Science.gov

Sample records for abstract previous studies

  1. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  2. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  3. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  4. A study of optimal abstract jamming strategies vs. noncoherent MFSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the performance of uncoded MFSK modulation in the presence of arbitrary additive jamming, taking into account the objective to devise robust antijamming strategies. An abstract model is considered, giving attention to the signal strength as a nonnegative real number X, the employment of X as a random variable, its distribution function G(x), the transmitter's strategy G, the jamming noise as an M-dimensional random vector Z, and the error probability. A summary of previous work on the considered problem is provided, and the results of the current study are presented.

  5. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  6. Abstract Algebra for Teachers: An Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Andrew Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript describes the study of an abstract algebra course for preservice secondary mathematics teachers (PSMTs). Often, courses in abstract algebra have not been viewed as productive, beneficial learning experiences for future teachers, both by researchers and PSMTs themselves. This despite calls for increased content knowledge for…

  7. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  8. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  9. Sensory Intelligence for Extraction of an Abstract Auditory Rule: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Xiu-Yuan; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2018-02-21

    In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so-called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear. To address this issue, we constructed a complex speech sound stream using auditory materials in Mandarin Chinese, in which syllables had a flat lexical tone but differed in other acoustic features to form an abstract auditory rule. This rule was occasionally and randomly violated by the syllables with the rising, dipping or falling tone. We found that both Chinese and foreign speakers detected the violations of the abstract auditory rule in the speech sound stream at a pre-attentive stage, as revealed by the whole-head recordings of mismatch negativity (MMN) in a passive paradigm. However, MMNs peaked earlier in Chinese speakers than in foreign speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers showed different MMN peak latencies for the three deviant types, which paralleled recognition points. These findings indicate that the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech sounds is innate but shaped by language experience. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waterloo Eye Study: data abstraction and population representation.

    PubMed

    Machan, Carolyn M; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2011-05-01

    To determine data quality in the Waterloo Eye Study (WatES) and compare the WatES age/sex distribution to the general population. Six thousand three hundred ninety-seven clinic files were reviewed at the University of Waterloo, School of Optometry. Abstracted information included patient age, sex, presenting chief complaint, entering spectacle prescription, refraction, binocular vision, and disease data. Mean age and age distributions were determined for the entire study group and both sexes. These results were compared with Statistics Canada (2006) estimates and information on Canadian optometric practices. Inter- and intraabstractor reliability was determined through double entry of 425 and 50 files, respectively; the Cohen kappa statistic (K) was calculated for qualitative data and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for quantitative data. Availability of data within the files was determined through missing data rates. The age of the patients in the WatES ranged from 0.2 to 93.9 years (mean age, 42.5 years), with all age groups younger than 85 years well represented. Females comprised 54.1% and males 45.9% of the study group. There were more older patients (>65 years) and younger patients (<10 years) than in the population at large. K values were highest for demographic information (e.g., sex, 0.96) and averaged slightly less for most clinical data requiring some abstractor interpretation (0.71 to 1.00). The two lowest interabstractor values, migraine (0.41) and smoking (0.26), had low reporting frequencies and definition ambiguity between abstractors. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were >0.90 for all but one continuous data type. Missing data rates were <2% for all but near phoria, which was 7.4%. The WatES database includes patients from all age groups and both sexes. It provides a fair representation of optometric patients in Canada. Its large sample size, good interabstractor repeatability, and low missing data rates demonstrates

  11. Abstract semantics in the motor system? - An event-related fMRI study on passive reading of semantic word categories carrying abstract emotional and mental meaning.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-03-01

    Previous research showed that modality-preferential sensorimotor areas are relevant for processing concrete words used to speak about actions. However, whether modality-preferential areas also play a role for abstract words is still under debate. Whereas recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest an involvement of motor cortex in processing the meaning of abstract emotion words as, for example, 'love', other non-emotional abstract words, in particular 'mental words', such as 'thought' or 'logic', are believed to engage 'amodal' semantic systems only. In the present event-related fMRI experiment, subjects passively read abstract emotional and mental nouns along with concrete action related words. Contrary to expectation, the results indicate a specific involvement of face motor areas in the processing of mental nouns, resembling that seen for face related action words. This result was confirmed when subject-specific regions of interest (ROIs) defined by motor localizers were used. We conclude that a role of motor systems in semantic processing is not restricted to concrete words but extends to at least some abstract mental symbols previously thought to be entirely 'disembodied' and divorced from semantically related sensorimotor processing. Implications for neurocognitive theories of semantics and clinical applications will be highlighted, paying specific attention to the role of brain activations as indexes of cognitive processes and their relationships to 'causal' studies addressing lesion and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) effects. Possible implications for clinical practice, in particular speech language therapy, are discussed in closing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-Nov 76. [135 abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, E.J.

    1976-12-01

    This bibliography was prepared in order to bring together Federally funded research relating to archaeology. It is divided into two sections. The first deals with the chemical analysis of archaeological specimens primarily using activation analysis. Articles studied include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The second section cites other archaeological research including results of excavations from all over the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for site location. (This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 18 of which are new entries to the previousmore » edition.) (GRA)« less

  13. Revealing hidden covariation detection: evidence for implicit abstraction at study.

    PubMed

    Rossnagel, C S

    2001-09-01

    Four experiments in the brain scans paradigm (P. Lewicki, T. Hill, & I. Sasaki, 1989) investigated hidden covariation detection (HCD). In Experiment 1 HCD was found in an implicit- but not in an explicit-instruction group. In Experiment 2 HCD was impaired by nonholistic perception of stimuli but not by divided attention. In Experiment 3 HCD was eliminated by interspersing stimuli that deviated from the critical covariation. In Experiment 4 a transfer procedure was used. HCD was found with dissimilar test stimuli that preserved the covariation but was almost eliminated with similar stimuli that were neutral as to the covariation. Awareness was assessed both by objective and subjective tests in all experiments. Results suggest that HCD is an effect of implicit rule abstraction and that similarity processing plays only a minor role. HCD might be suppressed by intentional search strategies that induce inappropriate aggregation of stimulus information.

  14. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N = 96; mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as “new” or “old” (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterised by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependant on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. PMID:27329352

  15. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen abstraction from n-butanol by the methyl radical: high level ab initio study of abstraction pathways and the importance of low energy rotational conformers.

    PubMed

    Katsikadakos, D; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P; Hunt, P A

    2012-07-21

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions by the methyl radical from n-butanol have been investigated at the ROCBS-QB3 level of theory. Reaction energies and product geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol (ROH) have been computed, the reaction energies order α < γ < β < δ < OH. The preference for n-butane to favour H-abstraction at C(β) and C(γ) while, in contrast, n-butanol favours radical reactions at the C(α) carbon is rationalised. Transition state (TS) barriers and geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol are presented, and discussed with respect to the Hammond postulate. The reaction barriers order as α < OH < γ < β < δ. This relative ordering is not consistent with product radical stability, C-H bond dissociation energies or previous studies using O[combining dot above]H and HO[combining dot above](2) radicals. We provide a molecular orbital based rationalisation for this ordering and answer two related questions: Why is the γ-channel more stable than the β-channel? Why do the two C(γ)-H H-abstraction TS differ in energy? The method and basis set dependence of the TS barriers is investigated. The Boltzmann probability distribution for the n-butanol conformers suggests that low energy conformers are present in approximately equal proportions to the most stable conformer at combustion temperatures where ĊH(3) radicals are present. Thus, the relative significance of the various H-abstraction channels has been assessed for a selection of higher energy conformers (ROH'). Key results include finding that higher energy n-butanol conformers (E(ROH') > E(ROH)) can generate lower energy product radicals, E(ROH') < E(ROH). Moreover, higher energy conformers can also have a globally competitive TS energy for H-abstraction.

  17. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  18. METRICS OF PERFORMANCE FOR THE SABRE MICROCOSM STUDY (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project will evaluate accelerated anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in areas of high concentration, such as DNAPL source areas. In preparation for a field scale pilot test, a laboratory microcosm study was conducted to provide...

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN SABRE MICROCOSM STUDIES (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project will evaluate accelerated anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in areas of high concentration, such as DNAPL source areas. In preparation for a field scale pilot test, laboratory microcosm and column studies were conducte...

  20. Psychosocial needs of older cancer patients: a pilot study abstract.

    PubMed

    Houldin, A D; Wasserbauer, N

    1996-08-01

    Approximately 50% of all cancers occur in persons aged 65 and over (American Cancer Society, 1994). However, the special psychological problems of these patients have been inadequately addressed (Massie & Holland, 1989). The psychosocial needs of older cancer patients were surveyed in this pilot study. Two-thirds of the older adults surveyed experienced concerns or problems. Almost 50% of the sample did not receive adequate assistance in dealing with their emotional needs and 69% did not receive sufficient spiritual support. Older cancer patients experience psychosocial distress and may benefit from professional assistance in dealing with these concerns.

  1. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  2. Struggling to understand abstract science topics: a Roundhouse diagram-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

    2002-06-01

    This study explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. It is based on a metacognition-based visual learning model proposed by Wandersee in 1994. Ward and Wandersee introduced the Roundhouse diagram strategy and showed how it could be applied in science education. This article aims at elucidating the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current understandings to reach the intended meaningful understanding of complex science topics. The main findings of this study are that (a) it is crucial that relevant prior knowledge and dysfunctional alternative conceptions not be ignored during new learning if low-performing science students are to understand science well; (b) as the student's mastery of the Roundhouse diagram construction improved, so did science achievement; and (c) the student's apt choice of concept-related visual icons aided progress toward meaningful understanding of complex science concepts.

  3. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release withmore » unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway« less

  4. Imagining the truth and the moon: an electrophysiological study of abstract and concrete word processing.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Mitra, Priya; Coch, Donna

    2013-05-01

    Previous event-related potential studies have indicated that both a widespread N400 and an anterior N700 index differential processing of concrete and abstract words, but the nature of these components in relation to concreteness and imagery has been unclear. Here, we separated the effects of word concreteness and task demands on the N400 and N700 in a single word processing paradigm with a within-subjects, between-tasks design and carefully controlled word stimuli. The N400 was larger to concrete words than to abstract words, and larger in the visualization task condition than in the surface task condition, with no interaction. A marked anterior N700 was elicited only by concrete words in the visualization task condition, suggesting that this component indexes imagery. These findings are consistent with a revised or extended dual coding theory according to which concrete words benefit from greater activation in both verbal and imagistic systems. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Struggling To Understand Abstract Science Topics: A Roundhouse Diagram-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. Based on a metacognition-based visual learning model, aims to elucidate the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current…

  6. STEM Education Related Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses[TM] digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians…

  7. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Roberta W; Huynh, Lynn; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Jakeisha; Dickersin, Kay

    2013-06-18

    The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the "Primary Outcome" field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in ClinicalTrials.gov only slightly more than half

  9. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  10. Manipulating Objects and Telling Words: A Study on Concrete and Abstract Words Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Cimatti, Felice; Marocco, Davide; Scorolli, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (E1–E2–E3–E4) investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the words as tools (WAT) proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (Training 1). In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (Training 2); labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST 2). Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1); even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2). TEST 3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2–E3–E4, TEST 3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard–microphone) responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed. PMID:21716582

  11. Excerpta Medica abstracting journals: a case study of costs to medical school libraries.

    PubMed Central

    La Rocco, A; Feng, C

    1977-01-01

    A cost comparison study was made of Excerpta Medica's abstracting journals, based upon actual costs to a library. Unit costs were determined for six sections of EM as compared with six corresponding abstract journals. On average, EM sections were found to be 138% more costly than corresponding abstract journals. The effects of splitting of EM journal titles were also analyzed. This practice increases the price of a total subscription to EM and makes comprehensive information retrieval more difficult. A survey of medical school librarians as users of EM points to dissatisfaction with its increasing price, particularly when it results from title splitting. PMID:843653

  12. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  13. An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.

    PubMed

    Collins, Katherine A; Clément, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.

  14. Outcomes after Stroke in Patients with Previous Pressure Ulcer: A Nationwide Matched Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shang-Yi; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hung, Chih-Jen; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with poststroke adverse events were not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stroke patients with previous pressure ulcers had more adverse events after stroke. Using the claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study matched by propensity score. Three thousand two first-ever stroke patients with previous pressure ulcer and 3002 first-ever stroke patients without pressure ulcer were investigated between 2002 and 2009. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of complications and 30-day mortality after stroke associated with previous pressure ulcer were calculated in the multivariate logistic regressions. Patients with pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than control for poststroke urinary tract infection (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.38-1.78), pneumonia (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.16-1.58), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.66), and epilepsy (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.83-1.85). Stroke patients with pressure ulcer had increased 30-day poststroke mortality (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.55-2.61), particularly in those treated with debridement (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.85-4.44) or high quantity of antibiotics (OR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.10-7.66). Pressure ulcer was associated with poststroke mortality in both genders and patients aged 60 years or older. This study showed increased poststroke complications and mortality in patients with previous pressure ulcer, which suggests the urgent need for monitoring stroke patients for pressure ulcer history. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrepancy between results and abstract conclusions in industry- vs nonindustry-funded studies comparing topical prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Alasbali, Tariq; Smith, Michael; Geffen, Noa; Trope, Graham E; Flanagan, John G; Jin, Yaping; Buys, Yvonne M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between industry- vs nonindustry-funded publications comparing the efficacy of topical prostaglandin analogs by evaluating the correspondence between the statistical significance of the publication's main outcome measure and its abstract conclusions. Retrospective, observational cohort study. English publications comparing the ocular hypotensive efficacy between any or all of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost were searched from the MEDLINE database. Each article was reviewed by three independent observers and was evaluated for source of funding, study quality, statistically significant main outcome measure, correspondence between results of main outcome measure and abstract conclusion, number of intraocular pressure outcomes compared, and journal impact factor. Funding was determined by published disclosure or, in cases of no documented disclosure, the corresponding author was contacted directly to confirm industry funding. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The main outcome measure was correspondence between abstract conclusion and reported statistical significance of the publications' main outcome measure. Thirty-nine publications were included, of which 29 were industry funded and 10 were nonindustry funded. The published abstract conclusion was not consistent with the results of the main outcome measure in 18 (62%) of 29 of the industry-funded studies compared with zero (0%) of 10 of the nonindustry-funded studies (P = .0006). Twenty-six (90%) of the industry-funded studies had proindustry abstract conclusions. Twenty-four percent of the industry-funded publications had a statistically significant main outcome measure; however, 90% of the industry-funded studies had proindustry abstract conclusions. Both readers and reviewers should scrutinize publications carefully to ensure that data support the authors' conclusions.

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics during processing of abstract and concrete verbs: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Gentilucci, Maurizio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Different accounts have been proposed to explain the nature of concept representations. Embodied accounts claim a key involvement of sensory-motor systems during semantic processing while more traditional accounts posit that concepts are abstract mental entities independent of perceptual and motor brain systems. While the involvement of sensory-motor areas in concrete language processing is supported by a large number of studies, this involvement is far from being established when considering abstract language. The present study addressed abstract and concrete verb processing, by investigating the spatiotemporal dynamics of evoked responses by means of high density EEG while participants performed a semantic decision task. In addition, RTs to the same set of stimuli were collected. In both early and late time intervals, ERP scalp topography significantly differed according to word categories. Concrete verbs showed involvement of parieto-frontal networks for action, according to the implied body effector. In contrast, abstract verbs recruited mostly frontal regions outside the motor system, suggesting a non-motor semantic processing for this category. In addition, differently from what has been reported during action observation, the parietal recruitment related to concrete verbs presentation followed the frontal one. The present findings suggest that action word semantic is grounded in sensory-motor systems, provided a bodily effector is specified, while abstract concepts׳ representation cannot be easily explained by a motor embodiment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. Volume 2. 1977 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.

    1979-12-01

    The cited reports of Federally-funded research are divided into two parts: namely, a chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, and general studies. The chemical analysis section deals primarily with activation analysis. Artifacts examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The general studies section discusses other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 128 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Burnout among rural hospital doctors in the Western Cape: Comparison with previous South African studies.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Andrew R; Coetzee Jnr, Johan F; Conradie, Hofmeyr H; Coetzee, Johan F

    2018-05-24

    Burnout among doctors negatively affects health systems and, ultimately,patient care. To determine the prevalence of burnout among doctors working in the district health system in the Overberg and Cape Winelands districts of the Western Cape Province and to compare the findings with those of previous South African studies. Rural district hospitals. During 2013, a validated questionnaire (Maslach Burnout Inventory) was sent to 42 doctors working in the district health system within the referral area of the Worcester Hospital, consisting of the Overberg health district and the eastern half of the Cape Winelands. Response rate was 85.7%. Clinically significant burnout was found among 81% of respondents. High levels of burnout on all three subscales were present in 31% of participants.Burnout rates were similar to those of a previous study conducted among doctors working in the Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality primary health care facilities. Scores for emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalisation (DP) were greater than those of a national survey;however, the score for personal accomplishment (PA) was greater. EE and PA scores weresimilar to that of a study of junior doctors working in the Red Cross Children's Hospital;however, EE was smaller. This study demonstrates high burnout rates among doctors working at district level hospitals, similar to the prevalence thereof in the Cape Town Metropolitan primary health care facilities. Health services planning should include strategies to address and prevent burnout of which adequate staffing and improved work environment are of prime importance.

  19. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a hierarchy of purposes for reading assignments applied to secondary school social studies; (2) the effects of sentence combining practice on reading comprehension; (3) the effects of…

  20. Quadrupole type mass spectrometric study of the abstraction reaction between hydrogen atoms and ethane.

    PubMed

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat

    2008-02-01

    The reactions of photochemically generated deuterium atoms of selected initial translational energy with ethane have been investigated. At each initial energy the relative probability of the atoms undergoing reaction or energy loss on collision with ethane was investigated, and the phenomenological threshold energy was measured as 30+/-5kJmol(-1) for the abstraction from the secondary C-H bonds. The ratio of relative yields per bond, secondary:primary was approximately 3 at the higher energies studied. The correlation of threshold energies with bond dissociation energies, heats of reaction and activation energies is discussed for abstraction reactions with several hydrocarbons.

  1. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  2. A Study of Interactional Metadiscourse in English Abstracts of Chinese Economics Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ping; Huang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    This study adopts the revised interpersonal model of metadiscourse to discover whether and to what extent Chinese authors employ a varying amount of Interactional Metadiscourse (IM) in the past decade in English abstracts of economics Research Articles (RAs). The data was drawn from a prestigious economics journal in China to compose a corpus of…

  3. The distribution of probability values in medical abstracts: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ginsel, Bastiaan; Aggarwal, Abhinav; Xuan, Wei; Harris, Ian

    2015-11-26

    A relatively high incidence of p values immediately below 0.05 (such as 0.047 or 0.04) compared to p values immediately above 0.05 (such as 0.051 or 0.06) has been noticed anecdotally in published medical abstracts. If p values immediately below 0.05 are over-represented, such a distribution may reflect the true underlying distribution of p values or may be due to error (a false distribution). If due to error, a consistent over-representation of p values immediately below 0.05 would be a systematic error due either to publication bias or (overt or inadvertent) bias within studies. We searched the Medline 2012 database to identify abstracts containing a p value. Two thousand abstracts out of 80,649 abstracts were randomly selected. Two independent researchers extracted all p values. The p values were plotted and compared to a predicted curve. Chi square test was used to test assumptions and significance was set at 0.05. 2798 p value ranges and 3236 exact p values were reported. 4973 of these (82%) were significant (<0.05). There was an over-representation of p values immediately below 0.05 (between 0.01 and 0.049) compared to those immediately above 0.05 (between 0.05 and 0.1) (p = 0.001). The distribution of p values in reported medical abstracts provides evidence for systematic error in the reporting of p values. This may be due to publication bias, methodological errors (underpowering, selective reporting and selective analyses) or fraud.

  4. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  5. Theoretical kinetics study of the F((2)P) + NH3 hydrogen abstraction reaction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Garcia, J; Fernandez-Ramos, A; Suleimanov, Y V; Corchado, J C

    2014-01-23

    The hydrogen abstraction reaction of fluorine with ammonia represents a true chemical challenge because it is very fast, is followed by secondary abstraction reactions, which are also extremely fast, and presents an experimental/theoretical controversy about rate coefficients. Using a previously developed full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface, we found that the F + NH3 → HF + NH2 system is a barrierless reaction with intermediate complexes in the entry and exit channels. In order to understand the reactivity of the title reaction, thermal rate coefficidents were calculated using two approaches: ring polymer molecular dynamics and quasi-classical trajectory calculations, and these were compared with available experimental data for the common temperature range 276-327 K. The theoretical results obtained show behavior practically independent of temperature, reproducing Walther-Wagner's experiment, but in contrast with Persky's more recent experiment. However, quantitatively, our results are 1 order of magnitude larger than those of Walther-Wagner and reasonably agree with the Persky at the lowest temperature, questioning so Walther-Wagner's older data. At present, the reason for this discrepancy is not clear, although we point out some possible reasons in the light of current theoretical calculations.

  6. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-03-27

    Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile. Finally, chronic hypercortisolism is known to impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aim to systematically investigate the neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities, as well as assess the HRQoL, in patients with previously diagnosed CD in a longitudinal fashion. In this longitudinal study, we will assess 20 patients with CD displaying biochemical control 24 months after recruitment in the initial cross-sectional study (n=80). This will be a mixed cohort including patients after surgical, after radiation therapy and/or under current medical treatment for CD. Primary outcomes include changes in mean urinary free cortisol and changes in specific pain patterns. Secondary/exploratory neuropsychiatric domains include depression, anxiety, personality, sleep, body image and quality of life. Secondary/exploratory cardiometabolic domains include anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and insulin resistance. Additional domains will be investigated if warranted by clinical indication. Safety assessment under medical therapy will include liver enzymes, ECG abnormalities and hyperglycaemia. Risk of damage from study-conditioned measures is very small and considered ethically justified. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may call for detailed fracture risk assessment. However, the radiation dose is very small and only administered on clinical indication; therefore, it is considered ethically justified. This protocol

  7. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile. Finally, chronic hypercortisolism is known to impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aim to systematically investigate the neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities, as well as assess the HRQoL, in patients with previously diagnosed CD in a longitudinal fashion. Methods and analysis In this longitudinal study, we will assess 20 patients with CD displaying biochemical control 24 months after recruitment in the initial cross-sectional study (n=80). This will be a mixed cohort including patients after surgical, after radiation therapy and/or under current medical treatment for CD. Primary outcomes include changes in mean urinary free cortisol and changes in specific pain patterns. Secondary/exploratory neuropsychiatric domains include depression, anxiety, personality, sleep, body image and quality of life. Secondary/exploratory cardiometabolic domains include anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and insulin resistance. Additional domains will be investigated if warranted by clinical indication. Safety assessment under medical therapy will include liver enzymes, ECG abnormalities and hyperglycaemia. Ethics and dissemination Risk of damage from study-conditioned measures is very small and considered ethically justified. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry may call for detailed fracture risk assessment. However, the radiation dose is very small and only administered on clinical indication

  8. Theoretical study of the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen abstractions from hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Aäron G; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B

    2007-11-22

    Thermochemical and kinetic data were calculated at four cost-effective levels of theory for a set consisting of five hydrogen abstraction reactions between hydrocarbons for which experimental data are available. The selection of a reliable, yet cost-effective method to study this type of reactions for a broad range of applications was done on the basis of comparison with experimental data or with results obtained from computationally demanding high level of theory calculations. For this benchmark study two composite methods (CBS-QB3 and G3B3) and two density functional theory (DFT) methods, MPW1PW91/6-311G(2d,d,p) and BMK/6-311G(2d,d,p), were selected. All four methods succeeded well in describing the thermochemical properties of the five studied hydrogen abstraction reactions. High-level Weizmann-1 (W1) calculations indicated that CBS-QB3 succeeds in predicting the most accurate reaction barrier for the hydrogen abstraction of methane by methyl but tends to underestimate the reaction barriers for reactions where spin contamination is observed in the transition state. Experimental rate coefficients were most accurately predicted with CBS-QB3. Therefore, CBS-QB3 was selected to investigate the influence of both the 1D hindered internal rotor treatment about the forming bond (1D-HR) and tunneling on the rate coefficients for a set of 21 hydrogen abstraction reactions. Three zero curvature tunneling (ZCT) methods were evaluated (Wigner, Skodje & Truhlar, Eckart). As the computationally more demanding centrifugal dominant small curvature semiclassical (CD-SCS) tunneling method did not yield significantly better agreement with experiment compared to the ZCT methods, CD-SCS tunneling contributions were only assessed for the hydrogen abstractions by methyl from methane and ethane. The best agreement with experimental rate coefficients was found when Eckart tunneling and 1D-HR corrections were applied. A mean deviation of a factor 6 on the rate coefficients is found for

  9. A systematic review of titles and abstracts of experimental studies in medical education: many informative elements missing.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Beckman, Thomas J; Bordage, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Informative titles and abstracts facilitate reading and searching the literature. To evaluate the quality of titles and abstracts of full-length reports of experimental studies in medical education. We used a random sample of 110 articles (of 185 eligible articles) describing education experiments. Articles were published in 2003 and 2004 in Academic Medicine, Advances in Health Sciences Education, American Journal of Surgery, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Medical Education and Teaching and Learning in Medicine. Titles were categorised as informative, indicative, neither, or both. Abstracts were evaluated for the presence of a rationale, objective, descriptions of study design, setting, participants, study intervention and comparison group, main outcomes, results and conclusions. Of the 105 articles suitable for review, 86 (82%) had an indicative title and 10 (10%) had a title that was both indicative and informative. A rationale was present in 66 abstracts (63%), objectives were present in 84 (80%), descriptions of study design in 20 (19%), setting in 29 (28%), and number and stage of training of participants in 42 (40%). The study intervention was defined in 55 (52%) abstracts. Among the 48 studies with a control or comparison group, this group was defined in 21 abstracts (44%). Study outcomes were defined in 64 abstracts (61%). Data were presented in 48 (46%) abstracts. Conclusions were presented in 97 abstracts (92%). Reports of experimental studies in medical education frequently lack the essential elements of informative titles and abstracts. More informative reporting is needed.

  10. Phase 2 study of ABT-510 in patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ebbinghaus, Scot; Hussain, Maha; Tannir, Nizar; Gordon, Michael; Desai, Apurva A; Knight, Raymond A; Humerickhouse, Rod A; Qian, Jiang; Gordon, Gary B; Figlin, Robert

    2007-11-15

    Angiogenesis is a characteristic of renal cell carcinoma. ABT-510 is an angiogenesis inhibitor that mimics the antiangiogenic properties of thrombospondin-1. This study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of ABT-510 in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable renal cell carcinoma were randomized to treatment with one of two doses of ABT-510, self-administered s.c. twice daily in 28-day treatment periods without intervening rest periods. End points were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate, overall survival, and toxicity. The objective response rate was 4% in the 10 mg twice daily group, and there were two unconfirmed PRs in the 100 mg twice daily group. Respective median PFS was 4.2 and 3.3 months, with a 6-month PFS of 39% and 32%. Median overall survival was 27.8 months (10 mg twice daily) and 26.1 months (100 mg twice daily). The most frequent adverse events were injection site reactions (84%), fatigue (50%), headache (20%), and nausea (19%). The incidence of treatment-related, grade 3/4 adverse events was low and included three bleeding episodes (gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, and hemoptysis) and one thrombotic event (deep vein thrombosis). No deaths were attributed to ABT-510. There was little evidence of clinical activity for ABT-510, and further evaluation as a single agent for treating advanced renal cell carcinoma is not warranted. The evidence of a favorable safety profile may justify further evaluation in combination therapy.

  11. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Model studies of hydrogen atom addition and abstraction processes involving ortho-, meta-, and para-benzynes.

    PubMed

    Clark, A E; Davidson, E R

    2001-10-31

    and S1 early in the reaction coordinate. Because the S1 state is best described as the combination of the triplet X-H bond and the triplet H(B)...H(C) spin couplings, the activation barrier along the S0 abstraction PES will have much less dependence on the DeltaE(ST) of H(B)...H(C) than previously speculated. For similar reasons, the T1 potential surface is quite comparable to the S0 PES.

  13. Abstract probabilistic CNOT gate model based on double encoding: study of the errors and physical realizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueddana, Amor; Attia, Moez; Chatta, Rihab

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we study the error sources standing behind the non-perfect linear optical quantum components composing a non-deterministic quantum CNOT gate model, which performs the CNOT function with a success probability of 4/27 and uses a double encoding technique to represent photonic qubits at the control and the target. We generalize this model to an abstract probabilistic CNOT version and determine the realizability limits depending on a realistic range of the errors. Finally, we discuss physical constraints allowing the implementation of the Asymmetric Partially Polarizing Beam Splitter (APPBS), which is at the heart of correctly realizing the CNOT function.

  14. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disciplinarity and sport science in Europe: A statistical and sociological study of ECSS conference abstracts.

    PubMed

    Champely, Stéphane; Fargier, Patrick; Camy, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Abstracts of European College of Sports Science conferences (1995-2014) are studied. The number of abstracts has been increasing regularly (+90 per year). This rise is in recent years largely due to extra-European countries. The magnitude and accumulation of the different topics of discussion are examined. An operational criterion determines four stages of evolution of a topic: social network, cluster, specialty, and discipline. The scientific production can, therefore, be classified as disciplinary or non-disciplinary. The disciplinary part is more important but has been less dynamic recently. The cognitive content of sport science is then explored through a multidimensional scaling of the topics based on the keywords used in the abstracts. Three areas are visible: social sciences and humanities, sports medicine and physiology, and biomechanics and neurophysiology. According to the field theory of Bourdieu ( 1975 ), three scientific habitus are distinguished. The logic of academic disciplinary excellence is the consequence of the autonomy of this scientific field, its closure, peer-review process, and barriers to entry. The distribution of scientific capital and professional capital is unequal across the three areas. Basically, conservation strategies of academic disciplinary excellence are predicted in biomechanics and neurophysiology, subversion strategies of interdisciplinarity based on professional concerns can appear in the sports medicine and physiology area, and critical strategies of interdisciplinarity based on social utility in social sciences and humanities. Moreover, additional tensions within these areas are depicted. Lastly methods based on co-citations of disciplines and boundary objects are proposed to find tangible patterns of multidisciplinarity confirming these strategies.

  16. Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning--analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007)]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of…

  17. Theoretical study of the kinetics of chlorine atom abstraction from chloromethanes by atomic chlorine.

    PubMed

    Brudnik, Katarzyna; Twarda, Maria; Sarzyński, Dariusz; Jodkowski, Jerzy T

    2013-10-01

    Ab initio calculations at the G3 level were used in a theoretical description of the kinetics and mechanism of the chlorine abstraction reactions from mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-chloromethane by chlorine atoms. The calculated profiles of the potential energy surface of the reaction systems show that the mechanism of the studied reactions is complex and the Cl-abstraction proceeds via the formation of intermediate complexes. The multi-step reaction mechanism consists of two elementary steps in the case of CCl4 + Cl, and three for the other reactions. Rate constants were calculated using the theoretical method based on the RRKM theory and the simplified version of the statistical adiabatic channel model. The temperature dependencies of the calculated rate constants can be expressed, in temperature range of 200-3,000 K as [Formula: see text]. The rate constants for the reverse reactions CH3/CH2Cl/CHCl2/CCl3 + Cl2 were calculated via the equilibrium constants derived theoretically. The kinetic equations [Formula: see text] allow a very good description of the reaction kinetics. The derived expressions are a substantial supplement to the kinetic data necessary to describe and model the complex gas-phase reactions of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry.

  18. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  20. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; De Bono, Johann; Sternberg, Cora; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Oudard, Stéphane; De Giorgi, Ugo; Krainer, Michael; Bergman, Andries; Hoelzer, Wolfgang; De Wit, Ronald; Bögemann, Martin; Saad, Fred; Cruciani, Giorgio; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Feyerabend, Susan; Miller, Kurt; Houédé, Nadine; Hussain, Syed; Lam, Elaine; Polikoff, Jonathan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Mainwaring, Paul; Ramies, David; Hessel, Colin; Weitzman, Aaron; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of kinases, including MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and has shown activity in men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This blinded phase III trial compared cabozantinib with prednisone in patients with mCRPC. Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to cabozantinib 60 mg once per day or prednisone 5 mg twice per day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Bone scan response (BSR) at week 12 as assessed by independent review committee was the secondary end point; radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and effects on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), bone biomarkers, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) were exploratory assessments. A total of 1,028 patients were randomly assigned to cabozantinib (n = 682) or prednisone (n = 346). Median OS was 11.0 months with cabozantinib and 9.8 months with prednisone (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06; stratified log-rank P = .213). BSR at week 12 favored cabozantinib (42% v 3%; stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P < .001). rPFS was improved in the cabozantinib group (median, 5.6 v 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.57; stratified log-rank P < .001). Cabozantinib was associated with improvements in CTC conversion, bone biomarkers, and post-random assignment incidence of SSEs but not PSA outcomes. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were higher with cabozantinib than with prednisone (71% v 56% and 33% v 12%, respectively). Cabozantinib did not significantly improve OS compared with prednisone in heavily treated patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. Cabozantinib had some activity in improving BSR, rPFS, SSEs, CTC conversions, and bone biomarkers but not PSA outcomes. © 2016 by

  1. A study of understanding: Alchemy, abstraction, and circulating reference in tertiary science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Brett W.

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an empirical study of the concept of understanding. After analyzing various constructions of understanding in current U.S. education literature, I suggest that understanding is defined by five distinct features---they are knowledge (or knowledge base), coherence, transfer, extrapolation, and cognition--- and that these features are heavily informed and shaped by the psychological sciences. This relationship is neither good nor bad, I argue, but it means that teaching for and learning with understanding are not heavily informed and shaped by, for example, the natural sciences. Drawing from historical, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives of science, but especially from the work of Bruno Latour, I enact a radical revision(ing) of psychological notions such as "abstraction" and "transfer." The two main purposes of this re-visioning are (1) to draw critical attention to particular characteristics of a cognitive learning theory that emphasizes abstract concepts, and (2) to align many of the principles and tools used in science education more closely with those used in empirical scientific research. Finally, by bringing some examples of teaching and learning from an undergraduate biology classroom into conversation with both psychological and empirical practices and perspectives, I suggest that problematizing the current construction of understanding creates much needed room in mainstream science education for more empirical forms of learning and styles of teaching. A shift to such forms and styles, I conclude, should prove to be more inclusive and less constraining for both students and teachers.

  2. Conference presentation to publication: a retrospective study evaluating quality of abstracts and journal articles in medical education research.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Christopher R; Vaa, Brianna E; Wang, Amy T; Schroeder, Darrell R; Beckman, Thomas J; Reed, Darcy A; Sawatsky, Adam P

    2017-11-09

    There is little evidence regarding the comparative quality of abstracts and articles in medical education research. The Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI), which was developed to evaluate the quality of reporting in medical education, has strong validity evidence for content, internal structure, and relationships to other variables. We used the MERSQI to compare the quality of reporting for conference abstracts, journal abstracts, and published articles. This is a retrospective study of all 46 medical education research abstracts submitted to the Society of General Internal Medicine 2009 Annual Meeting that were subsequently published in a peer-reviewed journal. We compared MERSQI scores of the abstracts with scores for their corresponding published journal abstracts and articles. Comparisons were performed using the signed rank test. Overall MERSQI scores increased significantly for published articles compared with conference abstracts (11.33 vs 9.67; P < .001) and journal abstracts (11.33 vs 9.96; P < .001). Regarding MERSQI subscales, published articles had higher MERSQI scores than conference abstracts in the domains of sampling (1.59 vs 1.34; P = .006), data analysis (3.00 vs 2.43; P < .001), and validity of evaluation instrument (1.04 vs 0.28; P < .001). Published articles also had higher MERSQI scores than journal abstracts in the domains of data analysis (3.00 vs 2.70; P = .004) and validity of evaluation instrument (1.04 vs 0.26; P < .001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the quality of medical education abstracts and journal articles using the MERSQI. Overall, the quality of articles was greater than that of abstracts. However, there were no significant differences between abstracts and articles for the domains of study design and outcomes, which indicates that these MERSQI elements may be applicable to abstracts. Findings also suggest that abstract quality is generally preserved

  3. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  4. Replication of Previous Genome-wide Association Studies of Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Koller, Daniel L; Padgett, Leah R; Lai, Dongbing; Hui, Siu L; Peacock, Munro; Foroud, Tatiana; Econs, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) achieved during young adulthood (peak BMD) is one of the major determinants of osteoporotic fracture in later life. Genetic variants associated with BMD have been identified by three recent genome-wide association studies. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these studies were genotyped to test whether they were associated with peak BMD in premenopausal American women. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in two groups of premenopausal women: 1524 white women and 512 black women. In premenopausal white women, two SNPs in the C6orf97/ESR1 region were significantly associated with BMD (p < 4.8 × 10−4), with suggestive evidence for CTNNBL1 and LRP5 (p < .01). Evidence of association with one of the two SNPs in the C6orf97/ESR1 region also was observed in premenopausal black women. Furthermore, SNPs in SP7 and a chromosome 4 intergenic region showed suggestive association with BMD in black women. Detailed analyses of additional SNPs in the C6orf97/ESR1 region revealed multiple genomic blocks independently associated with femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD. Findings in the three published genome-wide association studies were replicated in independent samples of premenopausal American women, suggesting that genetic variants in these genes or regions contribute to peak BMD in healthy women in various populations. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200978

  5. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies.

    PubMed

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals' languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual's languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual's both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study.

  6. Identification and description of the momentum effect in studies of learning: An abstract science concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Sool; Mayer, Victor J.

    Several studies of the validity of the intensive time series design have revealed a post-intervention increase in the level of achievement data. This so called momentum effect has not been demonstrated through the application of an appropriate analysis technique. The purpose of this study was to identify and apply a technique that would adequately represent and describe such an effect if indeed it does occur, and to use that technique to study the momentum effect as it is observed in several data sets on the learning of the concept of plate tectonics. Subsequent to trials of several different analyses, a segmented straight line regression analysis was chosen and used on three different data sets. Each set revealed similar patterns of inflection points between lines with similar time intervals between inflections for those data from students with formal cognitive tendencies. These results seem to indicate that this method will indeed be useful in representing and identifying the presence and duration of the momentum effect in time series data on achievement. Since the momentum effect could be described in each of the data sets and since its presence seems a function of similar circumstances, support is given for its presence in the learning of abstract scientific concepts for formal cognitive tendency students. The results indicate that the duration of the momentum effect is related to the level of student understanding tested and the cognitive level of the learners.

  7. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at themore » production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.« less

  8. The burden of previous fractures in hip fracture patients. The Break Study.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Gandolini, Giorgio; Cisari, Carlo; Rossini, Maurizio; Iolascon, Giovanni; Mauro, Giulia Letizia; Nuti, Ranuccio; Crepaldi, Gaetano

    2011-06-01

    A positive history of fractures in older patients with hip fracture is common. We determined the risk factors associated with a positive history of fractures and the profile of care in hip fracture patients. In the Break Study, we enrolled 1249 women aged ≥60 years, seeking care for a hip fracture. Baseline information included age, body mass index, lifestyle (smoking habit, alcohol consumption), patient's history of fracture after the age of 50 years, family history of fragility fracture and health status (presence of comorbidity, use of specific drugs, pre-fracture walking ability, type of fracture, time to surgery, type of surgery, osteoporosis treatment). In the multivariable model age, smoking, family history, treatment with antiplatelet, anticoagulants and anticonvulsants, were significant predictors of a positive history of fracture. More than 70% of patients underwent surgery more than 48 hours after admission. About 50% were discharged with a treatment for osteoporosis, but more than 30% only with calcium and vitamin D. In conclusion, factors associated with a positive history of fracture are the traditional risk factors, suggesting that they continue to have a negative impact on health even at older ages. Selected drugs, such as antiplatelet and anticoagulants, deserve further consideration as significant factors associated with fractures. Given that delay in surgery is a major cause of mortality and disability, while treatment for osteoporosis decreases significantly the risk of recurrent fractures and disability, interventions to modify these patterns of care are urgently needed.

  9. Coding of obesity in administrative hospital discharge abstract data: accuracy and impact for future research studies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Billie-Jean; Chen, Guanmin; Graham, Michelle; Quan, Hude

    2014-02-13

    Obesity is a pervasive problem and a popular subject of academic assessment. The ability to take advantage of existing data, such as administrative databases, to study obesity is appealing. The objective of our study was to assess the validity of obesity coding in an administrative database and compare the association between obesity and outcomes in an administrative database versus registry. This study was conducted using a coronary catheterization registry and an administrative database (Discharge Abstract Database (DAD)). A Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 within the registry defined obesity. In the DAD obesity was defined by diagnosis codes E65-E68 (ICD-10). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) of an obesity diagnosis in the DAD was determined using obesity diagnosis in the registry as the referent. The association between obesity and outcomes was assessed. The study population of 17380 subjects was largely male (68.8%) with a mean BMI of 27.0 kg/m2. Obesity prevalence was lower in the DAD than registry (2.4% vs. 20.3%). A diagnosis of obesity in the DAD had a sensitivity 7.75%, specificity 98.98%, NPV 80.84% and PPV 65.94%. Obesity was associated with decreased risk of death or re-hospitalization, though non-significantly within the DAD. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiac procedure in both databases. Overall, obesity was poorly coded in the DAD. However, when coded, it was coded accurately. Administrative databases are not an optimal datasource for obesity prevalence and incidence surveillance but could be used to define obese cohorts for follow-up.

  10. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  11. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  12. A theoretical and shock tube kinetic study on hydrogen abstraction from phenyl formate.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hongbo; Liu, Dapeng; Wu, Junjun; Ma, Liuhao; Ren, Wei; Farooq, Aamir

    2018-06-12

    The hydrogen abstraction reactions of phenyl formate (PF) by different radicals (H/O(3P)/OH/HO2) were theoretically investigated. We calculated the reaction energetics for PF + H/O/OH using the composite method ROCBS-QB3//M06-2X/cc-pVTZ and that for PF + HO2 at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The high-pressure limit rate constants were calculated using the transition state theory in conjunction with the 1-D hindered rotor approximation and tunneling correction. Three-parameter Arrhenius expressions of rate constants were provided over the temperature range of 500-2000 K. To validate the theoretical calculations, the overall rate constants of PF + OH → Products were measured in shock tube experiments at 968-1128 K and 1.16-1.25 atm using OH laser absorption. The predicted overall rate constants agree well with the shock tube data (within 15%) over the entire experimental conditions. Rate constant analysis indicates that the H-abstraction at the formic acid site dominates the PF consumption, whereas the contribution of H-abstractions at the aromatic ring increases with temperature. Additionally, comparisons of site-specific H-abstractions from PF with methyl formate, ethyl formate, benzene, and toluene were performed to understand the effects of the aromatic ring and side-chain substituent on H-abstraction rate constants.

  13. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  14. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) an inductive method for teaching three skills necessary for reading narrative fiction; (2) the use of reading strategies in secondary level content area classrooms; (3) seventh grade…

  15. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Preschool and Elementary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 53 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) instructional procedures for teaching word meanings; (2) readability; (3) reading acquisition; (4) the relation of word deprivation to reading in elementary…

  16. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Preschool and Elementary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) inferential questions in four basal readers; (2) reading instruction in an effective school setting; (3) the social-emotional dimension of teacher-student…

  17. Using ClinicalTrials.gov to supplement information in ophthalmology conference abstracts about trial outcomes: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Roberta W; Huynh, Lynn; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Including results from unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a systematic review may ameliorate the effect of publication bias in systematic review results. Unpublished RCTs are sometimes described in abstracts presented at conferences, included in trials registers, or both. Trial results may not be available in a trials register and abstracts describing RCT results often lack study design information. Complementary information from a trials register record may be sufficient to allow reliable inclusion of an unpublished RCT only available as an abstract in a systematic review. We identified 496 abstracts describing RCTs presented at the 2007 to 2009 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) meetings; 154 RCTs were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two persons extracted verbatim primary and non-primary outcomes reported in the abstract and ClinicalTrials.gov record. We compared each abstract outcome with all ClinicalTrials.gov outcomes and coded matches as complete, partial, or no match. We identified 800 outcomes in 152 abstracts (95 primary [51 abstracts] and 705 [141 abstracts] non-primary outcomes). No outcomes were reported in 2 abstracts. Of 95 primary outcomes, 17 (18%) agreed completely, 53 (56%) partially, and 25 (26%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among 705 non-primary outcomes, 56 (8%) agreed completely, 205 (29%) agreed partially, and 444 (63%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among the 258 outcomes partially agreeing, we found additional information on the time when the outcome was measured more often in ClinicalTrials.gov than in the abstract (141/258 (55%) versus 55/258 (21%)). We found no association between the presence of non-matching "new" outcomes and year of registration, time to registry update, industry sponsorship, or multi-center status. Conference abstracts may be a valuable source of information about results for outcomes of

  18. Using ClinicalTrials.gov to Supplement Information in Ophthalmology Conference Abstracts about Trial Outcomes: A Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Roberta W.; Huynh, Lynn; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background Including results from unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a systematic review may ameliorate the effect of publication bias in systematic review results. Unpublished RCTs are sometimes described in abstracts presented at conferences, included in trials registers, or both. Trial results may not be available in a trials register and abstracts describing RCT results often lack study design information. Complementary information from a trials register record may be sufficient to allow reliable inclusion of an unpublished RCT only available as an abstract in a systematic review. Methods We identified 496 abstracts describing RCTs presented at the 2007 to 2009 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) meetings; 154 RCTs were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two persons extracted verbatim primary and non-primary outcomes reported in the abstract and ClinicalTrials.gov record. We compared each abstract outcome with all ClinicalTrials.gov outcomes and coded matches as complete, partial, or no match. Results We identified 800 outcomes in 152 abstracts (95 primary [51 abstracts] and 705 [141 abstracts] non-primary outcomes). No outcomes were reported in 2 abstracts. Of 95 primary outcomes, 17 (18%) agreed completely, 53 (56%) partially, and 25 (26%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among 705 non-primary outcomes, 56 (8%) agreed completely, 205 (29%) agreed partially, and 444 (63%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among the 258 outcomes partially agreeing, we found additional information on the time when the outcome was measured more often in ClinicalTrials.gov than in the abstract (141/258 (55%) versus 55/258 (21%)). We found no association between the presence of non-matching “new” outcomes and year of registration, time to registry update, industry sponsorship, or multi-center status. Conclusion Conference abstracts may be a valuable source of

  19. For Example? A Philosophical Case Study of Some Problems When Abstract Educational Theory Ignores Concrete Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    In Philosophy of Education we frequently argue for or against different educational theories. Yet, as I illustrate in this analysis of two articles, in order to maintain the abstract theoretical distinctions, we are liable to ignore the concrete details of practice, caricature the theories we reject and make false distinctions. The two articles…

  20. Developmental Changes in Visual Scanning of Dynamic Faces and Abstract Stimuli in Infants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Geuze, Reint H.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an abstract stimulus. Results indicated that the way…

  1. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  2. Study for the quality assessment of abstracts presented to Italian public health national conferences: a six years survey.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, S; Colombo, A; D'Errico, R; Bert, F; Siliquini, R; Ceruti, M; Curti, S; Gaietta, M; Garavelli, E; Legouellec, L; Lovato, E; Martinese, M; Visco, F

    2013-01-01

    Oral and poster presentations at congresses are essential to spread scientific knowledge among the medical community. Many scientific societies have analyzed the quality of papers presented at their meetings but no information on abstracts' evaluation has been presented in Public Health field. This study aims to examine the quality of abstracts presented at annual meetings of Italian Public Health Society (SItI) in the period 2005-2010 through a validated checklist grid, evaluating eight dimensions: Inherency, Structure, Originality, Objectives, Study design, Sources, Results, Conclusions. Each item was scored from 0 to 3 points (max score: 24) and we used the average score in our study (15) as threshold of good quality. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to investigate predictors of score of abstracts presented. A total of 4,399 abstracts (1,172 oral communications, 3,227 posters) was examined. Around 60% were submitted by Universities and around 40% were from Central Italy. The highest quality was found in the fields of Vaccines (average score 18.9), Infectious Diseases (18) and in abstracts submitted by Universities (16.4). Predictors of lower quality identified were geographical area and affiliation (p= 0.002). Abstracts containing well-written Results, Conclusions and Objectives (3 points) were more likely to be of high quality(OR=55.6, OR=41.9, and OR=157.4; p>0.001) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first European study evaluating the quality of abstracts in the public health field. A reliable evaluation tool is fundamental to offer a transparent methodology of assessment and to improve the quality of research.

  3. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  4. Designing Studies of Extension Program Results: A Resource for Program Leaders and Specialists. Volume II--Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M., Ed.; And Others

    These abstracts of 42 studies of extension program results, which make up the second volume of a two-volume resource, are intended to advise state administrative program leaders and others with program evaluation responsibilities of how to design studies of cooperative extension programs. Designed to support volume I, which refers to these…

  5. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  6. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  7. Risk of retained placenta in women previously delivered by caesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, J; Cnattingius, S; Mulic-Lutvica, A; Eurenius, K; Axelsson, O; Wikström, A K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether women with a caesarean section at their first delivery have an increased risk of retained placenta at their second delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All women with their first and second singleton deliveries in Sweden during the years 1994-2006 (n = 258,608). Women with caesarean section or placental abruption in their second pregnancy were not included in the study population. The risk of retained placenta at second delivery was estimated for women with a first delivery by caesarean section (n = 19,458), using women with a first vaginal delivery as reference (n = 239,150). Risks were calculated as odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (95%) after adjustments for maternal, delivery, and infant characteristics. Retained placenta with normal (≤1000 ml) and heavy (>1000 ml) bleeding. The overall rate of retained placenta was 2.07%. In women with a previous caesarean section and in women with previous vaginal delivery, the corresponding rates were 3.44% and 1.96%, respectively. Compared with women with a previous vaginal delivery, women with a previous caesarean section had an increased risk of retained placenta (adjusted OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.32-1.59), and the association was more pronounced for retained placenta with heavy bleeding (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.44-1.79). Our report shows an increased risk for retained placenta in women previously delivered by caesarean section, a finding that should be considered in discussions of mode of delivery. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. Volume 3. 1978-November 1979 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1978-November 79

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.

    1979-12-01

    These citations of federally-funded research are divided into two parts; namely, a chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, and general studies. The chemical analysis section deals primarily with activation analysis. Articles examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The general studies section cites other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 237 abstracts, 149 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. volume 2. 1977-november, 1978 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1977-Nov 78

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1978-11-01

    These citations of Federally-funded research are divided into two parts; namely, a chemical analysis of archaeological specimens, and general studies. The chemical analysis section deals primarily with activation analysis. Articles examined include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan and prehistoric times. The general studies section cites other archaeological research, including results of excavation from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for the site location. (This updated bibliography contains 209 abstracts, 141 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Abstract: Correlation of Mössbauer studies on Metglas 2605 alloys with magnetomechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, C. A.; Methaseri, T.; Clark, A. E.; Savage, H. T.

    1982-03-01

    The present work correlates the direction and spread of the magnetization measured by 57Fe Mössbauer absorption with the magnetoelastic coupling factor k for amorphous field-annealed ribbons of the 2605 Metglas family: 2605Co and 2605SC with k = 0.71 and ≳0.9, respectively. The absorption line intensities measured for different orientations of the ribbons relative to the γ-rays allow us to determine the direction of M relative to the ribbon. In particular, the component of the magnetization in the direction of the annealing field ma is maximum for the same annealing temperatures (360 °C for 2605Co and 400 °C for 2605SC) that induce the maximum coupling coefficient. In both cases the in-plane magnetization is maximum along the direction of the annealing field, and ma is as high as 0.95 for 2605SC, while it is 0.75 for 2605Co, thus indicating that the overall spread of magnetization directions in the sample is quite small for the SC ribbon. This implies that the dependence of k on bias field can be understood in terms of a simple moment-rotation model. In studying the effect of higher annealing temperatures, the Mössbauer spectra also show that, for SC ribbons, surface crystallization is produced near 420 °C followed by bulk crystallization near 440 °C, whereas for CO ribbons, bulk crystallization is first observed at 370 °C. In both cases the correlation between the decrease in k and the onset of either surface on bulk crystallization is clear. In addition to the previous results on k, a direct determination of (1-k2) is independently performed by using frequency-dependent ac susceptibility measurements in the range between 1 kHz (constant stress regime) and 1 MHz (near constant strain regime). Although the high-frequency side of the data requires accurate corrections for Eddy-current losses, the kCo and kSC values so far determined are 0.7 and 0.92, respectively. a)Metglas is a registered trademark of the Allied Chemical Corporation. b)Associated with

  11. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  12. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  13. Changes in Association between Previous Therapeutic Abortion and Preterm Birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliver-Williams, Clare; Fleming, Michael; Monteath, Kirsten; Wood, Angela M.; Smith, Gordon C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion) is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008. Methods and Findings We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk), adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09–1.16]). When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980–1983 (1.32 [1.21–1.43]), progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000–2003 (0.98 [0.91–1.05]) or 2004–2008 (1.02 [0.95–1.09]). A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992–2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%. Conclusions Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related

  14. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Williams, Clare; Fleming, Michael; Monteath, Kirsten; Wood, Angela M; Smith, Gordon C S

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion) is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008. We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk), adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]). When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43]), progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05]) or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]). A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%. Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on the method

  15. Postpartum education and lifestyle changes for preventing type 2 diabetes in Turkish women with previous gestational diabetes: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Aluş Tokat, Merlinda; Sancı, Muzafer; Girgeç, Semra; Kulhan, Nur Gözde; Özcan, Çiler Yeygel

    2016-10-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have at least sevenfold increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes compared with non-GDM mothers. The risk can be decreased by self-care measures. The aim of this study was to explore the postpartum education and lifestyle changes of Turkish women with previous GDM. This was a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 111 women who had given birth within the previous 3-4 years were interviewed by telephone between December 2013 and April 2014. The 83.8% of the women with GDM had not received education related to exercise, while 40.5% received no education regarding the importance of diet. More importantly, while 68.5% had been informed about testing blood glucose levels postpartum, a large majority, 69.3%, did not know for how long they would have had to continue testing their glucose levels. However, 31.3% of those who monitored their glucose levels had glucose intolerance. In terms of lifestyle changes, less than half of the women, 48.6%, had made changes in their diet and the majority, 51.4%, were inactive. Women need access to sustained education and supportive counselling both to motivate and to minimize the risk of type 2 diabetes after GDM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Placental location, postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in women with a previous cesarean section delivery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Johanna; Eurenius, Karin; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Axelsson, Ove

    2017-08-01

    Women previously giving birth with cesarean section have an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and retained placenta. The objective of this study was to determine if anterior placental location increased the risk of PPH and retained placenta in such women. We performed a prospective cohort study on 400 women with cesarean section delivery in a previous pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed at gestational week 28-30, and placental location, myometrial thickness, and three-dimensional vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Data on maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, gestational week at delivery, induction, delivery mode, oxytocin, preeclampsia, PPH, retained placenta, and birth weight were obtained for all women. Outcome measures were PPH (≥1,000 mL) and retained placenta. The overall incidence of PPH was 11.0% and of retained placenta 3.5%. Twenty-three women (11.8%) with anterior placenta had PPH compared to 12 (6.9%) with posterior or fundal locations. The odds ratio was 1.94, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant risk increase for retained placenta in women with anterior placentae. Seven of eight women with placenta previa had PPH, and four had retained placenta. The overall risk of PPH and retained placenta was high for women with previous cesarean section. Anterior location of the placenta in such women tended to impose an increased risk for PPH but no risk increase of retained placenta. Placenta previa in women with previous cesarean section is associated with a high risk for PPH and retained placenta.

  17. Placental location, postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in women with a previous cesarean section delivery: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Johanna; Eurenius, Karin; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Axelsson, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Objective Women previously giving birth with cesarean section have an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and retained placenta. The objective of this study was to determine if anterior placental location increased the risk of PPH and retained placenta in such women. Materials and methods We performed a prospective cohort study on 400 women with cesarean section delivery in a previous pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed at gestational week 28–30, and placental location, myometrial thickness, and three-dimensional vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Data on maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, gestational week at delivery, induction, delivery mode, oxytocin, preeclampsia, PPH, retained placenta, and birth weight were obtained for all women. Outcome measures were PPH (≥1,000 mL) and retained placenta. Results The overall incidence of PPH was 11.0% and of retained placenta 3.5%. Twenty-three women (11.8%) with anterior placenta had PPH compared to 12 (6.9%) with posterior or fundal locations. The odds ratio was 1.94, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant risk increase for retained placenta in women with anterior placentae. Seven of eight women with placenta previa had PPH, and four had retained placenta. Conclusions The overall risk of PPH and retained placenta was high for women with previous cesarean section. Anterior location of the placenta in such women tended to impose an increased risk for PPH but no risk increase of retained placenta. Placenta previa in women with previous cesarean section is associated with a high risk for PPH and retained placenta. PMID:28826360

  18. Archaeology: site studies, activation analysis, preservation, and remote sensing. volume 1. 1964-1976 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-1976

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1978-11-01

    This bibliography was prepared in order to bring together Federally-funded research relating to archaeology. It is divided into two sections. The first deals with the chemical analysis of archaeological specimens primarily using activation analysis. Articles studied include metals, pottery, coins, paintings, soils, glass, and paper from Medieval, Grecian, Egyptian, Mayan, and prehistoric times. The second section cites other archaeological research, including results of excavations from the United States. Also covered is work on preservation of artifacts and remote sensing for site location. (This updated bibliography contains 137 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Youth suicide: an insight into previous hospitalisation for injury and sociodemographic conditions from a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Francesco; Laflamme, Lucie; Spolaore, Paolo; Visentin, Cristiana; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent is a risk of subsequent youth suicide and whether this association is influenced by family socioeconomic status or economic stress. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted covering all Swedish subjects born between January 1977 and December 1991 (N=1,616,342, male/female ratio=1.05). The cohort subjects were followed-up from January 1998 to December 2003, when aged 7-26 years. Poisson regression and the likelihood ratio test (95% CI) were used to assess the age-adjusted effect of hospitalisation for injuries of various intent on youth suicide and its effect once adjusted for family sociodemographic and social circumstances. Each set of exposures was associated independently and significantly with suicide mortality. Being hospitalised for self-inflicted injuries or injuries of undetermined intent was associated with a risk of suicide 36 to 47 times, respectively, that of subjects never hospitalised in the period under study (95% CI 28.36 to 45.58 and 26.67 to 83.87 for self-inflicted injuries and for events of undetermined intent, respectively; overall p<0.01). Similarly, previous events of unintentional injury markedly increased the risk of suicide (RR 3.08; 95% CI 2.26 to 4.19). These effects were solid and not substantially altered after adjustment for family demographic and socioeconomic circumstances. A strong association exists between previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent and youth suicide. The association is robust and unaltered by family socioeconomic circumstances.

  20. Computational studies for a multiple-frequency electron cyclotron resonance ion source (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    The number density of electrons, the energy (electron temperature), and energy distribution are three of the fundamental properties which govern the performance of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources in terms of their capability to produce high charge state ions. The maximum electron energy is affected by several processes including the ability of the plasma to absorb power. In principle, the performances of an ECR ion source can be realized by increasing the physical size of the ECR zone in relation to the total plasma volume. The ECR zones can be increased either in the spatial or frequency domains inmore » any ECR ion source based on B-minimum plasma confinement principles. The former technique requires the design of a carefully tailored magnetic field geometry so that the central region of the plasma volume is a large, uniformly distributed plasma volume which surrounds the axis of symmetry, as proposed in Ref. . Present art forms of the ECR source utilize single frequency microwave power supplies to maintain the plasma discharge; because the magnetic field distribution continually changes in this source design, the ECR zones are relegated to thin {open_quote}{open_quote}surfaces{close_quote}{close_quote} which surround the axis of symmetry. As a consequence of the small ECR zone in relation to the total plasma volume, the probability for stochastic heating of the electrons is quite low, thereby compromising the source performance. This handicap can be overcome by use of broadband, multiple frequency microwave power as evidenced by the enhanced performances of the CAPRICE and AECR ion sources when two frequency microwave power was utilized. We have used particle-in-cell codes to simulate the magnetic field distributions in these sources and to demonstrate the advantages of using multiple, discrete frequencies over single frequencies to power conventional ECR ion sources. (Abstract Truncated)« less

  1. The GreenCut: re-evaluation of physiological role of previously studied proteins and potential novel protein functions.

    PubMed

    Heinnickel, Mark L; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Based on comparative genomics, a list of proteins present in the green algal, flowering and nonflowering plant lineages, but not detected in nonphotosynthetic organisms, was assembled (Merchant et al., Science 318:245-250, 2007; Karpowicz et al., J Biol Chem 286:21427-21439, 2011). This protein grouping, previously designated the GreenCut, was established using stringent comparative genomic criteria; they are those Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proteins with orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, Physcomitrella patens, Oryza sativa, Populus tricocarpa and at least one of the three Ostreococcus species with fully sequenced genomes, but not in bacteria, yeast, fungi or mammals. Many GreenCut proteins are also present in red algae and diatoms and a subset of 189 have been identified as encoded on nearly all cyanobacterial genomes. Of the current GreenCut proteins (597 in total), approximately half have been studied previously. The functions or activities of a number of these proteins have been deduced from phenotypic analyses of mutants (defective for genes encoding specific GreenCut proteins) of A. thaliana, and in many cases the assigned functions do not exist in C. reinhardtii. Therefore, precise physiological functions of several previously studied GreenCut proteins are still not clear. The GreenCut also contains a number of proteins with certain conserved domains. Three of the most highly conserved domains are the FK506 binding, cyclophilin and PAP fibrillin domains; most members of these gene families are not well characterized. In general, our analysis of the GreenCut indicates that many processes critical to green lineage organisms remain unstudied or poorly characterized. We have begun to examine the functions of some GreenCut proteins in detail. For example, our work on the CPLD38 protein has demonstrated that it has an essential role in photosynthetic function and the stability of the cytochrome b 6 f complex.

  2. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  3. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  4. LITERATURE ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    1971-12-01

    1. General Principles: 'Statistical Aspect of the Correlation Between Objective and Subjective Measurements of Meat Tenderness', by M. C. Gacula, Jr., J. B. Reaume, K. J. Morgan, and R. L. Luckett 1. General Principles: 'Texture of Semi-Solid Foods: Sensory and Physical Correlates', by W. F. Henry, M. H. Katz, F. J. Pilgrim, and A. T. May 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Measurement of Bread Staling', by W. Morandini and L. Wassermann 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Physical Considerations of the Methods of Consistency Measurement of Butter', by E. Knoop 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Electronic Recording Mixers for the Baking Test', by P. W. Voisey, V. M. Bendelow and H. Miller 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Measurement of the Consistency of Reconstituted Instant Potato Flakes', by P. W. Voisey and P. R. Dean 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'The Ottawa Electronic Recording Farinograph', by P. W. Voisey, H. Miller and P. L. Byrne 3. Objective Measurements: A. FOODS: 'The Rheological Properties of Corn Horny Endosperm', by J. R. Hamerle*, R. K. White**, and N. N. Mohsenin*** 3. Objective Measurements: 'Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Comminuted Sausages by Construction and Analysis of Rheological Model', by St. Tyszkiewicz 3. Objective Measurements: 'Studies on Creep Compliance of Butter', by M. Chwiej 3. Objective Measurements: 'Heat-Induced Milk Gels. II. Preparation of Gels and Measurement of Firmness', by M. Kalab, P. W. Voisey and D. B. Emmons 3. Objective Measurements: 'Rheology of Fresh, Aged and Gamma-Irradiated Egg White', by M. A. Tung, J. F. Richards, B. C. Morrison and E. L. Watson 3. Objective Measurements: 'Retardation of Bread Staling - Practical Experiences', by W. Morandini and L. Wassermann 3. Objective Measurements: B. PHARMACEUTICALS: 'Influence of HLB on Certain Physicochemical Parameters of an O/W Emulsion', by M. Schrenzel 3. Objective Measurements: 'The Rheological Evaluation of Semisolids', by L. H. Block and

  5. Gas-Grain Simulation Facility: Fundamental studies of particle formation and interactions. Volume 2: Abstracts, candidate experiments and feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogleman, Guy (Editor); Huntington, Judith L. (Editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (Editor); Fonda, Mark L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) project and its current status is provided. The proceedings of the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility Experiments Workshop are recorded. The goal of the workshop was to define experiments for the GGSF--a small particle microgravity research facility. The workshop addressed the opportunity for performing, in Earth orbit, a wide variety of experiments that involve single small particles (grains) or clouds of particles. Twenty experiments from the fields of exobiology, planetary science, astrophysics, atmospheric science, biology, physics, and chemistry were described at the workshop and are outlined in Volume 2. Each experiment description included specific scientific objectives, an outline of the experimental procedure, and the anticipated GGSF performance requirements. Since these experiments represent the types of studies that will ultimately be proposed for the facility, they will be used to define the general science requirements of the GGSF. Also included in the second volume is a physics feasibility study and abstracts of example Gas-Grain Simulation Facility experiments and related experiments in progress.

  6. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  7. Outcomes of Induction of Labour in Women with Previous Caesarean Delivery: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Sarah J.; Ferguson, Evelyn; Duffy, Andrew; Ford, Ian; Chalmers, James; Norman, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL) around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery). However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39–41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981–2007 (n = 46,176). Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401) of women who underwent IOL 39–41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71–0.91]). There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08–1.55]). In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07–0.75]) and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90–1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94–1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60–1.00]). Conclusions A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications. PMID:23565242

  8. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy may reduce thought suppression in previously suicidal participants: findings from a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Silvia R; Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Duggan, Danielle S; Fennell, Melanie J V; Williams, J Mark G

    2009-06-01

    Thought suppression is a strategy aimed at mental control that may paradoxically increase the frequency of unwanted thoughts. This preliminary study examined effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on thought suppression and depression in individuals with past depression and suicidality. In a randomized controlled trial design, 68 participants were allocated to an MBCT group or a treatment-as-usual waitlist control. Measures of thought suppression and depression were taken pre- and post-treatment. MBCT did not reduce thought suppression as measured by the White Bear Suppression Inventory, but significantly reduced self-reported attempts to suppress in the previous week. Preliminary evidence suggests that MBCT for suicidality may reduce thought suppression, but differential effects on thought suppression measures warrant further studies.

  9. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  10. Association Between Study Quality and Publication Rates of Medical Education Abstracts Presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Beckman, Thomas J; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Reed, Darcy A; Wang, Amy T

    2015-08-01

    Studies reveal that 44.5% of abstracts presented at national meetings are subsequently published in indexed journals, with lower rates for abstracts of medical education scholarship. We sought to determine whether the quality of medical education abstracts is associated with subsequent publication in indexed journals, and to compare the quality of medical education abstracts presented as scientific abstracts versus innovations in medical education (IME). Retrospective cohort study. Medical education abstracts presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) 2009 annual meeting. Publication rates were measured using database searches for full-text publications through December 2013. Quality was assessed using the validated Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Overall, 64 (44%) medical education abstracts presented at the 2009 SGIM annual meeting were subsequently published in indexed medical journals. The MERSQI demonstrated good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation range, 0.77-1.00) for grading the quality of medical education abstracts. MERSQI scores were higher for published versus unpublished abstracts (9.59 vs. 8.81, p = 0.03). Abstracts with a MERSQI score of 10 or greater were more likely to be published (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.47-6.89, p = 0.003). ). MERSQI scores were higher for scientific versus IME abstracts (9.88 vs. 8.31, p < 0.001). Publication rates were higher for scientific abstracts (42 [66%] vs. 37 [46%], p = 0.02) and oral presentations (15 [23%] vs. 6 [8%], p = 0.01). The publication rate of medical education abstracts presented at the 2009 SGIM annual meeting was similar to reported publication rates for biomedical research abstracts, but higher than publication rates reported for medical education abstracts. MERSQI scores were associated with higher abstract publication rates, suggesting that attention to measures of quality--such as sampling, instrument validity, and data analysis

  11. A case-crossover study of transient risk factors influence on occupational injuries: a study protocol based on a review of previous studies.

    PubMed

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2016-10-01

    The occupational injury incident rate remains relatively high in the European Union. The case-crossover study gives a unique opportunity to study transient risk factors that normally would be very difficult to approach. Studies like this have been carried out in both America and Asia, but so far no relevant research has been conducted in Europe. Case-crossover studies of occupational injuries were collected from PubMed and Embase and read through. Previous experiences concerning method, exposure and outcome, time-related measurements and construction of the questionnaire were taken into account in the preparation of a pilot study. Consequently, experiences from the pilot study were used to design the study protocol. Approximately 2000 patients with an occupational injury will be recruited from the emergency departments in Herning and Odense, Denmark. A standardised questionnaire will be used to collect basic demographic data and information on eight transient risk factors. Based on previous studies and knowledge on occupational injuries the transient risk factors we chose to examine were: time pressure, performing a task with a different method/using unaccustomed technique, change in working surroundings, using a phone, disagreement, feeling ill, being distracted and using malfunctioning machinery/tools or work material. Exposure time 'just before the injury' will be compared with two control periods, 'previous day at the same time of the injury' (pair match) and the previous work week (usual frequency). This study protocol describes a unique opportunity to calculate the effect of transient risk factors on occupational injuries in a European setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Northern Illinois University Abstracts of Graduate Studies on the Community (Junior) College, 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Community Coll. Services.

    This document summarizes recent graduate studies (independent or for degree) on junior colleges. The topics examined were: general education requirements in three states; characteristics and attitudes of women students; student characteristics (five studies); self-concepts of selected students; socail studies curricula in three states; secretarial…

  13. Definition of tolerance to continuous hyperoxia in man - An abstract report of Predictive Studies V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.; Gelfand, R.; Pisarello, J. B.; Cobbs, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goals, design, and procedures of Predictive Studies V are discussed as well as the specific elements of neural effects produced by prolonged hyperoxia. It is noted that Predictive Studies V study of oxygen poisoning in normal men during uninterrupted exposures to oxygen over the range of hyperbaric oxygen exposure most useful in diving, the treatment of gas lesion diseases, and general hyperbaric medicine. It is found that, throughout the study, the most striking observations were related to effects on visual function, on the lung, and the probable interactions of preconvulsive neural activity with effects on cardiovascular and respiratory-pulmonary functions.

  14. Northern Illinois University of Abstracts of Graduate Studies on the Community (Junior) College 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, William K., Ed.

    Research summaries of 29 studies in the area of the community (junior) college, completed by Northern Illinois University graduate students during the years 1972-73, are provided. The papers discuss teaching loads, career education planning, Asian studies, student characteristics, reading improvement program effectiveness, instructor attitudes,…

  15. Northern Illinois University Abstracts of Graduate Studies on the Community (Junior) College, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Community Coll. Services.

    This is a summary of 30 recent graduate studies in terms of (1) problem statement, (2) procedure description, and (3) significant findings. Most of the studies deal with the junior college student, and include reading achievement levels and scholastic performance, achievement and retention effects of course load requirements, and attitudes toward…

  16. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    PubMed

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  17. Early death in those previously hospitalised for mental healthcare in Scotland: a nationwide cohort study, 1986-2010.

    PubMed

    Ajetunmobi, Omotomilola; Taylor, Mark; Stockton, Diane; Wood, Rachael

    2013-07-30

    To compare the mortality in those previously hospitalised for mental disorder in Scotland to that experienced by the general population. Population-based historical cohort study using routinely available psychiatric hospital discharge and death records. All Scotland. Individuals with a first hospital admission for mental disorder between 1986 and 2009 who had died by 31 December 2010 (34 243 individuals). The main outcome measure was death from any cause, 1986-2010. Excess mortality was presented as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and years of life lost (YLL). Excess mortality was assessed overall and by age, sex, main psychiatric diagnosis, whether the psychiatric diagnosis was 'complicated' (ie, additional mental or physical ill-health diagnoses present), cause of death and time period of first admission. 111 504 people were included in the study, and 34 243 had died by 31 December 2010. The average reduction in life expectancy for the whole cohort was 17 years, with eating disorders (39-year reduction) and 'complicated' personality disorders (27.5-year reduction) being worst affected. 'Natural' causes of death such as cardiovascular disease showed modestly elevated relative risk (SMR1.7), but accounted for 67% of all deaths and 54% of the total burden of YLL. Non-natural deaths such as suicide showed higher relative risk (SMR5.2) and tended to occur at a younger age, but were less common overall (11% of all deaths and 22% of all YLL). Having a 'complicated' diagnosis tended to elevate the risk of early death. No worsening of the overall excess mortality experienced by individuals with previous psychiatric admission over time was observed. Early death for those hospitalised with mental disorder is common, and represents a significant inequality even in well-developed healthcare systems. Prevention of suicide and cardiovascular disease deserves particular attention in the mentally disordered.

  18. Abstract of a Study of the Effects of Teacher Verbal Behavior on Manipulative Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, William F.

    1970-01-01

    Research study found that mechanical drawing students in a learner-centered class achieved significantly better than those in a teacher-centered class, but there was no difference in student attitudes in the two classes. (RT)

  19. (abstract) Application of the GPS Worldwide Network in the Study of Global Ionospheric Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X.; Sparks, L. C.; Rao, A. M.; Wilsion, B. D.; Yuan, D. N.; Reyes, M.

    1997-01-01

    Ionospheric storm dynamics as a response to the geomagnetic storms is a very complicated global process involving many different mechanisms. Studying ionospheric storms will help us to understand the energy coupling process between the Sun and Earth and possibly also to effectively forecast space weather changes. Such a study requires a worldwide monitoring system. The worldwide GPS network, for the first time, makes near real-time global ionospheric TEC measurements a possibility.

  20. Baseline Study of Women in South Africa with Postgraduate Physics Degrees (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Diane J.

    2009-04-01

    A baseline study was conducted of women in South Africa who obtained BSc (Honours), MSc, or PhD degrees in physics and astronomy between 1995 and 2005. The first step involved identifying and contacting the women, using snowball sampling. These women were then asked to complete a questionnaire by e-mail. Responses to the questionnaire yielded information about the types of schools they attended, attitudes of their teachers, family history of studying science, influences on choosing to study physics, role models and mentors, employment history and aspects of a job that are important to them, experiences of gender bias, and suggestions for improving the situation for women in physics. This information is very valuable in designing programs, projects, and advocacy to encourage and retain women in physics, from school level to senior management. The methodology and questions developed can be useful to participants interested in obtaining similar information for their own countries.

  1. Use study of Excerpta Medica abstract journals: to drop or not to drop?

    PubMed Central

    Alligood, E C; Russo-Martin, E; Peterson, R A

    1983-01-01

    The directors of the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, a medium-sized library serving the University of Virginia medical and nursing schools, were concerned over the increasing cost of periodical subscriptions and so studied the use of the printed copy of Excerpta Medica. This study had six parts: (1) availability in other campus libraries; (2) staff perceptions of in-library use; (3) results of studies performed by other libraries in the United States; (4) recorded in-library use; (5) users' opinions; and (6) personal interviews with library users and with selected departments tht corresponded with the forty-four subject areas of Excerpta Medica. The user-survey parts (4 and 5) elicited few responses, but personal interviews allowed a good look at levels of use and interest. The overall results convinced staff to drop some sections and publicize those that remained. PMID:6626797

  2. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  3. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  4. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  5. Survival of previously measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children in an emergency situation: an unplanned study.

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlitos; Martins, Cesario; Jensen, Henrik; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that standard measles vaccine may reduce mortality by more than the number of deaths thought to be caused by measles infection in areas with high mortality. However, these observations have not been based on randomized trials. During the recent war in Guinea-Bissau, most children fled from the city of Bissau and immunization services in the country broke down for several months. We were performing a trial in which children were randomized at 6 months of age to receive either measles vaccine or inactivated polio vaccine. Because of the war many children did not receive the dose of measles vaccine planned for 9 months of age. We were able to monitor mortality during the war and after. Included in the study were 433 children 6 to 11 months of age. Fifteen children died (3.6%) during the first 3 months of the war before vaccination programs were resumed, 4 of 214 measles-vaccinated children and 11 of 219 children who had received inactivated polio vaccine. The effect of measles vaccine was marked for girls [mortality rate ratio (MR), 0.00; 95% confidence limits, 0.0 to 0.37], whereas there was no difference for boys (MR = 1.02; 95% confidence limits, 0.25 to 3.88). In a combined analysis controlling for factors that differed between the two groups, the MR for measles-vaccinated children was 0.30 (95% confidence limits, 0.08 to 0.87). Prolonging the period of observation to the end of 1998 or including the prewar period did not modify the significant beneficial effect of measles vaccine for girls. Twenty-two of the children in the cohort were reported to have had measles, 8 cases occurring during the 3 months of the war. Exclusion of measles cases in the analysis did not change the results; children who had received measles vaccine had a MR of 0.28 (95% confidence limits, 0.06 to 0.89) during the first 3 months of the war. Consistent with previous observational studies, measles vaccination was associated with a reduction in mortality that

  6. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  7. SORPTION OF LEAD ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of lead (Pb) was investigated on an innovative metal oxide compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. The objective of this study was to elucidate the sorption mechanism of Pb on the high-affinity engineered oxide with time at pH 6 employing batch methods an...

  8. Physical assault in the previous year and total and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a case–control study of men aged 25–54 years

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Cook, Sarah; Saburova, Lyudmila; Leon, David A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Violence has important health effects. The results of exposure to physical violence include, but may not be limited to, death from suicide and homicide. The connection between the experience of assault and risk of death from causes other than homicide and suicide has rarely been examined. Methods: We analysed data from the first Izhevsk Family Study (IFS-1), a population-based case–control study of premature mortality in Russian men. Structural equation models were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the association between the proxy report of physical attack in the previous year and mortality. Results: The estimate of the all-cause mortality OR for assault, after adjusting for alcohol use and socio-demographic confounders, was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.71, 3.31). Strong cause-specific associations were found for external causes, but associations were also found for deaths from cardiovascular and alcohol-related deaths. Conclusions: We found that, in our population of working-aged Russian men, there was a strong association between physical assault and mortality from a wide range of causes. Other than direct effects of physical assault on mortality, residual confounding is an important possibility. The association between assault and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and alcohol-related causes requires replication and further investigation. PMID:28031312

  9. Previous Exposure to Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Puerto Rican Population-Based Sibling Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Creagh, O; Torres, H; Rivera, K; Morales-Franqui, M; Altieri-Acevedo, G; Warner, D

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior, that begins usually before a child is three years old.(1) Researchers have shown that prevalence rates in the U.S. may be as high as 1 in 68.(52) A number of studies have examined the effects of early exposure to anesthesia on brain development and subsequent impairment in neurocognitive function; yet, little is known about the possible effects of anesthetic agents on social-behavioral functioning. The association between exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, during the first years of life, or later and development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or its severity was determined in a retrospective population based cohort study. Identify if children who had previous exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, first years of life during their developing brain years, or later, are at risk of developing ASD and its severe form of the disease. Data was obtained from structured interviews administered to a sample of 515 parents/guardians distributed in two groups: ASD = 262 children diagnosed with this condition and Non-ASD: 253 children (siblings of ASD group) without diagnosis (95% confidence interval) that freely decided to participate and agreed to a consent form. Variables studied include: demographics, diagnosis and severity of ASD, exposure to anesthesia, method of childbirth, and age of exposure Children less than 2 years of age were considered into have developing brain period. Data was analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher exact test. In contrast to non-ASD group, most of the children within ASD group were male, 76% (p=0.0001). With regards to methods of childbirth, 64% of the ASD population were vaginal delivery (VD; Non-anesthesia exposure group) and 36% cesarean delivery (CD) compared to non-autistic population with 71% VD and 29% CD, which demonstrates no statistical difference between both groups (p=0.1113). Out of

  10. Previous Exposure to Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Puerto Rican Population-Based Sibling Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Creagh, O; Torres, H; Rivera, K; Morales-Franqui, M; Altieri-Acevedo, G; Warner, D

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior, that begins usually before a child is three years old.1 Researchers have shown that prevalence rates in the U.S. may be as high as 1 in 68.52 A number of studies have examined the effects of early exposure to anesthesia on brain development and subsequent impairment in neurocognitive function; yet, little is known about the possible effects of anesthetic agents on social-behavioral functioning. The association between exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, during the first years of life, or later and development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or its severity was determined in a retrospective population based cohort study. Identify if children who had previous exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, first years of life during their developing brain years, or later, are at risk of developing ASD and its severe form of the disease. Data was obtained from structured interviews administered to a sample of 515 parents/guardians distributed in two groups: ASD = 262 children diagnosed with this condition and Non-ASD: 253 children (siblings of ASD group) without diagnosis (p = 0.8069) when comparing exposure to anesthesia in uterus to subsequent severe form of ASD. Of the 262 ASD patients, 99 had exposure to anesthetics before their diagnosis, while in Non-ASD population, 110 had exposure to anesthesia, demonstrating no statistically significant association between both groups (p = 0.2091). Out of 99 ASD patients exposed to anesthesia prior to their diagnosis, 72 were exposed before age 2. When compared to the 110 Non-ASD patients exposed to anesthesia, 86 had exposure during this developing brain period, which indicates no statistically significant association (p = 0.4207). In addition, most of the ASD children exposed to anesthesia during developing brain were diagnosed with mild degree of the disorder when compared to ASD

  11. Coal industry in America. A bibliography and guide to studies. [2827 references with brief abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    It is clearly desirable that research on the coal industry and the problems associated with it be carried on as efficiently and intelligently as possible. Unfortunately, the scattered nature of the literature militates against this. Even the most conscientious scholar finds it increasingly difficult to keep abreast of the literature in his own field. It is generally quite impossible for him to follow that of other disciplines. Thus it is idle to expect the sociologist to scan medical journals or the economist to master the literature of psychology. And yet, it seems clear that fruitful study of many of themore » problems associated with the coal industry must utilize a multi-disciplinary approach. The chief purpose of this guide is to aid in such multi-disciplinary research. The principal emphasis has been placed on the social sciences. The enormous body of literature in the science and technology of mining is outside the scope of this work. Titles dealing with technology and geology are included only if they contain a significant amount of material of potential interest to the historian or social scientist. Every effort has been made to include titles of real significance and works whose bibliographies will serve as a guide to those interested in a specific area or problem.« less

  12. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Results Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Conclusion Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate. PMID:28451031

  13. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Peacock, Ann; Miller, Yvette D.; Koh, Denise; Marshall, Alison L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD) were: Age  33 ± 4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range)}, increased by 60 (0–540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580) mins/week in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period. PMID:22548057

  14. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    PubMed

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale

    2015-07-01

    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. LAPAROSCOPY AFTER PREVIOUS LAPAROTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Godinjak, Zulfo; Idrizbegović, Edin; Begić, Kerim

    2006-01-01

    Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for lap-aroscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previous laparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured. PMID:17177649

  16. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  17. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  19. An epidemiological study of risk factors associated with the recurrence of equine grass sickness (dysautonomia) on previously affected premises.

    PubMed

    Newton, J R; Hedderson, E J; Adams, V J; McGorum, B C; Proudman, C J; Wood, J L N

    2004-03-01

    The reasons why equine grass sickness (EGS) recurs on premises are unknown and, consequently, practical methods for reducing the risk of recurrence are not available. To identify risk factors associated with recurrence of EGS on premises and to gain possible insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. Data on disease history and risk factors were collected by postal questionnaire from premises with EGS cases between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2001. Data on variation in rates of recurrence of EGS for different risk factors were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. Of 509 premises contacted, 305 (60%) returned useable questionnaires and 100 of these (33%) were classified as 'recurrent' premises. An overall median incidence rate for EGS of 2.1 EGS incidents/100 horses/premises/year was recorded. There was an increased rate of recurrence with higher numbers of horses, presence of younger animals, stud farms and livery/riding establishments, loam and sand soils, rearing of domestic birds and mechanical droppings removal. The rate of recurrence decreased with chalk soil, cograzing ruminants, grass cutting on pastures and removal of droppings by hand. Several statistically significant interactions were identified. Many of the findings are consistent with the theory that EGS is a toxico-infectious form of botulism. Several of the significant factors identified may directly or indirectly relate to soil disturbance and consequent soil contamination of grass, thereby increasing the rate of exposure of grazing horses to Clostridium botulinum, which resides in soil. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors may, ideally following validation in appropriately designed, controlled and randomised intervention studies, lead to practical measures to reduce the incidence of EGS on previously affected premises.

  20. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    PubMed

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: a study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Pogge, David L; Stokes, John; Buccolo, Martin L; Pappalardo, Stephen; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-07-01

    Intellectual disability is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances and also complicates their treatment. Despite increases in the sophistication of medical detection of early risk for intellectual disability, there is remarkably little data about the detection of intellectual disability in cases referred for psychiatric treatment. In this study, we used a 10-year sample of 23,629 consecutive child and adolescent admissions (ages between 6 and 17) to inpatient psychiatric treatment. Eleven percent (n=2621) of these cases were referred for psychological assessment and were examined with a general measure of intellectual functioning (i.e., WISC-IV). Of these cases, 16% had Full Scale IQs below 70. Of the cases whose therapists then referred them for formal assessment of their adaptive functioning (i.e., ABAS-II) 81% were found to have composite scores below 70 as well. Only one of the cases whose Full Scale IQ was less than 70 had a referral diagnosis of intellectual disability. Cases with previously undetected intellectual disability were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and less likely to have a diagnosis of mood disorder than cases with IQs over 70. Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses did not differ as a function of intellectual performance. These data suggest a high rate of undetected intellectual disability in cases with a psychiatric condition serious enough to require hospitalization and this raises the possibility that many such cases may be misdiagnosed, the basis of their problems may be misconceptualized, and they may be receiving treatments that do not take into account their intellectual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can previously sedentary females use the feeling scale to regulate exercise intensity in a gym environment? an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn-Williams, Charlotte C; Tempest, Gavin; Coombs, Sarah; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the Feeling Scale (FS) can be used as a method of exercise intensity regulation to maintain a positive affective response during exercise. However, research to date has been carried out in laboratories and is not representative of natural exercise environments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether sedentary women can self-regulate their exercise intensity using the FS to experience positive affective responses in a gym environment using their own choice of exercise mode; cycling or treadmill. Fourteen females (24.9 years ± 5.2; height 166.7 ± 5.7 cm; mass 66.3 ± 13.4 kg; BMI 24.1 ± 5.5)) completed a submaximal exercise test and each individual's ventilatory threshold ([Formula: see text]) was identified. Following this, three 20 min gym-based exercise trials, either on a bike or treadmill were performed at an intensity that was self-selected and perceived to correspond to the FS value of +3 (good). Oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during exercise at the participants chosen intensity. Results indicated that on average participants worked close to their [Formula: see text] and increased their exercise intensity during the 20-min session. Participants worked physiologically harder during cycling exercise. Consistency of oxygen uptake, HR and RPE across the exercise trials was high. The data indicate that previously sedentary women can use the FS in an ecological setting to regulate their exercise intensity and that regulating intensity to feel 'good' should lead to individuals exercising at an intensity that would result in cardiovascular gains if maintained.

  3. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma: A phase II study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Naoya; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Uhara, Hisashi; Uehara, Jiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Otsuka, Masaki; Uchi, Hiroshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-06-01

    Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation through overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has shown promising anticancer activity in various cancers. We carried out a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Twenty-four patients with stage III/IV or recurrent melanoma were enrolled and received i.v. nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate evaluated by an independent radiology review committee. The independent radiology review committee-assessed overall response rate was 34.8% (90% confidence interval, 20.8-51.9), and the overall survival rate at 18 months was 56.5% (90% confidence interval, 38.0-71.4). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of grade 3 or 4 only occurred in three patients (12.5%). Two patients discontinued nivolumab because of AEs, but all AEs were considered manageable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that nivolumab was clinically beneficial and tolerable regardless of BRAF genotype, and that patients with treatment-related select AEs and with vitiligo showed tendency for better survival. In conclusion, nivolumab showed favorable efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent melanoma, with or without BRAF mutations. (Trial registration no. JapicCTI-142533.). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  5. Using spinopelvic parameters to estimate residual lumbar lordosis assuming previous lumbosacral fusion-a study of normative values.

    PubMed

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Kantharajanna, Shashidhar Bangalore; Teo, Alex Quok An; Chan, Chloe Xiaoyun; Liu, Ka-Po Gabriel; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2018-03-01

    Pelvic incidence (PI)=pelvic tilt (PT)+sacral slope (SS) is an established trigonometric equation which can be expanded from studying the fixed pelvis with the spine to a fixed spinopelvic complex with the remnant spine, in scenarios of spinopelvic fusion or ankylosis. For a fixed spinopelvic complex, we propose the equation termed: lumbar incidence (LI)=lumbar tilt (LT)+lumbar slope (LS). This study aimed to establish reference values for LI, LT, and LS at each lumbar vertebral level, and to show how LI can be used to determine residual lumbar lordosis (rLL). This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data, conducted at a single academic tertiary health-care center. The study included 53 healthy patients aged 19-35 with first episode mechanical low back pain for a period of <3 months. Patients with previous spinal intervention, those with known or suspected spinal pathologies, and those who were pregnant, were excluded. Radiological measurements of LI, LT, LS, and rLL. All patients had full-body lateral standing radiographs obtained via a slot scanner. Basic global and regional radiographic parameters, spinopelvic parameters, and the aforementioned new parameters were measured. LI was correlated with rLL at each level by plotting LI against rLL on scatter plots and drawing lines-of-best-fit through the datapoints. The mean value of L5I was 22.82°, L4I was 6.52°, L3I was -0.92°, L2I was -5.56°, and L1I was -5.95°. LI turns negative at L3, LS turns negative at the L3/L4 apex, and LT remains positive throughout the lumbar spine. We found that the relationship of LI with its corresponding rLL follows a parabolic trend. Thus, rLL can be determined from the linear equations of the tangents to the parabolic lumbar spine. We propose the LI-rLL method for determining rLL as the LI recalibrates via spinopelvic compensation post instrumentation, and thus the predicted rLL will be based on this new equilibrium, promoting restoration of harmonized lordosis

  6. Gain of employment and perceived health status among previously unemployed persons: evidence from a longitudinal study in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Chan, K C G; Williams, E C

    2016-04-01

    Using longitudinal datasets, we investigated whether gaining employment was associated with improvements in perceived mental health and overall health among previously unemployed U.S. residents. We additionally examined whether the association varied across types of employment and socio-demographic characteristics. We used multiple two-year panel datasets of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey during 2004-2012. We studied two health outcomes: perceived mental health and overall health. Our independent variables were employment status: full-time, part-time, self-employment, and unemployment. To examine the association between gaining employment and perceived health, we employed population-averaged models with generalized estimating equations. We secondarily examined the association across subpopulations (gender, race/ethnicity, and education). Those who gained full-time, part-time, and self-employment were more likely to report good mental health than those who stayed unemployed (AOR [Adjusted Odds Ratio] = 2.90, 95% CI 2.23 to 3.78, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.06, and AOR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 9.70, respectively). Those who became full-time and part-time employed were more likely to report good overall health relative to those who stayed unemployed (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.86 and AOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.40, respectively). For both measures of perceived health, the magnitudes of the association were larger for those who gained full-time employment than part-time employment. AORs were relatively higher for males, black persons, and people with less than a college education relative to other groups in each subpopulation. Improving employment outcomes may improve perceived health. Transiting toward full-time employment, in particular, may maximize the benefits of employment. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Institute of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment with Ca2+ ionophore improves embryo development and outcome in cases with previous developmental problems: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Oppelt, P; Wöber, M; Staples, P; Mayer, R B; Sonnleitner, U; Bulfon-Vogl, S; Gruber, I; Haid, A E; Shebl, O

    2015-01-01

    Does calcium ionophore treatment (A23187, calcimycin) improve embryo development and outcome in patients with a history of developmental problems/arrest? Application of A23187 leads to increased rates of cleavage to 2-cell stage, blastocyst formation and clinical pregnancy/live birth. Studies on lower animals indicate that changes in intracellular free calcium trigger and regulate the events of cell division. In humans, calcium fluctuations were detected with a peak shortly before cell division. Interestingly, these calcium oscillations disappeared in arrested embryos. Mitotic division blocked with a Ca(2+) chelator could be restored by means of ionophores in an animal model. This prospective, multicenter (five Austrian centers), uncontrolled intervention study (duration 1 year) includes 57 patients who provided informed consent. Inclusion criteria were complete embryo developmental arrest in a previous cycle (no transfer), complete developmental delay (no morula/blastocyst on Day 5), or reduced blastocyst formation on Day 5 (≤15%). Severe male factor patients and patients with <30% fertilization rate after ICSI were excluded because these would be routine indications for ionophore usage. The total of the 57 immediately preceding cycles in the same patients constituted the control cycles/control group. In the treatment cycles, all metaphase II-oocytes were exposed to a commercially available ready-to-use ionophore for 15 min immediately after ICSI. After a three-step washing procedure, in vitro culture was performed as in the control cycles, up to blastocyst stage when achievable. Fertilization rate did not differ (75.4 versus 73.2%); however, further cleavage to 2-cell stage was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the ionophore group (98.5%) when compared with the control cycles (91.9%). In addition, significantly more (P < 0.05) blastocysts formed on Day 5 in the study compared with the control group (47.6 versus 5.5%, respectively) and this was associated with

  8. Hydrogen-abstraction reactions of fully hydrogenated fullerene cages with the amino radical: a density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anafcheh, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    We have applied density functional theory calculations to study the reactions of NH2 + CnHn (n = 20, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80). Due to the hard curvature in C20 cage, the NH2• + C20H20 → NH3 + C20H19• reaction is nearly thermoneutral with a high potential barrier height. For the CnHn fulleranes with n > 20 the transition states appear earlier on the reaction paths, as can be anticipated for exothermic reactions. Using the spherical excess parameter, we distinguished different curvatures on the surfaces of fullerane cages. The reaction enthalpies ΔH°298 and potential barrier heights ΔETS of the considered reactions indicate good correlation with the values of ϕi parameter, showing an upward trend with the curvature increasing at carbon sites. We have also investigated the H-abstraction of the chemical derivatives of the C20H20 cage (C20H19-CH3, C20H19-CH2CH3 and C20H19-CH2CH2CH3) in comparison to the corresponding isolated alkanes (CH4, C2H6 and C3H8). Overall, it could be inferred that the H-abstraction from the primary and secondary C-H bonds of isolated alkanes could occur more easily than fullarane derivatives.

  9. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  10. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  11. Children and Computers Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of reports of eight research studies on computer uses in children's education are presented. Topics covered include (1) LOGO computer language; (2) computer graphics for art instruction; (3) animation; (4) problem solving; (5) children's use of symbols; (6) an evaluation of a Chapter 1 program involving children's computer use; (7) peer…

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. Students' Abstraction in Recognizing, Building with and Constructing a Quadrilateral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Rahaju, Endah Budi; Hartono, Sugi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to implement empirically students' abstraction with socio-cultural background of Indonesia. Abstraction is an activity that involves a vertical reorganization of previously constructed mathematics into a new mathematical structure. The principal components of the model are three dynamic nested epistemic actions: recognizing,…

  14. Contemporary Theories of Oral Communication: A Collection of Abstracts, Critical Literature Reviews, and Experiments in the Study of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M., Ed.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts, literature reviews, and reports on experiments in the communication field. Ninety abstracts from speech communication literature (1970-1977) are presented under the following categories: communication theory, research methodology, interpersonal communication, rhetorical theory and criticism, persuasion,…

  15. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  16. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for allergic rhinitis - An overview about previous and ongoing studies.

    PubMed

    Witt, C M; Brinkhaus, B

    2010-10-28

    In general, allergic rhinitis can be divided into seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). In the following sections a summary of efficacy and effectiveness studies is presented. For this narrative review we selected studies based on the following parameters: publication in English, sample size ≥30 patients, and at least 6 acupuncture sessions. Most studies aimed to evaluate the specific effects of acupuncture treatment. Only one study evaluated effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of additional acupuncture treatment. The studies which compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture always used a penetrating sham control. A medication control group was used in only two studies and one study combined acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. This overview shows that the trials on efficacy and on effectiveness of acupuncture are very heterogeneous. Although penetrating sham controls were used predominantly, these also varied from superficial penetration at acupuncture points to superficial insertion at non-acupuncture points. Although there is some evidence that acupuncture as additional treatment is beneficial and relatively cost-effective, there is insufficient evidence for an acupuncture specific effect in SAR. In contrast, there is some evidence that acupuncture might have specific effects in patients with PAR. However, all of the published efficacy studies are small and conclusions should be made with care. Further studies with a larger sample size are urgently needed to draw more rigorous conclusions and the results of the ongoing trials will provide us with further information within the next two years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism in eating disorders: Data from a new biobank and META-analysis of previous studies.

    PubMed

    Solmi, M; Gallicchio, D; Collantoni, E; Correll, C U; Clementi, M; Pinato, C; Forzan, M; Cassina, M; Fontana, F; Giannunzio, V; Piva, I; Siani, R; Salvo, P; Santonastaso, P; Tenconi, E; Veronese, N; Favaro, A

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Growing interest focuses on the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and eating disorders (ED), but published findings have been conflicting. Methods The Italian BIO.VE.D.A. biobank provided 976 samples (735 ED patients and 241 controls) for genotyping. We conducted a literature search of studies published up to 1 April 2015, including studies reporting on 5HTTLPR genotype and allele frequencies in obesity and/or ED. We ran a meta-analysis, including data from BIO.VE.D.A. - comparing low and high-functioning genotype and allele frequencies in ED vs. Results Data from 21 studies, plus BIO.VE.D.A., were extracted providing information from 3,736 patients and 2,707 controls. Neither low- nor high-functioning genotype frequencies in ED patients, with both bi- and tri-allelic models, differed from controls. Furthermore, neither low- nor high-functioning allele frequencies in ED or in BN, in both bi- and triallelic models, differed from control groups. After sensitivity analysis, results were the same in AN vs. Results remained unaltered when investigating recessive and dominant models. Conclusions 5HTTLPR does not seem to be associated with ED in general, or with AN or BN in particular. Future studies in ED should explore the role of ethnicity and psychiatric comorbidity as a possible source of bias.

  18. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome Is More Common Than Previously Suspected: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rattanawong, Pattara; Vutthikraivit, Wasawat; Charoensri, Attawit; Jongraksak, Tanawat; Prombandankul, Awapa; Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Rungaramsin, Sakda; Wisaratapong, Treechada; Ngarmukos, Tachapong

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is defined as presenting of type-1 Brugada pattern (BrP). BrS can also be induced by fever. This study demonstrated a highest prevalence of fever-induced BrS ever reported. During May 2014, febrile (oral temperature ≥ 38 °C) and nonfebrile patients underwent standard and high leads (V1 and V2 at 2nd intercostal space) electrocardiogram. Risk factor and cardiac symptoms were recorded. Patients with a persistent of type-1 BrP after fever had subsided were excluded. The prevalence of BrS, type-2 BrP and early repolarization pattern (ERP) were demonstrated. A total of 401 patients, 152 febrile, and 249 nonfebrile, were evaluated. BrS was identified in six febrile patients (five males and one female) and two males in nonfebrile patients. The study demonstrated higher prevalence of BrS in febrile group compared to nonfebrile group (4.0% vs 0.8%, respectively, P = 0.037). Among fever-induced BrS patients, three patients (50.0%) experienced cardiac symptoms before and at the time of presentation and two patients (33.3%) had history of first-degree relative sudden death. No ventricular arrhythmia was observed. All of type-1 BrP disappeared after fever had subsided. We found no difference in prevalence of type-2 BrP in febrile and nonfebrile group (2.0% vs 2.8%, respectively, P > 0.05) as well as ERP (3.3% vs 6.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Our study showed a highest prevalence of fever induced BrS ever reported. A larger study of prevalence, risk stratification, genetic test and management of fever-induced BrS should be done, especially in an endemic area. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  20. Nivolumab for previously treated unresectable metastatic anal cancer (NCI9673): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Van K; Salem, Mohamed E; Nimeiri, Halla; Iqbal, Syma; Singh, Preet; Ciombor, Kristen; Polite, Blase; Deming, Dustin; Chan, Emily; Wade, James L; Xiao, Lianchun; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Vence, Luis; Blando, Jorge; Mahvash, Armeen; Foo, Wai Chin; Ohaji, Chimela; Pasia, Manolo; Bland, Gail; Ohinata, Aki; Rogers, Jane; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Banks, Kimberly; Lanman, Richard; Wolff, Robert A; Streicher, Howard; Allison, James; Sharma, Padmanee; Eng, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA. We enrolled patients with treatment-refractory metastatic SCCA, who were given nivolumab every 2 weeks (3 mg/kg). The primary endpoint was response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in the intention-to-treat population. At the time of data cutoff, the study was ongoing, with patients continuing to receive treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02314169. We screened 39 patients, of whom 37 were enrolled and received at least one dose of nivolumab. Among the 37 patients, nine (24% [95% CI 15-33]) had responses. There were two complete responses and seven partial responses. Grade 3 adverse events were anaemia (n=2), fatigue (n=1), rash (n=1), and hypothyroidism (n=1). No serious adverse events were reported. To our knowledge, this is the first completed phase 2 trial of immunotherapy for SCCA. Nivolumab is well tolerated and effective as a monotherapy for patients with metastatic SCCA. Immune checkpoint blockade appears to be a promising approach for patients with this orphan disease. National Cancer Institute/Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, the HPV and Anal Cancer Foundation, the E B Anal Cancer Fund, The University of Texas MD Anderson Moon Shots Program, and an anonymous philanthropic donor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nivolumab for previously treated unresectable metastatic anal cancer (NCI9673): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Van K; Salem, Mohamed E; Nimeiri, Halla; Iqbal, Syma; Singh, Preet; Ciombor, Kristen; Polite, Blase; Deming, Dustin; Chan, Emily; Wade, James L; Xiao, Lianchun; Bekaii-Saab, Prof Tanios; Vence, Luis; Blando, Jorge; Mahvash, Armeen; Foo, Wai Chin; Ohaji, Chimela; Pasia, Manolo; Bland, Gail; Ohinata, Aki; Rogers, Jane; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Banks, Kimberly; Lanman, Richard; Wolff, Robert A; Streicher, Howard; Allison, Prof James; Sharma, Prof Padmanee; Eng, Prof Cathy

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. Methods We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA. We enrolled patients with treatment-refractory metastatic SCCA, who were given nivolumab every 2 weeks (3 mg/kg). The primary endpoint was response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in the intention-to-treat population. At the time of data cutoff, the study was ongoing, with patients continuing to receive treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02314169. Findings We screened 39 patients, of whom 37 were enrolled and received at least one dose of nivolumab. Among the 37 patients, nine (24% [95% CI 15–33]) had responses. There were two complete responses and seven partial responses. Grade 3 adverse events were anaemia (n=2), fatigue (n=1), rash (n=1), and hypothyroidism (n=1). No serious adverse events were reported. Interpretation To our knowledge, this is the first completed phase 2 trial of immunotherapy for SCCA. Nivolumab is well tolerated and effective as a monotherapy for patients with metastatic SCCA. Immune checkpoint blockade appears to be a promising approach for patients with this orphan disease. Funding National Cancer Institute/Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, the HPV and Anal Cancer Foundation, the E B Anal Cancer Fund, The University of Texas MD Anderson Moon Shots Program, and an anonymous philanthropic donor. PMID:28223062

  2. Dual-level direct dynamics studies for the hydrogen abstraction reaction of 1,1-difluoroethane with O( 3P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-yao; Li, Ze-sheng; Dai, Zhen-wen; Zhang, Gang; Sun, Chia-chung

    2004-01-01

    We present dual-level direct dynamics calculations for the CH 3CHF 2 + O( 3P) hydrogen abstraction reaction in a wide temperature range, based on canonical variational transition-state theory including small curvature tunneling corrections. For this reaction, three distinct transition states, one for α-abstraction and two for β-abstraction, have been located. The potential energy surface information is obtained at the MP2(full)/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, and higher-level single-point calculations for the stationary points are preformed at several levels, namely QCISD(T)/6-311+G(3df,3pd), G2, and G3 using the MP2 geometries, as well as at the G3//MP4SDQ/6-311G(d,p) level. The energy profiles are further refined with the interpolated single-point energies method at the G3//MP2(full)/6-311G(d,p) level. The total rate constants match the experimental data reasonable well in the measured temperature range 1110-1340 K. It is shown that at low temperature α-abstraction may be the major reaction channel, while β-abstraction will have more contribution to the whole reaction rate as the temperature increases.

  3. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    PubMed

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathologic Intimal Thickening Plaque Phenotype: Not as Innocent as Previously Thought. A Serial 3D Intravascular Ultrasound Virtual Histology Study.

    PubMed

    Kovarnik, Tomas; Chen, Zhi; Wahle, Andreas; Zhang, Ling; Skalicka, Hana; Kral, Ales; Lopez, John J; Horak, Jan; Sonka, Milan; Linhart, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Pathologic intimal thickening (PIT) has been considered a benign plaque phenotype. We report plaque phenotypic changes in a baseline/follow-up intravascular ultrasound-based virtual histology study. A total of 61 patients with stable coronary artery disease were analyzed from the HEAVEN trial (89 patients randomized between routine statin therapy vs atorvastatin 80mg and ezetimibe 10mg) with serial intravascular ultrasound imaging of nonculprit vessels. We compared changes in 693 baseline and follow-up 5-mm long segments in a novel risk score, Liverpool Active Plaque Score (LAPS), plaque parameters, and plaque composition. The PIT showed the highest increase of risk score and, with fibrous plaque, also the LAPS. Necrotic core (NC) abutting to the lumen increased in PIT (22 ± 51.7; P = .0001) and in fibrous plaque (17.9 ± 42.6; P = .004) but decreased in thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (⿿15.14 ± 52.2; P = .001). The PIT was the most likely of all nonthin cap fibroatheroma plaque types to transform into TCFA at follow-up (11% of all TCFA found during follow-up and 35.9% of newly-developed TCFA), but showed (together with fibrous plaque) the lowest stability during lipid-lowering therapy (24.7% of PIT remained PIT and 24.5% of fibrous plaque remained fibrous plaque). Over the 1-year follow-up, PIT was the most dynamic of the plaque phenotypes and was associated with an increase of risk score and LAPS (together with fibrous plaque), NC percentage (together with fibrous plaque) and NC abutting to the lumen, despite a small reduction of plaque volume during lipid-lowering therapy. The PIT was the main source for new TCFA segments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Abstract shapes of RNA.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Voss, Björn; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The function of a non-protein-coding RNA is often determined by its structure. Since experimental determination of RNA structure is time-consuming and expensive, its computational prediction is of great interest, and efficient solutions based on thermodynamic parameters are known. Frequently, however, the predicted minimum free energy structures are not the native ones, leading to the necessity of generating suboptimal solutions. While this can be accomplished by a number of programs, the user is often confronted with large outputs of similar structures, although he or she is interested in structures with more fundamental differences, or, in other words, with different abstract shapes. Here, we formalize the concept of abstract shapes and introduce their efficient computation. Each shape of an RNA molecule comprises a class of similar structures and has a representative structure of minimal free energy within the class. Shape analysis is implemented in the program RNAshapes. We applied RNAshapes to the prediction of optimal and suboptimal abstract shapes of several RNAs. For a given energy range, the number of shapes is considerably smaller than the number of structures, and in all cases, the native structures were among the top shape representatives. This demonstrates that the researcher can quickly focus on the structures of interest, without processing up to thousands of near-optimal solutions. We complement this study with a large-scale analysis of the growth behaviour of structure and shape spaces. RNAshapes is available for download and as an online version on the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server.

  6. Theoretical and kinetic study of the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of esters with H(O.)2 radicals.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Jorge; Zhou, Chong-Wen; Curran, Henry J

    2013-12-27

    This work details an ab initio and chemical kinetic study of the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions by the hydroperoxyl radical (HȮ2) on the following esters: methyl ethanoate, methyl propanoate, methyl butanoate, methyl pentanoate, methyl isobutyrate, ethyl ethanoate, propyl ethanoate, and isopropyl ethanoate. Geometry optimizations and frequency calculations of all of the species involved, as well as the hindrance potential descriptions for reactants and transition states, have been performed with the Møller-Plesset (MP2) method using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. A validation of all of the connections between transition states and local minima was performed by intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. Electronic energies for all of the species are reported at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory in kcal mol(-1) with the zero-point energy corrections. The CCSD(T)/CBS (extrapolated from CCSD(T)/cc-pVXZ, in which X = D, T, Q) was used for the reactions of methyl ethanoate + HȮ2 radicals as a benchmark in the electronic energy calculations. High-pressure limit rate constants, in the temperature range 500-2000 K, have been calculated for all of the reaction channels using conventional transition state theory with asymmetric Eckart tunneling corrections. The 1-D hindered rotor approximation has been used for the low frequency torsional modes in both reactants and transition states. The calculated individual and total rate constants are reported for all of the reaction channels in each reaction system. A branching ratio analysis for each reaction site has also been investigated for all of the esters studied in this work.

  7. Urological research in sub-Saharan Africa: a retrospective cohort study of abstracts presented at the Nigerian Association of Urological Surgeons conferences.

    PubMed

    Bello, Jibril Oyekunle

    2013-11-14

    Nigeria is one of the top three countries in Africa in terms of science research output and Nigerian urologists' biomedical research output contributes to this. Each year, urologists in Nigeria gather to present their recent research at the conference of the Nigerian Association of Urological Surgeons (NAUS). These abstracts are not thoroughly vetted as are full length manuscripts published in peer reviewed journals but the information they disseminate may affect clinical practice of attendees. This study aims to describe the characteristics of abstracts presented at the annual conferences of NAUS, the quality of the abstracts as determined by the subsequent publication of full length manuscripts in peer-review indexed journals and the factors that influence such successful publication. Abstracts presented at the 2007 to 2010 NAUS conferences were identified through conference abstracts books. Using a strict search protocol, publication in peer-reviewed journals was determined. The abstracts characteristics were analyzed and their quality judged by subsequent successful publishing of full length manuscripts. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software to determine factors predictive of successful publication. Only 75 abstracts were presented at the NAUS 2007 to 2010 conferences; a quarter (24%) of the presented abstracts was subsequently published as full length manuscripts. Median time to publication was 15 months (range 2-40 months). Manuscripts whose result data were analyzed with 'beyond basic' statistics of frequencies and averages were more likely to be published than those with basic or no statistics. Quality of the abstracts and thus subsequent publication success is influenced by the use of 'beyond basic' statistics in analysis of the result data presented. There is a need for improvement in the quality of urological research from Nigeria.

  8. Agents of Change in Promoting Reflective Abstraction: A Quasi-Experimental, Study on Limits in College Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappetta, Robert W.; Zollman, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We measured student performance on the concept of limit by promoting reflection through four agents of change: instructor, peer, curriculum and individual. It is based on Piaget's four constructs of reflective abstraction: interiorization, coordination, encapsulation, and generalization, and includes the notion of reversal, as refined into a…

  9. Understanding Why Things Happen: Case-Studies of Pupils Using an Abstract Picture Language to Represent the Nature of Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianidou, Fani; Boohan, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Six 12-year-old students were followed during an eight-month course using "Energy and Change" curricular materials, which introduce ideas related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics through an abstract picture language. Concludes that students had higher levels of generalization in their explanations of physical, chemical, and biological…

  10. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DENTISTRY, ABSTRACTS), TEETH, DISEASES, MOUTH, TRANSPLANTATION, HYGIENE, STERILIZATION, FLUORIDES, HISTOLOGY, SURGICAL IMPLANTATION, OXYTETRACYCLINE , GELATINS, CELLULOSE, CASTING, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, TRAINING DEVICES

  11. National Rates of Uterine Rupture are not Associated with Rates of Previous Caesarean Delivery: Results from the Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Gissler, Mika; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Källen, Karin; Gottvall, Karin; Klungsøyr, Kari; Bøhrdahl, Per; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnhild I; Krebs, Lone

    2017-05-01

    Previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean are well-known individual risk factors for uterine rupture. We examined if different national rates of uterine rupture are associated with differences in national rates of previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after a previous caesarean delivery. This study is an ecological study based on data from a retrospective cohort in the Nordic countries. Data on uterine rupture were collected prospectively in each country as part of the Nordic obstetric surveillance study and included 91% of all Nordic deliveries. Information on the comparison population was retrieved from the national medical birth registers. Incidence rate ratios by previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean were modelled using Poisson regression. The incidence of uterine rupture was 7.8/10 000 in Finland and 4.6/10 000 in Denmark. Rates of caesarean (21.3%) and previous caesarean deliveries (11.5%) were highest in Denmark, while the rate of intended vaginal delivery after caesarean was highest in Finland (72%). National rates of uterine rupture were not associated with the population rates of previous caesarean but increased by 35% per 1% increase in the population rate of intended vaginal delivery and in the subpopulation of women with previous caesarean delivery by 4% per 1% increase in the rate of intended vaginal delivery. National rates of uterine rupture were not associated with national rates of previous caesarean, but increased with rates of intended vaginal delivery after caesarean. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  13. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  14. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  15. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  16. A study of the use of abstract types for the representation of engineering units in integration and test applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    Physical quantities using various units of measurement can be well represented in Ada by the use of abstract types. Computation involving these quantities (electric potential, mass, volume) can also automatically invoke the computation and checking of some of the implicitly associable attributes of measurements. Quantities can be held internally in SI units, transparently to the user, with automatic conversion. Through dimensional analysis, the type of the derived quantity resulting from a computation is known, thereby allowing dynamic checks of the equations used. The impact of the possible implementation of these techniques in integration and test applications is discussed. The overhead of computing and transporting measurement attributes is weighed against the advantages gained by their use. The construction of a run time interpreter using physical quantities in equations can be aided by the dynamic equation checks provided by dimensional analysis. The effects of high levels of abstraction on the generation and maintenance of software used in integration and test applications are also discussed.

  17. Kinetic study on the H + SiH4 abstraction reaction using an ab initio potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Chunfang; Bian, Wensheng; Guo, Yin

    2011-01-14

    Variational transition state theory calculations with the correction of multidimensional tunneling are performed on a 12-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for the H + SiH(4) abstraction reaction. The surface is constructed using a dual-level strategy. For the temperature range 200-1600 K, thermal rate constants are calculated and kinetic isotope effects for various isotopic species of the title reaction are investigated. The results are in very good agreement with available experimental data.

  18. ADVANCED INTRAMOLECULAR DIELS-ALDER STUDY TOWARD THE SYNTHESIS OF (-)-MORPHINE: STRUCTURE CORRECTION OF A PREVIOUSLY REPORTED DIELS-ALDER PRODUCT. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  1. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    PubMed

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  2. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  3. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  4. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  5. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  6. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  7. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...Packaged Dental Instrument4’, (Abstract #1133) 8. I. L. SHKLAIR*, R. W. GAUGLER, R. G. WALTER -.The Effect of Three Surfactants on Controlling Caries...Insoluble Streptococcal Glucan"’. e (Abstract #102) - _/_ / 10. R. G. WALTER* and I. L. SHKLAIR - The Effect of T-10 Dextran on Caries and Plaque in

  8. Theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction of substituted phenols by nitrogen dioxide as a source of HONO.

    PubMed

    Shenghur, Abraham; Weber, Kevin H; Nguyen, Nhan D; Sontising, Watit; Tao, Fu-Ming

    2014-11-20

    The mild yet promiscuous reactions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and phenolic derivatives to produce nitrous acid (HONO) have been explored with density functional theory calculations. The reaction is found to occur via four distinct pathways with both proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms available. While the parent reaction with phenol may not be significant in the gas phase, electron donating groups in the ortho and para positions facilitate the reduction of nitrogen dioxide by electronically stabilizing the product phenoxy radical. Hydrogen bonding groups in the ortho position may additionally stabilize the nascent resonantly stabilized radical product, thus enhancing the reaction. Catechol (ortho-hydroxy phenol) has a predicted overall free energy change ΔG(0) = -0.8 kcal mol(-1) and electronic activation energy Ea = 7.0 kcal mol(-1). Free amines at the ortho and para positions have ΔG(0) = -3.8 and -1.5 kcal mol(-1); Ea = 2.3 and 2.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the hydrogen abstraction reactions of these substituted phenols by NO2 are fast and spontaneous. Hammett constants produce a linear correlation with bond dissociation energy (BDE) demonstrating that the BDE is the main parameter controlling the dark abstraction reaction. The implications for atmospheric chemistry and ground-level nitrous acid production are discussed.

  9. Randomized phase II study comparing gemcitabine plus dacarbazine versus dacarbazine alone in patients with previously treated soft tissue sarcoma: a Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas study.

    PubMed

    García-Del-Muro, Xavier; López-Pousa, Antonio; Maurel, Joan; Martín, Javier; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Casado, Antonio; Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Fra, Joaquín; Cruz, Josefina; Poveda, Andrés; Meana, Andrés; Pericay, Carlos; Cubedo, Ricardo; Rubió, Jordi; De Juan, Ana; Laínez, Nuria; Carrasco, Juan Antonio; de Andrés, Raquel; Buesa, José M

    2011-06-20

    To assess the activity and toxicity of the combination of gemcitabine plus dacarbazine (DTIC) in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in a randomized, multicenter, phase II study using DTIC alone as a control arm. Patients with previously treated advanced STS were randomly assigned to receive either fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (10 mg/m2/min) at 1800 mg/m2 followed by DTIC at 500 mg/m2 every 2 weeks, or DTIC alone at 1200 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. The primary end point of the study was progression-free rate (PFR) at 3 months. From November 2005 to September 2008, 113 patients were included. PFR at 3 months was 56% for gemcitabine plus DTIC versus 37% for DTIC alone (P = .001). Median progression-free survival was 4.2 months versus 2 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.86; P = .005), and median overall survival was 16.8 months versus 8.2 months (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.90; P = .014); both favored the arm of gemcitabine plus DTIC. Gemcitabine plus DTIC was also associated with a higher objective response or higher stable disease rate than was DTIC alone (49% v 25%; P = .009). Severe toxicities were uncommon, and treatment discontinuation for toxicity was rare. Granulocytopenia was the more common serious adverse event, but febrile neutropenia was uncommon. Asthenia, emesis, and stomatitis were the most frequent nonhematologic effects. The combination of gemcitabine and DTIC is active and well tolerated in patients with STS, providing in this phase II randomized trial superior progression-free survival and overall survival than DTIC alone. This regimen constitutes a valuable therapeutic alternative for these patients.

  10. The BATTLE-2 Study: A Biomarker-Integrated Targeted Therapy Study in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tsao, Anne S.; Fossella, Frank V.; Kalhor, Neda; Gupta, Sanjay; Byers, Lauren Averett; Izzo, Julie G.; Gettinger, Scott N.; Goldberg, Sarah B.; Tang, Ximing; Miller, Vincent A.; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Gibbons, Don L.; Shen, Li; Wei, Caimiao; Diao, Lixia; Peng, S. Andrew; Wang, Jing; Tam, Alda L.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Koo, Ja Seok; Mauro, David J.; Rubin, Eric H.; Heymach, John V.; Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose By applying the principles of real-time biopsy, biomarker-based, adaptively randomized studies in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) established by the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (BATTLE) trial, we conducted BATTLE-2 (BATTLE-2 Program: A Biomarker-Integrated Targeted Therapy Study in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), an umbrella study to evaluate the effects of targeted therapies focusing on KRAS-mutated cancers. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC (excluding sensitizing EGFR mutations and ALK gene fusions) refractory to more than one prior therapy were randomly assigned, stratified by KRAS status, to four arms: (1) erlotinib, (2) erlotinib plus MK-2206, (3) MK-2206 plus AZD6244, or (4) sorafenib. Tumor gene expression profiling–targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to evaluate predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Results Two hundred patients, 27% with KRAS-mutated (KRAS mut+) tumors, were adaptively randomly assigned to erlotinib (n = 22), erlotinib plus MK-2206 (n = 42), MK-2206 plus AZD6244 (n = 75), or sorafenib (n = 61). In all, 186 patients were evaluable, and the primary end point of an 8-week disease control rate (DCR) was 48% (arm 1, 32%; arm 2, 50%; arm 3, 53%; and arm 4, 46%). For KRAS mut+ patients, DCR was 20%, 25%, 62%, and 44% whereas for KRAS wild-type patients, DCR was 36%, 57%, 49%, and 47% for arms 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 2.0 months, not different by KRAS status, 1.8 months for arm 1, and 2.5 months for arms 2 versus arms 3 and 4 in KRAS mut+ patients (P = .04). Median overall survival was 6.5 months, 9.0 and 5.1 months for arms 1 and 2 versus arms 3 and 4 in KRAS wild-type patients (P = .03). Median overall survival was 7.5 months in mesenchymal versus 5 months in epithelial tumors (P = .02). Conclusion Despite improved progression-free survival on therapy that did not contain

  11. The BATTLE-2 Study: A Biomarker-Integrated Targeted Therapy Study in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Tsao, Anne S; Fossella, Frank V; Kalhor, Neda; Gupta, Sanjay; Byers, Lauren Averett; Izzo, Julie G; Gettinger, Scott N; Goldberg, Sarah B; Tang, Ximing; Miller, Vincent A; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Gibbons, Don L; Shen, Li; Wei, Caimiao; Diao, Lixia; Peng, S Andrew; Wang, Jing; Tam, Alda L; Coombes, Kevin R; Koo, Ja Seok; Mauro, David J; Rubin, Eric H; Heymach, John V; Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy S

    2016-08-01

    By applying the principles of real-time biopsy, biomarker-based, adaptively randomized studies in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) established by the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (BATTLE) trial, we conducted BATTLE-2 (BATTLE-2 Program: A Biomarker-Integrated Targeted Therapy Study in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), an umbrella study to evaluate the effects of targeted therapies focusing on KRAS-mutated cancers. Patients with advanced NSCLC (excluding sensitizing EGFR mutations and ALK gene fusions) refractory to more than one prior therapy were randomly assigned, stratified by KRAS status, to four arms: (1) erlotinib, (2) erlotinib plus MK-2206, (3) MK-2206 plus AZD6244, or (4) sorafenib. Tumor gene expression profiling-targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to evaluate predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Two hundred patients, 27% with KRAS-mutated (KRAS mut+) tumors, were adaptively randomly assigned to erlotinib (n = 22), erlotinib plus MK-2206 (n = 42), MK-2206 plus AZD6244 (n = 75), or sorafenib (n = 61). In all, 186 patients were evaluable, and the primary end point of an 8-week disease control rate (DCR) was 48% (arm 1, 32%; arm 2, 50%; arm 3, 53%; and arm 4, 46%). For KRAS mut+ patients, DCR was 20%, 25%, 62%, and 44% whereas for KRAS wild-type patients, DCR was 36%, 57%, 49%, and 47% for arms 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 2.0 months, not different by KRAS status, 1.8 months for arm 1, and 2.5 months for arms 2 versus arms 3 and 4 in KRAS mut+ patients (P = .04). Median overall survival was 6.5 months, 9.0 and 5.1 months for arms 1 and 2 versus arms 3 and 4 in KRAS wild-type patients (P = .03). Median overall survival was 7.5 months in mesenchymal versus 5 months in epithelial tumors (P = .02). Despite improved progression-free survival on therapy that did not contain erlotinib for KRAS mut+ patients and improved

  12. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  13. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  14. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  15. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  16. Energy Research Abstracts. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations. ERA coverage of non-report literature is limited to that generated by Department of Energy activity. ERA is comprehensive in its subject scope, encompassing the DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technological programs resulting from its broadmore » charter for energy sources, conservation, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation. Corporate, author, subject, report number, and contract number indexes are included. ERA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research intitutions, industrial firms, and publishers of scientific information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain ERA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. ERA is available to the public on a subscription basis for 24 semimonthly issues including a semiannual index and an annual index. All citations announced in ERA exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  17. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    PubMed

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  18. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  19. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  20. Education and Training that Meets the Needs of Small Business: List of 198 Studies with Abstracts and Reasons for Exclusion. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan; Naidu, Radhika; Harris, Lee-Ann

    2007-01-01

    This document lists 198 studies with abstracts and reasons for exclusion in support of the main report, "Education and Training that Meets the Needs of Small Business: A Systematic Review of Research" (ED499699). [This work has been produced with funding provided through the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. For a…

  1. An open-label, single arm, phase III clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ smallpox vaccine in previously vaccinated healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Kang, Yu Min; Kim, Gayeon; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Song, Jin Su; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik-Lin; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-don

    2013-10-25

    The increased possibility of bioterrorism has led to reinitiation of smallpox vaccination. In Korea, more than 30 years have passed since the last smallpox vaccinations, and even people who were previously vaccinated are not regarded as adequately protected against smallpox. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, in healthy adults previously vaccinated against smallpox. We conducted an open label, single arm, phase III clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300. Healthy volunteers, previously vaccinated against smallpox, born between 1950 and 1978 were enrolled. CJ-50300 was administered with a bifurcated needle over the deltoid muscle according to the recommended method. The rate of the cutaneous take reaction, humoral immunogenicity, and safety of the vaccine was assessed. Of 145 individuals enrolled for vaccination, 139 completed the study. The overall rates of cutaneous take reactions and humoral immunogenicity were 95.0% (132/139) and 88.5% (123/139), respectively. Although 95.9% (139/145) reported adverse events related to vaccination, no serious adverse reactions were observed. CJ-50300 can be used safely and effectively in healthy adults previously vaccinated against smallpox. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Is email a reliable means of contacting authors of previously published papers? A study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, F

    2003-07-01

    To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.

  3. Full-text publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings (2010-2012): a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Komagamine, Junpei; Yabuki, Taku

    2018-06-22

    To determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings and the factors associated with publication. A retrospective observational study. All abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings (2010-2012). Publication rates were determined by searching the MEDLINE database for full-text articles published by September 2017. Data on presentation format (oral vs poster), affiliation of the first author, number of authors, number of involved institutions, journal of publication and publication date were abstracted. Of the 1003 abstracts evaluated, 38 (3.8%, 95% CI 2.6% to 5.0%) were subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in the MEDLINE database. The median time to publication was 15.5 months (IQR, 9.3-29.3 months). More than 95% of published abstracts were published within 4 years. The publications appeared in 23 different journals (21 English-language journals and two Japanese-language journals). Based on univariate analysis using binary logistic regression, publication was more frequent for oral presentations (7.3%vs2.0% for poster presentations; OR 3.91,95% CI 1.98 to 7.75), and for first authors affiliated with university-associated institutions (6.4%vs2.4% for first authors affiliated with non-university-associated institutions; OR 2.75,95% CI 1.42 to 5.30). Based on multivariate analysis, oral presentation and first author affiliation with a university-associated institution were still the only independent predictive factors for publication (adjusted OR 3.50(95% CI 1.72 to 7.12) and adjusted OR 2.35(95% CI 1.19 to 4.63), respectively). Even among 151 abstracts presented orally by first authors affiliated with a university-associated institution, only 18 abstracts (11.9%) were subsequently published in peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of abstracts presented at the Japan Primary Care Association Annual Meetings was extremely low. Further studies are

  4. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  5. Importance of tunneling in H-abstraction reactions by OH radicals. The case of CH4 + OH studied through isotope-substituted analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, T.; Fedoseev, G.; Kästner, J.; Ioppolo, S.; Linnartz, H.

    2017-03-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study focussing on the quantum tunneling of atoms in the reaction between CH4 and OH. The importance of this reaction pathway is derived by investigating isotope substituted analogs. Quantitative reaction rates needed for astrochemical models at low temperature are currently unavailable both in the solid state and in the gas phase. Here, we study tunneling effects upon hydrogen abstraction in CH4 + OH by focusing on two reactions: CH4 + OD → CH3 + HDO and CD4 + OH → CD3 + HDO. The experimental study shows that the solid-state reaction rate RCH4 + OD is higher than RCD4 + OH at 15 K. Experimental results are accompanied by calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular reaction rate constants using instanton theory taking into account surface effects. For the work presented here, the unimolecular reactions are particularly interesting as these provide insight into reactions following a Langmuir-Hinshelwood process. The resulting ratio of the rate constants shows that the H abstraction (kCH4 + OD) is approximately ten times faster than D-abstraction (kCD4 + OH) at 65 K. We conclude that tunneling is involved at low temperatures in the abstraction reactions studied here. The unimolecular rate constants can be used by the modeling community as a first approach to describe OH-mediated abstraction reactions in the solid phase. For this reason we provide fits of our calculated rate constants that allow the inclusion of these reactions in models in a straightforward fashion.

  6. Previous dropout from diabetic care as a predictor of patients' willingness to use mobile applications for self-management: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoko; Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Waki, Hironori; Nannya, Yasuhito; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Preventing dropout is crucial in managing diabetes. Accordingly, we investigated whether patients who had dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for the use of mobile technologies - such as smartphone applications - to support self-management (mHealth), which might help prevent dropout. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged 20 years or older who were clinically diagnosed as diabetic and who regularly visited the outpatient unit at the University of Tokyo Hospital were recruited between August 2014 and March 2015. Data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews, physical measurements and medical records. Participants were asked whether they were willing to use mHealth after being shown DialBetics - an mHealth application for diabetics - as an example, and about their history of dropout and previous mHealth experience. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. Of 307 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, 34 (11.1%) had previously dropped out from diabetic care. Multivariate analysis identified previous mHealth experience as a negative predictor of dropout (odds ratio 0.211, P = 0.023). Of those 34 patients, 27 (79.4%) expressed willingness to use mHealth, a significantly higher percentage than for those who had never dropped out (51.5%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, history of dropout remained a strong predictor of willingness (odds ratio 3.870, P = 0.004). Patients who previously dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for mHealth. Future studies must evaluate whether mHealth is effective for preventing repeated dropout and improving glycemic control among this population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction--College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1984 (Vol. 45 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 13 titles deal with the following topics: (1) the development, implementation, and evaluation of a reading improvement program for business and industry; (2) how instruction in a college rapid reading course meets individual…

  8. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes abstracts of special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include digital imagery; text summarization; browsing; digital libraries; icons and the Web; information management; curricula planning; interfaces; information systems; theories; scholarly and scientific communication; global development; archives; document delivery;…

  10. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  11. Genetic causes of maturity onset diabetes of the young may be less prevalent in American pregnant women recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus than in previously studied European populations.

    PubMed

    Sewell, M F; Presley, L H; Holland, S H; Catalano, P M

    2015-07-01

    There are many causes of impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant women. It is unclear whether genetic etiologies are a source of impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant women. To prospectively determine the prevalence of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) due to glucokinase (GCK) mutations in an American population of women with recent onset diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes. We hypothesized that based on America's higher prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 diabetes, there may be an increased prevalence of GK mutations in our population than in previously reported studies from European studies. Over a three-year period, 72 pregnant women with recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus were prospectively assessed for presence of the most common pathogenic GCK mutations. This study was performed in a gestational diabetes clinic in Urban America and a high-risk pregnancy clinic that served the military and their families on an American military base in Germany. Seventy-two women; 65 with diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in this pregnancy (GDM/overt diabetes) and 7 with diagnosis in the last nine years prior to pregnancy were recruited during pregnancy and blood samples were obtained. None. Each study participant's blood sample was analyzed with restriction fragment length polymorphism to assess for mutations in the GCK gene. There were 38 female and 34 male neonates born at 38 weeks gestation ± 1.2 weeks. Mean birth weight was 3351 g ± 450 g. There were no patients with GCK mutations found in our population 0/72. This prevalence is not greater than that seen in previous a similar study in European women with gestational diabetes, but in fact significantly less (p = 0.03). American women with recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus likely have no higher prevalence of MODY than in previously studied European women with diabetes mellitus and may have a lower prevalence.

  12. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  13. Subsequent publication of oral and maxillofacial surgery meeting abstracts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Joseph L; Laskin, Daniel M

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies in various medical specialties have shown that fewer than 50% of abstracts presented at meetings are subsequently published. The purpose of the present study was to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. The titles and authors of the abstracts from all oral abstract session presentations and posters by American contributors were collected from the Final Programs of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons annual meetings for 2006 to 2009. A PubMed search for published articles through December 2010 was then performed using the authors' names, abstract titles, and key words. A total of 311 abstract presentations were done at the 4 annual meetings. Of these, only 85 (24%) were subsequently published. No difference was found between abstracts from oral or poster presentations. Most of the articles were published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Because of deficiencies that can occur in abstracts and the need to disseminate the information they contain, it is important to take the appropriate measures to ensure that full articles are subsequently published. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A phase II study of pralatrexate with vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation for previously treated recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alan L; Lipson, Brynna L; Sherman, Eric J; Xiao, Han; Fury, Matthew G; Apollo, Arlyn; Seetharamu, Nagashree; Sima, Camelia S; Haque, Sofia; Lyo, John K; Sales, Roberta; Cox, Lisa; Pfister, David G

    2014-06-01

    Pralatrexate (Fotolyn(TM); Allos Therapeutics Inc.) is an antifolate dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor. We conducted a phase II study of pralatrexate with folic acid and B12 supplementation in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer (R/M HNSCC). This was a single-arm, Simon optimal two stage phase II study. Patients with R/M HNSCC previously treated with chemotherapy were eligible. The study was initiated with a dosing schedule of pralatrexate 190 mg/m(2) biweekly on a 4-week cycle with vitamin supplementation. Due to toxicity concerns, the dosing was modified to 30 mg/m(2) weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle with vitamin supplementation. Radiologic imaging was to be obtained about every 2 cycles. Thirteen subjects were enrolled; 12 were treated. Seven of the twelve patients had previously received ≥2 lines of chemotherapy. The most common grade 3 toxicity was mucositis (3 patients). Seven patients did not complete two cycles of therapy due to progression of disease (4), toxicity (1), death (1), and withdrawal of consent (1). Two deaths occurred: one due to disease progression and the other was an unwitnessed event that was possibly related to pralatrexate. No clinical activity was observed. The median overall survival was 3.1 months. The study was closed early due to lack of efficacy. Pralatrexate does not possess clinical activity against previously treated R/M HNSCC. Evaluation of pralatrexate in other clinical settings of HNSCC management with special considerations for drug toxicity may be warranted.

  15. Surgical cannulation of the superior ophthalmic vein for the treatment of previously embolized cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas: serial studies and angiographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Duan, Chuan-Zhi; He, Xu-Ying; Li, Xi-Feng; Karuna, Tamrakar; Gu, Da-Qun; Long, Xiao-Ao; Li, Tie-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Zhong; Ke, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Xiao-Dan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transorbital puncture for the retreatment of previously embolized cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) via a superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach. During a 12-year period, 9 consecutive patients with previously embolized cavernous sinus DAVFs underwent retreatment via the transorbital SOV approach. All of the nine cases of previously embolized cavernous sinus DAVFs were successfully embolized. Clinical follow-ups were conducted in all nine cases at the duration of 17-141 months (61.22 ± 39.13 months). No recanalization occurred during the follow-up period. A subtle ptosis appeared in two patients and disappeared in one of the two cases after a 4-year follow-up. One patient suffered from paroxysmal positional vertigo and bruit for nearly 2 years after the treatment, but the follow-up angiography demonstrated no recurrence. One patient had persistent visual impairment caused by the initial venous stasis retinopathy. One patient with a history of a procedure-related transient decrease in visual acuity had it return to the normal level. The remaining four cases had clear improvement in the ocular symptoms and became completely asymptomatic during the follow-up period. No patient worsened or developed new symptoms. The approach of surgical cannulation of the SOV for the retreatment of previously embolized cavernous sinus DAVFs was proved feasible and efficient, especially when the transarterial and transfemoral venous approaches were inaccessible. However, if the SOV is not dilated enough or is located deeply in the orbit, transorbital venous puncture access may not be possible.

  16. Accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation: results of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gang; Zhu, Ji; Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-12-11

    This study was conducted to investigate the local effects and toxicity of accelerated hyperfractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. Twenty-two patients with recurrent/unresectable rectal cancer who previously received pelvic irradiation were enrolled in our single-center trial between January 2007 and August 2012. Reirradiation was scheduled for up to 39 Gy in 30 fractions using intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. The dose was delivered via a hyperfractionation schedule of 1.3 Gy twice daily. Patient follow-up was performed by clinical examination, CT/MRI, or PET/CT every 3 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Tumor response was evaluated 1 month after reirradiation by CT/MRI based on the RECIST criteria. Adverse events were assessed using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) common toxicity criteria (version 3.0). The median time from the end of the initial radiation therapy to reirradiation was 30 months (range, 18-93 months). Overall local responses were observed in 9 patients (40.9%). None of the patients achieved a complete response (CR), and 9 patients (40.9%) had a partial response (PR). Thirteen patients failed to achieve a clinical response: 12 (54.5%) presented with stable disease (SD) and 1 (4.5%) with progressive disease (PD). Among all the patients who underwent reirradiation, partial or complete symptomatic relief was achieved in 6 patients (27.3%) and 13 patients (59.1%), respectively. Grade 4 acute toxicity and treatment-related deaths were not observed. The following grade 3 acute toxicities were observed: diarrhea (2 patients, 9.1%), cystitis (1 patient, 4.5%), dermatitis (1 patient, 4.5%), and intestinal obstruction (1 patient, 4.5%). Late toxicity was infrequent. Chronic severe diarrhea, small bowel obstruction, and dysuria were observed in 2 (9.1%), 1 (4.5%) and 2 (9.1%) of the patients, respectively. This study showed that

  17. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), (2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  18. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilities to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Codemore » also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  19. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  20. Attitude of an Egyptian Sample of Medical Students Toward Psychiatry in Comparison to Previous Studies Using the Attitudes Towards Psychiatry (ATP-30) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Amr Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to determine the attitude of medical students toward psychiatry at the College of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt, and to compare it with previous similar studies in other countries. Four hundred medical students, randomly selected from four different years, completed the Attitudes Towards Psychiatry (ATP-30) in a cross-sectional study. The mean ATP score was 99.31; 76.3% of the students had favorable attitudes toward psychiatry and 29.5% considered psychiatry as a potential career choice. A generally positive attitude toward psychiatry was found among medical students in Menoufia University. Consistent with this positive attitude was the relatively high percentage of students who considered psychiatry as a potential career.

  1. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION COMPILED IN 1965-66 IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC REGION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVE, GENE M.

    FORTY-TWO DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, STAFF STUDIES, AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- ADMINISTRATION, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, CAREER CHOICE, CURRICULUM, COMMUNITY COLLEGES, EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, EXTENSION EDUCATION, FARMERS, GRADUATE STUDENTS, INNOVATIONS, INTERNATIONAL…

  2. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  3. The Effect of Heme Environment on the Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction of Camphor in P450cam Catalysis: A QM/MM Study

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Ahmet; Guallar, Victor; Friesner, Richard A.; Shaik, Sason; Thiel, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The discrepancies between the published QM/MM studies (Schöneboom, J. C.; Cohen, S.; Lin, H.; Shaik, S.; Thiel, W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 4017 / Guallar, V.; Friesner, R. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 8501) on H-abstraction of camphor in P450cam have largely been resolved. The crystallographic water molecule 903 situated near the oxo atom of Compound I acts as a catalyst for H-abstraction, lowering the barrier by about 4 kcal/mol. Spin density at the A-propionate side chain of heme can occur in the case of incomplete screening, but has no major effect on the computed barrier. PMID:16551096

  4. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  5. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  6. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  7. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  8. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  9. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  10. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  11. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  12. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  13. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  14. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  16. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  17. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  18. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  19. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  20. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  1. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    PubMed

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  2. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P < .05. The ACL-reconstructed male athletes did not show any significant (P < .05) residual jumping biomechanical deficits regarding the measured variables compared with players who had not suffered this knee injury. A dominance effect was observed among non-ACL reconstructed controls but not among their ACL-reconstructed counterparts (P < .05). Elite male handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in

  3. Abstracts of Master of Military Art and Science (MMAS) Theses and Special Studies 1976-1977 Annual Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    of the First World War effort. The pictorial poster is a medium of visual communication that tells a story, usually with few or no words. This study...basis for analysis of the visual communication effort. Categories of neea are defined as groupings of war posters with similar themes designed to...the principles of pictorial poster design are applicable to visual communication regardless of the media; and 3) t.-e graphic art poster can fulfill

  4. Phase I study of 3-weekly combination chemotherapy using epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and S-1 (EOS) in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sym, Sun Jin; Hong, Junsik; Jung, Minkyu; Park, Jinny; Cho, Eun Kyung; Lee, Woon Ki; Chung, Min; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Jae Hoon; Shin, Dong Bok

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the recommended dose (RD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) associated with epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and S-1 (EOS) combination therapy in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Previously untreated patients with histologically proven metastatic AGC, with an ECOG performance status of 0-2, were enrolled in this study. A fixed dose of epirubicin (50 mg/m(2)) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2)) was intravenously administered on day 1 of treatment, followed by oral S-1 administration twice daily on days 1-14. The S-1 dose was escalated according to the following schedule: level I, 35 mg/m(2); level II, 40 mg/m(2); level III, 45 mg/m(2); Level IV, 50 mg/m(2). Each cycle was repeated every 21 days. DLTs were evaluated during the first two cycles of treatment. Nineteen patients with a median age of 53 years (range, 40-71 years) were enrolled in this study. One case of DLT (grade 4 neutropenia lasting more than 5 days) developed from among the six dose level II patients, while 2 DLTs (grade 3 diarrhea and nausea) were observed among the 4 dose level III patients. Based on these results, dose level II was determined as the RD. Of the 13 patients with measurable lesions, eight achieved partial response, three showed stable disease, and the objective response rate was 61.5 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 13.3-66.6 %). The median progression-free survival and overall survival of all patients was 6.8 months (95 % CI, 1.4-9.5 months) and 13.3 months (95 % CI, 1.9-24.6 months), respectively. The RD of the EOS regimen in patients with previously untreated AGC was 50 mg/m(2) of epirubicin and 130 mg/m(2) of oxaliplatin on day 1, with administration of 40 mg/m(2) of S-1 twice a day on days 1-14 for each 21-day cycle. The EOS regimen described produced promising results.

  5. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence.

    PubMed

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-06-03

    Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Retrospective cohort study. Finnish healthcare registers. Women aged 45-64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001-2004 (n=42 807). Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events may be due to the healthy-adherer effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously treated patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Kataoka, Yuki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kim, Young Hak; Tomii, Keisuke; Ishida, Tadashi; Hirabayashi, Masataka; Hara, Satoshi; Ishitoko, Manabu; Fukuda, Yasushi; Hwang, Moon Hee; Sakai, Naoki; Fukui, Motonari; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Morita, Mitsunori; Mio, Tadashi; Yasuda, Takehiro; Sugita, Takakazu; Hirai, Toyohiro

    2018-05-01

    Nivolumab has been shown to be effective and safe in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known regarding its performance in real-world (i.e., non-trial) settings. Furthermore, nivolumab efficacy is unknown in patients who are ineligible for clinical trials or who are categorized into small subgroups in such trials. We conducted a 15-center, observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with advanced NSCLC who received nivolumab monotherapy between January and December 2016. Of 613 patients included in our study, 141 had poor performance status (PS) and 106 were EGFR mutation - or ALK rearrangement-positive. The response and disease control rates were 20% and 44%, respectively; the estimated 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18%. Multivariate analysis identified never smoking, poor PS, and EGFR mutation/ALK rearrangement as independent negative predictors of PFS. The most frequently reported grade ≥3 adverse event was pneumonitis (5% of patients). Severe pneumonitis (grade ≥3) occurred significantly earlier than mild pneumonitis (1.6 vs. 2.3 months, P = 0.031). Patients with pneumonitis achieved higher response rates and longer PFS than those without (37% vs. 18%, and 5.8 vs. 2.1 months, respectively; P = 0.002). Smoking status, PS, and EGFR mutation/ALK rearrangement were independent predictors of PFS. Our study elucidated nivolumab's efficacy in previously underreported patient populations; i.e., those with poor PS and/or with driver oncogenes. We also found that pneumonitis is not infrequent, and carries key implications for outcomes. These data should be useful for improving the clinical courses of nivolumab-treated patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis testing in a high school based screening and previously in clinical practice: a cross-sectional study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High school based chlamydia screening has been shown to increase uptake and detect hidden infections among sexually active adolescents. Our study aimed to: i) examine the proportions of 15–20 year-olds tested in a high school based screening and previously in clinical practice, ii) determine chlamydia prevalence according to testing pattern, and iii) examine factors associated with testing in the two settings. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 high schools in Norway in 2009, using web-questionnaires and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine (800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). Only sexually active participants at risk for chlamydia infections were included in the analyses. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with ‘clinic based testing’ and ‘school based screening’ as outcome variables. Results 56% of girls and 21% of boys reported previous clinic based testing. In the school based screening, 93% were tested with no gender difference. 42% of girls and 74% of boys were tested for the first time at school (‘school-only test’). Both girls with clinic based testing and girls with school-only test had high chlamydia prevalence (7.3% vs 7.2%). Boys with clinic based testing had twice the prevalence of those with school-only test (6.2% vs 3.0%, p = 0.01). Half of infections were detected in participants with school-only test. One-fifth were repeat infections. In multivariable analysis of girls and boys combined, female gender, older age, early sexual debut, no condom use at first and last intercourse, steady relationship, and higher number of lifetime partners increased the odds of clinic based testing. The odds of school based screening increased with male gender, academic affiliation, later sexual debut, condom use at first intercourse, and current urogenital symptoms in multivariable analysis. Conclusions More than half the girls had been tested prior to the school

  8. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of switching to alternative tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists versus switching to rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed previous TNF antagonists: the MIRAR Study.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Maneiro, Jose Ramon; Ruiz, Jorge; Roselló, Rosa; Sanmarti, Raimon; Romero, Ana Belen

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of switching to rituximab (RTX) with switching to alternative tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) failing on TNF antagonists. A multicentre prospective 3-year observational study was performed in patients with RA treated with RTX or an alternative TNF antagonist. The baseline 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score were compared with 6, 9 and 12 month values, adjusting for propensity score quintiles. Propensity scores were estimated for each patient using logistic regression with treatment as the dependent variable and baseline prior number of TNFs >1, years from diagnosis >5, extra-articular manifestations, previous toxicity, use of ≥2 disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, age and sex as independent variables. 1124 patients were treated with either RTX (n=591, 52.6%) or alternative TNF antagonists (n=533, 47.4%). RTX-treated patients had longer disease duration (p=0.0001), larger numbers of previous TNF antagonists (p<0.0001) and tender and swollen joints (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the reduction in DAS28 at 6, 9 and 12 months between RTX-treated patients and those treated with TNF antagonists. However, the reduction in DAS28 was significantly different between RTX-treated patients and adalimumab/infliximab-treated patients (p=0.001 and p=0.05, respectively). There was a marginally significant difference at any time period in the proportion of patients achieving an improvement in the HAQ score of >0.22 (p=0.06). Optimal treatment for patients with RA failing on treatment with TNF antagonists may include RTX. This study suggests that the improvement in DAS28 is larger in patients treated with RTX than in those treated with monoclonal anti-TNF agents.

  11. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review from 2013 to 2015 and a Comparison with Previous Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Maria; Lafontan, Max; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Winzer, Eva; Yumuk, Volkan; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Partly inconsistent findings from previous reviews have fueled discussions on the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on obesity development. The aim was to systematically review the recent evidence in children and adults. Methods Data were retrieved from the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library for the period January 2013 to October 2015. A systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relating SSBs to weight measures was conducted. Results 30 publications met the inclusion criteria. Prospective cohort studies (96%; n = 26) showed a positive association between consumption of SSBs and weight/BMI in adults and children (n = 242,352), and only one cohort study in children showed no association. Findings from three RCTs in children demonstrated that SSB consumption had an effect on BMI/BMI z-score. The one RCT in adults showed no significant effect of the intervention. 63% of the studies were of good, 30% of medium quality, and none was funded by industry. Conclusion Recent evidence suggests that SSB consumption is positively associated with or has an effect on obesity indices in children and adults. By combining the already published evidence with the new one, we conclude that public health policies should aim to reduce the consumption of SSBs and encourage healthy alternatives such as water. PMID:29237159

  13. Ab initio based potential energy surface and kinetics study of the OH + NH3 hydrogen abstraction reaction.

    PubMed

    Monge-Palacios, M; Rangel, C; Espinosa-Garcia, J

    2013-02-28

    A full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the OH + NH3 → H2O + NH2 gas-phase reaction was developed based exclusively on high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents a very complicated shape with wells along the reaction path. Using a wide spectrum of properties of the reactive system (equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and relative energies of the stationary points, topology of the reaction path, and points on the reaction swath) as reference, the resulting analytical PES reproduces reasonably well the input ab initio information obtained at the coupled-cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)) = FULL/aug-cc-pVTZ//CCSD(T) = FC/cc-pVTZ single point level, which represents a severe test of the new surface. As a first application, on this analytical PES we perform an extensive kinetics study using variational transition-state theory with semiclassical transmission coefficients over a wide temperature range, 200-2000 K. The forward rate constants reproduce the experimental measurements, while the reverse ones are slightly underestimated. However, the detailed analysis of the experimental equilibrium constants (from which the reverse rate constants are obtained) permits us to conclude that the experimental reverse rate constants must be re-evaluated. Another severe test of the new surface is the analysis of the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), which were not included in the fitting procedure. The KIEs reproduce the values obtained from ab initio calculations in the common temperature range, although unfortunately no experimental information is available for comparison.

  14. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  15. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Development in Initally Caries-Free Naval Recruits" (Abstract #898) , 13. M. R. WIRTHLIN* and E. B. HANCOCK - " Regeneration After Biologic Treat- ment of...These variables can be grouped into four categories: oral condition (N-7), clinical attendance (N=4), personal characteristics (N=4), and record...Histologic examination of the pulp tissue in these teeth were related to the clinical criteria prior to extraction. Clinical criteria associated

  16. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  17. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303-1.221, p = 0.001, respectively). Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181- 0.753, p = 0.001). Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More

  18. A pilot study on the effect of a symbiotic mixture in irritable bowel syndrome: an open-label, partially controlled, 6-month extension of a previously published trial.

    PubMed

    Bucci, C; Tremolaterra, F; Gallotta, S; Fortunato, A; Cappello, C; Ciacci, C; Iovino, P

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the efficacy of probiotics has received considerable attention in the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this regard, a symbiotic mixture (Probinul(®)) has shown beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to extend the previously published 4-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of this symbiotic mixture. This is an open-label prospective, partially controlled, 6-month extension period pilot study in which patients continued to receive the symbiotic mixture (Group 1) or were switched from placebo to symbiotic mixture (Group 2) using cyclic administration (last 2 weeks/month). The primary endpoints were the overall satisfactory relief of bloating and flatulence (assessed as proportions of responders). The secondary endpoints were evaluation of the symptom severity scores (bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency) and bowel function scores (frequency, consistency and incomplete evacuation). Twenty-six IBS patients completed the 6-month extension period (13 patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2). In the per-protocol analysis, the proportions of responders across time were not significantly different in the groups but in Group 2, there was an increased percentage of responders for flatulence (p = 0.07). In addition, the score of flatulence was reduced significantly during the 6-month treatment period in Group 2 (p < 0.05), while no other significant differences were detected. Treatment with this symbiotic mixture was associated with persistence of relief from flatulence or new reduction in flatulence in the present 6-month long extension study. These results need to be more comprehensively assessed in large, long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

  19. Using the Abstraction Network in Complement to Description Logics for Quality Assurance in Biomedical Terminologies - A Case Study in SNOMED CT

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Duo; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate errors identified in SNOMED CT by human reviewers with help from the Abstraction Network methodology and examine why they had escaped detection by the Description Logic (DL) classifier. Case study; Two examples of errors are presented in detail (one missing IS-A relation and one duplicate concept). After correction, SNOMED CT is reclassified to ensure that no new inconsistency was introduced. Conclusions DL-based auditing techniques built in terminology development environments ensure the logical consistency of the terminology. However, complementary approaches are needed for identifying and addressing other types of errors. PMID:20841848

  20. Using the abstraction network in complement to description logics for quality assurance in biomedical terminologies - a case study in SNOMED CT.

    PubMed

    Wei, Duo; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To investigate errors identified in SNOMED CT by human reviewers with help from the Abstraction Network methodology and examine why they had escaped detection by the Description Logic (DL) classifier. Case study; Two examples of errors are presented in detail (one missing IS-A relation and one duplicate concept). After correction, SNOMED CT is reclassified to ensure that no new inconsistency was introduced. DL-based auditing techniques built in terminology development environments ensure the logical consistency of the terminology. However, complementary approaches are needed for identifying and addressing other types of errors.

  1. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Retrospective Case-Control Study Evaluating the Role of Mifepristone for Induction of Labor in Women with Previous Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Soni, Pawan K; Verma, Suresh; Verma, Ashok; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the role of "mifepristone" for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnant women with prior cesarean section (CS). In this retrospective study, all pregnant women with prior CS who received oral mifepristone (400 mg) for IOL (as per clear obstetric indications) [group 1] were compared with pregnant women with prior CS who had spontaneous onset of labor (SOL) [group 2], with respect to incidence of vaginal delivery, CS, duration of labor, and various maternal and fetal outcomes. During the study period, 72 women received mifepristone (group 1) for IOL and 346 had SOL (group 2). In group 1 after mifepristone administration, 40 (55.6 %) women had labor onset, and 24 (33.3 %) women had cervical ripening (Bishop Score ≥ 8) within 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to duration of labor (p value: 0.681), mode of delivery (i.e., normal delivery or CS-p value: 0.076 or 0.120, respectively), or maternal (blood loss or scar dehiscence/rupture uterus), or fetal outcomes (NICU admission) compared to women with previous CS with SOL (group 2). However, the need of oxytocin (p value 0.020) and dose of oxytocin requirement (p value 0.008) were more statistically significant in group 1. Mifepristone may be considered as an agent for IOL in women with prior CS.

  3. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P < 0.001), percentage of weight change (P < 0.001), and BMI change (P < 0.001). Greater ability to resist emotional eating was demonstrated in COMBO. Sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevented weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  4. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  5. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  6. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  7. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  8. Phase II study of the immune-checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab plus dacarbazine in Japanese patients with previously untreated, unresectable or metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, N; Uhara, H; Fukushima, S; Uchi, H; Shibagaki, N; Kiyohara, Y; Tsutsumida, A; Namikawa, K; Okuyama, R; Otsuka, Y; Tokudome, T

    2015-11-01

    Ipilimumab (IPI), a monoclonal antibody against immune-checkpoint receptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, is designed to enhance antitumor T cell function. IPI 10 mg/kg plus dacarbazine (DTIC) significantly improved overall survival in a phase 3 study involving predominantly Caucasian patients, with an adverse event (AE) profile similar to that of IPI monotherapy. We conducted a single-arm, phase 2 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of IPI plus DTIC in Japanese patients. Previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma received IPI 10 mg/kg plus DTIC 850 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for four doses (q3w × 4), followed by DTIC q3w × 4 and then IPI every 12 weeks until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. All 15 treated patients reported drug-related AEs, the most common of which were increases in alanine aminotransferase (n = 12, 80 %) and aspartate aminotransferase (n = 11, 73 %). Treatment-related serious AEs were reported in 11 (73 %) patients. Nine patients (60 %) discontinued treatment due to drug-related toxicities. Immune-related AEs (irAEs) were reported in 14 patients (93 %). The most frequent irAEs were liver (n = 12, 80 %) and skin (n = 10, 67 %) toxicities. Five deaths were reported; all were caused by progressive disease. Efficacy evaluation showed one complete response, one partial response and four patients with stable disease. Best overall response rate was 13 % (2/15), and the disease control rate was 40 % (6/15). The study was terminated early due to frequent, high-grade liver toxicities. IPI 10 mg/kg plus DTIC 850 mg/m(2) was not considered tolerable in the Japanese patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01681212.

  9. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20–41) and 285 days (range 50–1240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839287

  10. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  11. VP-16 and carboplatin in previously untreated patients with extensive small cell lung cancer: a study of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W. K.; Eisenhauer, E.; Hughes, P.; Maroun, J. A.; Ayoub, J.; Shepherd, F. A.; Feld, R.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-four previously untreated patients with extensive small cell lung cancer were treated with a combination of carboplatin 300 mg m-2 i.v. on day 1 and etoposide 100 mg m-2 i.v. on days 1, 2 and 3 every 28 days. Thirty-two patients were assessable for response. Eighteen patients (56%) achieved an objective response (95% confidence limits 38%-73%). Five (16%) had a complete response and 13 (41.0%) had a partial response. The median time to response was 7.8 weeks and the median duration of response was 23.1 weeks (range 6.2 to 54 weeks). The median survival of all 34 extensive disease patients was 34.7 weeks (range 1.3-59.3 weeks). Myelosuppression (leukopenia) was the main toxicity. There was one early death that may have been treatment-related. Biochemical renal dysfunction was noted in two patients. Paresthesiae and tinnitus/hearing loss were described by three and two patients respectively. Serious gastrointestinal toxicity was infrequent. This and other studies have shown this combination to be active and well tolerated in small cell lung cancer; however, it is not yet clear if it is as efficacious as the more commonly used VP-16-cisplatin regimen. PMID:2849976

  12. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    PubMed

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  14. Abstract processing and observer vantage perspective in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Hart-Smith, Ly; Moulds, Michelle L

    2018-05-07

    processing and observer vantage perspective have been associated with negative consequences in depression. We investigated the relationship between mode of processing and vantage perspective bidirectionally in high and low dysphoric individuals, using abstract and concrete descriptions of experimenter-provided everyday actions. When vantage perspective was manipulated and processing mode was measured (Study 1a), participants who adopted a field perspective did not differ from those who adopted an observer perspective in their preference for abstract descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. When processing mode was manipulated and vantage perspective was measured (Study 1b), participants provided with abstract descriptions had a greater tendency to adopt an observer perspective than those provided with concrete descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. These results were replicated in larger online samples (Studies 2a and 2b). Together, they indicate a unidirectional causal relationship, whereby processing mode causally influences vantage perspective, in contrast to the bidirectional relationship previously reported in an unselected sample (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009). Further, these findings demonstrate that abstract processing increases the likelihood of adopting an observer perspective, and support targeting abstract processing in the treatment of depression to address the negative consequences associated with both abstract processing and recalling/imagining events from an observer perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.5) had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were GI in nature (stomach pain, GI upset, nausea, and reflux). In addition, 23 patients discontinued alendronate due to BMD reduction after January 2006. In these patients, BMD scores were significantly reduced from their prior BMD measures (change of -0.0534, p < 0.001 for spine BMD and change of -0.0338, p = 0.01 for femur BMD). Among patients who discontinued due to BMD reduction, BMD was stable in the period prior to January 2006 (change of -0.0066, p = 0.5 for spine BMD and change of 0.0011, p = 0.9 for femur BMD); however, testing for reduction after January 2006 in BMD measures (one-sided T-test) revealed there was a significant reduction in BMD scores for both anatomic sites (change of -0.0321, p = .005 for spine, change of -0.0205, p = 0.05 for femur). Conclusions

  16. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Huibers, Marcus J H; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2007-11-15

    The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group), health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1), and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2). Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A significant and relevant effect of confrontational counselling

  17. Vaginal progesterone pessaries for pregnant women with a previous preterm birth to prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (the PROGRESS Study): A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Ashwood, Pat; McPhee, Andrew J; Flenady, Vicki; Tran, Thach; Dodd, Jodie M; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a consequence of preterm birth, is a major cause of early mortality and morbidity. The withdrawal of progesterone, either actual or functional, is thought to be an antecedent to the onset of labour. There remains limited information on clinically relevant health outcomes as to whether vaginal progesterone may be of benefit for pregnant women with a history of a previous preterm birth, who are at high risk of a recurrence. Our primary aim was to assess whether the use of vaginal progesterone pessaries in women with a history of previous spontaneous preterm birth reduced the risk and severity of respiratory distress syndrome in their infants, with secondary aims of examining the effects on other neonatal morbidities and maternal health and assessing the adverse effects of treatment. Women with a live singleton or twin pregnancy between 18 to <24 weeks' gestation and a history of prior preterm birth at less than 37 weeks' gestation in the preceding pregnancy, where labour occurred spontaneously or in association with cervical incompetence or following preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, were eligible. Women were recruited from 39 Australian, New Zealand, and Canadian maternity hospitals and assigned by randomisation to vaginal progesterone pessaries (equivalent to 100 mg vaginal progesterone) (n = 398) or placebo (n = 389). Participants and investigators were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome and severity. Secondary outcomes were other respiratory morbidities; other adverse neonatal outcomes; adverse outcomes for the woman, especially related to preterm birth; and side effects of progesterone treatment. Data were analysed for all the 787 women (100%) randomised and their 799 infants. Most women used their allocated study treatment (740 women, 94.0%), with median use similar for both study groups (51.0 days, interquartile range [IQR] 28.0-69.0, in the progesterone

  18. Combination of romidepsin with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone in previously untreated patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a non-randomised, phase 1b/2 study.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Jehan; Morschhauser, Franck; Ghesquières, Hervé; Tilly, Hervé; Casasnovas, Olivier; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Bossard, Céline; Le Bras, Fabien; Bachy, Emmanuel; Hivert, Bénédicte; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Jardin, Fabrice; Bastie, Jean-Noel; Amorim, Sandy; Lazarovici, Julien; Martin, Antoine; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    Romidepsin is a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved in the USA for patients with recurrent or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma and has shown activity in this setting with mainly haematological and gastrointestinal toxicity. Although it has limited efficacy, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) therapy is widely used for treatment of de-novo peripheral T-cell lymphoma. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and activity of romidepsin combined with CHOP in patients with previously untreated disease. We enrolled patients aged 18-80 years with histologically proven, previously untreated, peripheral T-cell lymphoma (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2) into a dose-escalation (phase 1b) and expansion (phase 2) study at nine Lymphoma Study Association centres in France. In the dose-escalation phase, we allocated consecutive blocks of three participants to receive eight 3 week cycles of CHOP (intravenous cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) [maximum 2 mg] on day 1 and oral prednisone 40 mg/m(2) on days 1-5) in association with varying doses of romidepsin. The starting dose was 10 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8 of each cycle, and we used a 3 + 3 design. We assessed dose-limiting toxicities only during the first two cycles. The primary endpoint was to determine the recommended dose for the combination. For the phase 2 study, we aimed to increase the cohort of patients receiving the recommended dose to a total of 25 patients. Patients were assessed for safety outcomes at least twice per cycle according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of romidepsin and CHOP. This trial is registered at the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT), number 2010-020962-91 and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01280526. Between Jan 13, 2011, and May 21, 2013, we enrolled 37

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  1. Greenbook Abstract & Catalog--4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A.; And Others

    This catalog is the fourth in a series extending and updating teaching materials previously disseminated through the ERIC system, including the "Greenbook System" of training materials for higher education professionals (ED 103 083-084 and 148 438), Open Classroom Documentation, a procedural manual for an autoinstructional learning…

  2. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  3. Safety and activity of temsirolimus and bevacizumab in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma previously treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a phase 2 consortium study.

    PubMed

    Merchan, Jaime R; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J; Flynn, Patrick J; Fruth, Briant F; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Bevacizumab or temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV bevacizumab (level 1 = 5 mg/kg; level 2 = 10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression-free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, and PFS and OS. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks). The 6-month progression-free rate was 40 % (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease were seen in 23, 63, and 14 % of patients, respectively. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8 %), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1 %), stomatitis (8.9 %), proteinuria (8.9 %), abdominal pain (6.7 %), and anemia (6.7 %). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Temsirolimus and bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population.

  4. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  5. Phase I study of cediranib in combination with cisplatin plus fluoropyrimidine (S-1 or capecitabine) in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Taroh; Yamada, Yasuhide; Muro, Kei; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Takahari, Daisuke; Taku, Keisei; Nakajima, Takako Eguchi; Shi, Xiaojin; Brown, Kathryn H; Boku, Narikazu

    2012-02-01

    The primary objective of this Phase I study was to assess the safety and tolerability of the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling inhibitor cediranib in combination with cisplatin plus an oral fluoropyrimidine, in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer. Patients received continuous, once-daily oral doses of cediranib 20 mg in combination with either cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) iv day 1) plus S-1 (40-60 mg bid, days 1-21) every 5 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles [Arm A]; or cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) iv, day 1) plus capecitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) bid, days 1-14) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles [Arm B]. In both arms, the assessment period for dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) was the first 21 days of cycle 1. Fourteen patients (Arm A, n = 6; Arm B, n = 8) were enrolled and received at least one dose of cediranib. One patient in each arm experienced a DLT (Arm A; decreased appetite, grade 3; Arm B, decreased appetite, fatigue and hyponatraemia, all grade 3). Overall, the most common adverse events were decreased appetite, fatigue and nausea (all n = 13 [92.9%]). Preliminary efficacy evaluation showed one confirmed (Arm A) and three unconfirmed (Arm A, n = 1; Arm B, n = 2) partial responses that were ongoing at data cut-off. Cediranib 20 mg/day in combination with cisplatin and S-1 or capecitabine was tolerable, with no new toxicities identified, and showed preliminary evidence of antitumour activity.

  6. Phase Ib study of the mitochondrial inhibitor ME-344 plus topotecan in patients with previously treated, locally advanced or metastatic small cell lung, ovarian and cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Jennifer R; Goff, Barbara; Forster, Martin D; Bendell, Johanna C; Britten, Carolyn D; Gordon, Michael S; Gabra, Hani; Waterhouse, David M; Poole, Mark; Ross Camidge, D; Hamilton, Erika; Moore, Kathleen M

    2017-10-01

    Background This multicenter, open-label, phase Ib study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of ME-344, a mitochondrial inhibitor, administered in combination with the topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan, in patients with previously treated, locally advanced or metastatic small cell lung (SCLC), ovarian and cervical cancers. Patients and methods In Part 1, patients received ME-344 10 mg/kg intravenously weekly on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 in combination with topotecan 4 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle. Cycles were repeated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were evaluated for dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in cycle 1 and ME-344 pharmacokinetic samples were obtained. In Part 2, patients with locally advanced or metastatic SCLC and ovarian cancer were enrolled in expansion cohorts treated at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) determined in Part 1. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled in Part 1 and no DLTs were observed. The RP2D of ME-344 in combination with topotecan was established as 10 mg/kg. In Part 2, 32 patients were enrolled. The most common treatment-emergent all-grade and grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue (65.2%, 6.5%), neutropenia (56.5%, 43.5%) and thrombocytopenia (50%, 23.9%). One patient with recurrent ovarian cancer experienced a partial response by RECIST 1.1 and 21 patients achieved stable disease as best response. Conclusions The combination of ME-344 10 mg/kg weekly and topotecan 4 mg/m 2 was tolerable, however, the degree of anti-cancer activity does not support further investigation of the combination in unselected patients with SCLC, ovarian and cervical cancers.

  7. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Phase II study of a novel taxane (Cabazitaxel-XRP 6258) in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ankit; Jones, Benjamin S; Bordoni, Rodolfo; Saleh, Mansoor N; Jerome, Mary S; Miley, Deborah K; Jackson, Bradford E; Robert, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Given the success of cabazitaxel in patients with prostate cancer who progressed after receiving prior chemotherapy, its preclinical efficacy in various cell lines and possible ability to cross blood-brain barrier, cabazitaxel was hypothesized to increase objective response rate (ORR) in second-line setting in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was a phase II 2-stage trial in 28 patients using two different treatment schedules (A: 20 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks intravenously and B: 8.4 mg/m(2) intravenously weekly) to determine the ORR of cabazitaxel with secondary end points including progression-free survival (PFS), safety, and overall survival (OS). There was one objective response in schedule B. PFS and OS of schedule A was 3 and 6 months, respectively. PFS and OS of schedule B was 3 and 13 months, respectively. The stable disease rate was higher in schedule A (SD = 69.23 %; 95 % CL 38.57, 90.90) as compared to schedule B (SD = 38.46 %; 95 % CL 13.86, 68.42), but this difference was not statistically significant (P value = 0.1156). There were two grade 5 toxicities from sepsis. Hematuria of any grade developed in greater percentage of patients (35%) as compared to previous cabazitaxel phase 3 trial and led to change in our protocol. Response to cabazitaxel in NSCLC was not as robust as seen in prostate cancer and not superior to currently used agents such as docetaxel, pemetrexed, and erlotinib. In absence of significant objective responses, the second stage of the study was not undertaken.

  9. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  10. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Cause-Specific Mortality in Individuals Without Previous Cardiovascular Conditions: The CANHEART Study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dennis T; Alter, David A; Guo, Helen; Koh, Maria; Lau, Geoffrey; Austin, Peter C; Booth, Gillian L; Hogg, William; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Lee, Douglas S; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wilkins, John T; Tu, Jack V

    2016-11-08

    The prognostic importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a specific risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease has been challenged by recent clinical trials and genetic studies. This study sought to reappraise the association of HDL-C level with CV and non-CV mortality using a "big data" approach. An observational cohort study was conducted using the CANHEART (Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team) dataset, which was created by linking together 17 different individual-level data sources. People were included if they were between 40 and 105 years old on January 1, 2008, living in Ontario, Canada, without previous CV conditions or severe comorbidities, and had an outpatient fasting cholesterol measurement in the year prior to the inception date. The primary outcome was cause-specific mortality. A total of 631,762 individuals were included. The mean age of our cohort was 57.2 years, 55.4% were women, and mean HDL-C level was 55.2 mg/dl. There were 17,952 deaths during a mean follow-up of 4.9 ± 0.4 years. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 8.1 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.6 per 1,000 person-years for women. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were more likely to have low incomes, unhealthy lifestyle, higher triglycerides levels, other cardiac risk factors, and medical comorbidities. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were independently associated with higher risk of CV, cancer, and other mortality compared with individuals in the reference ranges of HDL-C levels. In addition, individuals with higher HDL levels (>70 mg/dl in men, >90 mg/dl in women) had increased hazard of non-CV mortality. Complex associations exist between HDL-C levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle, comorbidity factors, and mortality. HDL-C level is unlikely to represent a CV-specific risk factor given similarities in its associations with non-CV outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  12. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence and Risk of Cardiac Events in Patients With Previously Treated Multiple Myeloma Versus Matched Patients Without Multiple Myeloma: An Observational, Retrospective, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Kristin D; Kalman, Jill; Sahni, Gagan; Murphy, Brian; Werther, Winifred; Rajangam, Kanya; Chari, Ajai

    2017-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have age-, disease-, and treatment-related risk factors for cardiac events. We analyzed the 2006 to 2011 MarketScan database to determine whether the risk of cardiac events is greater in MM patients than in non-MM patients. Included were 1723 MM patients treated with corticosteroids and ≥ 3 drugs (bortezomib, immunomodulatory derivatives, and alkylating agents or anthracyclines). The index date (ID) was the date on which the 3-drug exposure criterion was met. Also included were 8615 age- and gender-matched non-MM patients (5:1). The distribution of non-MM patients' IDs matched that of the MM patients' IDs. Baseline was 6 months before the ID. The follow-up duration was from the ID to study end (ie, 2011 or end of enrollment or prescription drug coverage). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for baseline variables when the univariate analyses showed a 10% difference. The median duration of observation was 9 months (range, 0-60 months) for MM patients and 19 months (range, 0-66 months) for non-MM patients. The risk of any cardiac event (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-2.5), dysrhythmia (HR, 4.1; 95% CI, 3.5-4.8), congestive heart failure (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.2-3.7), cardiomyopathy (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8), and conduction disorders (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5) was significantly greater for MM than for non-MM patients. The incidence of hypertensive or arterial events and ischemic heart disease was similar between the 2 groups. The present study provides the first known comparison of cardiac event risk in patients with MM versus age- and gender-matched patients without MM. The cardiac event risk was greater in MM patients with ≥ 3 previous drugs for any cardiac event, dysrhythmias, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and conduction disorders compared with patients without MM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  15. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Analysis From KEYNOTE-045: A Phase III Study of Pembrolizumab Versus Chemotherapy for Previously Treated Advanced Urothelial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, David J; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Fradet, Yves; Lee, Jae Lyun; Fong, Lawrence; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Climent, Miguel A; Petrylak, Daniel P; Choueiri, Toni K; Necchi, Andrea; Gerritsen, Winald; Gurney, Howard; Quinn, David I; Culine, Stephane; Sternberg, Cora N; Mai, Yabing; Li, Haojie; Perini, Rodolfo F; Bajorin, Dean F; de Wit, Ronald

    2018-03-28

    Purpose In the phase III KEYNOTE-045 study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02256436), pembrolizumab significantly prolonged overall survival compared with investigator's choice of chemotherapy in patients with previously treated advanced urothelial cancer. Here, we report the results of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) analyses from the KEYNOTE-045 trial. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg or investigator's choice of docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 , paclitaxel 175 mg/m 2 , or vinflunine 320 mg/m 2 administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Key prespecified HRQoL analyses were time to deterioration (TTD) and mean change from baseline to week 15 in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 global health status/quality-of-life score. Results Of 542 patients who were randomly assigned, 519 were included in HRQoL analyses (pembrolizumab, n = 266; chemotherapy, n = 253). HRQoL compliance was > 95% at baseline and approximately 88% at week 15 for both groups. Pembrolizumab prolonged TTD in global health status/quality-of-life score compared with chemotherapy (median, 3.5 months v 2.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.72; nominal one-sided P = .004). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline to week 15 in global health status/quality-of-life score was 0.69 (-2.40 to 3.77) with pembrolizumab and -8.36 (-11.84 to -4.89) with chemotherapy (mean difference, 9.05 points; 95% CI, 4.61 to 13.50; nominal two-sided P < .001). Conclusion Pembrolizumab prolonged TTD in HRQoL compared with chemotherapy. Patients who were treated with pembrolizumab had stable or improved global health status/quality of life, whereas those who were treated with investigator's choice of chemotherapy experienced declines in global health status/quality of life. Combined with efficacy and safety outcomes, these data support pembrolizumab as standard of care for patients with platinum-refractory advanced urothelial cancer.

  16. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  17. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  18. Scientific program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams is organized jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Physics International Company. As in the previous conferences in this series, the program includes the following topics: high-power, electron- and ion-beam acceleration and transport; diode physics; high-power particle beam interaction with plasmas and dense targets; particle beam fusion (inertial confinement); collective ion acceleration; particle beam heating of magnetically confined plasmas; and generation of microwave/free-electron lasers.

  19. Temporal abstraction-based clinical phenotyping with Eureka!

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Kurc, Tahsin; Willard, Richie; Rathod, Himanshu; Mansour, Michel; Pai, Akshatha Kalsanka; Torian, William M; Agravat, Sanjay; Sturm, Suzanne; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Temporal abstraction, a method for specifying and detecting temporal patterns in clinical databases, is very expressive and performs well, but it is difficult for clinical investigators and data analysts to understand. Such patterns are critical in phenotyping patients using their medical records in research and quality improvement. We have previously developed the Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW), which computes such phenotypes using temporal abstraction but requires software engineers to use. We have extended the AIW's web user interface, Eureka! Clinical Analytics, to support specifying phenotypes using an alternative model that we developed with clinical stakeholders. The software converts phenotypes from this model to that of temporal abstraction prior to data processing. The model can represent all phenotypes in a quality improvement project and a growing set of phenotypes in a multi-site research study. Phenotyping that is accessible to investigators and IT personnel may enable its broader adoption.

  20. Identifying individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care electronic medical records: a retrospective chart abstraction study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theresa M; Tu, Karen; Wing, Laura L; Gershon, Andrea S

    2017-05-15

    Little is known about using electronic medical records to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to improve quality of care. Our objective was to develop electronic medical record algorithms that can accurately identify patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. A retrospective chart abstraction study was conducted on data from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD ® ) housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Abstracted charts provided the reference standard based on available physician-diagnoses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific medications, smoking history and pulmonary function testing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease electronic medical record algorithms using combinations of terminology in the cumulative patient profile (CPP; problem list/past medical history), physician billing codes (chronic bronchitis/emphysema/other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and prescriptions, were tested against the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) were calculated. There were 364 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identified in a 5889 randomly sampled cohort aged ≥ 35 years (prevalence = 6.2%). The electronic medical record algorithm consisting of ≥ 3 physician billing codes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease per year; documentation in the CPP; tiotropium prescription; or ipratropium (or its formulations) prescription and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease billing code had sensitivity of 76.9% (95% CI:72.2-81.2), specificity of 99.7% (99.5-99.8), PPV of 93.6% (90.3-96.1), and NPV of 98.5% (98.1-98.8). Electronic medical record algorithms can accurately identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care records. They can be used to enable further studies in practice patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management in primary care. NOVEL

  1. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  2. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra

    PubMed Central

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students’ first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students’ ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16–17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15–16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students’ transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition. PMID:25228874

  3. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra.

    PubMed

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students' first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students' ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16-17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15-16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students' transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition.

  4. Multicenter cross-sectional study of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease among patients with a single previous coronary or cerebrovascular event in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Al-Bader, Marzouk; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Deleu, Dirk; Ismail, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology and predictors of asymptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with a single previous coronary or cerebrovascular event in the Arabian Gulf. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, observational survey in consecutive patients (≥18 years) with documented previous coronary and/or cerebrovascular atherothrombotic event in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait and Qatar (64 centers), from October 2008 to December 2010. PAD was defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 in at least one leg. The overall mean age of the cohort (n = 2110) was 54 ± 11 years with only 14% being female (n = 303). The prevalence of asymptomatic PAD was 13.7%, with the highest prevalence seen in Kuwait (16.3%) and the UAE (14.7%) and the lowest in Qatar (5.3%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic PAD among the ethnic groups (p < 0.001): it was highest among the local Arabs and Caucasians at 19% and lowest among South East Asians (6%). The multivariate logistic model demonstrated that the most significant predictors of PAD were old age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05; p < 0.001), female gender (OR, 1.56; 95% CI: 1.06-2.29; p = 0.024), ethnicity (OR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.19-0.79; p = 0.009), smoking (OR, 1.70; 95% CI: 1.22-2.37: p = 0.002) and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.49; 95% CI: 1.14-1.94; p = 0.004). PAD is prevalent in the Arabian Gulf and is more likely to be associated with old age, females, ethnicity, smokers and those with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Non-interventional 1-year follow-up study of peri-implant soft tissues following previous soft tissue augmentation and crown insertion in single-tooth gaps.

    PubMed

    Huber, Samuel; Zeltner, Marco; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E; Thoma, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    To assess peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant sites, previously augmented with a collagen matrix (VCMX) or an autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), between crown insertion and 1 year. Twenty patients with single-tooth implants received soft tissue augmentation prior to abutment connection randomly using VCMX or SCTG. Following abutment connection 3 months later, final reconstructions were fabricated and inserted (baseline). Patients were recalled at 6 months (6M) and at 1 year (FU-1). Measurements included clinical data, soft tissue thickness, volumetric outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The buccal soft tissue thickness showed a median decrease of -0.5 mm (-1.0;0.3) (VCMX) and 0.0 mm (-0.5;1.0) (SCTG) (p = .243) up to FU-1. The soft tissue volume demonstrated a median decrease between BL and FU-1 of -0.1 mm (-0.2;0.0) (p = .301) for VCMX and a significant decrease of -0.2 mm (-0.4; -0.1) (p = .002) for SCTG, respectively. Intergroup comparisons did not reveal any significant differences between the groups for peri-implant soft tissue dimensions and changes up to FU-1 (p > .05). PROMs did not show any significant changes over time nor differences between the groups. Between crown insertion and 1 year, the buccal peri-implant soft tissue dimensions remained stable without relevant differences between sites that had previously been grafted with VCMX or SCTG. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Highly visible street-based HIV rapid testing: is it an attractive option for a previously untested population? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Hoyos, Juan; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Barrio, Gregorio; Belza, María-José

    2014-03-01

    Given the shortage of community-based HIV testing initiatives in resource-rich countries not targeting most-at-risk populations, we aimed to evaluate whether a highly visible mobile programme promoting and offering rapid HIV testing in the street can attract persons at risk for infection who have never been tested. Between 2008 and 2011, the programme served 7552 persons in various Spanish cities who answered a brief questionnaire while awaiting their results. The factors associated with being tested for the first time were analysed using two logistic regression models, one for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the other for only heterosexual men (MSW) and women. 3517 participants (47%) were first-time testers (24% of MSM, 56% of MSW and 60% of women). Among them, 22 undiagnosed HIV infections were detected with a global prevalence of 0.6% and 3.1% in MSM. Undergoing a first HIV test was independently associated with age <30, being from Spain or another developed country, lack of university education, having fewer partners, having had unprotected sex with casual partners and not having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. In heterosexuals, also with never injected drugs, and in MSM, with not being involved in the gay community. Among those tested for the first time, 22% had never thought of being tested and 62% decided to be tested when they passed by and noticed the programme, regardless of their previous intentions. This community programme attracted a substantial number of persons previously untested and particularly hard to reach, such as those with low education and MSM who were least involved in the gay community. Programme visibility was a decisive factor for almost two of every three persons who had never been tested.

  7. A Documentary Analysis of Abstracts Presented in European Congresses on Adapted Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sklenarikova, Jana; Kudlacek, Martin; Baloun, Ladislav; Causgrove Dunn, Janice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity from 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physical activity research in Europe.

  8. Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA): a novel tool for studying the evolution of porebiotic order (and the origin of life).

    PubMed

    Cimpoiasu, Vily M; Popa, Radu

    2012-12-01

    Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA), a novel simulation concept for studying the evolution of prebiotic order, has four main attributes. (1) The energy of each form of organization is the sum of two stocks: entropy-associated energy (E(s)) and free energy (E(g)), with dissimilar meaning, energy conductive, and energy exchange properties; (2) E(s) and E(g) have user-defined absolute values and are not derived from the relative thermodynamic parameters standard entropy and standard Gibbs free energy; (3) BiADA analyzes changes in both units of transformation and units of organization; and (4) BiADA-based models analyze forward and reverse transformations separately and the brut production of forms of organization. We discuss quantitative relationships between energy, information, and order parameters proposed in BiADA-based simulations. The example we show is that of a simple system with two forms of organization. The model monitors the energy flow and budget, the evolution of order and information capacity, and the energy cost of producing and maintaining the system's state. We show the effect of six prebiotic factors on the evolution of order and energy dissipative potential of the system. These are the initial state of the system, energy availability, the intrinsic energy conductivity, catalysis of "A to B" transformations, B autocatalysis, and the terminal heat sink. We discuss benefits of employing BiADA principles in the study of the origin of order in more complex networks.

  9. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    approach for applying model checking to unbounded systems is to extract finite state models from them using conservative abstraction techniques. Prop...36 2.5.1 Multiple Reference Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.5.2 Adding Monitor Processes...model checking to complex pieces of code like device drivers depends on the use of abstraction methods. An abstraction method extracts a small finite

  10. Abstracts of BESRL Research Publications, FY 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma E.

    Publications abstracted include Technical Research Reports 1156 and 1157, Technical Research Notes 199 through 210, Research Studies 68-4 through 68-6 and 69-1 through 6910, and Research Memorandums 68-8 through 68-13. Included are descriptions of 19 Work Units covering activities reported in the 33 abstracted publications, a list of regular…

  11. Publication rates of the abstracts presented at the annual meeting of International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Özcan-Ekşi, Emel Ece

    2018-01-19

    Publication of a study is the end point of the process to contribute to the literature and confirm the scientific value of the study. Publication rates of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of neurosurgery have been studied, previously. However, publication rates of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of pediatric neurosurgery have not been reported, yet. We evaluated abstracts presented at the 38th annual meeting of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) held in South Korea, 2010. We conducted this cross-sectional study by reviewing the abstracts presented at the annual meeting of the ISPN, 2010. Titles and authors of the abstracts were surveyed using Google Scholar and PubMed/MEDLINE. Time to publication, origin of the study, journal name in which the study has been accepted and published, and type of study has been analyzed for each abstract. The abstract booklet included 235 abstracts, consisted of 128 oral presentations (54%) and 107 electronic posters (46%). Fifty-nine (46%) of the oral presentations were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Laboratory studies were more likely to be published when compared to the clinical studies (72 vs. 39%). Thirty-two (30%) of the electronic posters were published in peer-reviewed journals. Most of the published abstracts were from Asia and Europe. Most of the abstracts were published in Child's Nervous System and Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. Publication rates of the abstracts presented at annual meeting of the ISPN were comparable to the other similar congresses. Oral presentations were more likely to be published. High publication rates of the abstracts presented at the annual meeting of the ISPN suggested that the meeting had a high scientific value.

  12. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  13. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  14. Ab Initio Theoretical Studies on the Kinetics of Hydrogen Abstraction Type Reactions of Hydroxyl Radicals with CH3CCl2F and CH3CClF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheb, Vahid; Maleki, Samira

    2018-03-01

    The hydrogen abstraction reactions from CH3Cl2F (R-141b) and CH3CClF2 (R-142b) by OH radicals are studied theoretically by semi-classical transition state theory. The stationary points for the reactions are located by using KMLYP density functional method along with 6-311++G(2 d,2 p) basis set and MP2 method along with 6-311+G( d, p) basis set. Single-point energy calculations are performed by the CBS-Q and G4 combination methods on the geometries optimized at the KMLYP/6-311++G(2 d,2 p) level of theory. Vibrational anharmonicity coefficients, x ij , which are needed for semi-classical transition state theory calculations, are computed at the KMLYP/6-311++G(2 d,2 p) and MP2/6-311+G( d, p) levels of theory. The computed barrier heights are slightly sensitive to the quantum-chemical method. Thermal rate coefficients are computed over the temperature range from 200 to 2000 K and they are shown to be in accordance with available experimental data. On the basis of the computed rate coefficients, the tropospheric lifetime of the CH3CCl2F and CH3CClF2 are estimated to be about 6.5 and 12.0 years, respectively.

  15. Kinetics study of the CN + CH4 hydrogen abstraction reaction based on a new ab initio analytical full-dimensional potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin; Rangel, Cipriano; Suleimanov, Yury V

    2017-07-26

    We have developed an analytical full-dimensional potential energy surface, named PES-2017, for the gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between the cyano radical and methane. This surface is fitted using high-level ab initio information as input. Using the PES-2017 surface, a kinetics study was performed via two theoretical approaches: variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunnelling (VTST-MT) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). The results are compared with the experimental data. In the whole temperature range analysed, 300-1500 K, both theories agree within a factor of <2, reproducing the experimental behaviour taking into account the experimental uncertainties. At high temperatures, where the recrossing effects dominate and the RPMD theory is exact, both theories differ by a factor of about 20%; while at low temperatures this difference is larger, 45%. Note that in this temperature regime, the tunnelling effect is negligible. The CN + CH 4 /CD 4 kinetic isotope effects are important, reproducing the scarce experimental evidence. The good agreement with the ab initio information used in the fitting process (self-consistency test) and with the kinetic behaviour in a wide temperature range gives confidence and strength to the new surface.

  16. Pronounced non-Arrhenius behaviour of hydrogen-abstractions from toluene and derivatives by phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Ive; Jacobs, Pierre; Peeters, Jozef

    2008-02-28

    Abstraction of hydrogen atoms by pthalimide-N-oxyl radicals is an important step in the N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyzed autoxidation of hydrocarbons. In this contribution, the temperature dependency of this reaction is evaluated by a detailed transition state theory based kinetic analysis for the case of toluene. Tunneling was found to play a very important role, enhancing the rate constant by a factor of 20 at room temperature. As a result, tunneling, in combination with the existence of two distinct rotamers of the transition state, causes a pronounced temperature dependency of the pre-exponential frequency factor, and, as a consequence, marked curvature of the Arrhenius plot. This explains why earlier experimental studies over a limited temperature range around 300 K found formal Arrhenius activation energies and pre-factors that are 4 kcal mol(-1) and three orders of magnitude smaller than the actual energy barrier and the corresponding frequency factor, respectively. Also as a consequence of tunneling, substitution of a deuterium atom for a hydrogen atom causes a large decrease in the rate constant, in agreement with the measured kinetic isotope effects. The present theoretical analysis, complementary to the experimental rate coefficient data, allows for a reliable prediction of the rate coefficient at higher temperatures, relevant for actual autoxidation processes.

  17. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  18. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  19. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  20. A cost effectiveness study of eribulin versus standard single-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy for women with previously treated metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gilberto; Glück, Stefan; Avancha, Kiran; Montero, Alberto J

    2013-01-01

    Eribulin was FDA approved in 2012 as a treatment for patients with MBC who have previously received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens. The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost effectiveness of eribulin versus the three most commonly utilized drugs (TPC) in the EMBRACE trial: vinorelbine, gemcitabine, and capecitabine (X); and to other branded FDA approved drugs: ixabepilone (I), liposomal-doxorubicin (D), and nab-paclitaxel. We created a decision-analytical and a Markov model using clinical data from the EMBRACE trial. Health utilities were derived from the published literature. Costs for drug acquisition, physician visits, and laboratory tests were obtained from Medicare Services Drug Payment Table and Physician Fee Schedule and are represented in 2012 USD. Life-years saved (LY), quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Eribulin added 0.208 LY and 0.119 QALY with an incremental cost over TPC of $25,458, and therefore an ICER of $213,742 per QALY. The main drivers of the model were drug cost, PFS, OS, and health utility values. The results of the model were robust in sensitivity analyses. Relative to I, D, A, and X, the ICER for eribulin was $76,823, $109,283, $129,773, and $167,267, respectively. Even with a more contemporary willingness-to-pay threshold of approximately $120,000 per QALY, eribulin was not found to be cost effective in the treatment of MBC relative to TPC; relative to some more expensive branded drugs, eribulin appears to be cost effective.

  1. Replace with abstract title

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a <111> plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al <111> plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the <112> direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  2. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K

    2011-10-01

    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  3. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in subjects with major depressive disorder with previous suicide attempt: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Borges, Cristiane Jackson; Wiener, Carolina David; da Silva, Paula Moraes; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Major depressive disorders (MDD) and suicide are significant public health concerns. Recent studies have been demonstrated that alterations in Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) can be associated with this psychiatric disorders, MDD and suicide. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in serum levels in individuals with MDD and with or without suicide attempt (SA), from a population-based sample. This was a paired cross-sectional study nested in a population-based study. The psychopathology screen was performed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The total population of the sample consisted of 147 subjects distributed in three groups: 49 healthy controls, 49 subjects with MDD and 49 subjects with MDD and SA (MDD + SA). The BDNF serum levels were significantly reduced in subjects with MDD and MDD + SA compared to the healthy controls. However, there were no significant differences between the MDD and MDD + SA groups with respect to BDNF serum levels. These results suggest that SA did not interfere in the serum levels of BDNF, indicating that this neurotrophin may be related to the diagnosis of MDD and not to suicide attempt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  5. Phase I Study of Anti-GM2 Ganglioside Monoclonal Antibody BIW-8962 as Monotherapy in Patients with Previously Treated Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Baz, Rachid C; Zonder, Jeffrey A; Gasparetto, Cristina; Reu, Frederic J; Strout, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    BIW-8962 is a monoclonal antibody to GM2 ganglioside that shows preclinical activity towards multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and in animal models bearing MM xenografts. The objective of this study was to determine the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, potential immunogenicity, and preliminary clinical efficacy of BIW-8962 in patients with heavily pretreated MM. Patients ( n  = 23) received escalating doses of BIW-8962 (0.03-3 mg/kg) intravenously every 2 weeks in phase Ia. The highest anticipated dose (10 mg/kg) was not tested and the study was discontinued without proceeding to phases Ib and II. The MTD of BIW-8962 was not established and BIW-8962 was relatively well tolerated. No pattern of consistent toxicity could be inferred from treatment-related AEs grade ≥3 and only two dose-limiting toxicities were recorded (atrial thrombosis + cardiomyopathy and chest pain, respectively). In the efficacy evaluable population ( n  = 22), no patient had a response (complete or partial) and 16 (72.7%) had a best response of stable disease, which was generally not durable. BIW-8962 did not show evidence of clinical activity. The study was therefore stopped and further development of BIW-8962 in MM was halted. This work was funded by Kyowa Kirin Pharmaceutical Development, Inc. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00775502.

  6. A high anticholinergic burden is associated with a history of falls in the previous year in middle-aged women: findings from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Ablett, Andrew D; Wood, Adrian D; Barr, Rebecca; Guillot, Jordan; Black, Alison J; Macdonald, Helen M; Reid, David M; Myint, Phyo K

    2018-06-02

    To examine the cross-sectional association between anticholinergic medication burden (ACB) and a history of falls, bone mineral density, and low trauma fractures in middle-aged women aged under 65 years from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study. ACB (0 = none, 1 = possible, ≥2 = definite) was calculated from medication use for 3883 Caucasian women [mean age (SD) = 54.3 (2.3) years] attending the second Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study visit (1997-2000). Outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Model adjustments were selected a priori based on expert opinion. Of 3883 participants, 3293 scored ACB = 0, 328 scored ACB = 1, and 262 scored ACB ≥2. High ACB burden (≥2) was associated with increased odds (ACB = 0 reference) for falls (fully adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] = 1.81 [1.25-2.62]; P = 0.002) and having low bone mineral density (lowest quintile-20%) at Ward's triangle (3.22 [1.30-7.99]; P = 0.01). A history of falls over the year prior to the study visit in participants with ACB score ≥2 was 32 per 100. For ACB categories 1 and 0, a history of falls per 100 was 21 and 22, respectively. The risk of falling associated with ACB observed in older age may also extend to middle-aged women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What can autism teach us about the role of sensorimotor systems in higher cognition? New clues from studies on language, action semantics, and abstract emotional concept processing.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-03-01

    Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions. We review a literature of functional motor abnormalities in ASC, following this with discussion of their neural correlates and aberrancies in language development, explaining how these might arise with reference to the typical formation of cell assemblies linking action and perceptual brain regions. This model gives rise to clear hypotheses regarding language comprehension, and we highlight a recent set of studies reporting differences in brain activation and behaviour in the processing of action-related and abstract-emotional concepts in individuals with ASC. At the neuroanatomical level, we discuss structural differences in long-distance frontotemporal and frontoparietal connections in ASC, such as would compromise information transfer between sensory and motor regions. This neurobiological model of action perception integration may shed light on the cognitive and social-interactive symptoms of ASC, building on and extending earlier proposals linking autistic symptomatology to motor disorder and dysfunction in action perception integration. Further investigating the contribution of motor dysfunction to higher cognitive and social impairment, we suggest, is timely and promising as it may advance both neurocognitive theory and the development of new clinical interventions for this population and others characterised by early and pervasive motor disruption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  8. Abstractness and emotionality values for 398 English words.

    PubMed

    Guido, Gianluigi; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    This study is aimed to replicate Vikis-Freibergs' classic study (1976) on the values of vividness for French words. Vividness resulted from the concreteness and the emotionality values of words, here defined, respectively, as referring to something that can be experienced through senses and that can arouse pleasant or unpleasant emotions. 398 English words were rated on two different scales, Abstractness and Emotionality, by a group of English native speakers and also by a group of Italian subjects who used English as a second language. Results show a low correlation between the concreteness and emotionality ratings in line with Vikis-Freibergs' previous study of French words (1976). A negative correlation between Abstractness and Emotionality was observed for British data but a slightly positive correlation for the Italian data.

  9. R-CHOP with or without bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final MAIN study outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, John F.; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Trnĕný, Marek; Sehn, Laurie H.; Catalano, John; Csinady, Eva; Moore, Nicola; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor is involved in lymphoma growth, suggesting a potential role for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies in hematologic malignancies. In this phase III study, patients with CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were randomized to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus either placebo (R-CHOP) or bevacizumab (RA-CHOP). Treatment was administered every 21 (8 cycles) or 14 days (6 cycles plus 2 rituximab cycles) as per institutional practice. An early analysis of risk/benefit by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board showed that RA-CHOP increased cardiotoxicity without prolonging progression-free survival compared with R-CHOP, and the trial was stopped early. The study protocol was amended to allow for 12 additional months of follow up to evaluate safety. With 787 patients enrolled, median follow up was 23.7 and 23.6 months for R-CHOP and RA-CHOP, respectively. Median progression-free survival for R-CHOP and RA CHOP was 42.9 and 40.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio=1.09; P=0.49). The proportion of deaths was identical for R-CHOP (83 of 387, 21%) and RA-CHOP (82 of 390, 21%). Relative to R-CHOP, RA-CHOP had a higher rate of left ventricular ejection fraction perturbation (18% vs. 8%; odds ratio=2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60–3.93) and congestive heart failure (16% vs. 7%; odds ratio=2.79; 95%CI: 1.72–4.54). Bevacizumab added to R-CHOP increased cardiac events, without increasing efficacy, arguing against further evaluation of RA-CHOP in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The MAIN study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00486759. PMID:24895339

  10. R-CHOP with or without bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: final MAIN study outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seymour, John F; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Trnĕný, Marek; Sehn, Laurie H; Catalano, John; Csinady, Eva; Moore, Nicola; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2014-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor is involved in lymphoma growth, suggesting a potential role for anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies in hematologic malignancies. In this phase III study, patients with CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were randomized to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus either placebo (R-CHOP) or bevacizumab (RA-CHOP). Treatment was administered every 21 (8 cycles) or 14 days (6 cycles plus 2 rituximab cycles) as per institutional practice. An early analysis of risk/benefit by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board showed that RA-CHOP increased cardiotoxicity without prolonging progression-free survival compared with R-CHOP, and the trial was stopped early. The study protocol was amended to allow for 12 additional months of follow up to evaluate safety. With 787 patients enrolled, median follow up was 23.7 and 23.6 months for R-CHOP and RA-CHOP, respectively. Median progression-free survival for R-CHOP and RA CHOP was 42.9 and 40.2 months, respectively (hazard ratio=1.09; P=0.49). The proportion of deaths was identical for R-CHOP (83 of 387, 21%) and RA-CHOP (82 of 390, 21%). Relative to R-CHOP, RA-CHOP had a higher rate of left ventricular ejection fraction perturbation (18% vs. 8%; odds ratio=2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-3.93) and congestive heart failure (16% vs. 7%; odds ratio=2.79; 95%CI: 1.72-4.54). Bevacizumab added to R-CHOP increased cardiac events, without increasing efficacy, arguing against further evaluation of RA-CHOP in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The MAIN study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:00486759. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Do accurate HIV and antiretroviral therapy knowledge, and previous testing experiences increase the uptake of HIV voluntary counselling and testing? Results from a cohort study in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    South, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Kumogola, Yusufu; Isingo, Raphael; Manyalla, Rose; Cawley, Caoimhe; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Urassa, Mark

    2013-09-04

    Despite the introduction of free antiretroviral therapy (ART), the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services remains persistently low in many African countries. This study investigates how prior experience of HIV and VCT, and knowledge about HIV and ART influence VCT use in rural Tanzania. In 2006-7, VCT was offered to study participants during the fifth survey round of an HIV community cohort study that includes HIV testing for research purposes without results disclosure, and a questionnaire covering knowledge, attitudes and practices around HIV infection and HIV services. Categorical variables were created for HIV knowledge and ART knowledge, with "good" HIV and ART knowledge defined as correctly answering at least 4/6 and 5/7 questions about HIV and ART respectively. Experience of HIV was defined as knowing people living with HIV, or having died from AIDS. Logistic regression methods were used to assess how HIV and ART knowledge, and prior experiences of HIV and VCT were associated with VCT uptake, with adjustment for HIV status and socio-demographic confounders. 2,695/3,886 (69%) men and 2,708/5,575 women (49%) had "good" HIV knowledge, while 613/3,886 (16%) men and 585/5575 (10%) women had "good" ART knowledge. Misconceptions about HIV transmission were common, including through kissing (55% of women, 43% of men), or mosquito bites (42% of women, 34% of men).19% of men and 16% of women used VCT during the survey. After controlling for HIV status and socio-demographic factors, the odds of VCT use were lower among those with poor HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.5; p = 0.01 for men and aOR = 0.6; p < 0.01 for women) and poor ART knowledge (aOR = 0.8; p = 0.06 for men, aOR = 0.8; p < 0.01 for women), and higher among those with HIV experience (aOR = 1.3 for men and aOR = 1.6 for women, p < 0.01) and positive prior VCT experience (aOR = 2.0 for all men and aOR = 2.0 for HIV-negative women only, p < 0

  13. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Vaccines in Participants Previously Vaccinated With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized, Observer-Blind, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Methods. Healthy adults (aged 19–40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4+/CD8+ T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Results. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4+ T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. Conclusions. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. PMID:24864125

  14. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Atezolizumab in Japanese Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis of the Phase 3 OAK Study.

    PubMed

    Hida, Toyoaki; Kaji, Reiko; Satouchi, Miyako; Ikeda, Norihiko; Horiike, Atsushi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Seto, Takashi; Kawakami, Tomohisa; Nakagawa, Shintaro; Kubo, Toshio

    2018-02-01

    Atezolizumab, an anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) agent, is effective and well tolerated in patients with pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients through subgroup analyses of the phase 3 OAK study (NCT02008227). Key eligibility criteria of this randomized, controlled, open-label, international study include locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC, ≥ 1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy, age ≥ 18 years, measurable disease (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1. Atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 was provided intravenously every 3 weeks. Co-primary end points were overall survival (OS) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and those with ≥ 1% PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC; TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3). Sixty-four ITT patients were Japanese; 19 had TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 status. In Japanese ITT patients, median OS in the atezolizumab arm (n = 36) was longer than the docetaxel arm (n = 28; 21.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.0-not estimable (NE)] versus 17.0 months [95% CI, 12.5-NE], respectively; hazard ratio 0.80 [95% CI, 0.41-1.57]). In the TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 population, median OS was 21.3 months (95% CI, 15.0-NE) and NE in the atezolizumab (n = 11) and docetaxel (n = 8) groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.22-3.05]). Atezolizumab was generally well tolerated, with no treatment-related deaths. Atezolizumab was effective and well tolerated in pretreated Japanese patients with NSCLC. Results are consistent with the primary analysis of OAK. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatitis C virus antibody positivity and predictors among previously undiagnosed adult primary care outpatients: cross-sectional analysis of a multisite retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Yartel, Anthony K; Krauskopf, Katherine; Massoud, Omar I; Brown, Kimberly A; Fallon, Michael B; Rein, David B

    2015-04-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing guidance issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998 recommends HCV antibody (anti-HCV) testing for persons with specified risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anti-HCV positivity among primary care outpatients and estimate the proportion of unidentified anti-HCV-positive (anti-HCV+) persons using risk-based testing. We analyzed electronic medical record data from a 4-site retrospective study. Patients were aged ≥18 years, utilized ≥1 outpatient primary care service(s) between 2005 and 2010, and had no documented evidence of prior HCV diagnosis. Among persons tested for anti-HCV, we fit a multilevel logistic regression model to identify patient-level independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity. We estimated the proportion of unidentified anti-HCV+ persons by using multiple imputation to assign anti-HCV results to untested patients. We observed 209 076 patients for a median of 5 months (interquartile range, 1-23 months). Among 17 464 (8.4%) patients who were tested for anti-HCV, 6.4% (n=1115) were positive. We identified history of injection drug use (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 6.3 [5.2-7.6]), 1945-1965 birth cohort (4.4 [3.8-5.1]), and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (4.8 [4.2-5.6]) as independently associated with anti-HCV positivity. We estimated that 81.5% (n=4890/6005) of anti-HCV+ patients were unidentified using risk-based testing. In these outpatient primary care settings, risk-based testing may have missed 4 of 5 newly enrolled patients who are anti-HCV+. Without knowing their status, unidentified anti-HCV+ persons cannot receive further clinical evaluation or antiviral treatment, and are unlikely to benefit from secondary prevention recommendations to limit disease progression and mortality. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a

  17. (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will review the application of NASA developed remote sensing technology towards the monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards. The overview will be followed by recent data on three specific natural hazard applications.

  18. Extended follow-up and impact of high-risk prognostic factors from the phase 3 RESONATE study in patients with previously treated CLL/SLL

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J R; Hillmen, P; O’Brien, S; Barrientos, J C; Reddy, N M; Coutre, S E; Tam, C S; Mulligan, S P; Jaeger, U; Barr, P M; Furman, R R; Kipps, T J; Cymbalista, F; Thornton, P; Caligaris-Cappio, F; Delgado, J; Montillo, M; DeVos, S; Moreno, C; Pagel, J M; Munir, T; Burger, J A; Chung, D; Lin, J; Gau, L; Chang, B; Cole, G; Hsu, E; James, D F; Byrd, J C

    2018-01-01

    In the phase 3 RESONATE study, ibrutinib demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) compared with ofatumumab in relapsed/refractory CLL patients with high-risk prognostic factors. We report updated results from RESONATE in these traditionally chemotherapy resistant high-risk genomic subgroups at a median follow-up of 19 months. Mutations were detected by Foundation One Heme Panel. Baseline mutations in the ibrutinib arm included TP53 (51%), SF3B1 (31%), NOTCH1 (28%), ATM (19%) and BIRC3 (14%). Median PFS was not reached, with 74% of patients randomized to ibrutinib alive and progression-free at 24 months. The improved efficacy of ibrutinib vs ofatumumab continues in all prognostic subgroups including del17p and del11q. No significant difference within the ibrutinib arm was observed for PFS across most genomic subtypes, although a subset carrying both TP53 mutation and del17p had reduced PFS compared with patients with neither abnormality. Reduced PFS or OS was not evident in patients with only del17p. PFS was significantly better for ibrutinib-treated patients in second-line vs later lines of therapy. The robust clinical activity of ibrutinib continues to show ongoing efficacy and acceptable safety consistent with prior reports, independent of various known high-risk mutations. PMID:28592889

  19. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  20. Sequential Treatment Escalation with Dapagliflozin and Saxagliptin Improves Beta Cell Function in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Previous Metformin Treatment: An Exploratory Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Forst, Thomas; Alghdban, Mohammed Khaled; Fischer, Annelie; Weber, Matthias M; Voswinkel, Stephan; Heise, Tim; Kapitza, Christoph; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the effect of sequential treatment escalation with dapagliflozin and saxagliptin on beta cell function in patients with T2DM insufficiently controlled on metformin monotherapy during a hyperglycaemic clamp investigation. Twenty-six patients (19 males, age 63.5±7.0 years; duration of diabetes 8.8±4.7 years; HbA1c 63.9±15.8 mmol/mol; mean±SD) were enrolled in the study. During a first treatment period (TP1) all patients received 10 mg dapagliflozin for one month, followed by the addition of 5 mg saxagliptin or placebo for another month (TP2). At baseline and at the end of each treatment period, fasting glucose and insulin levels were analysed, and a hyperglycaemic clamp with the measurement of plasma C-peptide, insulin, proinsulin, and glucagon was performed. Treatment with dapagliflozin reduced fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance (TP1). Within the hyperglycaemic clamp, C-peptide and insulin concentrations increased after the addition of dapagliflozin in TP1 (0.48±0.45 nmol*h/l; 6.24±17.9 mU*h/l) and further improved after the addition of saxagliptin in TP2 (0.38±0.34 nmol*h/l; 6.59±10.15 mU*h/l). Acute insulin response did not change after the addition of dapagliflozin (TP1), but significantly improved after the addition of saxagliptin in TP2 (0.89±0.76 mU*h/l). Both drugs improved the C-peptide/proinsulin ratio. After the addition of saxagliptin, the glucagon/insulin ratio significantly declined (TP2). Treatment escalation with dapagliflozin and saxagliptin exhibit additive effects on beta cell capacity, and improves alpha and beta cell integrity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia.

  2. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P < 0.05). ΔCMJ before/after RSA was -15 ± 2% and -7 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P < 0.05). ΔSJ-based and ΔCMJ-based (before/after RSA) area under curve (AUC) resulted in 0.90 ± 0.07 and 0.86 ± 0.09, respectively, with both AUCs differentiating between CH and GH with 77.78% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity. Pooled AUC resulted in 0.88 ± 0.06. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.85/0.97). Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  3. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m 2 on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  6. Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that evaluated features of TEXNET abstracting software, compared the use of keywords and phrases that were automatically extracted, tested hypotheses about relations between abstractors' backgrounds and their reactions to abstracting assistance software, and obtained ideas for further features to be developed in TEXNET.…

  7. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVI, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) music in the biology classroom; (2) pairing English as a second language and freshman composition students in writing activities; (3) moot court exercises in…

  8. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  9. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  10. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  11. Abstracts of Research Papers 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drowatzky, John N., Ed.

    This publication includes the abstracts of 199 research papers presented at the 1970 American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation convention in Seattle, Washington. Abstracts from symposia on environmental quality education, obesity, motor development, research methods, and laboratory equipment are also included. Each…

  12. Visual Spectroscopy of R Scuti (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undreiu, L.; Chapman, A.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We are currently conducting a visual spectral analysis of the brightest known RV Tauri variable star, R Scuti. The goal of our undergraduate research project is to investigate this variable star's erratic nature by collecting spectra at different times in its cycle. Starting in late June of 2014 and proceeding into the following four months, we have monitored the alterations in the spectral characteristics that accompany the progression of R Sct's irregular cycle. During this time, we were given the opportunity to document the star's most recent descent from maximum brightness V~5 to a relatively deep minimum of V~7.5. Analysis of the data taken during the star's period of declining magnitude has provided us with several interesting findings that concur with the observations of more technically sophisticated studies. Following their collection, we compared our observations and findings with archived material in the hopes of facilitating a better understanding of the physical state of RV Tauri stars and the perplexing nature of their evolution. Although identification of the elements in the star's bright phase proved to be challenging, documenting clear absorption features in its fainter stage was far less difficult. As previously reported in similar studies, we identified prominent TiO molecular absorption bands near R Sct's faintest state, typical of mid-M spectral type stars. In addition to these TiO absorption lines, we report the presence of many more metallic lines in the spectral profiles obtained near star's minimum. Supportive of previously published hypotheses regarding the causation of its variability, we observed significant variation in the star's spectral characteristics throughout different phases of its cycle. We are hopeful that our observations will make a meaningful contribution to existing databases and help advance our collective understanding of RV Tauri stars and their evolutionary significance.

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  15. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  16. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  17. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  18. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  19. Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, Dietary Inflammatory Index and risk of mortality: results from the Whitehall II cohort study and meta-analysis of previous Dietary Inflammatory Index and mortality studies.

    PubMed

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Kivimaki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between the Alternative Healthy Eating Index updated in 2010 (AHEI-2010), the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DIITM) and risk of mortality in the Whitehall II study. We also conducted a meta-analysis on the DII-based results from previous studies to summarise the overall evidence. Data on dietary behaviour assessed by self-administered repeated FFQ and on mortality status were available for 7627 participants from the Whitehall II cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to assess the association between cumulative average of AHEI-2010 and DII scores and mortality risk. During 22 years of follow-up, 1001 participants died (450 from cancer, 264 from CVD). Both AHEI-2010 (mean=48·7 (sd 10·0)) and DII (mean=0·37 (sd 1·41)) were associated with all-cause mortality. The fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per sd, were 0·82; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·88 for AHEI-2010 and 1·18; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·29 for DII. Significant associations were also observed with cardiovascular and cancer mortality risk. For DII, a meta-analysis (using fixed effects) from this and four previous studies showed a positive association of DII score with all-cause (HR=1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05, 28 891deaths), cardiovascular (HR=1·05; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·07, 10 424 deaths) and cancer mortality (HR=1·05; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·07, n 8269).The present study confirms the validity to assess overall diet through AHEI-2010 and DII in the Whitehall II cohort and highlights the importance of considering diet indices related to inflammation when evaluating all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality risk.

  20. Publication Rates of Abstracts Presented at Five National Pharmacy Association Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Emily; Generali, Joyce; Zak, Kevin; Grauer, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abstract presentations at professional meetings provide a medium for disseminating the findings of scholarly activity. Rates of abstract publication from various biomedical disciplines have been evaluated, with pharmacy noted to be lower than other specialties. Previous research on pharmacy abstract publication rates was conducted for a limited number of professional meetings but has not been assessed using Google Scholar. Objective: To determine the full publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2005 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Spring and Annual Meetings, American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Annual Meeting, and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Summer and Midyear Clinical Meetings. Methods: Publication status was assessed for abstracts presented during the 2005 ACCP Spring and Annual Meetings, APhA Annual Meeting, and ASHP Summer and Midyear Clinical Meetings using PubMed and Google Scholar. Data collected included abstract category, study category, practice site, database(s) in which publication appeared, time in months to publication, publication type, and journal of publication. Results: Evaluation of 2,000 abstracts presented in 2005 revealed an overall full publication rate of 19.8% (n = 384). Nearly all pharmacy abstracts were published as manuscripts (98.4%; n=378) and indexed in PubMed and Google Scholar (91.9%; n = 353), although a significant percentage were indexed in Google Scholar only (7.8%; n = 30). The mean time to full publication was 16.8 months (SD ±11.9 months). Conclusions: Results were consistent with previously reported full publication rates of abstracts from pharmacy association meetings, indicating that abstracts presented at pharmacy meetings continue to have a lower full publication rate than other health disciplines. PMID:24421465

  1. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  2. The General Base in the Thymidylate Synthase Catalyzed Proton Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ananda K.; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Don Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic –OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton. PMID:25912171

  3. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  4. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  5. The role of previous falls in major osteoporotic fracture prediction in conjunction with FRAX in older Chinese men and women: the Mr. OS and Ms. OS cohort study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Su, Y; Leung, J; Kwok, T

    2018-06-01

    Falls are a major concern in terms of fracture risk. Although awareness rising for the absence of falls in the FRAX algorithm, our study only identified the independent predictive role of previous recurrent falls and their better conjunction use with FRAX for major osteoporotic fracture prediction in older Chinese men.

  6. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  7. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  8. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  9. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  10. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  11. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  12. Journalism Abstracts. Volume 25, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins, Ed.

    Collected from 55 universities in the United States and Canada, and published by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, this volume contains 339 abstracts of research dissertations and theses accepted for graduate degrees in journalism and mass communications from July 1, 1986 through June 30, 1987. Only research…

  13. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  14. Evidence for cross-script abstract identities in learners of Japanese kana.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; Gawthrop, Roderick; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2018-05-07

    The presence of abstract letter identity representations in the Roman alphabet has been well documented. These representations are invariant to letter case (upper vs. lower) and visual appearance. For example, "a" and "A" are represented by the same abstract identity. Recent research has begun to consider whether the processing of non-Roman orthographies also involves abstract orthographic representations. In the present study, we sought evidence for abstract identities in Japanese kana, which consist of two scripts, hiragana and katakana. Abstract identities would be invariant to the script used as well as to the degree of visual similarity. We adapted the cross-case masked-priming letter match task used in previous research on Roman letters, by presenting cross-script kana pairs and testing adult beginning -to- intermediate Japanese second-language (L2) learners (first-language English readers). We found robust cross-script priming effects, which were equal in magnitude for visually similar (e.g., り/リ) and dissimilar (e.g., あ/ア) kana pairs. This pattern was found despite participants' imperfect explicit knowledge of the kana names, particularly for katakana. We also replicated prior findings from Roman abstract letter identities in the same participants. Ours is the first study reporting abstract kana identity priming (in adult L2 learners). Furthermore, these representations were acquired relatively early in our adult L2 learners.

  15. Vocal reaction times to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract words: towards a theory of differential right hemispheric semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Rastatter, M; Dell, C W; McGuire, R A; Loren, C

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies investigating hemispheric organization for processing concrete and abstract nouns have provided conflicting results. Using manual reaction time tasks some studies have shown that the right hemisphere is capable of analyzing concrete words but not abstract. Others, however, have inferred that the left hemisphere is the sole analyzer of both types of lexicon. The present study tested these issues further by measuring vocal reaction times of normal subjects to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract items. Results were consistent with a model of functional localization which suggests that the minor hemisphere is capable of differentially processing both types of lexicon in the presence of a dominant left hemisphere.

  16. Exploring the effect of previous inactivated influenza vaccination on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza: Results of the European I-MOVE multicentre test-negative case-control study, 2011/2012-2016/2017.

    PubMed

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Larrauri, Amparo; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; O'Donnell, Joan; Reuss, Annicka; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rizzo, Caterina; Falchi, Alessandra; Daviaud, Isabelle; Brytting, Mia; Meijer, Adam; Kaic, Bernard; Gherasim, Alin; Machado, Ausenda; Ivanciuc, Alina; Domegan, Lisa; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Ferenczi, Annamária; Korczyńska, Monika; Bella, Antonino; Vilcu, Ana-Maria; Mosnier, Anne; Zakikhany, Katherina; de Lange, Marit; Kurečić Filipovićović, Sanja; Johansen, Kari; Moren, Alain

    2018-04-16

    Results of previous influenza vaccination effects on current season influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) are inconsistent. To explore previous influenza vaccination effects on current season VE among population targeted for vaccination. We used 2011/2012 to 2016/2017 I-MOVE primary care multicentre test-negative data. For each season, we compared current season adjusted VE (aVE) between individuals vaccinated and unvaccinated in previous season. Using unvaccinated in both seasons as a reference, we then compared aVE between vaccinated in both seasons, current only, and previous only. We included 941, 2645 and 959 influenza-like illness patients positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B, respectively, and 5532 controls. In 2011/2012, 2014/2015 and 2016/2017, A(H3N2) aVE point estimates among those vaccinated in previous season were -68%, -21% and -19%, respectively; among unvaccinated in previous season, these were 33%, 48% and 46%, respectively (aVE not computable for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B). Compared to current season vaccination only, VE for both seasons' vaccination was (i) similar in two of four seasons for A(H3N2) (absolute difference [ad] 6% and 8%); (ii) lower in three of four seasons for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (ad 18%, 26% and 29%), in two seasons for influenza A(H3N2) (ad 27% and 39%) and in two of three seasons for influenza B (ad 26% and 37%); (iii) higher in one season for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (ad 20%) and influenza B (ad 24%). We did not identify any pattern of previous influenza vaccination effect. Prospective cohort studies documenting influenza infections, vaccinations and vaccine types are needed to understand previous influenza vaccinations' effects. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Journal Literature Covered by Physics Abstracts in 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Stella; Brickwedde, F.G.

    A study of the publications of the Physics Journal literature has been made, utilizing the 1965 issues of Physics Abstracts. It is intended to provide a profile of the physics literature and statistical information on physics abstract coverage. It deals with abstracts from serial (journal) publications and includes some 32,000 articles from 495…

  18. Molecular hydrogen formation on interstellar PAHs through Eley-Rideal abstraction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Nolan; Cazaux, S.; Egorov, D.; Boschman, L. M. P. V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.

    2018-06-01

    We present experimental data on H2 formation processes on gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations. This process was studied by exposing coronene radical cations, confined in a radio-frequency ion trap, to gas phase H atoms. Sequential attachment of up to 23 hydrogen atoms has been observed. Exposure to atomic D instead of H allows one to distinguish attachment from competing abstraction reactions, as the latter now leave a unique fingerprint in the measured mass spectra. Modeling of the experimental results using realistic cross sections and barriers for attachment and abstraction yield a 1:2 ratio of abstraction to attachment cross sections. The strong contribution of abstraction indicates that H2 formation on interstellar PAH cations is an order of magnitude more relevant than previously thought.

  19. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  20. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  1. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  2. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  3. Kinetic and ab initio theoretical study of hydrogen atom abstraction from thiols by thiyl radicals: Basis rate expressions for reactions of sulfur-centered radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, M.S.; Garrossian, M.S.; Autrey, S.T.

    1992-08-20

    Arrhenius rate expressions were determined for the abstraction of hydrogen atom from thiophenol and hexanethiol by the octanethiyl radical at 25-100 {degrees}C in nonane. Octanethiyl radicals were produced by steady-state photolysis of octyl thiobenzoate. Analysis of octyl disulfide and octanethiyl radical. For hexanethiol, log (k{sub abs}/K{sub t}{sup 1/2}) = (2.94 {plus_minus} 0.29) - (3.84 {plus_minus}0.41)/0, and for thiophenol, log (k{sub abs}/k{sub 5}{sup 1/2}) = (2.56 {plus_minus} 0.19) - (2.88 {plus_minus} 0.28)/0;0=2.3RT kcal/mol. Combining these expressions with the Smoluchowski expression for self-termination of octanethiyl in nonane, log (k{sub t}{sup 1/2}) = 5.96 - 1.335/0, which employs experimental diffusion coefficients of octanethiolmore » and a spin selection factor {sigma} = 1, yields, for thiophenol, log (k{sub abs}/M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}) = (8.52 {plus_minus} 0.18) = (4.22 {plus_minus} 0.27)/0, and for hexanethiol, log (k{sub abs}/M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) = (8.90 {plus_minus} 0.29) = (5.18 {plus_minus} 0.41)/0 (errors are 2{sigma}). The rate of disappearance of octanethiyl/diphenylketyl radical pairs in SDS micelles, determined by nanosecond optical spectroscopy, was found to be unchanged in a 700-G magnetic field, providing evidence for rapid intersystem crossing of sulfur-centered radical pairs and support for the assignment of {sigma} = 1 above. Ab initio electronic structure calculations on the reaction HS{sup {lg_bullet}} + HSH {r_arrow} HSH + {sup {lg_bullet}}SH, performed at SCF and correlated levels, predict an activation barrier of {Delta}H{sub 298} {sup {double_dagger}}= 4.6 kcal/mol, in close agreement with the experimental barrier for the octanethiyl + hexanethiol reactions. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  4. On the Power of Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.; Kamin, Samuel N.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated applications of static analysis place increased burden on the reliability of the analysis techniques. Often, the failure of the analysis technique to detect some information my mean that the time or space complexity of the generated code would be altered. Thus, it is important to precisely characterize the power of static analysis techniques. We follow the approach of Selur et. al. who studied the power of strictness analysis techniques. Their result can be summarized by saying 'strictness analysis is perfect up to variations in constants.' In other words, strictness analysis is as good as it could be, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values. We use this approach to characterize a broad class of analysis techniques based on abstract interpretation including, but not limited to, strictness analysis. For the first-order case, we consider abstract interpretations where the abstract domain for data values is totally ordered. This condition is satisfied by Mycroft's strictness analysis that of Sekar et. al. and Wadler's analysis of list-strictness. For such abstract interpretations, we show that the analysis is complete in the sense that, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values with the same abstraction, it gives the best possible information. We further generalize these results to typed lambda calculus with pairs and higher-order functions. Note that products and function spaces over totally ordered domains are not totally ordered. In fact, the notion of completeness used in the first-order case fails if product domains or function spaces are added. We formulate a weaker notion of completeness based on observability of values. Two values (including pairs and functions) are considered indistinguishable if their observable components are indistinguishable. We show that abstract interpretation of typed lambda calculus programs is complete up to this notion of indistinguishability. We use denotationally

  5. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  6. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    compact. self -contained transducer unit for 151) Field of Stucek............... 73/71 5 US, 67.5 R. electromagnetic generation and detection of...BSTRACT SPONSORED PROGRAMS FROM THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 1191 (111 4,115,616 Heitz et &1. (45 Sep. 19, 1978 154) SELF -SEALING...ioseph E. Rutz; Wiliam J.O’Brien (221 Filed: F . (57 ABSTRACT A self -sealing multi-laminated fuel line composite mate. rial composed of (a) a plastic

  7. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  8. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  9. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  10. Building a Concrete Foundation: A Mixed-Method Study of Teaching Styles and the Use of Concrete, Representational, and Abstract Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, L. Christine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teaching styles and how frequently teachers with a variety of teaching styles incorporate multiple representations, such as manipulatives, drawings, counters, etc., in the middle school mathematics classroom. Through this explanatory mixed methods study it was possible to collect the quantitative data in…

  11. Content Abstract Classification Using Naive Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, Syukriyanto; Suwardoyo, Untung; Aldrin Wihelmus Sanadi, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify abstract content based on the use of the highest number of words in an abstract content of the English language journals. This research uses a system of text mining technology that extracts text data to search information from a set of documents. Abstract content of 120 data downloaded at www.computer.org. Data grouping consists of three categories: DM (Data Mining), ITS (Intelligent Transport System) and MM (Multimedia). Systems built using naive bayes algorithms to classify abstract journals and feature selection processes using term weighting to give weight to each word. Dimensional reduction techniques to reduce the dimensions of word counts rarely appear in each document based on dimensional reduction test parameters of 10% -90% of 5.344 words. The performance of the classification system is tested by using the Confusion Matrix based on comparative test data and test data. The results showed that the best classification results were obtained during the 75% training data test and 25% test data from the total data. Accuracy rates for categories of DM, ITS and MM were 100%, 100%, 86%. respectively with dimension reduction parameters of 30% and the value of learning rate between 0.1-0.5.

  12. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  13. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: ABSTRACT ON-SITE INCINERATION TESTING OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE DEMONSTRATION UNIT-CONTAMINATED SOILS TREATABILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August of 1986, Shirco was contracted by Dekonta GmbH, a Vest German hazardous waste treatment company, to perform treatability studies at one of the largest dioxin-contaminated sites in the world. The Shirco Infrared process was selected by Dekonta after a two year stud...

  14. Refractory Access Disorders and the Organization of Concrete and Abstract Semantics: Do they Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, A. Cris; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Patients with “refractory semantic access deficits” demonstrate several unique features that make them important sources of insight into the organization of semantic representations. Here we attempt to replicate several novel findings from single-case studies reported in the literature. Patient UM– 103 displays the cardinal features of a “refractory semantic access deficit” and showed many of the same effects of semantic relatedness reported in the literature. However, when probing concrete and abstract words, this patient revealed very different patterns of performance compared to two previously reported patients. We discuss the implications of our data for models of semantic organization of abstract and concrete words. PMID:18569737

  15. Greenbook Abstract and Catalog--2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A.

    This catalog is the second in a series extending and updating teaching materials previously disseminated through the ERIC system, including the "Greenbook System" of training materials for higher education professionals (ED 103 083 and 084). Open Classroom Documentation, a procedural manual for an autoinstructional learning laboratory at…

  16. Greenbook Abstract and Catalog--3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A.

    This catalog is the third in a series extending and updating teaching materials previously disseminated through the ERIC system, including the "Greenbook System" of training materials for higher education professionals (ED 103 083 and 084), Open Classroom Documentation, a procedural manual for an autoinstructional learning laboratory at…

  17. Greenbook Abstract and Catalog--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A.; Reitan, Henry M.

    This catalog is intended to be issued periodically as a means of extending and updating teaching materials which have been previously published through ERIC by these authors. The materials include the Alpha and Gamma levels of the "Greenbook System," pre-professional and entry in-service professional levels of an integrated sequence of…

  18. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  19. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  20. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  1. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingsheng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  3. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain EAPA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis, which includes 12 monthly issues plus the annual index. All items announced in EAPA exist as separate records on the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  4. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-07-29

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  5. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  6. Abstraction networks for terminologies: Supporting management of "big knowledge".

    PubMed

    Halper, Michael; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Ochs, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Terminologies and terminological systems have assumed important roles in many medical information processing environments, giving rise to the "big knowledge" challenge when terminological content comprises tens of thousands to millions of concepts arranged in a tangled web of relationships. Use and maintenance of knowledge structures on that scale can be daunting. The notion of abstraction network is presented as a means of facilitating the usability, comprehensibility, visualization, and quality assurance of terminologies. An abstraction network overlays a terminology's underlying network structure at a higher level of abstraction. In particular, it provides a more compact view of the terminology's content, avoiding the display of minutiae. General abstraction network characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the notion of meta-abstraction network, existing at an even higher level of abstraction than a typical abstraction network, is described for cases where even the abstraction network itself represents a case of "big knowledge." Various features in the design of abstraction networks are demonstrated in a methodological survey of some existing abstraction networks previously developed and deployed for a variety of terminologies. The applicability of the general abstraction-network framework is shown through use-cases of various terminologies, including the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED), and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Important characteristics of the surveyed abstraction networks are provided, e.g., the magnitude of the respective size reduction referred to as the abstraction ratio. Specific benefits of these alternative terminology-network views, particularly their use in terminology quality assurance, are discussed. Examples of meta-abstraction networks are presented. The "big knowledge" challenge constitutes the use and maintenance of terminological structures that

  7. Prospective, non-interventional, multicenter study of the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of prostaglandin analog/prostamide-containing therapies in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Izgi, Belgin; Temel, Ahmet; Yildirim, Nilgun; Okka, Mehmet; Özcan, Altan; Yüksel, Nurşen; Elgin, Ufuk; Altan, Çiğdem; Ozer, Baris

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy, tolerability, safety, and usage patterns of prostaglandin analog/prostamide (PGA/P)-containing topical ocular hypotensives in ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma in the Turkish clinical setting. Methods This non-interventional, multicenter study enrolled previously treated patients who failed to achieve target IOP (or experienced unacceptable adverse events [AEs]) and were prescribed a PGA/P-containing IOP-lowering agent. Treatment was initiated at baseline (V1), and patients returned at weeks 4–6 (V2) and 8–12 (V3). The primary efficacy measure was the change in IOP from baseline at V3 in each eye. The secondary measures were physician’s assessment of IOP-lowering efficacy, patients (%) reaching target IOP determined at V1, hyperemia score, physician and patient assessment of study treatment tolerability at V3, and AE frequency/severity. A subgroup analysis of patients receiving the most common study treatment was conducted. All analyses were performed using the safety population (patients who received one or more doses and had any data available). Results Of 358 enrolled patients, 60.6% had primary open-angle glaucoma, 29.9% had secondary open-angle glaucoma (protocol amendment), and 13.1% had OHT; 13 patients had multiple diagnoses. At V3, the mean IOP change from baseline was ≥−4.2 mmHg (≥21.1%). IOP met or was lower than the target in 81.7% of patients, 95% exhibited none to mild conjunctival hyperemia (most common AE), and tolerability was rated good/very good by >91.1% of patients and physicians. The results were similar in patients who received the most common study treatment, bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim; n=310). Conclusion PGA/P-containing medications, including bim/tim, significantly reduced IOP in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma or OHT; most reached their target IOP or an IOP even lower

  8. (abstract) Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    A descope of the EOS program now requires that all EOS platforms after AM1 be launched on DELTA-class vehicles, which results in much smaller platforms (and payloads) than previously envisaged. A major part of the TES hardware design effort has therefore been redirected towards meeting this challenge. The development of the TES concept continues on a schedule to permit flight on the EOS CHEM platform in 2002, where it is planned to be accompanied by HIRDLS and MLS.

  9. Microbiological Horticultural Internship Final Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    GMO dwarf plum (Prunus domestica) is being evaluated as a candidate food crop for long duration space flight missions. A project was undertaken to develop a protocol for transferring selected genetic lines of GMO plum (previously maintained in pots and propagated by cuttings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida) into in vitro tissue culture. In vitro culture may reduce the space, materials, and labor required to maintain the current lines of GMO plum and better preserve them for future study. Fresh plant material from three selected GMO plum lines (NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11) and a non-modified control line (Control-5) were processed aseptically into in vitro culture on four separate occasions. The impact of multiple treatments on the successful growth of GMO plum tissue in vitro were tested: Parent explant tissue type (leaf petioles, stem nodes containing buds and internodes without buds), tissue sterilization method [soaking in 10 bleach only (5 min for petioles or 10 min for nodesinternodes), or soaking in 70 EtOH (30 sec) followed by 10 bleach (5 min for petioles and 10 min for nodesinternodes)], and media type [three Murashige and Skoog-based medias (SGM, SRM, and SRM+2,4-D) and one recipe containing woody plant media (WPM)]. 22.2 of the plates containing tissue sterilized with bleach alone developed microbial contamination after two weeks, while only 11.8 of plates containing tissue sterilized sequentially with EtOH and bleach developed contamination. Node bud tissue from all four genetic lines of plum produced leafy plantlets on SGM and SRM media after 4-6 weeks. The most numerous and well-developed plantlets were present on SGM. Upon reaching suitable size, plantlets were transferred to larger media containers for further growth. Some node bud growth occurred on SRM+2,4-D and WPM 2.5 weeks after plating, however as of yet no pieces on SRM+2,4-D have adequate development for transferring. Tissue pieces from NASA-5 plated on WPM are developing leaves

  10. Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq® (human-cl rhFVIII) in previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A-Interim results from the NuProtect Study.

    PubMed

    Liesner, R J; Abashidze, M; Aleinikova, O; Altisent, C; Belletrutti, M J; Borel-Derlon, A; Carcao, M; Chambost, H; Chan, A K C; Dubey, L; Ducore, J; Fouzia, N A; Gattens, M; Gruel, Y; Guillet, B; Kavardakova, N; El Khorassani, M; Klukowska, A; Lambert, T; Lohade, S; Sigaud, M; Turea, V; Wu, J K M; Vdovin, V; Pavlova, A; Jansen, M; Belyanskaya, L; Walter, O; Knaub, S; Neufeld, E J

    2018-03-01

    Nuwiq ® (Human-cl rhFVIII) is a fourth generation recombinant FVIII, produced in a human cell line, without chemical modification or protein fusion. No inhibitors developed in studies with Nuwiq ® in 201 previously treated patients with haemophilia A (HA). The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq ® in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe HA are being assessed in the ongoing NuProtect study. The study, conducted across 38 centres worldwide, is evaluating 110 true PUPs of all ages and ethnicities enrolled for study up to 100 exposure days (EDs) or 5 years maximum. The primary objective is to assess the immunogenicity of Nuwiq ® (inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU) using the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay at a central laboratory. Data for 66 PUPs with ≥20 EDs from a preplanned interim analysis were analysed. High-titre (HT) inhibitors developed in 8 of 66 patients after a median of 11.5 EDs (range 6-24). Five patients developed low-titre inhibitors (4 transient). The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) was 12.8% (4.5%, 21.2%) for HT inhibitors and 20.8% (10.7%, 31.0%) for all inhibitors. During inhibitor-free periods, median annualized bleeding rates during prophylaxis were 0 for spontaneous bleeds and 2.40 for all bleeds. Efficacy was rated as "excellent" or "good" in treating 91.8% of bleeds. Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was "excellent" or "good" for 8 (89%) procedures and "moderate" for 1 (11%). No tolerability concerns were evident. These interim data show a cumulative incidence of 12.8% for HT inhibitors and convincing efficacy and tolerability in PUPs treated with Nuwiq ® . © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. WD1145+017 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) WD1145 is a 17th magnitude white dwarf star 570 light years away in Virgo that was discovered to have a disintegrating planetoid in close orbit by Andrew Vanderburg, a graduate student at Harvard CfA, while data mining the elucidate the nature of its rather bizarre transit light curves. I obtained multiple observations of WD1145 over the course of a year, and found a series of complex transit light curves that could only be interpreted as a ring complex or torus in close orbit around WD1145. Combined with data from other amateur astronomers, professional observations, and satellite data, it became clear that WD1145 has a small planetoid in close orbit at the Roche limit and is breaking apart, forming a ring of debris material that is then raining down on the white dwarf. The surface of the star is "polluted" by heavy metals, determined by spectroscopic data. Given that in the intense gravitational field of a white dwarf any heavy metals could not for long last on the surface, this confirms that we are tracking in real time the destruction of a small planet by its host star.

  12. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  13. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize amore » composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.« less

  15. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-03-29

    In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include 'one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02-7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90%) indicated a preference for a same

  16. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  17. Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Daniel J; Lentino, Anne R; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Ye, Dan; Zhou, Wei; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ∼10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ≥10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of granular materials (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Mark; Das, Badri; Chrisey, D. B.; Horwitz, J.; Koon, N. C.

    1994-05-01

    We have investigated the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of several granular alloys displaying giant magnetoresistance (GMR). For this task, we have produced melt-spun ribbons of Fe5Co15Cu80 and Co20Cu80 by rapid quenching and thin films of Co80Cu20 by pulsed laser deposition. The salient feature of the FMR spectra is the increase of the resonance linewidth as a function of increasing annealing temperature. We have deconvoluted the FMR spectra to a single-domain powder pattern and a multidomain powder pattern. As a function of annealing temperature, the GMR of these samples attains a maximum value. Near the peak of the GMR curve, the FMR spectrum reveals that the ferromagnetic particles are half mono- and half multidomain. Since the maximum size of a single-domain particle is known, this enables us to estimate the spin diffusion length of the Cu conduction electrons. We have also demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the appropriate demagnetizing field to apply to the ensemble of spherical magnetic particles that comprise our granular thin film is simply the field corresponding to the average magnetization.

  19. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  20. [Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María P; Barengo, Mónica; Mainardi, Claudio; Garay, Iliana; Kurpis, María; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous melanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p < 0.027). This study demonstrates that the tumor thickness by itself is an independent predictive factor of the association melanoma-nevus. However, the rest of the variables studied did not throw significant results from the statistical point of view. In conclusion, patients must be educated for the control of new pigmented injuries as well as for the modification of preexisting nevi.

  1. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Josef S; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B M; Matteson, Eric L; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C; Doyle, Mittie K

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Methods Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of active RA (≥4 tender, ≥4 swollen joints) were previously reported. Patients received placebo (Group 1), 50 mg golimumab (Group 2) or 100 mg golimumab (Group 3) subcutaneous injections every 4 weeks. Patients from Groups 1 and 2 with <20% improvement in tender/swollen joints at week 16 early escaped to golimumab 50 mg and 100 mg, respectively. At week 24, Group 1 patients crossed over to golimumab 50 mg, Group 2 continued golimumab 50/100 mg per escape status and Group 3 maintained dosing. Data through week 160 are reported. Results 459 of the 461 randomised patients were treated; 236/459 (51%) continued treatment through week 160. From week 24 to week 100, ACR20 (≥20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria) response and ≥0.25 unit HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire) improvement were sustained in 70–73% and 75–81% of responding patients, respectively. Overall at week 160, 63%, 67% and 57% of patients achieved ACR20 response and 59%, 65% and 64% had HAQ improvement ≥0.25 unit in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Adjusted for follow-up duration, adverse event incidences (95% CI) per 100 patient-years among patients treated with golimumab 50 mg and 100 mg were 4.70 (2.63 to 7.75) and 8.07 (6.02 to 10.58) for serious infection, 0.95 (0.20 to 2.77) and 2.04 (1.09 to 3.49) for malignancy and 0.00 (0.00 to 0.94) and 0.62 (0.17 to 1.59) for death, respectively. Conclusion In patients with active RA who discontinued previous TNF-antagonist treatment, golimumab 50 and 100 mg injections every 4 weeks yielded sustained improvements in signs/symptoms and physical function in ∼57–67% of patients who continued treatment. Golimumab

  2. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L

    2015-09-01

    Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Cross-sectional study. Preparticipation physical examinations. A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the goal for these athletes to return to participation after injury. Athletes reporting previous injuries perceived less physical

  3. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam H.; Carton, Amelia M.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26748236

  4. Parietal Activation During Retrieval of Abstract and Concrete Auditory Information

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, Ellen C.; Kane, Ari J.M.; Shimamura, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    Successful memory retrieval has been associated with a neural circuit that involves prefrontal, precuneus, and posterior parietal regions. Specifically, these regions are active during recognition memory tests when items correctly identified as “old” are compared with items correctly identified as “new.” Yet, as nearly all previous fMRI studies have used visual stimuli, it is unclear whether activations in posterior regions are specifically associated with memory retrieval or if they reflect visuospatial processing. We focus on the status of parietal activations during recognition performance by testing memory for abstract and concrete nouns presented in the auditory modality with eyes closed. Successful retrieval of both concrete and abstract words was associated with increased activation in left inferior parietal regions (BA 40), similar to those observed with visual stimuli. These results demonstrate that activations in the posterior parietal cortex during retrieval cannot be attributed to bottom-up visuospatial processes but instead have a more direct relationship to memory retrieval processes. PMID:18243736

  5. Publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2010 Canadian Ophthalmological Society Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Basilious, Alfred; Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria; Buys, Yvonne M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the publication rate of submitted abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2010 Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Annual Meeting in peer-reviewed journals. A retrospective analysis and literature search of abstracts presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting. Abstracts accepted as an oral presentation or poster from the 2010 COS Annual Meeting were tabulated by type of presentation (oral vs poster), subspecialty, study design, number of authors, and principal investigator's institution. A PubMed search was conducted for each abstract by key word, first author, and last author. The year of publication, journal, and impact factor were recorded for identified publications. Publication rate was calculated by type of presentation, subspecialty, study design, number of authors, and institution. A total of 175 abstracts were presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting. There were 105 oral (60%) and 70 poster (40%) presentations. The overall publication rate was 45.7%; 49.5% for oral presentations and 40.0% for posters. Cornea (57.6%) and public health (54.5%) had the highest publication rates of all subspecialties. Randomized control trials (71.4%) and cohort studies (70.0%) had higher publication rates than other study designs. Overall, 28.8% of abstracts were published in the Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. The average impact factor of all publications was 2.73. Of abstracts presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting, 45.7% were published within 5 years after the conference. This publication rate is within the upper end of previously reported meeting publication rates for medical societies. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Word type effects in false recall: concrete, abstract, and emotion word critical lures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lisa M; Olheiser, Erik L; Altarriba, Jeanette; Landi, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that definable qualities of verbal stimuli have implications for memory. For example, the distinction between concrete and abstract words has led to the finding that concrete words have an advantage in memory tasks (i.e., the concreteness effect). However, other word types, such as words that label specific human emotions, may also affect memory processes. This study examined the effects of word type on the production of false memories by using a list-learning false memory paradigm. Participants heard lists of words that were highly associated to nonpresented concrete, abstract, or emotion words (i.e., the critical lures) and then engaged in list recall. Emotion word critical lures were falsely recalled at a significantly higher rate (with the effect carried by the positively valenced critical lures) than concrete and abstract critical lures. These findings suggest that the word type variable has implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie recall and false recall.

  7. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis: a monthly abstract journal. Abstracts 1-225

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M..

    1983-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available to DOE offices and contractors on request, and on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The subscription rate for the 12 monthly issues plus the annual index is $70.00 for domestic subscribers and $87.50 for subscribers outside the North American continent.« less

  8. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  9. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Holte, Robert C; Choueiry, Berthe Y

    2003-07-29

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense.

  10. Geophysical abstracts 167, October-December 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  11. Geophysical abstracts 164, January-March 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. A new table of contents, alphabetically arranged, has been adapted to show more clearly the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  12. Geophysical abstracts 166, July-September 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  13. Geophysical abstracts 165, April-June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  14. Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

  15. Abstraction and Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Automated Software Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaki, S.; Clarke, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Pasareanu, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositional verification and abstraction are the key techniques to address the state explosion problem associated with model checking of concurrent software. A promising compositional approach is to prove properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. This article proposes a framework for performing abstraction and assume-guarantee reasoning of concurrent C code in an incremental and fully automated fashion. The framework uses predicate abstraction to extract and refine finite state models of software and it uses an automata learning algorithm to incrementally construct assumptions for the compositional verification of the abstract models. The framework can be instantiated with different assume-guarantee rules. We have implemented our approach in the COMFORT reasoning framework and we show how COMFORT out-performs several previous software model checking approaches when checking safety properties of non-trivial concurrent programs.

  16. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  17. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto® implant.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto ® implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto ® implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto ® implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. An ab initio/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus study of the hydrogen-abstraction reactions of methyl ethers, H(3)COCH(3-x)(CH(3))(x), x = 0-2, by OH; mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Curran, Henry J

    2010-07-14

    A theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the H-abstraction reaction from dimethyl (DME), ethylmethyl (EME) and iso-propylmethyl (IPME) ethers by the OH radical has been carried out using the high-level methods CCSD(T)/CBS, G3 and G3MP2BH&H. The computationally less-expensive methods of G3 and G3MP2BH&H yield results for DME within 0.2-0.6 and 0.7-0.9 kcal mol(-1), respectively, of the coupled cluster, CCSD(T), values extrapolated to the basis set limit. So the G3 and G3MP2BH&H methods can be confidently used for the reactions of the higher ethers. A distinction is made between the two different kinds of H-atoms, classified as in/out-of the symmetry plane, and it is found that abstraction from the out-of-plane H-atoms proceeds through a stepwise mechanism involving the formation of a reactant complex in the entrance channel and product complex in the exit channel. The in-plane H-atom abstractions take place through a more direct mechanism and are less competitive. Rate constants of the three reactions have been calculated in the temperature range of 500-3000 K using the Variflex code, based on the weak collision, master equation/microcanonical variational RRKM theory including tunneling corrections. The computed total rate constants (cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) have been fitted as follows: k(DME) = 2.74 xT(3.94) exp (1534.2/T), k(EME) = 20.93 xT(3.61) exp (2060.1/T) and k(IPME) = 0.55 xT(3.93) exp (2826.1/T). Expressions of the group rate constants for the three different carbon sites are also provided.

  19. How to prepare and submit abstracts for scientific meetings

    PubMed Central

    Japiassú, Andre Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of study results is a key step in scientific research, and submitting an abstract to a meeting is often the first form of public communication. Meeting abstracts have a defined structure that is similar to abstracts for scientific articles, with an introduction, the objective, methods, results and conclusions. However, abstracts for meetings are not presented as part of a full article and, therefore, must contain the necessary and most relevant data. In this article, we detail their structure and include tips to make them technically correct. PMID:23917970

  20. How to prepare and submit abstracts for scientific meetings.

    PubMed

    Japiassú, Andre Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of study results is a key step in scientific research, and submitting an abstract to a meeting is often the first form of public communication. Meeting abstracts have a defined structure that is similar to abstracts for scientific articles, with an introduction, the objective, methods, results and conclusions. However, abstracts for meetings are not presented as part of a full article and, therefore, must contain the necessary and most relevant data. In this article, we detail their structure and include tips to make them technically correct.

  1. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  2. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  3. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Ibrutinib combined with bendamustine and rituximab compared with placebo, bendamustine, and rituximab for previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (HELIOS): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Cramer, Paula; Demirkan, Fatih; Fraser, Graeme; Silva, Rodrigo Santucci; Grosicki, Sebastian; Pristupa, Aleksander; Janssens, Ann; Mayer, Jiri; Bartlett, Nancy L; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Pylypenko, Halyna; Loscertales, Javier; Avigdor, Abraham; Rule, Simon; Villa, Diego; Samoilova, Olga; Panagiotidis, Panagiots; Goy, Andre; Mato, Anthony; Pavlovsky, Miguel A; Karlsson, Claes; Mahler, Michelle; Salman, Mariya; Sun, Steven; Phelps, Charles; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Howes, Angela; Hallek, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma relapse after initial therapy. Bendamustine plus rituximab is often used in the relapsed or refractory setting. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adding ibrutinib, an oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), to bendamustine plus rituximab in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma. The HELIOS trial was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had active chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma with measurable lymph node disease (>1·5 cm) by CT scan, and had relapsed or refractory disease following one or more previous lines of systemic therapy consisting of at least two cycles of a chemotherapy-containing regimen, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and kidney function. Patients with del(17p) were excluded because of known poor response to bendamustine plus rituximab. Patients who had received previous treatment with ibrutinib or other BTK inhibitors, refractory disease or relapse within 24 months with a previous bendamustine-containing regimen, or haemopoietic stem-cell transplant were also excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a web-based system to receive bendamustine plus rituximab given in cycles of 4 weeks' duration (bendamustine: 70 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 2-3 in cycle 1, and days 1-2 in cycles 2-6; rituximab: 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycle 1, and 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycles 2-6 for a maximum of six cycles) with either ibrutinib (420 mg daily orally) or placebo until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were stratified according to whether they were refractory to purine analogues and by number of previous lines of therapy. The primary endpoint was independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression

  5. 75 FR 69151 - Agency Request for Revision of Previously Approved Information Collections: Uniform...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Previously Approved Information Collections: Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary. ACTION....C. 3501 et seq.), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted...

  6. Onset of relief of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease: post hoc analysis of two previously published studies comparing pantoprazole 20 mg once daily with nizatidine or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily.

    PubMed

    Haag, Sebastian; Holtmann, Gerald

    2010-04-01

    Systematic assessments of the onset of symptom relief in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are lacking. This work evaluated the time interval until complete symptom relief from heartburn (including both daytime and nighttime heartburn) and acid regurgitation in patients with GERD or endoscopy-negative GERD (NERD) during the first 7 days of treatment with pantoprazole, nizatidine, or ranitidine. This was a post hoc reanalysis of data from 2 previously published, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group studies. Male and female patients aged >or=18 years with endoscopically proven GERD or NERD (Hetzel-Dent grade >or= [trial 1] or Savary-Miller grade 0 or 1 [trial 2]) were enrolled. Patients were required to have had reflux symptoms for the previous >or=3 months, with >or=1 symptom (ie, daytime heartburn, nighttime heartburn, or acid regurgitation) for >or=4 of the past 7 days in trial 1 or >or=1 symptom (ie, heartburn, acid eructation, or painful swallowing) of at least moderate intensity for the past 3 days in trial 2. The treatments were pantoprazole 20 mg once daily in both trials, nizatidine 150 mg BID in trial 1, or ranitidine 150 mg BID in trial 2. Presence and severity of symptoms were recorded on daily diary cards using a 4-point Likert-type scale. In total, 114 patients from trial 1 and 307 patients from trial 2 were evaluable for heartburn, and 58 patients from trial l and 271 patients from trial 2 were evaluable for acid regurgitation. In both studies, there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between pantoprazole recipients and nizatidine or ranitidine recipients, with the exception of more men than women in trial 1 compared with trial 2 (P < 0.001). On day 2 of trial 1, 23 (39.0%) and 8 (14.5%) of pantoprazole and nizatidine recipients, respectively, experienced complete relief from heartburn (P < 0.01). The differences between groups remained statistically significant through

  7. CUA Annual Meeting Abstracts addition.

    PubMed

    2012-08-01

    : Foley catheters are assumed to drain the bladder to completion. We have previously shown that dependent loops along the drainage tubing create air-locks, which obstruct antegrade urine flow and result in un-drained residual bladder urine. We hypothesized that drainage characteristics of Foley catheters remain poorly understood by urologists and general surgeons. We conducted a nationwide survey of general surgery and urology training program faculty and residents, to assess perceptions of Foley catheter drainage. We designed a novel catheter drainage tube/bag that eliminates air-locks. : An anonymous illustrated questionnaire assessing Foley catheter use patterns and perception was sent to general surgery and urology residency programs (N=108) nationwide. A modified catheter drainage tube/bag unit was designed and tested. An ex vivo catheterized bladder model was designed to measure and compare urine drainage rates with the standard drainage system, versus with our novel design. : A total of 307 responses were collected from residents (55%) and faculty (45%); responses were similar among both groups (p<0.05). The majority reported that at their centers Foley catheter drainage tubes are generally positioned with a dependent loop (94.1%), and, that positioning with a dependent loop, versus without (78.1%) promoted optimal drainage. Antegrade drainage does not occur with a traditional drainage system when a >5.5 inch dependent loop in place. With our proposed design, which eliminates dependent loops, the bladder model emptied to completion consistently. : Traditional Foley catheter drainage systems, as commonly used, evacuate the bladder sub- optimally. More reliable and complete bladder drainage may decrease the incidence of catheter related UTI. The novel modified Foley catheter drainage tube/bag design presented here eliminates dependent loops, to optimize antegrade drainage.

  8. The Abstraction Process of Limit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Memnun, Dilek; Aydin, Bünyamin; Özbilen, Ömer; Erdogan, Günes

    2017-01-01

    The RBC+C abstraction model is an effective model in mathematics education because it gives the opportunity to analyze research data through cognitive actions. For this reason, we aim to examine the abstraction process of the limit knowledge of two volunteer participant students using the RBC+C abstraction model. With this aim, the students'…

  9. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  10. Tips to Understanding and Writing Manuscript Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    An abstract represents a short summary of key elements of the manuscript. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the function, contents, and types of manuscript abstracts. The essay concludes with a few tips for authors to writing effective abstracts.

  11. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  12. A Comparison of Abstract Writing Style between English and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Liao, Hangjie

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the authors conducted a comprehensive study on English abstract writing style. Abstraction is the process of forming a theoretical concept based on the observation and classification of object things. This concept has no definite denotation. However in specific situation it can be clearly understood. In English, writing an abstract…

  13. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  14. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  15. A double-blind randomized discontinuation phase II study of sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer patients: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E2501

    PubMed Central

    Wakelee, Heather A.; Lee, Ju-Whei; Hanna, Nasser H.; Traynor, Anne M.; Carbone, David P.; Schiller, Joan H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sorafenib is a raf kinase and angiogenesis inhibitor with activity in multiple cancers. This phase II study in heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (≥ two prior therapies) utilized a randomized discontinuation design. Methods Patients received 400 mg of sorafenib orally twice daily for two cycles (two months) (Step 1). Responding patients on Step 1 continued on sorafenib; progressing patients went off study, and patients with stable disease were randomized to placebo or sorafenib (Step 2), with crossover from placebo allowed upon progression. The primary endpoint of this study was the proportion of patients having stable or responding disease two months after randomization. Results : There were 299 patients evaluated for Step 1 with 81 eligible patients randomized on Step 2 who received sorafenib (n=50) or placebo (n=31). The two-month disease control rates following randomization were 54% and 23% for patients initially receiving sorafenib and placebo respectively, p=0.005. The hazard ratio for progression on Step 2 was 0.51 (95% CI 0.30, 0.87, p=0.014) favoring sorafenib. A trend in favor of overall survival with sorafenib was also observed (13.7 versus 9.0 months from time of randomization), HR 0.67 (95% CI 0.40-1.11), p=0.117. A dispensing error occurred which resulted in unblinding of some patients, but not before completion of the 8 week initial step 2 therapy. Toxicities were manageable and as expected. Conclusions : The results of this randomized discontinuation trial suggest that sorafenib has single agent activity in a heavily pretreated, enriched patient population with advanced NSCLC. These results support further investigation with sorafenib as a single agent in larger, randomized studies in NSCLC. PMID:22982658

  16. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  17. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  18. Evaluating Data Abstraction Assistant, a novel software application for data abstraction during systematic reviews: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Ian J; Schmid, Christopher H; Lau, Joseph; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Jap, Jens; Smith, Bryant T; Carini, Simona; Chan, Wiley; De Bruijn, Berry; Wallace, Byron C; Hutfless, Susan M; Sim, Ida; Murad, M Hassan; Walsh, Sandra A; Whamond, Elizabeth J; Li, Tianjing

    2016-11-22

    Data abstraction, a critical systematic review step, is time-consuming and prone to errors. Current standards for approaches to data abstraction rest on a weak evidence base. We developed the Data Abstraction Assistant (DAA), a novel software application designed to facilitate the abstraction process by allowing users to (1) view study article PDFs juxtaposed to electronic data abstraction forms linked to a data abstraction system, (2) highlight (or "pin") the location of the text in the PDF, and (3) copy relevant text from the PDF into the form. We describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compares the relative effectiveness of (A) DAA-facilitated single abstraction plus verification by a second person, (B) traditional (non-DAA-facilitated) single abstraction plus verification by a second person, and (C) traditional independent dual abstraction plus adjudication to ascertain the accuracy and efficiency of abstraction. This is an online, randomized, three-arm, crossover trial. We will enroll 24 pairs of abstractors (i.e., sample size is 48 participants), each pair comprising one less and one more experienced abstractor. Pairs will be randomized to abstract data from six articles, two under each of the three approaches. Abstractors will complete pre-tested data abstraction forms using the Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR), an online data abstraction system. The primary outcomes are (1) proportion of data items abstracted that constitute an error (compared with an answer key) and (2) total time taken to complete abstraction (by two abstractors in the pair, including verification and/or adjudication). The DAA trial uses a practical design to test a novel software application as a tool to help improve the accuracy and efficiency of the data abstraction process during systematic reviews. Findings from the DAA trial will provide much-needed evidence to strengthen current recommendations for data abstraction approaches. The trial is registered

  19. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  20. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P < 0.001), ln(γGT) (P < 0.01) and ln(ALT) (P < 0.05) were the best biochemical predictors of recidivism of drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index < 25%; second tertile; P < 0.001) and a low recidivism risk (ROAD index < 16%; first tertile; P < 0.05). Of all routinely used indirect alcohol markers, percentage of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is the major predictor of recidivism of drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of

  1. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  2. The effects of previous hysterectomy on lupus.

    PubMed

    Namjou, B; Scofield, R H; Kelly, J A; Goodmon, E l; Aberle, T; Bruner, G R; Harley, J B

    2009-10-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in United States, and currently, one in three women in United States has had a hysterectomy by the age of 60 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease and especially targets women of childbearing age at least 10 times higher than men, which reflects the major role of female sex hormones. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the potential effects of previous hysterectomy in our lupus cohort. Data collected from study subject questionnaires were obtained from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository (LFRR) at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation. Hysterectomy data were available from 3389 subjects. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy have been selected and compared with matched lupus patients with a negative history of hysterectomy and healthy controls. Association analyses were performed, and the P values and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. SLE patients with a negative history of hysterectomy more likely had kidney nephritis or positive anti-dsDNA than age-matched SLE patients with a history of hysterectomy before disease onset. This effect was independent of ethnicity with an OR of 6.66 (95% CI = 3.09-14.38, P = 1.00 x 10(-8)) in European patients and 2.74 (95% CI = 1.43-5.25, P = 0.001) in African-Americans. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy before disease onset also had a later age of disease onset (P = 0.0001) after adjustment for age and race. Our findings support the notion that the influence of female sex hormones in SLE and various clinical findings are tremendous and that surgical menopause such as this could significantly affect the outcome of disease and clinical manifestations.

  3. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  4. Atypical associations to abstract words in Broca's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Roll, Mikael; Mårtensson, Frida; Sikström, Sverker; Apt, Pia; Arnling-Bååth, Rasmus; Horne, Merle

    2012-09-01

    Left frontal brain lesions are known to give rise to aphasia and impaired word associations. These associations have previously been difficult to analyze. We used a semantic space method to investigate associations to cue words. The degree of abstractness of the generated words and semantic similarity to the cue words were measured. Three subjects diagnosed with Broca's aphasia and twelve control subjects associated freely to cue words. Results were evaluated with latent semantic analysis (LSA) applied to the Swedish Parole corpus. The aphasic subjects could be clearly distinguished from controls by a lower degree of abstractness in the words they generated. The aphasic group's associations showed a negative correlation between semantic similarity to cue word and abstractness of cue word. By developing novel semantic measures, we showed that Broca's aphasic subjects' word production was characterized by a low degree of abstractness and low degree of coherence in associations to abstract cue words. The results support models where meanings of concrete words are represented in neural networks involving perceptual and motor areas, whereas the meaning of abstract words is more dependent on connections to other word forms in the left frontal region. Semantic spaces can be used in future developments of evaluative tools for both diagnosis and research purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetic Study of the Aroxyl-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Five Fatty Acid Esters and Six Carotenoids in Toluene Solution: Structure-Activity Relationship for the Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Maya; Ishikura, Masaharu; Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-17

    A kinetic study of the reaction between an aroxyl radical (ArO • ) and fatty acid esters (LHs 1-5, ethyl stearate 1, ethyl oleate 2, ethyl linoleate 3, ethyl linolenate 4, and ethyl arachidonate 5) has been undertaken. The second-order rate constants (k s ) for the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 in toluene at 25.0 °C have been determined spectrophotometrically. The k s values obtained increased in the order of LH 1 < 2 < 3 < 4 < 5, that is, with increasing the number of double bonds included in LHs 1-5. The k s value for LH 5 was 2.93 × 10 -3 M -1 s -1 . From the result, it has been clarified that the reaction of ArO • with LHs 1-5 was explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. A similar kinetic study was performed for the reaction of ArO • with six carotenoids (Car-Hs 1-6, astaxanthin 1, β-carotene 2, lycopene 3, capsanthin 4, zeaxanthin 5, and lutein 6). The k s values obtained increased in the order of Car-H 1 < 2 < 3 < 4 < 5 < 6. The k s value for Car-H 6 was 8.4 × 10 -4 M -1 s -1 . The k s values obtained for Car-Hs 1-6 are in the same order as that of the values for LHs 1-5. The results of detailed analyses of the k s values for the above reaction indicated that the reaction was also explained by an allylic hydrogen abstraction reaction. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationship for the reaction was discussed by taking the result of density functional theory calculation reported by Martinez and Barbosa into account.

  6. Myocardial adaption to HI(R)T in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial).

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael; Oezdemir, Derya; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years) or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years). HI(R)T comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(R)T all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging). Indexed left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2) and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2) significantly increased with HI(R)T (all p<0.001). Mean LV and RV remodeling indices of HI(R)T-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87]), indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2) and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2) stroke volume significantly increased with HI(R)T (p<0.001). Myocardial strain and strain rates did not change following resistance exercise. Left atrial volume at end systole slightly increased after HI(R)T (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411), the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79). 22 weeks of HI(R)T lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men. The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of

  7. Phase I study of the c-raf-1 antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 5132 in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fidias, Panos; Pennell, Nathan A; Boral, Anthony L; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Skarin, Arthur T; Eder, Joseph P; Kwoh, T Jesse; Geary, Richard S; Johnson, Bruce E; Lynch, Thomas J; Supko, Jeffrey G

    2009-09-01

    A phase I trial was performed to evaluate the administration of carboplatin/paclitaxel in combination with ISIS-5132, a phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibitor of c-raf-1 kinase expression, in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previously untreated patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received ISIS 5132 by continuous intravenous infusion at 2.0 mg/kg/d for 14 days. Starting doses were paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) and carboplatin targeting an area under the free platinum plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(fp)) of 5 mg . min/ml (dose level 1). The carboplatin dose was then increased to AUC(fp) 6 mg . min/ml (dose level 2) after which the paclitaxel dose was increased to 200 mg/m(2) (dose level 3). The maximum tolerated dose was established by toxicity during the first two 21-day cycles of therapy. The pharmacokinetics of all three agents was determined before and during the ISIS 5132 infusion. Thirteen patients were treated with the carboplatin/paclitaxel/ISIS 5132 combination. Dose-limiting neutropenia occurred in two patients at dose level 3. Grade 3 and 4 nonhematologic toxicities were infrequent and limited to nausea and constipation. The maximum tolerated doses were carboplatin AUC(fp) 6 mg . min/ml, paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2), and ISIS 5132 2.0 mg/kg/d for 14 days. There were no objective responses and the concurrent infusion of ISIS 5132 did not alter the plasma pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel or total platinum. ISIS 5132 can be safely combined with standard doses of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Combining cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents with inhibitors of aberrant signal transduction mediated by Raf proteins produced no objective responses in the dose and schedule administered in this study.

  8. A randomized phase II study of combination therapy with S-1, oral leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (SOL) and mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kentaro; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Toshio; Kato, Takeshi; Shimada, Ken; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Nishina, Tomohiro; Shirao, Kuniaki; Esaki, Taito; Ohishi, Takashi; Denda, Tadamichi; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Boku, Narikazu

    2015-03-01

    Biochemical modulation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by leucovorin (LV) enhances antitumor activity. LV is thus often added to 5-FU-based regimens for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A combination of S-1, oxaliplatin, and LV (SOL) was shown to be feasible, effective, and safe in a previous phase I trial. We therefore conducted a randomized phase II trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of SOL compared with mFOLFOX6. Patients with mCRC and no prior chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either SOL or mFOLFOX6. SOL consisted of S-1 (40-60 mg bid) plus oral LV (25 mg bid) for 1 week and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) on day 1, repeated every 2 weeks. Among 107 patients enrolled from July 2008 through July 2009, 105 (56 in the SOL group and 49 in the mFOLFOX6 group) were eligible and evaluated. The median progression-free survival was 9.6 months in the SOL group and 6.9 months in the mFOLFOX6 group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.49-1.40]. The median overall survival was 29.9 and 25.9 months, respectively (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.55-1.49). The response rate was 55 % in both groups. Grade 3 or 4 adverse drug reactions were neutropenia (20 % with SOL vs 41 % with mFOLFOX6), sensory neuropathy (20 vs 2.0 %), anorexia (13 vs 7.8 %), fatigue (11 vs 5.9 %), and diarrhea (11 vs 3.9 %). SOL demonstrated promising efficacy and acceptable toxicity as first-line chemotherapy for mCRC. Further studies of SOL combined with molecular target agents are warranted.

  9. Physical Oceanography Program Science Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    substantial part of the database used by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. National Weather Service to generate, in real-time, subsurface tempera- ture maps...quality, 1ST database which incorporates GTS bathymessagss and on-sbip recordings from the Pacific for the period 1979 through 1983. Access to these data...Investigator: Stanley M. FlattE Frank S. Henyey INTERNAL-WAVE NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS BY THE EIKONAL METHOD We have been involved in the study of

  10. Supercomputing 2002: NAS Demo Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hyperwall is a new concept in visual supercomputing, conceived and developed by the NAS Exploratory Computing Group. The hyperwall will allow simultaneous and coordinated visualization and interaction of an array of processes, such as a the computations of a parameter study or the parallel evolutions of a genetic algorithm population. Making over 65 million pixels available to the user, the hyperwall will enable and elicit qualitatively new ways of leveraging computers to accomplish science. It is currently still unclear whether we will be able to transport the hyperwall to SC02. The crucial display frame still has not been completed by the metal fabrication shop, although they promised an August delivery. Also, we are still working the fragile node issue, which may require transplantation of the compute nodes from the present 2U cases into 3U cases. This modification will increase the present 3-rack configuration to 5 racks.

  11. Lipid changes and tolerability in a cohort of adult HIV-infected patients who switched to rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir due to intolerance to previous combination ART: the PRO-STR study.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, A; Domingo, P; Fernández, P; Diz, J; Barberá, J R; Sepúlveda, M A; Salgado, X; Rodriguez, M; Santos, J; Yzusqui, M; Mayorga, M I; Lorenzo, J F; Bahamonde, A; Bachiller, P; Martínez, E; Rozas, N; Torres, C; Muñoz, A; Casado, A; Podzamczer, D

    2018-05-16

    To analyse lipid changes and tolerability in a cohort of HIV-infected patients who switched their antiretroviral regimens to rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF) in a real-world setting. PRO-STR is a 48 week prospective observational post-authorization study in 25 hospitals. Patients with a viral load <1000 copies/mL, receiving at least 12 months of combination ART (cART), with constant posology for at least the prior 3 months, were categorized according to previous treatment [NNRTI or ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r)]. Analytical tests were performed at the baseline visit, between week 16 and week 32, and at week 48. A total of 303 patients were included (mean age 46.6 years; male 74.0%; previous treatment 74.7% NNRTI and 25.3% PI/r). Both groups exhibited significantly reduced lipid profiles, except for HDL cholesterol, for which a non-significant increase was observed. [NNRTI patients: total cholesterol (baseline: 195.5 ± 38.4 mg/dL; week 48: 171.0 ± 35.5 mg/dL), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (baseline: 4.2 ± 1.2; week 48: 4.0 ± 1.2), HDL (baseline: 49.1 ± 12.0 mg/dL; week 48: 49.2 ± 45.8 mg/dL), LDL (baseline: 119.2 ± 30.2 mg/dL; week 48: 114.2 ± 110.7 mg/dL), and triglycerides (baseline: 136.6 ± 86.8 mg/dL; week 48: 113.4 ± 67.8 mg/dL); PI/r patients: total cholesterol (baseline: 203.2 ± 48.8 mg/dL; week 48: 173.4 ± 36.9 mg/dL), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (baseline: 4.7 ± 1.6; week 48: 4.0 ± 1.2), HDL (baseline: 46.4 ± 12.5 mg/dL; week 48: 52.1 ± 54.4 mg/dL), LDL (baseline: 127.0 ± 36.3 mg/dL; week 48: 111.4 ± 35.8 mg/dL), and triglycerides (baseline: 167.6 ± 107.7 mg/dL; week 48: 122.7 ± 72.1 mg/dL)]. The most common intolerances were neuropsychiatric in the NNRTI patients and gastrointestinal and metabolic in the PI/r patients, and these intolerances were significantly reduced in both groups at week 48 [NNRTI

  12. DSH abstract: coverage of the world communicative disorders literature.

    PubMed

    Seaton, W H; Williams, D M

    1982-06-01

    The percentage of journal articles covered by dsh Abstracts and the time it took these articles to appear as abstracts in this secondary publication were analyzed. Articles were obtained from nineteen communicative disorders journals every other year for the years from 1968 to 1976. Then the author index of dsh Abstracts was searched each year for up to five years following journal publication to determine whether each article was included in this abstracting service's coverage of the world literature. Of the 5548 articles included in the study, 3270 (59%) were covered by this abstracting service within a mean time of 9 months; however, time lag and coverage varied considerably for individual journals on a year by year basis. It was concluded that for historical searches and current awareness needs this secondary publication may not be meeting the information needs of communicative disorders specialists.

  13. Ab initio and kinetic study of the reaction of ketones with OH for T = 500-2000 K. Part I: hydrogen-abstraction from H3CC(O)CH(3-x)(CH3)x, x = 0 ↦ 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Curran, Henry J

    2011-06-21

    A theoretical study is presented of the mechanism and kinetics of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with three ketones: dimethyl (DMK), ethylmethyl (EMK) and iso-propylmethyl (iPMK) ketones. CCSD(T) values extrapolated to the basis set limit are used to benchmark the computationally less expensive methods G3 and G3MP2BH&H, for the DMK + OH reaction system. These latter methods are then used in computations involving the reactions of the larger ketones. All possible abstraction channels have been modeled. A stepwise mechanism involving the formation of a reactant complex in the entrance channel and a product complex in the exit channel has been recognized in part of the abstracting processes. High-pressure limit rate constants of the title reactions have been calculated in the temperature range of 500-2000 K using the Variflex code including Eckart tunneling corrections. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) has been used for the rate constants of the barrier-less entrance channel. Calculated total rate constants (cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) are reported as follows: k(DMK) = 1.32 × 10(2)×T(3.30)exp(503/T), k(EMK) = 3.84 × 10(1)×T(3.51)exp(1515/T), k(iPMK) = 2.08 × 10(1)×T(3.58)exp(2161/T). Group rate constants (on a per H atom basis) for different carbon sites in title reactions have also been provided.

  14. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  15. (abstract) Topographic Signatures in Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Evans, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Topographic information is required for many Earth Science investigations. For example, topography is an important element in regional and global geomorphic studies because it reflects the interplay between the climate-driven processes of erosion and the tectonic processes of uplift. A number of techniques have been developed to analyze digital topographic data, including Fourier texture analysis. A Fourier transform of the topography of an area allows the spatial frequency content of the topography to be analyzed. Band-pass filtering of the transform produces images representing the amplitude of different spatial wavelengths. These are then used in a multi-band classification to map units based on their spatial frequency content. The results using a radar image instead of digital topography showed good correspondence to a geologic map, however brightness variations in the image unrelated to topography caused errors. An additional benefit to the use of Fourier band-pass images for the classification is that the textural signatures of the units are quantative measures of the spatial characteristics of the units that may be used to map similar units in similar environments.

  16. Patient-Centered Research Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, SL; Shapiro, S; Cunningham, C; Gourevitch, M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE AIDS continues to devastate urban communities, particularly among marginally-housed, ethnic minority, and drug-using populations. This study (1) describes access to comprehensive medical care, quality of HIV-related care, and attitudes regarding health among HIV-infected residents of single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels and (2) explores predictors of the use of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis and highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based study of 69 Bronx SRO hotel residents during May 1998. Utilizing door-to-door recruitment, we administered a 41-item, anonymous questionnaire to assess participants' demographic characteristics, level of illness and health care utilization, use of HIV-related therapies, and perceptions of their own health and medical care. RESULTS Of respondents, 65% identified as African-American or Black, 22% as Puerto Rican, and 13% as White or Other. The median age was 42; 68% were male, and 38% were high school graduates. Most individuals were marginally-housed (median stay = 9 months). Almost all participants (96%) paid for medical services via Medicaid. Of the 93% with HIV infection, 44% had been hospitalized at least once in the past year, 72% reported a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, and the median CD4 count was 214. Over two-thirds were actively using drugs and/or alcohol. Among HIV-infected residents, 81% had seen a doctor in the last three months. However, only 67% felt they had a "regular" physician, and 48% felt their access to medical care was average to very poor. Among eligible HIV-infected persons, only 39% had taken HAART and 73% had taken PCP prophylaxis in the last week. Predictors for the use of HAART included absence of active cocaine and/or crack use (RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.03–14.8; p < .03), use of PCP prophylaxis (RR = 5.69; 95% CI .85–38.1; p < .03) and the belief that HAART "can help people with AIDS" (RR = 1.75; 95

  17. Rituximab versus an alternative TNF inhibitor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed to respond to a single previous TNF inhibitor: SWITCH-RA, a global, observational, comparative effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Emery, P; Gottenberg, J E; Rubbert-Roth, A; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Choquette, D; Taboada, V M Martínez; Barile-Fabris, L; Moots, R J; Ostor, A; Andrianakos, A; Gemmen, E; Mpofu, C; Chung, C; Gylvin, L Hinsch; Finckh, A

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effectiveness of rituximab versus an alternative tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor (TNFi) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to one previous TNFi. SWITCH-RA was a prospective, global, observational, real-life study. Patients non-responsive or intolerant to a single TNFi were enrolled ≤4 weeks after starting rituximab or a second TNFi. Primary end point: change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints excluding patient's global health component (DAS28-3)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) over 6 months. 604 patients received rituximab, and 507 an alternative TNFi as second biological therapy. Reasons for discontinuing the first TNFi were inefficacy (n=827), intolerance (n=263) and other (n=21). A total of 728 patients were available for primary end point analysis (rituximab n=405; TNFi n=323). Baseline mean (SD) DAS28-3-ESR was higher in the rituximab than the TNFi group: 5.2 (1.2) vs 4.8 (1.3); p<0.0001. Least squares mean (SE) change in DAS28-3-ESR at 6 months was significantly greater in rituximab than TNFi patients: -1.5 (0.2) vs -1.1 (0.2); p=0.007. The difference remained significant among patients discontinuing the initial TNFi because of inefficacy (-1.7 vs -1.3; p=0.017) but not intolerance (-0.7 vs -0.7; p=0.894). Seropositive patients showed significantly greater improvements in DAS28-3-ESR with rituximab than with TNFi (-1.6 (0.3) vs -1.2 (0.3); p=0.011), particularly those switching because of inefficacy (-1.9 (0.3) vs -1.5 (0.4); p=0.021). The overall incidence of adverse events was similar between the rituximab and TNFi groups. These real-life data indicate that, after discontinuation of an initial TNFi, switching to rituximab is associated with significantly improved clinical effectiveness compared with switching to a second TNFi. This difference was particularly evident in seropositive patients and in those switched because of inefficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  18. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-07-29

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'.

  19. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  20. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  1. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miriam H; Carton, Amelia M; Hardy, Christopher J; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Fletcher, Phillip D; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R; Henley, Susie M D; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2016-01-29

    art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  3. Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that, since mathematics is essentially a self-contained system, mathematical objects may best be described as "abstract-apart." On the other hand, fundamental mathematical ideas are closely related to the real world and their learning involves empirical concepts. These concepts may be called "abstract-general" because they embody…

  4. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  5. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  6. User-Extensible Graphics Using Abstract Structure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Flex 6 The Algol68 model of the graphical abstract structure 5 The creation of a PictureDefinition 6 The making of a picture from a PictureDefinition 7...data together with the operations that can be performed on that data. i 7! ś I _ § 4, The Alqol68 model of the graphical abstract structure Every

  7. Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov Websites

    ADS Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service Please use this form to report bugs or send comments to the ADS Abstract Project. Thank you for your feedback. ❉ Required field Your Name: ❉ Your E

  8. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  9. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  10. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  11. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  12. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  13. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  14. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  15. A Statistical Analysis of Reviewer Agreement and Bias in Evaluating Medical Abstracts 1

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Conn, Harold O.

    1976-01-01

    Observer variability affects virtually all aspects of clinical medicine and investigation. One important aspect, not previously examined, is the selection of abstracts for presentation at national medical meetings. In the present study, 109 abstracts, submitted to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, were evaluated by three “blind” reviewers for originality, design-execution, importance, and overall scientific merit. Of the 77 abstracts rated for all parameters by all observers, interobserver agreement ranged between 81 and 88%. However, corresponding intraclass correlations varied between 0.16 (approaching statistical significance) and 0.37 (p < 0.01). Specific tests of systematic differences in scoring revealed statistically significant levels of observer bias on most of the abstract components. Moreover, the mean differences in interobserver ratings were quite small compared to the standard deviations of these differences. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating the simple percentage of rater agreement within the broader context of observer variability and systematic bias. PMID:997596

  16. Don't forget the posters! Quality and content variables associated with accepted abstracts at a national trauma meeting.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Lesly A; Fox, Erin E; del Junco, Deborah J; Zaydfudim, Victor; Kauffmann, Rondi; Shelton, Julia; Wang, Weiwei; Cioffi, William G; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2012-05-01

    As a primary venue for presenting research results, abstracts selected for presentation at national meetings should be of the highest scientific merit and research quality. It is uncertain to what degree this is achieved as the methodological quality of abstracts submitted to national surgical meetings has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to evaluate abstracts presented at a leading trauma meeting for methodological quality. All abstracts accepted for the 2009 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma meeting were reviewed and scored for methodological quality based on 10 criteria (scores, 0-10; 10 being the highest). Criteria were based on nationally published methodology guidelines. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to institution, region, and author reviewed each abstract. A total of 187 abstracts were accepted for presentation (67 oral and 120 posters). The most frequent clinical topics were shock/transfusion (23%), abdomen (12%), and nervous system (11%). Shock/transfusion abstracts were more common in the oral presentations (31% vs. 19%; p = 0.06). Abstracts from the northeast and south regions were the most common in both oral (26% and 29%) and posters (25% and 24%). Basic science accounted for 12% of accepted studies, while 51% were clinical and 28% were health services/outcomes. Only 8% of abstracts presented randomized data and only 11% reported null findings. Overall abstract scores ranged from 3 to 10 (median, 7; mean, 7.4). Abstracts selected for poster presentation had an overall higher score than those selected for oral presentation (7.4 ± 1.7 vs. 6.8 ± 1.7; p = 0.02). Although oral presentations traditionally receive the most attention and interest, the methodological quality of abstracts accepted for poster presentation equals (and sometimes exceeds) that of oral abstracts. Attendees of these national meetings should reconsider their time spent in viewing and visiting these poster sessions as with the

  17. Don’t forget the posters! Quality and content variables associated with accepted abstracts at a national trauma meeting

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Lesly A.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Zaydfudim, Victor; Kauffmann, Rondi; Shelton, Julia; Wang, Weiwei; Cioffi, William G.; Holcomb, John B.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a primary venue for presenting research results, abstracts selected for presentation at national meetings should be of the highest scientific merit and research quality. It is uncertain to what degree this is achieved as the methodological quality of abstracts submitted to national surgical meetings has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to evaluate abstracts presented at a leading trauma meeting for methodological quality. METHODS All abstracts accepted for the 2009 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma meeting were reviewed and scored for methodological quality based on 10 criteria (scores, 0–10; 10 being the highest). Criteria were based on nationally published methodology guidelines. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to institution, region, and author reviewed each abstract. RESULTS A total of 187 abstracts were accepted for presentation (67 oral and 120 posters). The most frequent clinical topics were shock/transfusion (23%), abdomen (12%), and nervous system (11%). Shock/transfusion abstracts were more common in the oral presentations (31% vs. 19%; p =0.06). Abstracts from the northeast and south regions were the most common in both oral (26% and 29%) and posters (25% and 24%). Basic science accounted for 12% of accepted studies, while 51% were clinical and 28% were health services/outcomes. Only 8% of abstracts presented randomized data and only 11% reported null findings. Overall abstract scores ranged from 3 to 10 (median, 7; mean, 7.4). Abstracts selected for poster presentation had an overall higher score than those selected for oral presentation (7.4 ±1.7 vs. 6.8 ±1.7; p =0.02). CONCLUSION Although oral presentations traditionally receive the most attention and interest, the methodological quality of abstracts accepted for poster presentation equals (and sometimes exceeds) that of oral abstracts. Attendees of these national meetings should reconsider their time spent in viewing and visiting

  18. Safety and preliminary efficacy of venetoclax with decitabine or azacitidine in elderly patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia: a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b study.

    PubMed

    DiNardo, Court