing was related to speech perception, which itself was related to phonological awareness. Similarly, dynamic visual processing was related to orthographic ability. Subsequently, phonological awareness, orthographic ability and verbal short-term memory were unique predictors of reading and spelling development.

  9. Artificial Grammar Learning in Dyslexic and Nondyslexic Adults: Implications for Orthographic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Anna; Caravolas, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Potential implicit orthographic learning deficits were investigated in adults with dyslexia. An artificial grammar learning paradigm served to assess dyslexic and typical readers' ability to exploit information about chunk frequency, letter-position patterns, and specific string similarity, all of which have analogous constructs in real…

  10. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  11. Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

  12. Science Education Researchers as Orthographers: Documenting Keiyo (Kenya) Knowledge, Learning and Narratives about Snakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Advances the argument that science educators have a pivotal role as orthographers in preserving and promoting science for all. Interviews Keiyo elders and students (n=748) to determine indigenous names for snakes and how Keiyo oral narratives of snakes are used in teaching and learning. Uses the data to document Keiyo language and construct…

  13. Is the Orthographic/Phonological Onset a Single Unit in Reading Aloud?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Yen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Two main theories of visual word recognition have been developed regarding the way orthographic units in printed words map onto phonological units in spoken words. One theory suggests that a string of single letters or letter clusters corresponds to a string of phonemes (Coltheart, 1978; Venezky, 1970), while the other suggests that a string of…

  14. The Development of the Orthographic Consistency Effect in Speech Recognition: From Sublexical to Lexical Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2007-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's on-line auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4, by examining the orthographic consistency effect [Ziegler, J. C., & Ferrand, L. (1998). Orthography shapes the perception of speech: The consistency effect in auditory recognition. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review",…

  15. Words with and without Internal Structure: What Determines the Nature of Orthographic and Morphological Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or…

  16. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Teaching Orthographic Projection at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Alexander George

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether or not the whole method or the part method of solving orthographic projection problems made any significant difference in student performance scores, and more specifically, to ascertain the relative effectiveness of these two approaches on seven criterion variables. The research design was…

  17. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  18. Language Policy and Orthographic Harmonization across Linguistic, Ethnic and National Boundaries in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on online and daily newspapers, speakers' language and writing practices, official government documents and prescribed spelling systems in Southern Africa, the paper explores the challenges and possibilities of orthographic reforms allowing for mobility across language clusters, ethnicity, regional and national borders. I argue that this…

  19. An Evaluation of Spelling Pronunciations as a Means of Improving Spelling of Orthographic Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In 4 studies we tested the efficacy of artificial, letter based pronunciations to support poor spellers in building up stable orthographic representations. In all 4 studies children's spelling skills improved during training. However, the experimental group who was trained to articulate a spelling pronunciation before spelling the word did not…

  20. Neural Correlates of Priming Effects in Children during Spoken Word Processing with Orthographic Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Khalid, Kainat; Zaveri, Rishi; Bolger, Donald J.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Priming effects were examined in 40 children (9-15 years old) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An orthographic judgment task required participants to determine if two sequentially presented spoken words had the same spelling for the rime. Four lexical conditions were designed: similar orthography and phonology (O[superscript…

  1. Do Italian Dyslexic Children Use the Lexical Reading Route Efficiently? An Orthographic Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Angelelli, Paola; Notarnicola, Alessandra; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The study uses an orthographic judgment task to evaluate the efficiency of the lexical reading route in Italian dyslexic children. It has been suggested that Italian dyslexic children rely prevalently on the sub-word-level routine for reading. However, it is not easy to test the lexical reading route in Italian directly because of the lack of…

  2. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  3. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  4. Chinese Children's Statistical Learning of Orthographic Regularities: Positional Constraints and Character Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese children acquire the untaught positional constraints of stroke patterns that are embedded in left-right structured and top-bottom structured characters. Using an orthographic regularity pattern elicitation paradigm, 536 Hong Kong Chinese children at different levels of reading (kindergarten, 2nd, and 5th grades)…

  5. Orthographic Knowledge Important in Comprehending Elementary Chinese Text by Users of Alphasyllabaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Ki, Wing Wah

    2011-01-01

    Orthographic knowledge in Chinese was hypothesized to affect elementary Chinese text comprehension (four essays) by 80 twelve-year-old ethnic alphasyllabary language users compared with 74 native Chinese speakers at similar reading level. This was tested with two rapid automatized naming tasks; two working memory tasks; three orthographic…

  6. Explicit Instruction in Orthographic Structure and Word Morphology Helps Chinese Children Learn to Write Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Jerome L.; Chen, Xi; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Gaffney, Janet S.; Li, Hong; Anderson, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in alphabetic languages had shown that children learning to write are sensitive to morphological information, and that it serves as a resource that they draw upon as they acquire writing skills. In Chinese as well, sensitivity to morphological and orthographic information had been found to predict children's ability to read…

  7. Hemispheric differences in orthographic and semantic processing as revealed by event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Danielle S.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH) apprehend visual words were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a repetition paradigm with visual half-field (VF) presentation. In both hemispheres (RH/LVF, LH/RVF), initial presentation of items elicited similar and typical effects of orthographic neighborhood size, with larger N400s for orthographically regular items (words and pseudowords) than for irregular items (acronyms and meaningless illegal strings). However, hemispheric differences emerged on repetition effects. When items were repeated in the LH/RVF, orthographically regular items, relative to irregular items, elicited larger repetition effects on both the N250, a component reflecting processing at the level of visual form (orthography), and on the N400, which has been linked to semantic access. In contrast, in the RH/LVF, repetition effects were biased toward irregular items on the N250 and were similar in size across item types for the N400. The results suggest that processing in the LH is more strongly affected by wordform regularity than in the RH, either due to enhanced processing of familiar orthographic patterns or due to the fact that regular forms can be more readily mapped onto phonology. PMID:25278134

  8. Language Policy and Orthographic Harmonization across Linguistic, Ethnic and National Boundaries in Southern Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on online and daily newspapers, speakers' language and writing practices, official government documents and prescribed spelling systems in Southern Africa, the paper explores the challenges and possibilities of orthographic reforms allowing for mobility across language clusters, ethnicity, regional and national borders. I argue that this…

  9. Chicken or Egg? Untangling the Relationship between Orthographic Processing Skill and Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…

  10. Orthographic-Phonological Links in the Lexicon: When Lexical and Sublexical Information Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeesun; Taft, Marcus; Davis, Chris

    2004-01-01

    At what level of orthographic representation is phonology linked in the lexicon? Is it at the whole word level, the syllable level, letter level, etc.? This question can be addressed by comparing the two scripts used in Korean, logographic "hanja" and alphabetic/syllabic "hangul," on a task where judgments must be made about the phonology of a…

  11. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  12. The write way to spell: printing vs. typing effects on orthographic learning.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Gene; Tims, Talisa

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown superior orthographic learning resulting from spelling practice relative to repeated reading. One mechanism proposed to underlie this advantage of spelling in establishing detailed orthographic representations in memory is the motoric component of the manual movements evoked in printing or writing. This study investigated this contention directly by testing the effects of typing vs. printing on the orthographic learning achieved through spelling practice, and further evaluated whether practice modality interacts with pre-existing individual characteristics. Forty students in grade 2 (mean age 7 years 5 months) were introduced to 10 novel non-words. Some of the students practiced spelling the items by printing, while the others practiced spelling them on a keyboard. Participants were tested for recognition and spelling of these items 1 and 7 days later. Results revealed high rates of orthographic learning with no main effects of practice modality, testing time, or post-test modality. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed an interaction between typing proficiency and practice modality, such that pre-existing keyboarding skills constrained or facilitated learning within the typing-practice group. A similar interaction was not found between printing skills and learning within the printing group. Results are discussed with reference to both prominent reading theory and educational applications.

  13. A Behaviour-Genetic Analysis of Orthographic Learning, Spelling and Decoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L.; Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; DeFries, John C.; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G.; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal twin study of literacy and language, we conducted a behaviour-genetic analysis of orthographic learning, spelling and decoding in Grade 2 children (225 identical and 214 fraternal twin pairs) in the United States and Australia. Each variable showed significant genetic and unique environment influences. Multivariate…

  14. The supramarginal and angular gyri underlie orthographic competence in Spanish language.

    PubMed

    González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio; Alejandro Barrios, Fernando; Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel

    2017-08-30

    Orthographic competence allows automatic word recognition and reading fluency. To elucidate how the orthographic competence in Spanish-speaking adults might affect the neurofunctional mechanisms of visual word recognition, 32 young adults equally divided in two groups (HSS: High Spelling Skills, and LSS: Low Spelling Skills) were evaluated using fMRI methods, while they performed an orthographic recognition task involving pseudohomophones. HSS achieved significantly more correct responses and lower reaction times than LSS. Interestingly, LSS showed greater activation in the left angular and supramarginal regions with increased bilateral activation pattern in the inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior temporal and posterior parietal regions. In contrast, HSS showed a more left-lateralized pattern over these regions along with higher activation of the anterior cingulated gyrus for misspelled words. Results suggest that the differences found in cortical activation patterns might be explained by the higher degree of specialization for word recognition in HSS, a group of participants that due to their greater orthographic skills require less engagement of processing resources to succeed in the task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Training in Mental Rotation and Spatial Visualization and Its Impact on Orthographic Drawing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Hanif, Abd Samad

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from an experimental study based on the pretest posttest research design that studied mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) training outcomes and their impact on orthographic drawing performance. The sample of the study comprised 98 secondary school students (36 girls, 62 boys, Mage = 15.5 years, age…

  16. Testing for Lexical Competition during Reading: Fast Priming with Orthographic Neighbors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that masked word primes that are orthographic neighbors of the target inhibit lexical decision latencies (Davis & Lupker, 2006; Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, 2008), consistent with the predictions of lexical competition models of visual word identification (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1996). In contrast, using the…

  17. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Explorations of Performance and Variation in Two Transfer Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Stuart, Morag

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the use of orthographic analogies in 6-year-olds. Notes that neither rime nor phoneme awareness measures were correlated with rime inference uses and that vowel, but not rime inference, was correlated with scaffolding errors. Finds that rime detection was the strongest predictor of reading ability, whereas phoneme segmentation was the…

  18. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g.,…

  19. Age of acquisition affects early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baoguo; Dent, Kevin; You, Wenping; Wu, Guolai

    2009-03-01

    Three experiments investigated age of acquisition (AoA) effects on early orthographic processing during Chinese character recognition. In Experiment 1, we measured the accuracy of identification of brief masked characters, accuracy was higher for early compared to late acquired characters. In Experiment 2, the visual duration threshold (VDT) was measured for both early and late acquired Chinese characters. The results showed that early acquired characters were successfully identified at shorter display durations than late acquired characters. Significant AoA effects were also found in Experiment 3, using a lexical decision task requiring mainly orthographic processing (discriminating real Chinese characters from orthographically illegal and unpronounceable characters). In summary, three experiments provide converging empirical evidence, for AoA effects on the early orthographic processing stages of Chinese character recognition. These results suggest that AoA effects during word identification go beyond the phonological or semantic processing stages. These results aslo provide cross-linguistic evidence for an AoA effect on early perceptual processing during identification.

  20. Pre-orthographic character string processing and parietal cortex: a role for visual attention in reading?

    PubMed

    Lobier, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole; Le Bas, Jean-François; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-07-01

    The visual front-end of reading is most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of character type. While the superior parietal lobule has been shown to be involved in multiple letter processing, further data is necessary to extend these results to non-letter characters. The purpose of this study is to identify the neural correlates of pre-orthographic character string processing independently of character type. Fourteen skilled adult readers carried out multiple and single element visual categorization tasks with alphanumeric (AN) and non-alphanumeric (nAN) characters under fMRI. The role of parietal cortex in multiple element processing was further probed with a priori defined anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Participants activated posterior parietal cortex more strongly for multiple than single element processing. ROI analyses showed that bilateral SPL/BA7 was more strongly activated for multiple than single element processing, regardless of character type. In contrast, no multiple element specific activity was found in inferior parietal lobules. These results suggests that parietal mechanisms are involved in pre-orthographic character string processing. We argue that in general, attentional mechanisms are involved in visual word recognition, as an early step of word visual analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chinese Children's Statistical Learning of Orthographic Regularities: Positional Constraints and Character Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese children acquire the untaught positional constraints of stroke patterns that are embedded in left-right structured and top-bottom structured characters. Using an orthographic regularity pattern elicitation paradigm, 536 Hong Kong Chinese children at different levels of reading (kindergarten, 2nd, and 5th grades)…

  2. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge")…

  3. Orthographic and Phonological Parafoveal Processing of Consonants, Vowels, and Tones when Reading Thai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…

  4. N300 Indexes Deficient Integration of Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Sandra; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jurgen; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In transparent orthographies, like German, children with developmental dyslexia (DD) are mainly characterized by a reading fluency deficit. The reading fluency deficit might be traced back to a scarce integration of orthographic and phonological representations. In order to address this question, the present study used EEG to investigate the N300,…

  5. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  6. Words with and without Internal Structure: What Determines the Nature of Orthographic and Morphological Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or…

  7. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  8. Influence of context-sensitive rules on the formation of orthographic representations in Spanish dyslexic children

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics are mainly characterized by poor reading fluency. One reason for this lack of fluency could be a difficulty in creating and accessing lexical representations, because, as the self-teaching theory suggest, it is necessary to develop orthographic representations to use direct reading (Share, 1995). It is possible that this difficulty to acquire orthographic representations can be specifically related to words that contain context-sensitive graphemes, since it has been demonstrated that reading is affected by this kind of graphemes (Barca et al., 2007). In order to test this possibility we compared a group of dyslexic children with a group of normal readers (9–13 years), in a task of repeated reading. Pseudo-words (half short and half long) with simple and contextual dependent rules were used. The length effect reduction on the reading speed, after repeated exposure, was considered an indicator of orthographic representation development, as the length effect is strong when reading unknown words, but absent when reading familiar words. The results show that dyslexic children have difficulties in developing orthographic representations, not only with context-sensitive graphemes, but also with simple graphemes. In contrast to the control children, in the dyslexic group differences between reading times for short and long stimuli remained without significant changes after six presentations. Besides, this happened with sensitive context rules and also with simple grapheme–phoneme conversion rules. On the other hand, response and articulation times were greatly affected by length in dyslexic children, indicating the use of serial reading. Results suggest that the problems related to storing orthographic representations could be caused by a learning deficit, independently of whether the word contained context-sensitive rules or not. PMID:25538659

  9. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Brenda; Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Narrative and orthographic writing abilities in Elementary School students: characteristics and correlations.

    PubMed

    Bigarelli, Juliana Faleiros Paolucci; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-09-01

    To characterize, according to the school grade and the type of school (private or public), the performance on orthographic and narrative text production in the writing of Elementary School students with good academic performance, and to investigate the relationships between these variables. Participants were 160 children with ages between 8 and 12 years, enrolled in 4th to 7th grades Elementary School. Their written production was assessed using words and pseudowords dictation, and autonomous writing of a narrative text. Public school students had a higher number of errors in the words and pseudowords dictation, improving with education level. The occurrence of complete and incomplete utterances was similar in both public and private schools. However, 4th graders presented more incomplete statements than the other students. A higher number of overall microstructure and macrostructure productions occurred among private school students. The essential macrostructures were most frequently found in the later school grades. The higher the total number of words in the autonomous written production, the higher the occurrence of linguistic variables and the better the narrative competence. There was a weak negative correlation between the number of wrong words and the total of events in text production. Positive and negative correlations (from weak to good) were observed between different orthographic, linguistic and narrative production variables in both private and public schools. Private school students present better orthographic and narrative performance than public school students. Schooling progression influences the performance in tasks of words' writing and text production, and the orthographic abilities influence the quality of textual production. Different writing abilities, such as orthographic performance and use of linguistic elements and narrative structures, are mutually influenced in writing production.

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  13. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  14. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  15. An Abstract Algebra Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Dubinsky, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Describes a constructivist, interactive approach for teaching undergraduate mathematics, abstract algebra in particular, using computer constructions programmed in ISETL to induce students' mental constructions and collaborative learning to help students reflect on these constructions. (18 references) (MKR)

  16. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  17. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  18. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading.

  19. Phonemic awareness is a more important predictor of orthographic processing than rapid serial naming: Evidence from Russian

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relationship between rapid serial naming (RSN) and orthographic processing in Russian, an asymmetrically transparent orthography. Ninety-six students (mean age = 13.73) completed tests of word and pseudoword reading fluency, spelling, orthographic choice, phonological choice, PA and RSN. PA was a better predictor of orthographic skills and pseudoword reading accuracy than RSN, which accounted for more variance in word and pseudoword reading fluency. Controlling for pseudoword reading fluency washed out RSN’s contribution to word reading fluency. These results extend previous findings questioning the role of RSN as an index of orthographic processing skills and support the idea that RSN taps into automaticity/efficiency of processing print-sound mappings. PMID:25435759

  20. Plot Scale Factor Models for Standard Orthographic Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakue, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric modeling provides graphic representations of real or abstract objects. Realistic representation requires three dimensional (3D) attributes since natural objects have three principal dimensions. CAD software gives the user the ability to construct realistic 3D models of objects, but often prints of these models must be generated on two…

  1. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  2. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  3. The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect of orthographic support on spoken word learning with seventeen children with Down syndrome aged seven to sixteen years and twenty-seven typically developing children aged five to seven years matched for reading ability. Ten spoken nonwords were paired with novel pictures; for half the nonwords the written form was also present. The spoken word learning of both groups did not differ and benefited to the same extent from the presence of the written word. This suggests that compared to reading-matched typically developing children, children with Down syndrome are not specifically impaired in phonological learning and benefit equally from orthographic support.

  4. Does Top-Down Feedback Modulate the Encoding of Orthographic Representations During Visual-Word Recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In masked priming lexical decision experiments, there is a matched-case identity advantage for nonwords, but not for words (e.g., ERTAR-ERTAR <  ertar-ERTAR; ALTAR-ALTAR = altar-ALTAR). This dissociation has been interpreted in terms of feedback from higher levels of processing during orthographic encoding. Here, we examined whether a matched-case identity advantage also occurs for words when top-down feedback is minimized. We employed a task that taps prelexical orthographic processes: the masked prime same-different task. For "same" trials, results showed faster response times for targets when preceded by a briefly presented matched-case identity prime than when preceded by a mismatched-case identity prime. Importantly, this advantage was similar in magnitude for nonwords and words. This finding constrains the interplay of bottom-up versus top-down mechanisms in models of visual-word identification.

  5. Phonological and orthographic visual word recognition in the two cerebral hemispheres: Evidence from Hebrew.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Eva; Eviatar, Zohar

    2006-09-01

    Studies on the cerebral mechanisms of reading have mostly used Latin-based writing systems and assume that the left, but not the right, cerebral hemisphere is capable of phonological processing. The present study used Hebrew as the test language to examine the effects of phonological and orthographic information in the two hemispheres. In unvoweled Hebrew script, words are read via consonant information alone. We used two naming tasks with an interference paradigm, where phonemically, orthographically, and figurally incorrect vowel information conflicted with the consonant information of words presented in the left, right, or central visual fields. Interference patterns indicated that the left hemisphere automatically transforms graphemes into phonemes (Experiments 1 and 2), whereas the right hemisphere processes vowel diacritics as visual objects (Experiment 1), although it possesses some phonological categories (Experiment 2). The significance of these findings for models of visual word recognition in the cerebral hemispheres is discussed.

  6. The influence of orthographic depth on reading networks in simultaneous biliterate children.

    PubMed

    Cherodath, S; Singh, N C

    2015-04-01

    Children in bilingual societies often simultaneously acquire reading skills in distinct writing systems that vary in consistency of sound-letter mapping or orthographic depth. To investigate its effect on cortical reading networks in children, we performed functional imaging on 34 simultaneous Hindi-English biliterate children as they read word and nonword stimuli. In contrast to Hindi which is consistent and relies on phonological assembly for both stimuli, English is inconsistent which necessitates lexical retrieval for words, but phonological assembly for nonwords. While children recruited a shared reading network for both languages, factorial analysis revealed stimulus effects (word/nonword) in bilateral frontal, parietal and left angular regions. Subsequent analyses showed that the stimulus effect was significant in English, which has a deep orthography, in comparison to Hindi, which is transparent. Our results provide novel evidence that orthographic depth shapes cortical reading processes during development.

  7. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  8. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  10. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  11. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  14. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  15. Binding abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarini; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2017-07-22

    Binding theories assume that a stimulus and the response made to it are bound together in an event file (Hommel et al., Behav Brain Sci 24(05):849-937, 2001). Such bindings can occur even after single encounters. If the stimulus or parts of its features are repeated within the time frame in which the event file is still intact, the previously integrated response is retrieved. Stimulus-response binding can exist at a perceptual, conceptual or a response selection level (Henson et al., Trends Cogn Sci 18(7):376-384, 2014). The current experiments test whether the observed binding of concepts with responses can be extended from concrete to abstract concepts (detailedness) and whether abstract concepts can retrieve the previous response, in the absence of perceptual repetition. In the present experiment participants responded to a target feature (colour) while the detailedness of the stimulus was irrelevant to the task. The results showed a significant interaction of response relation and detailedness relation, even in the absence of perceptual repetition. This interaction is interpreted as evidence for response-retrieval due to abstract concept repetition. Thus, our data suggest a broader impact of binding mechanism on performance as even abstract concepts can be integrated into event-files and later modulate behaviour.

  16. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  18. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  19. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  1. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  2. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  3. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  4. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  5. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  6. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  7. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  8. Assessing Multiple Abstract Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortesia; Dalton, Casey; Yestness, Nissa

    2009-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we initiate a discussion as to why instructors should implement numerous assessments into their mathematics courses. We describe the purpose and structure of formative and summative assessments implemented in an undergraduate two-semester sequence of abstract algebra. The evaluations included homework, exams, projects,…

  9. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  11. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  12. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  13. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  14. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  15. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  16. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  18. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  19. Individual Differences in the Effect of Orthographic/Phonological Conflict on Rhyme and Spelling Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Alton, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    In typical readers, orthographic knowledge has been shown to influence phonological decisions. In the present study, we used visual rhyme and spelling tasks to investigate the interaction of orthographic and phonological information in adults with varying reading skill. Word pairs that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., throat/boat), differed in both orthography and phonology (e.g., snow/arm), shared only orthography (e.g., farm/warm), and shared only phonology (e.g., vote/boat) were visually presented to university students who varied in reading ability. For rhyme judgment, participants were slower and less accurate to accept rhyming pairs when words were spelled differently and to reject non-rhyming pairs when words were spelled similarly. Similarly, for spelling judgments, participants were slower and less accurate when indicating that word endings were spelled differently when words rhymed, and slower and less accurate when indicating that words were spelled similarly when words did not rhyme. Crucially, while these effects were clear at the group level, there were large individual differences in the extent to which participants were impacted by conflict. In two separate samples, reading skill was associated with the extent to which orthographic conflict impacted rhyme decisions such that individuals with better nonword reading performance were less impacted by orthographic conflict. Thus, university students with poorer reading skills may differ from their peers either in the reading strategies they use or in the degree to which they automatically access word form information. Understanding these relationships is important for understanding the roles that reading processes play in readers of different skill. PMID:25751539

  20. Orthographic learning and self-teaching in a bilingual and biliterate context.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mila; Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Share, David L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine self-teaching in the context of English as a foreign language literacy acquisition. Three groups comprising 88 sixth-grade children participated. The first group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had acquired basic reading skills in Russian as their first language (L1) and literacy and who were literate in Hebrew as a second language. The second group consisted of Russian-Hebrew-speaking bilinguals who had not learned to read in their native Russian but had acquired Hebrew as their first literate language. The third group consisted of Hebrew-speaking monolingual children who were literate in Hebrew. This design facilitated examining the effect of biliteracy and bilingualism on basic English reading skills. We hypothesized that due to the proximity between the Russian and English orthographies as opposed to the Hebrew-English "distance," the Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group who acquired basic reading and spelling skills in L1 Russian would have superior self-teaching in English as opposed to the two other groups. The standard two-session self-teaching paradigm was employed with naming (speed and accuracy) and orthographic choice as posttest measures of orthographic learning. Results showed that after 4 years of English instruction, all three groups showed evidence of self-teaching on naming speed and orthographic recognition. The Russian-Hebrew-speaking biliterate group, moreover, showed a partial advantage over the comparison groups for initial decoding of target pseudowords and clear-cut superiority for measures of later orthographic learning, thereby showing self-teaching while supporting the script dependence hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Flexibility of orthographic and graphomotor coordination during a handwritten copy task: effect of time pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sausset, Solen; Lambert, Eric; Olive, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of the various processes involved in language production is a subject of keen debate in writing research. Some authors hold that writing processes can be flexibly coordinated according to task demands, whereas others claim that process coordination is entirely inflexible. For instance, orthographic planning has been shown to be resource-dependent during handwriting, but inflexible in typing, even under time pressure. The present study therefore went one step further in studying flexibility in the coordination of orthographic processing and graphomotor execution, by measuring the impact of time pressure during a handwritten copy task. Orthographic and graphomotor processes were observed via syllable processing. Writers copied out two- and three-syllable words three times in a row, with and without time pressure. Latencies and letter measures at syllable boundaries were analyzed. We hypothesized that if coordination is flexible and varies according to task demands, it should be modified by time pressure, affecting both latency before execution and duration of execution. We therefore predicted that the extent of syllable processing before execution would be reduced under time pressure and, as a consequence, syllable effects during execution would be more salient. Results showed, however, that time pressure interacted neither with syllable number nor with syllable structure. Accordingly, syllable processing appears to remain the same regardless of time pressure. The flexibility of process coordination during handwriting is discussed, as is the operationalization of time pressure constraints. PMID:24319435

  2. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory.

  3. Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false friends, and matched control words. Results showed a processing advantage for cognates over controls in both languages, indicating that the facilitation effect is driven by the level of balanced language proficiency rather than by experience with print. Except for lower accuracy scores in German, false friends did not differ in their processing from controls, pointing to the presence of semantic-to-orthographic feedback already in the beginning of reading acquisition. Confirming assumptions by the bilingual interactive activation plus (BIA+) model as well as the revised hierarchical model (RHM), findings suggest that in their strategy to resolve orthographic ambiguity, balanced bilingual children are more comparable to bilingual adults than to child second-language (L2) learners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Still at the orthographic level!

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological neighborhood density were orally presented to adults who had to write them down. Following the additive factors logic (Sternberg, 1969, 2001), if word frequency in spelling to dictation influences a processing level, that is, the orthographic output level, different from that influenced by phonological neighborhood density, that is, spoken word recognition, the impact of the 2 factors should be additive. In contrast, their influence should be overadditive if they act at the same processing level in spelling to dictation, namely the spoken word recognition level. We found that both factors had a reliable influence on the spelling latencies but did not interact. This finding is in line with an orthographic output locus hypothesis of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Word-to-text integration: ERP evidence for semantic and orthographic effects in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles A

    2017-05-01

    Although writing systems affect reading at the level of word identification, one expects writing system to have minimal effects on comprehension processes. We tested this assumption by recording ERPs while native Chinese speakers read short texts for comprehension in the word-to-text integration (WTI) paradigm to compare with studies of English using this paradigm. Of interest was the ERP on a 2-character word that began the second sentence of the text, with the first sentence varied to manipulate co-reference with the critical word in the second sentence. A paraphrase condition in which the critical word meaning was coreferential with a word in the first sentence showed a reduced N400 reduction. Consistent with results in English, this N400 effect suggests immediate integration of a Chinese 2-character word with the meaning of the text. Chinese allows an additional test of a morpheme effect when one character of a two-character word is repeated across the sentence boundary, thus having both orthographic and meaning overlap. This shared morpheme condition showed no effect during the timeframe when orthographic effects are observed (e.g. N200), nor did it show an N400 effect. However, character repetition did produce an N400 reduction on parietal sites regardless it represented the same morpheme or a different one. The results indicate that the WTI integration effect is general across writing systems at the meaning level, but that the orthographic form nonetheless has an effect, and is specifically functional in Chinese reading.

  6. Growth in phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness in grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Nagy, William; Carlisle, Joanne

    2010-04-01

    Growth curve analyses showed that (a) word-level phonological and orthographic awareness show greatest growth during the primary grades but some additional growth thereafter, and (b) three kinds of morphological awareness show greatest growth in the first three or four grades but one-derivation-continues to show substantial growth after fourth grade. Implications of the findings for the role of three kinds of linguistic awareness-phonological, orthographic, and morphological-in learning to read and spell words are discussed. A case is made that phonological awareness, while necessary, is not sufficient for learning to read English-all three kinds of linguistic awareness that are growing during the primary grades need to be coordinated and applied to literacy learning. This finding and a review of the research on linguistic awareness support the conclusion that the recommendations of the National Reading Panel need to be amended so that the research evidence supporting the importance of both orthographic and morphological awareness, and not only phonological awareness, is acknowledged. Moreover, evidence-based strategies for teaching each of these kinds of linguistic awareness and their interrelationships need to be disseminated to educational practitioners.

  7. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  8. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    when composing abstract protocols. To evaluate the expres- siveness of our protocol framework for ensuring safe shared memory interference, we show how...progress and preservation theorems that show the ab- sence of unsafe interference in correctly typed programs. Our design ensures memory safety and data...system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms. Next, we briefly

  9. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Compounds on S. mutans Glucosyltransferase Activity" (Abstract #559) 11. L. SIMONSON*, B. LAMBERTS, D. REIHER, and R. WALTER - "Prevention of Experimental...Research Institute, Great Lakes, IL 60088 Glucosyltransferases (GTF) from S. mutans synthesize water-insoluble glucans which have been implicated as a...molecular weight dextrans; Glucosyltransferase inhibitors; a-i, 3-glucanase; Caries experience in initial- ly caries-free recruits; Alveolar bone loss

  10. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  11. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  14. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  15. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  16. Abstracts for student symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, B.

    1994-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) students are participants in a national program sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Research. Presented topics from Fall 1993 include: Laser glass, wiring codes, lead in food and food containers, chromium removal from ground water, fiber optic sensors for ph measurement, CFC replacement, predator/prey simulation, detection of micronuclei in germ cells, DNA conformation, stimulated brillouin scattering, DNA sequencing, evaluation of education programs, neural network analysis of nuclear glass, lithium ion batteries, Indonesian snails, optical switching systems, and photoreceiver design. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Data Base.

  17. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

  18. Influence of lexical status and orthographic similarity on the multi-voxel response of the Visual Word Form Area

    PubMed Central

    Baeck, Annelies; Kravitz, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that a region in the left fusiform gyrus, often referred to as the “visual word form area” (VWFA), is responsive to written words, but the precise functional role of VWFA remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of orthographic similarity, and lexical factors on the multivoxel response patterns to written stimuli. Using high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla, we compared the organization of visual word representations in VWFA to the organization in early visual cortex and a language region in the superior temporal gyrus. Sets of four letter words and pseudowords were presented, in which orthographic similarity was parametrically manipulated. We found that during a lexical decision task VWFA is responsive to the lexical status of a stimulus, but both real words and pseudowords were further processed in terms of orthographic similarity. In contrast, early visual cortex was only responsive to the visual aspects of the stimuli and in the left superior temporal gyrus there was an interaction between lexical status and orthography such that only real words were processed in terms of orthographic similarity. These findings indicate that VWFA represents the word/non-word status of letter strings as well as their orthographic similarity. PMID:25665965

  19. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  20. Single or dual orthographic representations for reading and spelling? A study of Italian dyslexic-dysgraphic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia show defective orthographic lexical processing in both reading and spelling. It is unclear whether this parallelism is due to impairment of separate orthographic input and output lexicons or to a unique defective lexicon. The main aim of the present study was to compare the single- versus dual-lexicon accounts in dyslexic/dysgraphic children (and in normal but younger children). In the first experiment, 9 Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia judged the orthographic correctness (input lexicon) of their phonologically plausible misspellings (output lexicon) and of phonologically plausible spellings experimentally introduced for words they consistently spelt correctly. The children were generally impaired in recognizing phonologically plausible misspellings. Parallel deficits in reading and spelling also emerged: Children were more impaired in judging items they consistently misspelt and more accurate in judging items they always spelt correctly. In a second experiment, younger normal children with reading/spelling ability similar to that of the dyslexic/dysgraphic children in the first experiment (but younger) were examined. The results confirmed a close parallelism between the orthographic lexical representations used for reading and spelling. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that a single orthographic lexicon is responsible for reading and spelling performance in both dyslexic/dysgraphic and normal (but younger) children.

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  2. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  3. Teaching Students to Write Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locker, Kitty O.

    A teaching strategy has been developed for showing business and technical writing students how to write abstracts. The strategy contains six steps: (1) explain the importance of abstracts; (2) define summary and descriptive abstracts; (3) give students general guidelines for preparing abstracts; (4) explain topic and sentence outlines, showing the…

  4. Prevalence and Reliability of Phonological, Surface, and Mixed Profiles in Dyslexia: A Review of Studies Conducted in Languages Varying in Orthographic Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Jimenez, Juan E.; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of orthographic transparency on the prevalence of dyslexia subtypes was examined in a review of multiple-case studies conducted in languages differing in orthographic depth (English, French, and Spanish). Cross-language differences are found in the proportion of dissociated profiles as a function of the dependent variables (speed or…

  5. What is the difference between OASIS and OPERA? Roughly five pixels: orthographic structure biases the perceived length of letter strings.

    PubMed

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of monosyllabic-word-recognition processes, in contrast with multisyllabic-word processing, has accumulated over the past decades. One fundamental challenge regarding multisyllabic words concerns their parsing into smaller units and the nature of the cues determining the parsing. We propose that the organization of consonant and vowel letters provides powerful cues for parsing, and we present data from a new task showing that a word's orthographic structure, as determined by the number of vowel-letter clusters, influences estimations of its length. Words were briefly presented on a computer screen, and participants had to estimate word length by drawing a line on the screen with the mouse. In three experiments, participants estimated words comprising fewer orthographic units as shorter than words comprising more units even though the words matched for number of letters. Further results demonstrated that the length bias was driven by orthographic information and not by phonological structure.

  6. Fast and effective occlusion culling for 3D holographic displays by inverse orthographic projection with low angular sampling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jia; Liu, Juan; Jin, Guofan; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-09-20

    Occlusion culling is an important process that produces correct depth cues for observers in holographic displays, whereas current methods suffer from occlusion errors or high computational loads. We propose a fast and effective method for occlusion culling based on multiple light-point sampling planes and an inverse orthographic projection technique. Multiple light-point sampling planes are employed to remove the hidden surfaces for each direction of the view of the three-dimensional (3D) scene by forward orthographic projection, and the inverse orthographic projection technique is used to determine the effective sampling points of the 3D scene. A numerical simulation and an optical experiment are performed. The results show that this approach can realize accurate occlusion effects, smooth motion parallax, and continuous depth using low angular sampling without any extra computation costs.

  7. Congress abstracts: preparing abstracts for submission and successful acceptance.

    PubMed

    Curzon, M E J; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2011-12-01

    To provide guidance on writing congress abstracts for submission and how to increase the chance of acceptance. There is increasing competition for submitted abstracts to be accepted by scientific congresses. Because the facilities or size of a congress may be limited a selection process is often used based upon the quality of abstracts submitted. Accordingly, it is crucial for a researcher to prepare an abstract very carefully to ensure the best chance of acceptance. The approaches to preparing an abstract and the techniques for enhancing quality are reviewed. Suggestions and guidance are given to ensure the production of a well structured, informative and scientifically sound abstract.

  8. Differential effects of orthographic and phonological consistency in cortex for children with and without reading impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers during a rhyming task in the visual modality. In line with our previous study, for Normal Readers, lower phonological and orthographic consistency were associated with greater activation in several regions including bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as well as left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers activated only bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in response to decreasing consistency. Group comparisons revealed that, relative to Impaired Readers, Normal Readers exhibited a larger response in this network for lower phonological consistency whereas orthographic consistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a significant relationship between skill (i.e. Phonological Awareness and non-word decoding) and cortical consistency effects for Impaired Readers in left inferior/middle frontal gyri and left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers with higher skill showed greater activation for higher consistency. This relationship was reliably different from that of Normal Readers in which higher skill was associated with greater activation for lower consistency. According to single-route or connectionist models, these results suggest that Impaired Readers with higher skill devote neural resources to representing the mapping between orthography and phonology for higher consistency words, and therefore do not robustly activate this network for lower consistency words. PMID:18725239

  9. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  10. Resolution-enhancement for an orthographic-view image display in an integral imaging microscope system

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Jeong, Ji-Seong; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Piao, Yan-Ling; Yoo, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Nam

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limitations of micro lens arrays and camera sensors, images on display devices through the integral imaging microscope systems have been suffering for a low-resolution. In this paper, a resolution-enhanced orthographic-view image display method for integral imaging microscopy is proposed and demonstrated. Iterative intermediate-view reconstructions are performed based on bilinear interpolation using neighborhood elemental image information, and a graphics processing unit parallel processing algorithm is applied for fast image processing. The proposed method is verified experimentally and the effective results are presented in this paper. PMID:25798299

  11. Digital computer programs for generating oblique orthographic projections and contour plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    User and programer documentation is presented for two programs for automatic plotting of digital data. One of the programs generates oblique orthographic projections of three-dimensional numerical models and the other program generates contour plots of data distributed in an arbitrary planar region. A general description of the computational algorithms, user instructions, and complete listings of the programs is given. Several plots are included to illustrate various program options, and a single example is described to facilitate learning the use of the programs.

  12. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  13. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  14. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  15. Reducing Abstraction Level When Learning Abstract Algebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework based on interviews with undergraduate students and written questionnaires to study how undergraduate students cope with abstract algebra concepts. Indicates that students' responses can be interpreted as a result of reducing the level of abstraction. Examines the theme of reducing abstraction based on three…

  16. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  17. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  18. A magnetic stimulation examination of orthographic neighborhood effects in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Walsh, Vincent

    2003-04-01

    The split-fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation projected to the left hemisphere (LH). We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right occipital cortex during a lexical decision task to investigate the extent to which word recognition processes could be accounted for according to the split-fovea theory. Unilateral rTMS significantly impaired lexical decision latencies to centrally presented words, supporting the suggestion that foveal representation of words is split between the cerebral hemispheres rather than bilateral. Behaviorally, we showed that words that have many orthographic neighbors sharing the same initial letters ("lead neighbors") facilitated lexical decision more than words with few lead neighbors. This effect did not apply to end neighbors (orthographic neighbors sharing the same final letters). Crucially, rTMS over the RH impaired lead-, but not end-neighborhood facilitation. The results support the split-fovea theory, where the RH has primacy in representing lead neighbors of a written word.

  19. How does Arabic orthographic connectivity modulate brain activity during visual word recognition: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-04-01

    One of the unique features of the Arabic orthography that differentiates it from many other alphabetical ones is the fact that most letters connect obligatorily to each other. Hence, these letters change their forms according to the location in the word (i.e. beginning, middle, or end), leading to the suggestion that connectivity adds a visual load which negatively impacts reading in Arabic. In this study, we investigated the effects of the orthographic connectivity on the time course of early brain electric responses during the visual word recognition. For this purpose, we collected event-related potentials (ERPs) from adult skilled readers while performing a lexical decision task using fully connected (Cw), partially connected and non-connected words (NCw). Reaction times variance was higher and accuracy was lower in NCw compared to Cw words. ERPs analysis revealed significant amplitude and latency differences between Cw and NCw at posterior electrodes during the N170 component which implied the temporo-occipital areas. Our findings show that instead of slowing down reading, orthographic connectivity in Arabic skilled readers seems to impact positively the reading process already during the early stages of word recognition. These results are discussed in relation to previous observations in the literature.

  20. Encoding order and developmental dyslexia: A family of skills predicting different orthographic components

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Cristina; Tsouknida, Effie; Olson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigated order encoding in developmental dyslexia using a task that presented nonalphanumeric visual characters either simultaneously or sequentially—to tap spatial and temporal order encoding, respectively—and asked participants to reproduce their order. Dyslexic participants performed poorly in the sequential condition, but normally in the simultaneous condition, except for positions most susceptible to interference. These results are novel in demonstrating a selective difficulty with temporal order encoding in a dyslexic group. We also tested the associations between our order reconstruction tasks and: (a) lexical learning and phonological tasks; and (b) different reading and spelling tasks. Correlations were extensive when the whole group of participants was considered together. When dyslexics and controls were considered separately, different patterns of association emerged between orthographic tasks on the one side and tasks tapping order encoding, phonological processing, and written learning on the other. These results indicate that different skills support different aspects of orthographic processing and are impaired to different degrees in individuals with dyslexia. Therefore, developmental dyslexia is not caused by a single impairment, but by a family of deficits loosely related to difficulties with order. Understanding the contribution of these different deficits will be crucial to deepen our understanding of this disorder. PMID:25246235

  1. Encoding order and developmental dyslexia: a family of skills predicting different orthographic components.

    PubMed

    Romani, Cristina; Tsouknida, Effie; Olson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigated order encoding in developmental dyslexia using a task that presented nonalphanumeric visual characters either simultaneously or sequentially--to tap spatial and temporal order encoding, respectively--and asked participants to reproduce their order. Dyslexic participants performed poorly in the sequential condition, but normally in the simultaneous condition, except for positions most susceptible to interference. These results are novel in demonstrating a selective difficulty with temporal order encoding in a dyslexic group. We also tested the associations between our order reconstruction tasks and: (a) lexical learning and phonological tasks; and (b) different reading and spelling tasks. Correlations were extensive when the whole group of participants was considered together. When dyslexics and controls were considered separately, different patterns of association emerged between orthographic tasks on the one side and tasks tapping order encoding, phonological processing, and written learning on the other. These results indicate that different skills support different aspects of orthographic processing and are impaired to different degrees in individuals with dyslexia. Therefore, developmental dyslexia is not caused by a single impairment, but by a family of deficits loosely related to difficulties with order. Understanding the contribution of these different deficits will be crucial to deepen our understanding of this disorder.

  2. Orthographic analogies and phonological priming: a comment on Bowey, Vaughan, and Hansen (1998)

    PubMed

    Goswami, U

    1999-03-01

    J. A. Bowey, L. Vaughan, and J. Hansen (1998, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 68, 108-133) carried out two experiments on 6- and 7-year-old children's use of orthographic analogies in word reading. They reported that, following apparently stringent controls for phonological priming effects, beginning analogies (beak-bean) were more frequent in this age group than rime (beak-peak) analogies. From this, they concluded that beginning readers do not reliably use orthographic rimes in reading, even in the clue word task (p. 129). However, the clue word task was not used in this study. This comment highlights two problems with Bowey et al.'s paper. The first is a theoretical one, and the second is methodological. Firstly, Bowey et al. base their investigation on a misunderstanding of U. Goswami and P. E. Bryant's (1990, Phonological skills and learning to read, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum) claims about the role of rhyme and analogy in beginning reading. Secondly, methodological weaknesses, in particular unintended intralist priming effects, seriously limit the conclusions that can be drawn from Bowey et al.'s booklet analogy task. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Illusions of competence for phonetically, orthographically, and semantically similar word pairs.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Heather L; Leboe, Jason P

    2009-12-01

    Illusions of competence are thought to arise when judgements of learning (JOLs) made in the presence of intact cue-target pairs during study create a "foresight bias," such that JOLs are inflated by the apparent association between a cue and a target, despite the lack of benefit this association has for recall performance. For example, Castel, McCabe, and Roediger (2007) recently demonstrated an illusion of competence for identical word pairs (mouse-mouse). In two experiments, the authors examined possible sources for this over confidence, including phonetic, semantic, and orthographic similarity. An illusion of competence was found for homophones, synonyms, orthographically similar, and unrelated items, whereas no illusion of competence was found for word pairs with a relatively high forward-semantic association. Self-paced study times indicated that encoding fluency was not closely associated with the magnitude of over confidence. Error data revealed participants may have been engaging in strategic responding in order to maximise correct recall. Our results underscore the importance of considering factors that influence both JOLs and recall performance when considering sources of (mis)calibration in absolute accuracy.

  4. All letters are not equal: subgraphemic texture in orthographic working memory.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C; Folk, Jocelyn R; Rapp, Brenda

    2009-11-01

    A central issue in the study of reading and spelling has been to understand how the consistency or frequency of letter-sound relationships affects written language processing. We present, for the first time, evidence that the sound-spelling frequency of subgraphemic elements of words (letters within digraphs) contributes to the accuracy with which these letters are produced in spelling. We report findings from 2 studies that demonstrate that letters within digraphs display differential susceptibility to error under conditions of disruption to orthographic working memory (O-WM). In the 1st, O-WM was disrupted as a result of neurological damage; in the 2nd, O-WM disruption was produced in neurologically intact, skilled spellers under dual task conditions with a shadowing task carried out during spelling. In both studies, segments with low versus high levels of sound-letter convergence, a measure of the frequency of sublexical mappings, were more vulnerable to disruption even when factors such as letter position, consonant-vowel context, and phoneme-to-grapheme mapping probability of the digraphs were controlled. These results contribute to our understanding of the internal texture of orthographic representations, providing evidence that individual letters differ in their activation strength and, as a result, in their susceptibility to error.

  5. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  6. Fingerspelling and sign language as alternative codes for reading and writing words for Chilean deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Puente, Aníbal; Alvarado, Jesús M; Herrera, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the role of sign language and fingerspelling in the development of the reading and writing skills of deaf children and youth. Twenty-six deaf participants (13 children, 13 adolescents), whose first language was Chilean Sign Language (CHSL), were examined. Their dactylic abilities were evaluated with tasks involving the reading and writing of dactylic and orthographic codes. The study included three experiments: (a) the identification of Chilean signs and fingerspelled words, (b) the matching of fingerspelled words with commercial logos, and (c) the decoding of fingerspelled words and the mapping of these words onto the writing system. The results provide convergent evidence that the use of fingerspelling and sign language is related to orthographic skills. It is concluded that fingerspelling can facilitate the internal representation of words and serve as a supporting mechanism for reading acquisition.

  7. The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

  8. Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

  9. Effect of Orthographic Transparency on Letter Position Encoding: A Comparison of Greek and English Monoscriptal and Biscriptal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktori, Maria; Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of orthographic transparency on letter position encoding was investigated using a visual search task given to skilled readers of English (a deep orthography) or Greek (a transparent orthography). Two groups of younger participants, matched for age and education, were monoscriptal in English, or biscriptal in Greek and English. Two…

  10. Effectiveness of Applying 2D Static Depictions and 3D Animations to Orthographic Views Learning in Graphical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Fu; Chiang, Ming-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study provides experiment results as an educational reference for instructors to help student obtain a better way to learn orthographic views in graphical course. A visual experiment was held to explore the comprehensive differences between 2D static and 3D animation object features; the goal was to reduce the possible misunderstanding…

  11. Orthographic, Phonological, and Morphological Skills and Children's Word Reading in Arabic: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanem, Reem; Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Current Arabic reading instruction places strong emphasis on orthographic skills and little emphasis on phonological and morphological skills. Yet, the role of each skill in reading development in Arabic is not well understood. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the degree to which children learning to read in Arabic use…

  12. Perception of Hiniku and Oseji: How Hyperbole and Orthographically Deviant Styles Influence Irony-Related Perceptions in the Japanese Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2006-01-01

    Two questionnaire experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of 2 styles (hyperbole and orthographically deviant writing style) on the perception of hiniku, 'quasi-irony', and oseji, 'quasi-flattery', in the Japanese language. In each experiment, stories were constructed in which a speaker made a remark evaluating the addressee's…

  13. Word or Word-Like? Dissociating Orthographic Typicality from Lexicality in the Left Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollams, Anna M.; Silani, Giorgia; Okada, Kayoko; Patterson, Karalyn; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior lesion and functional imaging studies have highlighted the importance of the left ventral occipito-temporal (LvOT) cortex for visual word recognition. Within this area, there is a posterior-anterior hierarchy of subregions that are specialized for different stages of orthographic processing. The aim of the present fMRI study was to…

  14. Facilitative Effect of Cognate Words Vanishes When Reducing the Orthographic Overlap: The Role of Stimuli List Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Ferré, Pilar; Romero, Joaquín; Guasch, Marc; Soares, Ana P.; García-Chico, Teófilo

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognate word processing is modulated by variables such as degree of orthographic and phonological overlap of cognate words and task requirements in such a way that the typical preferential processing observed in the literature for cognate words relative to non-cognate words can be annulled or even reversed (Comesaña…

  15. Effectiveness of Applying 2D Static Depictions and 3D Animations to Orthographic Views Learning in Graphical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Fu; Chiang, Ming-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study provides experiment results as an educational reference for instructors to help student obtain a better way to learn orthographic views in graphical course. A visual experiment was held to explore the comprehensive differences between 2D static and 3D animation object features; the goal was to reduce the possible misunderstanding…

  16. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  17. Towards an Understanding of How Children Read and Spell Irregular Words: The Role of Nonword and Orthographic Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona; McGeown, Sarah; Moxon, Gerri Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, in 180 children aged from 6 to 9?years, to what extent irregular word reading and spelling were predicted by vocabulary knowledge, reading frequency, orthographic processing and nonword reading skill. Consistent with models of reading highlighting the quasi-regular nature of irregular words, it was found that nonword reading…

  18. Facilitative Effect of Cognate Words Vanishes When Reducing the Orthographic Overlap: The Role of Stimuli List Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Ferré, Pilar; Romero, Joaquín; Guasch, Marc; Soares, Ana P.; García-Chico, Teófilo

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognate word processing is modulated by variables such as degree of orthographic and phonological overlap of cognate words and task requirements in such a way that the typical preferential processing observed in the literature for cognate words relative to non-cognate words can be annulled or even reversed (Comesaña…

  19. Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbeli, Florina; Pižorn, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1 Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language (L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed…

  20. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as “cholocate” as the correct word “chocolate.” Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading. PMID:27303331