Science.gov

Sample records for abstract primary objective

  1. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  2. Deriving Abstractions from a Software Object Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Ramamoorthy, Vijay K . Garg , and Atul Prakash, "Reusability Support in I GENESIS," The Tenth International Computer Software and Applications Confer- ence...would also like to thank our colleagues in the Berkeley GENESIS group, in particular Atul Prakash and Vijay Garg , and our friends at Columbus Bell Labs...following should be extracted: d% r Pr K -6WLLJCLV) -7- ,F Figure 5: Extraction of a Subsystem from the Object Network #define HEADER 12 #define PACKET

  3. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  4. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  5. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  6. Compositional Mining of Multiple Object API Protocols through State Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  7. Astronomical telescope with holographic primary objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Content, David A.

    2011-09-01

    A dual dispersion telescope with a plane grating primary objective was previously disclosed that can overcome intrinsic chromatic aberration of dispersive optics while allowing for unprecedented features such as million object spectroscopy, extraordinary étendue, flat primary objective with a relaxed figure tolerance, gossamer membrane substrate stowable as an unsegmented roll inside a delivery vehicle, and extensibility past 100 meter aperture at optical wavelengths. The novel design meets many criteria for space deployment. Other embodiments are suitable for airborne platforms as well as terrestrial and lunar sites. One problem with this novel telescope is that the grazing exodus configuration necessary to achieve a large aperture is traded for throughput efficiency. Now we show how the hologram of a point source used in place of the primary objective plane grating can improve efficiency by lowering the diffraction angle below grazing exodus. An intermediate refractive element is used to compensate for wavelength dependent focal lengths of the holographic primary objective.

  8. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  9. Character analysis in cladistics: abstraction, reification, and the search for objectivity.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2009-06-01

    The dangers of character reification for cladistic inference are explored. The identification and analysis of characters always involves theory-laden abstraction--there is no theory-free "view from nowhere." Given theory-ladenness, and given a real world with actual objects and processes, how can we separate robustly real biological characters from uncritically reified characters? One way to avoid reification is through the employment of objectivity criteria that give us good methods for identifying robust primary homology statements. I identify six such criteria and explore each with examples. Ultimately, it is important to minimize character reification, because poor character analysis leads to dismal cladograms, even when proper phylogenetic analysis is employed. Given the deep and systemic problems associated with character reification, it is ironic that philosophers have focused almost entirely on phylogenetic analysis and neglected character analysis.

  10. Computer Simulations and the Transition from Concrete Manipulation of Objects to Abstract Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    This study explores a learning model which suggests that a concept is acquired first through manipulation of concrete objects followed by transformation of the concrete objects into semi-concrete representations, followed by internalization of the concept through abstract representations. Microcomputer simulations of manipulative activities were…

  11. Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

  12. Physicists in Primary Schools (PIPS) Project: Fun Presentations for Physicists to Take into Schools Worldwide (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Ann

    2009-04-01

    The Physicists in Primary Schools (PIPS) project is a joint venture initiated by the UK Women in Physics Group. A team from the University of Sheffield, with Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funding, has developed fun presentations and novel class activities using everyday articles for physicists to take into primary schools. The objectives are to instill enthusiasm in young children-including girls-through the enjoyment and excitement of physics, and support primary school teachers with a curriculum which includes many abstract concepts. All PIPS material is free to download from the Institute of Physics website (www.iop.org/pips), providing PowerPoint presentations and detailed explanations, as well as videos of the activities in classrooms. The topics are suitable for children age 4 to 11 years. There is interest in translating the presentations into other languages as there are few words on the slides and the material is likely valuable for older age groups. The presentations therefore have the potential to be useful worldwide.

  13. Behaviorally Relevant Abstract Object Identity Representation in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su Keun

    2016-01-01

    The representation of object identity is fundamental to human vision. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the representation of highly abstract object identity information in human parietal cortex. Specifically, in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region previously shown to track visual short-term memory capacity, we found object identity representations for famous faces varying freely in viewpoint, hairstyle, facial expression, and age; and for well known cars embedded in different scenes, and shown from different viewpoints and sizes. Critically, these parietal identity representations were behaviorally relevant as they closely tracked the perceived face-identity similarity obtained in a behavioral task. Meanwhile, the task-activated regions in prefrontal and parietal cortices (excluding superior IPS) did not exhibit such abstract object identity representations. Unlike previous studies, we also failed to observe identity representations in posterior ventral and lateral visual object-processing regions, likely due to the greater amount of identity abstraction demanded by our stimulus manipulation here. Our MRI slice coverage precluded us from examining identity representation in anterior temporal lobe, a likely region for the computing of identity information in the ventral region. Overall, we show that human parietal cortex, part of the dorsal visual processing pathway, is capable of holding abstract and complex visual representations that are behaviorally relevant. These results argue against a “content-poor” view of the role of parietal cortex in attention. Instead, the human parietal cortex seems to be “content rich” and capable of directly participating in goal-driven visual information representation in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The representation of object identity (including faces) is fundamental to human vision and shapes how we interact with the world. Although object representation has traditionally been

  14. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  15. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  16. Applying Loop Optimizations to Object-oriented Abstractions Through General Classification of Array Semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Quinlan, D

    2004-03-05

    Optimizing compilers have a long history of applying loop transformations to C and Fortran scientific applications. However, such optimizations are rare in compilers for object-oriented languages such as C++ or Java, where loops operating on user-defined types are left unoptimized due to their unknown semantics. Our goal is to reduce the performance penalty of using high-level object-oriented abstractions. We propose an approach that allows the explicit communication between programmers and compilers. We have extended the traditional Fortran loop optimizations with an open interface. Through this interface, we have developed techniques to automatically recognize and optimize user-defined array abstractions. In addition, we have developed an adapted constant-propagation algorithm to automatically propagate properties of abstractions. We have implemented these techniques in a C++ source-to-source translator and have applied them to optimize several kernels written using an array-class library. Our experimental results show that using our approach, applications using high-level abstractions can achieve comparable, and in cases superior, performance to that achieved by efficient low-level hand-written codes.

  17. Evaluation Primary School Students' Achievement of Objectives in English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this survey is "How far are the specific objectives of English courses achieved by the primary students (4-5 grades) recently in Istanbul?" "Does the first stage state primary school students' achievement level of the specific English courses differ according to students' personal characteristics? Survey…

  18. Objectivity, abstraction, and the individual: the influence of Søren Kierkegaard on Paul Feyerabend.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the influence of Søren Kierkegaard upon Paul Feyerabend by examining their common criticisms of totalising accounts of human nature. Both complained that philosophical and scientific theories of human nature which were methodologically committed to objectivity and abstraction failed to capture the richness of human experience. Kierkegaard and Feyerabend argued that philosophy and the science were threatening to become obstacles to human development by imposing abstract theories of human nature and reality which denied the complexities of both. In both cases, this took the form of asserting an 'existential' criterion for the assessment of philosophical and scientific theories. Kierkegaard also made remarks upon the inappropriateness of applying natural scientific methods to human beings which Feyerabend later expanded and developed in his criticisms of the inability of the 'scientific world-view' to accommodate the values necessary to a flourishing human life. I conclude by noting some differences between Kierkegaard and Feyerabend's positions and by affirming the value of existential criticisms of scientific knowledge.

  19. 24 CFR 570.1 - Purpose and primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose and primary objective. 570.1 Section 570.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS General Provisions §...

  20. 24 CFR 570.1 - Purpose and primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose and primary objective. 570.1 Section 570.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  1. The Direction of Hemispheric Asymmetries for Object Categorization at Different Levels of Abstraction Depends on the Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Tobias; Hubner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In this study hemispheric asymmetries for categorizing objects at the basic versus subordinate level of abstraction were investigated. As predictions derived from different theoretical approaches are contradictory and experimental evidence is inconclusive in this regard, we conducted two categorization experiments, where we contrasted two…

  2. Phase errors in gossamer membrane primary objective gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A ribbon-shaped primary objective grating (POG) telescope lends itself to deployment in space, because it can be stowed for transport on a roll. Unlike mirrors which need to be segmented for sizes beyond the diameter of the fairing or payload bay, the ribbon is a continuous integral surface transported on a drum and unfurled during deployment. A flat POG membrane abandons a standard three dimensional figure requirement of mirrors and solves the problem of making primary objectives from tensile structures. Moreover, POG telescopes enjoy relaxed surface dimensional tolerances compared with mirrors. We have demonstrated mathematically and empirically that the tolerance for flatness relaxes as the receiving angle increases toward grazing exodus where the magnification of the POG is greatest. At the same time, the tolerance for phase error is worsened as the angle of reconstruction moves toward grazing exodus. The problem will be aggravated by the rigors of the space deployment environment. We give a mathematical treatment for the flatness and phase error. We mention engineering methods that could ameliorate the error.

  3. History and Objectives of LADY CATS (Women Physics Teachers in Japan) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Ishii, Kyoko; Onishi, Haruka; Yokoee, Mika; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of predominantly female science teachers, from the primary school to university research level. We work to encourage students and teachers not already interested in physics. Many primary teachers feel uncomfortable as science-especially physics- educators because they have studied only general science. The majority of primary teachers are female, but females are less likely to study physics. The result is fewer women physics teachers in higher education. We formed LADY CATS in 2005 to change this situation through our activities. We are dedicated to presenting simple and inexpensive, yet beautiful, science experiments that demonstrate the principles of physics. We have presented experiments at international conferences, such as the International Commission on Physics Education meeting, sometimes with male teachers. The name, LADY CATS, is taken from the group, STRAY CATS. Members of this organization have demonstrated interesting experiments at numerous international conferences for over 20 years. We believe our activities and passion for physics will inspire others to pursue this field.

  4. ROSETTA: the compile-time recognition of object-oriented library abstractions and their use within user applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Philip, B

    2001-01-08

    Libraries arise naturally from the increasing complexity of developing scientific applications, the optimization of libraries is just one type of high-performance optimization. Many complex applications areas can today be addressed by domain-specific object-oriented frameworks. Such object-oriented frameworks provide an effective compliment to an object-oriented language and effectively permit the design of what amount to essentially domain-specific languages. The optimization of such a domain-specific library/language combination however is particularly complicated due to the inability of the compiler to optimize the use of the libraries abstractions. The recognition of the use of object-oriented abstractions within user applications is a particularly difficult but important step in the optimization of how objects are used within expressions and statements. Such recognition entails more than just complex pattern matching. The approach presented within this paper uses specially built grammars to parse the C++ representation. The C++ representation is itself obtained using a modified version of the SAGE II C/C++ source code restructuring tool which is inturn based upon the Edison Design Group (EDG) C++ front-end. ROSETTA is a tool which automatically builds grammars and parsers from class definitions, associated parsers parse abstract syntax trees (ASTs) of lower level grammars into ASTs of higher level grammars. The lowest level grammar is that associated with the full C++ language itself, higher level grammars specialize the grammars specific to user defined objects. The grammars form a hierarchy and permit a high-degree of specialization in the recognition of complex use of user defined abstractions.

  5. Coping with Abstraction in Object Orientation with a Special Focus on Interface Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana; Rashkovits, Rami; Kouris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    One of the subjects that undergraduate students learning Object Oriented (OO) design find hard to apply is the construction of class hierarchies in general, and the use of interface classes in particular. The design process requires decomposition and reconstruction of problems in order to model software classes. The common attributes and behaviors…

  6. A Unified Representation Scheme for Solid Geometric Objects Using B-splines (extended Abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahler, D.

    1985-01-01

    A geometric representation scheme called the B-spline cylinder, which consists of interpolation between pairs of uniform periodic cubic B-spline curves is discussed. This approach carries a number of interesting implications. For one, a single relatively simple database schema can be used to represent a reasonably large class of objects, since the spline representation is flexible enough to allow a large domain of representable objects at very little cost in data complexity. The model is thus very storage-efficient. A second feature of such a system is that it reduces to one the number of routines which the system must support to perform a given operation on objects. Third, the scheme enables easy conversion to and from other representations. The formal definition of the cylinder entity is given. In the geometric properties of the entity are explored and several operations on such objects are defined. Some general purpose criteria for evaluating any geometric representation scheme are introduced and the B-spline cylinder scheme according to these criteria is evaluated.

  7. Recognition of abstract objects via neural oscillators: interaction among topological organization, associative memory and gamma band synchronization.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano

    2009-02-01

    Synchronization of neural activity in the gamma band is assumed to play a significant role not only in perceptual processing, but also in higher cognitive functions. Here, we propose a neural network of Wilson-Cowan oscillators to simulate recognition of abstract objects, each represented as a collection of four features. Features are ordered in topological maps of oscillators connected via excitatory lateral synapses, to implement a similarity principle. Experience on previous objects is stored in long-range synapses connecting the different topological maps, and trained via timing dependent Hebbian learning (previous knowledge principle). Finally, a downstream decision network detects the presence of a reliable object representation, when all features are oscillating in synchrony. Simulations performed giving various simultaneous objects to the network (from 1 to 4), with some missing and/or modified properties suggest that the network can reconstruct objects, and segment them from the other simultaneously present objects, even in case of deteriorated information, noise, and moderate correlation among the inputs (one common feature). The balance between sensitivity and specificity depends on the strength of the Hebbian learning. Achieving a correct reconstruction in all cases, however, requires ad hoc selection of the oscillation frequency. The model represents an attempt to investigate the interactions among topological maps, autoassociative memory, and gamma-band synchronization, for recognition of abstract objects.

  8. Separability of abstract-category and specific-exemplar visual object subsystems: evidence from fMRI pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Brenton W; Deason, Rebecca G; Steele, Vaughn R; Koutstaal, Wilma; Marsolek, Chad J

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that dissociable neural subsystems underlie abstract-category (AC) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., cat, piano) and specific-exemplar (SE) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., a calico cat, a different calico cat, a grand piano, etc.). However, the degree of separability between these subsystems is not known, despite the importance of this issue for assessing relevant theories. Visual object representations are widely distributed in visual cortex, thus a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) approach to analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be critical for assessing the separability of different kinds of visual object processing. Here we examined the neural representations of visual object categories and visual object exemplars using multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity elicited in visual object processing areas during a repetition-priming task. In the encoding phase, participants viewed visual objects and the printed names of other objects. In the subsequent test phase, participants identified objects that were either same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed, word-primed, or unprimed. In visual object processing areas, classifiers were trained to distinguish same-exemplar primed objects from word-primed objects. Then, the abilities of these classifiers to discriminate different-exemplar primed objects and word-primed objects (reflecting AC priming) and to discriminate same-exemplar primed objects and different-exemplar primed objects (reflecting SE priming) was assessed. Results indicated that (a) repetition priming in occipital-temporal regions is organized asymmetrically, such that AC priming is more prevalent in the left hemisphere and SE priming is more prevalent in the right hemisphere, and (b) AC and SE subsystems are weakly modular, not strongly modular or unified.

  9. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this…

  10. Primary Sources in the Library: From Object to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    Library media specialists should gain the basic understanding of the primary sources like old letters, photographs, and artifacts, which would encourage students to explore and widen their understanding of history, culture and human experiences. The library media specialists constantly matches the resources with the informational needs of the…

  11. Incongruent abstract stimulus-response bindings result in response interference: FMRI and EEG evidence from visual object classification priming.

    PubMed

    Horner, Aidan J; Henson, Richard N

    2012-03-01

    Stimulus repetition often leads to facilitated processing, resulting in neural decreases (repetition suppression) and faster RTs (repetition priming). Such repetition-related effects have been attributed to the facilitation of repeated cognitive processes and/or the retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. Although previous research has dissociated these two forms of learning, their interaction in the brain is not fully understood. Utilizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of fMRI and EEG, respectively, we examined a long-lag classification priming paradigm that required response repetitions or reversals at multiple levels of response representation. We found a repetition effect in occipital/temporal cortex (fMRI) that was time-locked to stimulus onset (EEG) and robust to switches in response, together with a repetition effect in inferior pFC (fMRI) that was time-locked to response onset (EEG) and sensitive to switches in response. The response-sensitive effect occurred even when changing from object names (words) to object pictures between repetitions, suggesting that S-R bindings can code abstract representations of stimuli. Most importantly, we found evidence for interference effects when incongruent S-R bindings were retrieved, with increased neural activity in inferior pFC, demonstrating that retrieval of S-R bindings can result in facilitation or interference, depending on the congruency of response between repetitions.

  12. Diffusive modification of primary zoning in olivine cores in Angrite LEW 87051. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G.; Miyamoto, M.; Takeda, H.

    1994-01-01

    Angrite LEW 87051 consists of large olivine crystals set in a fine-grained groundmass that clearly represents a crystallized melt. A few olivines contain Ca-poor, Cr-rich cores that crystallized from a very different melt than the outer part of the crystals constituting the majority of olivine in LEW 87051. We evaluate a model in which the cores formed through fractional crystallization of one melt, then were incorporated into a different melt as xenocrysts, whereupon the original zoning patterns were modified by diffusion. Using a similar approach, we calculate zoning patterns for the cores that would result from perfect fractional crystallization, compare them with the observed zoning, and determine whether the differences could result from diffusive modification consistent with known diffusion rates for Ca, Mn, and Cr. Using distribution coefficients from the 1400 C, IW + 1 experiments, we computed CaO, Cr2O3, and MnO abundances in the hypothetical parent melt by inverting the olivine at the centers of the cores. We further assumed that the primary zoning profile for CaO is essentially unmodified, because the diffusion rate of Ca in olivine is slow. We carried out the fractional crystallization calculation until the calculated Ca content was that observed at break in zoning profiles at the outer edge of the core. We then normalized the distance of this calculated profile to the length of the observed profile in the olivine core and calculated profiles for MnO and Cr2O3. The CaO zoning profile agrees well with the observed profile. The observed MnO profile is slightly higher than the calculated profile near the edge. Diffusion calculations indicate that reversal of the general trend of primary zoning through diffusion would require that diffusion of Cr is 5-10x faster than that of Mn.

  13. Representation of concurrent acoustic objects in primary auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Benjamin J.; Alain, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis involves the simultaneous grouping and parsing of acoustic data into separate mental representations (i.e., objects). Over two experiments, we examined the sequence of neural processes underlying concurrent sound segregation by means of recording of human middle latency auditory evoked responses. Participants were presented with complex sounds comprising several harmonics, one of which could be mistuned such that it was not an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. In both experiments, Na (approximately 22 ms) and Pa (approximately 32 ms) waves were reliably generated for all classes of stimuli. For stimuli with a fundamental frequency of 200 Hz, the mean Pa amplitude was significantly larger when the third harmonic was mistuned by 16% of its original value, relative to when it was tuned. The enhanced Pa amplitude was related to an increased likelihood in reporting the presence of concurrent auditory objects. Our results are consistent with a low-level stage of auditory scene analysis in which acoustic properties such as mistuning act as preattentive segregation cues that can subsequently lead to the perception of multiple auditory objects.

  14. Subjective and objective speech intelligibility investigations in primary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Arianna; Bottalico, Pasquale; Barbato, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns speech intelligibility tests and measurements in three primary schools in Italy, one of which was conducted before and after an acoustical treatment. Speech intelligibility scores (IS) with different reverberation times (RT) and types of noise were obtained using diagnostic rhyme tests on 983 pupils from grades 2-5 (nominally 7-10 year olds), and these scores were then correlated with the Speech Transmission Index (STI). The grade 2 pupils understood fewer words in the lower STI range than the pupils in the higher grades, whereas an IS of ~97% was achieved by all the grades with a STI of 0.9. In the presence of traffic noise, which resulted the most interfering noise, a decrease in RT from 1.6 to 0.4 s determined an IS increase on equal A-weighted speech-to-noise level difference, S/N(A), which varied from 13% to 6%, over the S/N(A) range of -15 to +6 dB, respectively. In the case of babble noise, whose source was located in the middle of the classroom, the same decrease in reverberation time leads to a negligible variation in IS over a similar S/N(A) range.

  15. Kilometer scale primary objective telescope with no moving parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    he author proposes the use of a diffraction grating as a primary collector in a very large ground-based telescope. The grating is to be placed at grazing exodus relative to a secondary receiver and will have considerable length relative to width. Collector areas of square kilometers are being considered. Large collectors pose problems for ordinary telescopes, but with the proposed telescope, the rotation of the earth is the only requisite motion. Other than the earth itself, there are no moving parts. In the course of a night's observation, a plurality of stars within a narrow band of right ascension would yield detailed spectra. We anticipate that while acquiring the spectra of a star, the instrument would also acquire the spectra of any planetary system around it, because the high inherent resolving power of the instrument can measure subtle Doppler shifts, and the collecting area is sufficiently large to detect spectra from planets in the full glare of the star that illuminates them. Where signature spectra are available, planets can by typed, including earth-like planets which can be distinguished by their unique spectra and their implied surface temperature as inferred from orbit diameter. Our study investigates several grating arrangements, types and efficiencies including some using reflection gratings and one with a transmission grating in an evanescent mode. We explore options for grating fabrication and mounting

  16. T-38 Primary Flight Display Prototyping and HIVE Support Abstract & Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boniface, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This fall I worked in EV3 within NASA's Johnson Space Center in The HIVE (Human Integrated Vehicles & Environments). The HIVE is responsible for human in the loop testing, getting new technologies in front of astronauts, operators, and users early in the development cycle to make the interfaces more human friendly. Some projects the HIVE is working on includes user interfaces for future spacecraft, wearables to alert astronauts about important information, and test beds to simulate mock missions. During my internship I created a prototype for T-38 aircraft displays using LabVIEW, learned how to use microcontrollers, and helped out with other small tasks in the HIVE. The purpose of developing a prototype for T-38 Displays in LabVIEW is to analyze functions of the display such as navigation in a cost and time effective manner. The LabVIEW prototypes allow Ellington Field AOD to easily make adjustments to the display before hardcoding the final product. LabVIEW was used to create a user interface for simulation almost identical to the real aircraft display. Goals to begin the T-38 PFD (Primary Flight Display) prototype included creating a T-38 PFD hardware display in a software environment, designing navigation for the menu's, incorporating vertical and horizontal navigation bars, and to add a heading bug for compass controls connected to the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). To get started with the project, measurements of the entire display were taken. This enabled an accurate model of the hardware display to be created. Navigation of menu's required some exploration of different buttons on the display. The T-38 simulator and aircraft were used for examining the display. After one piece of the prototype was finished, another trip of to the simulator took place. This was done until all goals for the prototype were complete. Some possible integration ideas for displays in the near future are autopilot selection, touch screen displays, and crew member preferences

  17. Reading and Study Skills: Preschool and Primary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 49 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: reading instruction for elementary school children, the significance of the teacher or teacher aide in reading instruction, reading achievement, reading…

  18. Computer Simulations and the Transition from Concrete Manipulation of Objects to Abstract Thinking in Elementary School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna; White, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combining interactive microcomputer simulations and concrete activities on the development of abstract thinking in elementary school mathematics. Students in grades 2-4 were assessed on tasks involving designs and patterns. (MNS)

  19. Lateral-Directional Parameter Estimation on the X-48B Aircraft Using an Abstracted, Multi-Objective Effector Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of parameter estimation on hybrid-wing-body aircraft is complicated by the fact that many design candidates for such aircraft involve a large number of aerodynamic control effectors that act in coplanar motion. This adds to the complexity already present in the parameter estimation problem for any aircraft with a closed-loop control system. Decorrelation of flight and simulation data must be performed in order to ascertain individual surface derivatives with any sort of mathematical confidence. Non-standard control surface configurations, such as clamshell surfaces and drag-rudder modes, further complicate the modeling task. In this paper, time-decorrelation techniques are applied to a model structure selected through stepwise regression for simulated and flight-generated lateral-directional parameter estimation data. A virtual effector model that uses mathematical abstractions to describe the multi-axis effects of clamshell surfaces is developed and applied. Comparisons are made between time history reconstructions and observed data in order to assess the accuracy of the regression model. The Cram r-Rao lower bounds of the estimated parameters are used to assess the uncertainty of the regression model relative to alternative models. Stepwise regression was found to be a useful technique for lateral-directional model design for hybrid-wing-body aircraft, as suggested by available flight data. Based on the results of this study, linear regression parameter estimation methods using abstracted effectors are expected to perform well for hybrid-wing-body aircraft properly equipped for the task.

  20. The Analysis of the Relationship between Primary Learning Styles and Learning Objects in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the primary learning styles of students and different learning objects presented simultaneously in an online learning environment in the context of the usage levels of these objects. A total of 103 sophomores from a Turkish State University participated in the study. Felder-Solomon Index of…

  1. Primary Teachers' Conceptions about the Concept of Volume: The Case of Volume-Measurable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    In this paper part of the results obtained by a research project called "Primary Teachers' Thinking about the Concept of Volume and its Teaching", performed from 1997 to 2001, are reported. This paper focuses in one of the two main objectives of the aforementioned research: To describe the mental object volume of the participant…

  2. 24 CFR 1003.208 - Criteria for compliance with the primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... primary objective. 1003.208 Section 1003.208 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... considered is the creation or retention of jobs except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section.) To.... (4) An activity designed to provide job training and placement and/or other employment...

  3. An Evaluation of Learning Objects in Singapore Primary Education: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Tay Pei Lyn; Suan, Ng Peck; Wanzhen, Liaw

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability and interface design of e-learning portal developed for primary schools in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: Using Singapore-based learning EDvantage (LEAD) portal as a case study, this paper reviews and analyses the usability and usefulness of embedded learning objects (LOs)…

  4. Semantic Interference during Object Naming in Agrammatic and Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Price, Charis; Wieneke, Christina; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the time course of object naming in 21 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (8 agrammatic (PPA-G); 13 logopenic (PPA-L)) and healthy age-matched speakers (n=17) using a semantic interference paradigm with related and unrelated interfering stimuli presented at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of -1000, -500, -100…

  5. 24 CFR 1003.208 - Criteria for compliance with the primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE VILLAGES Eligible Activities § 1003.208 Criteria for compliance with the primary objective. The... housing and a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities, principally for persons of... of each single purpose grant shall be for activities which meet the criteria set forth in...

  6. 24 CFR 1003.208 - Criteria for compliance with the primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATIVE VILLAGES Eligible Activities § 1003.208 Criteria for compliance with the primary objective. The... housing and a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities, principally for persons of... of each single purpose grant shall be for activities which meet the criteria set forth in...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.208 - Criteria for compliance with the primary objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATIVE VILLAGES Eligible Activities § 1003.208 Criteria for compliance with the primary objective. The... housing and a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities, principally for persons of... of each single purpose grant shall be for activities which meet the criteria set forth in...

  8. The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking

    PubMed Central

    Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4–8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages. PMID:26903834

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Object Naming and Word Comprehension in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Robert S.; Paller, Ken A.; Rogalksi, Emily J.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2012-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that causes a gradual atrophy of the left hemisphere language network, leading to impairments of object naming (anomia) and word comprehension. In 33 human subjects with PPA, object naming and word comprehension were explored with N400 potentials elicited by picture-word or picture-picture matching tasks. Two mechanisms of impairment were identified. In one group of patients, where the object name could be recognized but not retrieved during verbal naming, N400s in picture-word trials were also abnormal, revealing an associative basis for retrieval anomia. In these patients, a putative pre-phonological signal (i.e. lemma) evoked by the object picture appears to have become too weak to elicit retrieval, but not necessarily too weak to support the informationally less taxing process of recognition. A second group of PPA patients showed more severe naming deficits - the object name was neither verbalized nor recognized. Furthermore, nouns of the same category (but not those of other object categories) could not be identified as mismatches. This blurring of intra- but not inter-category differentiation of word meaning was correlated with anterior temporal atrophy, predominantly in the left hemisphere, especially along the superior temporal gyrus. Although not part of the classic language network, this area appears critical for proceeding from generic to specific levels of word comprehension and object naming. N400 abnormalities emerged for lexical (picture-word) but not non-verbal (picture-picture) associations, supporting a dual-route rather than amodal organization of object concepts. PMID:22492040

  10. Illusory and veridical mapping of tactile objects in the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Di Russo, Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-07-01

    While several behavioral and neuroscience studies have explored visual, auditory, and cross-modal illusions, information about the phenomenology and neural correlates of somatosensory illusions is meager. By combining psychophysics and somatosensory evoked potentials, we explored in healthy humans the neural correlates of 2 compelling tactuo-proprioceptive illusions, namely Aristotle (1 object touching the contact area between 2 crossed fingers is perceived as 2 lateral objects) and Reverse illusions (2 lateral objects are perceived as 1 between crossed-fingers object). These illusions likely occur because of the tactuo-proprioceptive conflict induced by fingers being crossed in a non-natural posture. We found that different regions in the somatosensory stream exhibit different proneness to the illusions. Early electroencephalographic somatosensory activity (at 20 ms) originating in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) reflects the phenomenal rather than the physical properties of the stimuli. Notably, later activity (around 200 ms) originating in the posterior parietal cortex is higher when subjects resist the illusions. Thus, while S1 activity is related to illusory perception, PPC acts as a conflict resolver that recodes tactile events from somatotopic to spatiotopic frames of reference and ultimately enables veridical perception.

  11. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities.

  12. Long-term subjective and objective outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Frijters, Erik; Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M

    2008-08-01

    Although traumatic facial nerve paralysis is a severe handicap, there are no follow-up studies evaluating outcome after primary repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries. From May 1988 to August 2005, 27 patients (mean age, 27 years) were operated for traumatic facial nerve lesions (mean number of affected branches, 2.2). End-to-end facial nerve repair was always performed. All patients were invited to our outpatient clinic for standardized questionnaires (Facial Disability Index, Short Form-36 Health Survey), physical examination (Sunnybrook Facial Grading System), and clinical photographs. Sixteen patients participated in the follow-up study (mean, 9.2 years). Mean Facial Disability Index Physical and Social scores were 86 and 81, respectively, indicating good subjective facial functioning. The mean Sunnybrook Facial Grading System score was 74 indicating adequate facial functioning. Mean physical and mental health scores (Short Form-36 Health Survey) were comparable with normative data. Primary end-to-end repair of traumatic facial nerve injuries results in good long-term objective and subjective functional and emotional outcome.

  13. Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

  14. Objective classification of motion- and direction-sensitive neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Warren, S; Hamalainen, H A; Gardner, E P

    1986-09-01

    In order to classify movement-sensitive neurons in SI cortex, and to estimate their relative distribution, we have developed a new simple method for controlled motion of textured surfaces across the skin, as well as a set of objective criteria for determining direction selectivity. Moving stimuli were generated using 5 mm thick precision gear wheels, whose teeth formed a grafting. They were mounted on the shafts of low-torque potentiometers (to measure the speed and direction of movement) and rolled manually across the skin using the potentiometer shaft as an axle. As the grafting wheel was advanced, its ridges sequentially contacted a specific set of points on the skin, leaving gaps of defined spacing that were unstimulated. This stimulus was reproducible from trial to trial and produced little distention of the skin. Three objective criteria were used to categorize responses: the ratio of responses to motion in the most and least preferred directions [direction index (DI)], the difference between mean firing rates in the two directions divided by the average standard deviation [index of discriminability (delta'e)], and statistical tests. Neurons were classified as direction sensitive if DI greater than 35, delta's greater than or equal to 1.35 (equivalent to 75% correct discrimination by an unbiased observer), and firing rates in most- and least-preferred directions were significantly different (P less than 0.05). Good agreement was found between the three classification schemes. Recordings were made from 1,020 cortical neurons in the hand and forearm regions of primary somatosensory cortex (areas 3b, 1 and 2) of five macaque monkeys. Tangential motion across the skin was found to be an extremely effective stimulus for SI cortical neurons. Two hundred eighty six of 757 tactile neurons (38%) responded more vigorously to moving stimuli than to pressure or tapping the skin. One hundred twenty-one cells were tested with moving gratings and were classified according

  15. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  16. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  17. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  18. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  19. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  20. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  1. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  2. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  3. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  4. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  5. Words and Objects at the Tip of the Left Temporal Lobe in Primary Progressive Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Wieneke, Christina; Hurley, Robert; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    Eleven of 69 prospectively enrolled primary progressive aphasics were selected for this study because of peak atrophy sites located predominantly or exclusively within the anterior left temporal lobe. Cortical volumes in these areas were reduced to less than half of control values, whereas average volume elsewhere in the left hemisphere deviated…

  6. Socialization Objectives of Chinese Primary Schools: Results of a Comparative Textbook Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Gerald A.; Bos, Wilfried

    1989-01-01

    A content analysis of selected German translations of six Chinese primary school textbooks, used from 1963 to 1982, assessed the socializing functions of qualification, integration, and identification. Categories involved include professional, moral, cultural, family, school, associations, China as a unified nation, China's achievements, and…

  7. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  8. Linguistic Relativity in Japanese and English: Is Language the Primary Determinant in Object Classification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazuka, Reiko; Friedman, Ronald S.

    2000-01-01

    Tested claims by Lucy (1992a, 1992b) that differences between the number marking systems used by Yucatec Maya and English lead speakers of these languages to differentially attend to either the material composition or the shape of objects. Replicated Lucy's critical objects' classification experiments using speakers of English and Japanese.…

  9. Care pathways as boundary objects between primary and secondary care: Experiences from Norwegian home care services.

    PubMed

    Håland, Erna; Røsstad, Tove; Osmundsen, Tonje C

    2015-11-01

    The need for integration of healthcare services and collaboration across organisational boundaries is highlighted as a major challenge within healthcare in many countries. Care pathways are often presented as a solution to this challenge. In this article, we study a project of developing, introducing and using a care pathway across healthcare levels focusing on older home-dwelling patients in need of home care services after hospital discharge. In so doing, we use the concept of boundary object, as described by Star and Griesemer, to explore how care pathways can act as tools for translation between specialist healthcare services and home care services. Based on interviews with participants in the project, we find that response to existing needs, local tailoring, involvement and commitment are all crucial for the care pathway to function as a boundary object in this setting. Furthermore, the care pathway, as we argue, can be used to push boundaries just as much as it can be used as a tool for bridging across them, thus potentially contributing to a more equal relationship between specialist healthcare services and home care services.

  10. SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, Instrument Performance and Its Absolute Calibration Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G.; Foujols, T.; Bolsée, D.; Gillotay, D.; Hersé, M.; Peetermans, W.; Decuyper, W.; Mandel, H.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2009-06-01

    SOLAR is a set of three solar instruments measuring the total and spectral absolute irradiance from 16 nm to 3080 nm for solar, atmospheric and climatology physics. It is an external payload for the COLUMBUS laboratory launched on 7 February 2008. The mission’s primary objective is the measurement of the solar irradiance with the highest possible accuracy, and its variability using the following instruments: SOL-ACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrophotometers) consists of four grazing incidence planar gratings measuring from 16 nm to 220 nm; SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECtrum) consists of three double gratings spectrometers, covering the range 165 nm to 3080 nm; and SOVIM (SOlar Variability Irradiance Monitor) is combining two types of absolute radiometers and three-channel filter - radiometers. SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES have been calibrated by primary standard radiation sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Below we describe SOLSPEC, and its performance.

  11. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Orta, Olivia R; Barbosa, Clarita; Velez, Juan Carlos; Gelaye, Bizu; Chen, Xiaoli; Stoner, Lee; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective) and actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants’ depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children’s disabilities. Results Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective) sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=−0.71, standard error [SE] =0.25; P=0.006) and objective sleep (β=−0.42, SE =0.19; P=0.026). Conclusion The association between sleep and depression differed comparing subjective and objective methods of assessment. Research strategies allowing for the integration of both perceived and objective measures of sleep traits are encouraged. PMID:27354835

  12. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B to Part 21... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 21, App. B Appendix B to Part 21—Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal...

  14. Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex: re-reading Freud's 'Female sexuality'.

    PubMed

    van Haute, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.

  15. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  16. Literature Abstracts.

    PubMed

    S, P; S, A; H, A; M, J D; S, A; Foods, A; S, A; M, J D; S, A; Pharmaceuticals, B; Foods, A

    1971-05-01

    1. General Principles: 'Application of the Statistical Theory of Rubber Elasticity to the Effect of Heat on Wheat Gluten', by R. Bale and H. G. Muller. 1. General Principles: 'Processing of Non-Newtonian Foods', by S. D. Holdworth (Fruit and Veg. Preserv. Res. Assoc., Chipping Camden, Glos., England), Process Biochem. 4 (10) (October, 1969), 15-21, 33. 1. General Principles: 'A Quick Method of Measuring the Surface Texture of Aggregate', by D. F. Orchid and W. O. Yondell (School of Highway Eng., Univ. of South Wales, Rendwick, N. S. W.), paper presented at the Australian Road Res. Board's 1970 Biennial Conf. 1. General Principles: 'The Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of the Binder in Bituminous Road Surfacing Materials under Traffic Loading', by E. J. Dickinson and H. P. Witt (Australian Road Research Board, 60 Denmark Street, Kew. Vic. 3101, Aust.), paper presented at the Australian Road Research Board, 1970 Biennial Conference. 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Design and Evaluation of a Pressure Attachment for a Rotational Rheometer', by K. R. M. Vora, L. L. Augsburger, and R. F. Shangraw (Dept. of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, U. S. A.), J. Pharm. Sci. 59 (1970), 1012-16. 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Materials for Standardizing the FMC Tenderometer', by L. M. Staley (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada), Can. Inst. Food Technol. J. 3 (1970), 116-117. 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'An Electronic Recording Viscometer for Food Products', by P. W. Voisey and J. M. deMan (Eng. Res. Service, Res. Branch, Canada Dept. of Agr., Ottawa and Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, Canada), Can. Inst. Food Technol. J. 3 (1970), 130-135. 2. Instrumentation and Methodology: 'Test Cells for Objective Textural Measurements', by P. W. Voisey (Eng. Res. Service, Res. Branch, Canada Dept. of Agr., Ottawa), Can. Inst. Food Technol. J. 3 (1970), 93-102. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'An Empirical Equation Describing

  17. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  18. Alternate Learning Center. Abstracts of Inservice Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Development and Operations.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts describing the 18 programs offered at the Alternate Learning Center of the Rhode Island Teacher Center which has as its Primary function school based inservice training for local teachers and administrators. Each project is described in detail, including course goals, specific objectives, training…

  19. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  20. The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for novel object learning and extinction of contextual memory: role of cAMP signaling in primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenshan; Phan, Trongha; Storm, Daniel R

    2011-04-13

    Although primary cilia are found on neurons throughout the brain, their physiological function remains elusive. Human ciliopathies are associated with cognition defects, and transgenic mice lacking proteins expressed in primary cilia exhibit defects in learning and memory. Recently, it was reported that mice lacking the G-protein-coupling receptor somatostatin receptor-3 (SSTR3), a protein expressed predominately in the primary cilia of neurons, have defective memory for novel object recognition and lower cAMP levels in the brain. Since SSTR3 is coupled to regulation of adenylyl cyclase, this suggests that adenylyl cyclase activity in primary cilia of CNS neurons may be critical for some forms of learning and memory. Because the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) is expressed in primary cilia of hippocampal neurons, we examined AC3(-/-) mice for several forms of learning and memory. Here, we report that AC3(-/-) mice show no short-term memory for novel objects and fail to exhibit extinction of contextual fear conditioning. They also show impaired learning and memory for temporally dissociative passive avoidance. Since AC3 is exclusively expressed in primary cilia, we conclude that cAMP signals generated within primary cilia contribute to some forms of learning and memory, including extinction of contextual fear conditioning.

  1. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  2. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  3. Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Loh, Morrison N; Kirsch, Louise; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Davare, Marco

    2010-05-19

    When grasping and lifting different objects, visual cues and previously acquired knowledge enable us to prepare the upcoming grasp by scaling the fingertip forces according to the actual weight of the object. However, when no visual information is available, the weight of the object has to be predicted based on information learned from previous grasps. Here, we investigated how changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and grip force scaling depend on the presence of visual cues and the weight of previously lifted objects. CSE was assessed by delivering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at different times before grasp of the object. In conditions in which visual information was not provided, the size of motor evoked potentials (MEP) was larger when the object lifted was preceded by a heavy relative to a light object. Interestingly, the previous lift also affected MEP amplitude when visual cues about object weight were available but only in the period immediately after object presentation (50 ms); this effect had already declined for TMS delivered 150 ms after presentation. In a second experiment, we demonstrated that these CSE changes are used by the motor system to scale grip force. This suggests that the corticospinal system stores a "sensorimotor memory" of the grasp of different objects and relies on this memory when no visual cues are present. Moreover, visual information about weight interacts with this stored representation and allows the corticospinal system to switch rapidly to a different model of predictive grasp control.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B to Part 21 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT...

  5. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1203 - Federal Financial Assistance to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Financial Assistance to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 1203, App. B Appendix B to Part 1203—Federal Financial Assistance...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1203 - Federal Financial Assistance to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Financial Assistance to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 1203, App. B Appendix B to Part 1203—Federal Financial Assistance...

  7. Effects of Physical Education on Objectively Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children--Which Proportioning Is Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyus, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jurgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were…

  8. Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in fibromyalgia syndrome are similar to those reported in primary RP despite differences in objective assessment of digital microvascular function and morphology.

    PubMed

    Scolnik, M; Vasta, B; Hart, D J; Shipley, J A; McHugh, N J; Pauling, J D

    2016-10-01

    Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) are common in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). We compared symptom characteristics and objective assessment of digital microvascular function using infrared thermography (and nailfold capillaroscopy where available) in patients with FMS (reporting RP symptoms) and primary RP. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of microvascular imaging studies and RP symptom characteristics (captured using patient-completed questionnaire at the time of assessment) for patients with FMS (reporting RP symptoms) and patients with primary RP referred for thermographic assessment of RP symptoms over a 2-year period. Of 257 patients referred for thermographic assessment of RP symptoms between 2010 and 2012, we identified 85 patients with primary RP and 43 patients with FMS. There were no differences in RP symptom characteristics between FMS and primary RP (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). In contrast, patients with FMS had higher baseline temperature of the digits (32.1 vs. 29.0 °C, p = 0.004), dorsum (31.9 vs. 30.2 °C, p = 0.005) and thermal gradient (temperature of digits minus temperature of dorsum; +0.0 vs. -0.9 °C, p = 0.03) compared with primary RP. Significant differences between groups persisted following local cold challenge. In primary RP, patient reporting "blue" digits, bi-phasic and tri-phasic RP was associated with lower digital perfusion. In contrast, no associations between skin temperature and RP digital colour changes/phases were identified in FMS. Our findings suggest that symptoms of RP in FMS may have a different aetiology to those seen in primary RP. These findings have potential implications for both the classification of RP symptoms and the management of RP symptoms in the context of FMS. Digital colour changes reported by patients might reflect the degree of digital microvascular compromise in primary RP.

  9. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  10. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  11. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  12. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  13. The anterior temporal cortex is a primary semantic source of top-down influences on object recognition.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Rocco; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Perception emerges from a dynamic interplay between feed-forward sensory input and feedback modulation along the cascade of neural processing. Prior knowledge, a major form of top-down modulatory signal, benefits perception by enabling efficacious inference and resolving ambiguity, particularly under circumstances of degraded visual input. Despite semantic information being a potentially critical source of this top-down influence, to date, the core neural substrate of semantic knowledge (the anterolateral temporal lobe - ATL) has not been considered as a key component of the feedback system. Here we provide direct evidence of its significance for visual cognition - the ATL underpins the semantic aspect of object recognition, amalgamating sensory-based (amount of accumulated sensory input) and semantic-based (representational proximity between exemplars and typicality of appearance) influences. Using transcranial theta-burst stimulation combined with a novel visual identification paradigm, we demonstrate that the left ATL contributes to discrimination between visual objects. Crucially, its contribution is especially vital under situations where semantic knowledge is most needed for supplementing deficiency of input (brief visual exposure), discerning analogously-coded exemplars (close representational distance), and resolving discordance (target appearance violating the statistical typicality of its category). Our findings characterise functional properties of the ATL in object recognition: this neural structure is summoned to augment the visual system when the latter is overtaxed by challenging conditions (insufficient input, overlapped neural coding, and conflict between incoming signal and expected configuration). This suggests a need to revisit current theories of object recognition, incorporating the ATL that interfaces high-level vision with semantic knowledge.

  14. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  15. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  16. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  17. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  18. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  19. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  1. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  2. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  3. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  4. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  5. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  6. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  7. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  8. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  9. Subjective Versus Objective: An Exploratory Analysis of Latino Primary Care Patients With Self-Perceived Depression Who Do Not Fulfill Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire Criteria for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I.; Dixon, Jane K.; Desai, Mayur M.; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. Method: A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as “depression” from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Results: Participants’ descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with “subjective” depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with “objective” depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P < .0001). Conclusions: Latino immigrants who perceive that they need help with depression, but do not meet screening criteria for depression, still have significant distress and impairment. To avoid having these patients “fall through the cracks,” it is important to take into account culturally accepted expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual. PMID:21274360

  10. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  12. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  13. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  15. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  16. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  17. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  18. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  19. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  20. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  1. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  2. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  3. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  4. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  5. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  6. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  7. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. [Tactile agnosia and dysfunction of the primary somatosensory area. Data of the study by somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with deficits of tactile object recognition].

    PubMed

    Mauguière, F; Isnard, J

    1995-01-01

    The question as to whether a failure of recognition unrelated to impaired sensory processing or to disorder of naming can occur in the somato-sensory modality has been eagerly debated in the french neurology. Taking as an argument the fact that he had never observed a tactile agnosia in the absence of subtle sensory deficits Dejerine denied the localizing value of tactile agnosia (or asterognosis). Conversely Delay, 20 years later, identified tactile performances such as discrimination of texture and shapes, which he considered as a specific neocortical function, that were lost in parietal syndromes with astereognosis and preserved elementary sensations. He also coined the term "tactile asymbolia" to qualify the patients with astereognosis in whom these performances are preserved. When referring to the definition of agnosias only "tactile asymbolia" should be considered as a "true" tactile agnosia. The recording of early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) now offers the possibility of assessing non invasively the function of the primary somatosensory cortex (in particular area 3b). We have recorded SEPs to median nerve or finger stimulation in 309 subjects with a focal hemispheric lesion presenting with a somatosensory deficit of any type. We could confirm that asterognosis referable to impaired discrimination of textures and/or shapes in the absence of impaired elementary sensation is quite rare since it was observed in only 12 of our patients (3.9%). Moreover early cortical SEPs reflecting the activity of the primary somatosensory area (N20 or/and P27) were clearly abnormal in all of them. A single patient of this group of 12 could be considered as a case of tactile asymbolia but his early cortical SEPs were abnormal. The only condition combining a failure of tactile recognition of objects with normal early SEPs is represented by the "tactile anomia" observed in callosal dysconnexions. Thus, in our patients unable to identify objects by palpation in spite of

  10. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  11. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  14. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  15. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  16. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  18. Reporting quality of randomized controlled trial abstracts published in leading laser medicine journals: an assessment using the CONSORT for abstracts guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Hua, Fang; Cao, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the reporting quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts published in leading laser medicine journals and investigate the association between potential predictors and reporting quality. The official online archives of four leading laser medicine journals were hand-searched to identify RCTs published in 2014 and 2015. A reporting quality assessment was carried out using the original 16-item CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts checklist. For each abstract, an overall CONSORT score (OCS) was calculated (score range, 0 to 16). Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of reporting quality. Chi-square (or Fisher's exact) tests were used to analyze the adequate reporting rate of each quality item by specialty area. A total of 129 RCT abstracts were included and assessed. The mean OCS was 4.5 (standard deviation, 1.3). Only three quality items (interventions, objective, conclusions) were reported adequately in most abstracts (>80 %). No abstract adequately reported results for the primary outcome, source of funding, and status of the trial. In addition, sufficient reporting of participants, outcome in the methods section, randomization, and trial registration was rare (<5 %). According to multivariable linear regression analysis, the specialty area of RCT abstracts was significantly associated with their reporting quality (P = 0.008). The reporting quality of RCT abstracts published in leading laser medicine journals is suboptimal. Joint efforts by authors, editors, and other stakeholders in the field to improve trial abstract reporting are needed.

  19. Geoinformatics 2006--Abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.; Sinha, A. Krishna; Gundersen, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to facilitate the discovery, integration, and analysis of distributed data, geoscientists-in partnership with information technologists and computer scientists-have established the emerging science of geoinformatics. Geoinformatics 2006, an international conference that was attended by over 300 participants between May 10 and 12, 2006, represents the first nationally organized meeting whose primary goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of the most current research in geoinformatics.

  20. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  1. Thomas Leps Internship Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leps, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An optical navigation system is being flown as the backup system to the primary Deep Space Network telemetry for navigation and guidance purposes on Orion. This is required to ensure Orion can recover from a loss of communication, which would simultaneously cause a loss of DSN telemetry. Images taken of the Moon and Earth are used to give range and position information to the navigation computer for trajectory calculations and maneuver execution. To get telemetry data from these images, the size and location of the moon need to be calculated with high accuracy and precision. The reentry envelope for the Orion EM-1 mission requires the centroid and radius of the moon images to be determined within 1/3 of a pixel 3 sigma. In order to ensure this accuracy and precision can be attained, I was tasked with building precise dot grid images for camera calibration as well as building a hardware in the loop test stand for flight software and hardware proofing. To calibrate the Op-Nav camera a dot grid is imaged with the camera, the error between the image dot location and the actual dot location can be used to build a distortion map of the camera and lens system so that images can be fixed to display truth locations. To build the dot grid images I used the Electro Optics Lab optical bench Bright Object Simulator System, and gimbal. The gimbal was slewed to a series of elevations and azimuths. An image of the collimated single point light source was then taken at each position. After a series of 99 images were taken at different locations the single light spots were extracted from each image and added to a composite image containing all 99 points. During the development of these grids it was noticed that an intermittent error in the artificial "star" locations occurred. Prior to the summer this error was attributed to the gimbal having glitches in it's pointing direction and was going to be replaced, however after further examining the issue I determined it to be a software

  2. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  3. ‘Mediterranean’ dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Karen; Hartley, Louise; Clarke, Aileen; Thorogood, Margaret; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness of dietary advice to follow a Mediterranean style diet or the provision of foods relevant to the Mediterranean diet for the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:25267918

  4. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  5. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  6. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  7. Completeness of reporting in abstracts from clinical trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Kate G; Canning, Paisley; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Abstracts are the most commonly read part of a journal article, and play an important role as summaries of the articles, and search and screening tools. However, research on abstracts in human biomedicine has shown that abstracts often do not report key methodological features and results. Little research has been done to examine reporting of such features in abstracts from papers detailing pre-harvest food safety trials. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting of key factors in abstracts detailing trials of pre-harvest food safety interventions. A systematic search algorithm was used to identify all in vivo trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens in PubMed and CAB Direct published from 1999 to October 2009. References were screened for relevance, and 150 were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A checklist based on the CONSORT abstract extension and the REFLECT Statement was used to assess the reporting of methodological features and results. All screening and assessment was performed by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved by consensus. The systematic search returned 3554 unique citations; 356 were found to be relevant and 150 were randomly selected for inclusion. The abstracts were from 51 different journals, and 13 out of 150 were structured. Of the 124 abstracts that reported whether the trial design was deliberate disease challenge or natural exposure, 113 were deliberate challenge and 11 natural exposure. 103 abstracts detailed studies involving poultry, 20 cattle and 15 swine. Most abstracts reported the production stage of the animals (135/150), a hypothesis or objective (123/150), and results for all treatment groups (136/150). However, few abstracts reported on how animals were grouped in housing (25/150), the location of the study (5/150), the primary outcome (2/126), level of treatment allocation (15/150), sample size (63/150) or whether study units were lost to follow up

  8. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  9. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  10. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  11. Core foundations of abstract geometry.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Huang, Yi; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-27

    Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children's use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Children's navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, children's analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, children's performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, children's use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.

  12. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance.

  13. Organizational Communication 1976: Abstracts, Analysis, and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; Greenbaum, Howard H.

    A contribution to the literature on organizational communication, this book has three objectives: to provide access to information on recent literature in organizational communication; to develop a classification system for the literature; and to provide abstracts of the literature published in 1976. The introductory chapter comments on the year's…

  14. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  15. An evaluation of 'Inpharma', a drug literature abstracting service.

    PubMed

    Milne, A

    1981-09-01

    This study aimed to provide data on the characteristics of the drug literature abstracting service 'Inpharma'. Journal coverage, article yield and timeliness for a 3-year period were examined; the reliability and information content of 100 abstracts were also assessed. It was found that although 'Inpharma' is claimed to monitor a very large number of journals, over 98% of the abstracts were from 'core' journals of which there are approximately 350. Over 80% of the abstracts appeared within 4 months of publications of the original and abstracts from some of the American journals were available in the United Kingdom before the relevant primary journal. Sixteen errors were detected in 100 abstracts; five of these were typographical errors and nine deviations in accuracy. The publication is a good 'current awareness tool' but it should not be used where a comprehensive coverage of the literature is required. It is also important that the primary journal is consulted when detailed information is required.

  16. Internship Abstract and Final Reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective for this internship is the evaluation of an embedded natural language processor (NLP) as a way to introduce voice control into future space suits. An embedded natural language processor would provide an astronaut hands-free control for making adjustments to the environment of the space suit and checking status of consumables procedures and navigation. Additionally, the use of an embedded NLP could potentially reduce crew fatigue, increase the crewmember's situational awareness during extravehicular activity (EVA) and improve the ability to focus on mission critical details. The use of an embedded NLP may be valuable for other human spaceflight applications desiring hands-free control as well. An embedded NLP is unique because it is a small device that performs language tasks, including speech recognition, which normally require powerful processors. The dedicated device could perform speech recognition locally with a smaller form-factor and lower power consumption than traditional methods.

  17. Economic Education Projects: Abstracts from the 1980-81 Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, George E., Ed.

    Abstracts of innovative and imaginative economics units are provided in this annotated listing of economic education projects submitted to the 1980-81 National Awards Program for Teaching Economics. Over 200 abstracts are contained in separate sections covering materials for primary grades, intermediate grades, junior high schools, senior high…

  18. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  19. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  20. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  1. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  2. Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

    2012-12-07

    An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012).

  3. The ADS Abstract Service: One Year Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. Stern; Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.

    1994-05-01

    One year after its initial release the ADS Abstract Service has become quite widely used. More than 1000 different people use it per month, making about 20,000 queries and obtaining a couple of hundred thousand pieces of bibliographic information. In February a WWW connection was released, it has been heavily used. The collaboration with SIMBAD, released in January, allows one to make complex queries about work on particular objects. For example one may search for all papers which SIMBAD says are about M87, and which contain the words ``globular cluster'' in the abstract, thus getting the 65 papers on the M87 globular cluster system. One can also look for papers which have the words ``M87 globular clusters'' in the abstract, but are not listed in SIMBAD; this obtains another 19 papers, mostly conference procedings, about the M87 globular cluster system. The figure shows the list of non-SIMBAD papers.

  4. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  6. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  7. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  8. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  9. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  10. Fast ensemble representations for abstract visual impressions

    PubMed Central

    Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Kosovicheva, Anna; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the richness of perception is conveyed by implicit, rather than image or feature-level, information. The perception of animacy or lifelikeness of objects, for example, cannot be predicted from image level properties alone. Instead, perceiving lifelikeness seems to be an inferential process and one might expect it to be cognitively demanding and serial rather than fast and automatic. If perceptual mechanisms exist to represent lifelikeness, then observers should be able to perceive this information quickly and reliably, and should be able to perceive the lifelikeness of crowds of objects. Here, we report that observers are highly sensitive to the lifelikeness of random objects and even groups of objects. Observers' percepts of crowd lifelikeness are well predicted by independent observers' lifelikeness judgements of the individual objects comprising that crowd. We demonstrate that visual impressions of abstract dimensions can be achieved with summary statistical representations, which underlie our rich perceptual experience. PMID:27848949

  11. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  12. Reasoning about Function Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  13. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  14. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  15. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  16. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  17. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  18. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  19. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  20. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  1. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  3. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  4. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  5. Common Object Library Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  6. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  7. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    difference, consider an example frequently discussed in the history of science, namely the Ptolemaic system in which the planet earth is surrounded by...tend to imagine systems with the human observer in the center. While a Ptolemaic viewpoint is known to be wrong (or, more precisely, infeasible) in...physics, it naturally appears in the systems we construct. Consequently, the Ptolemaic viewpoint yields a natural abstraction principle for computer

  8. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  9. Groundwater abstraction pollution risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P

    2003-01-01

    A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.

  10. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  11. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  12. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  13. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  14. Journal Coverage by the Major Chemical Title and Abstract Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiehlmann, Eberhard

    1972-01-01

    The journal coverage provided by Chemical Titles,'' Current Contents,'' Science Citation Index,'' Chemischer Informationsdienst,'' and Index Chemicus'' is discussed and compared with the CASSI list of the thousand primary journals most frequently cited by Chemical Abstracts.'' (10 references) (Author/NH)

  15. Development: Ages & Stages--How Abstract Thinking Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    Babies are active participants in their learning and need to explore a variety of objects. Nurturing relationships support these explorations. Objects are more clearly remembered and understood. Thus, one activity this article suggests doing with a 12-month-old to encourage abstract thinking, is talking about how squeezing the bottle of ketchup…

  16. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  17. Abstract art by shape classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Zhe; Pickup, David; Li, Chuan; Rosin, Paul; Hall, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This paper shows that classifying shapes is a tool useful in nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) from photographs. Our classifier inputs regions from an image segmentation hierarchy and outputs the "best" fitting simple shape such as a circle, square, or triangle. Other approaches to NPR have recognized the benefits of segmentation, but none have classified the shape of segments. By doing so, we can create artwork of a more abstract nature, emulating the style of modern artists such as Matisse and other artists who favored shape simplification in their artwork. The classifier chooses the shape that "best" represents the region. Since the classifier is trained by a user, the "best shape" has a subjective quality that can over-ride measurements such as minimum error and more importantly captures user preferences. Once trained, the system is fully automatic, although simple user interaction is also possible to allow for differences in individual tastes. A gallery of results shows how this classifier contributes to NPR from images by producing abstract artwork.

  18. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  19. Don’t forget the posters! Quality and content variables associated with accepted abstracts at a national trauma meeting

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Lesly A.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Zaydfudim, Victor; Kauffmann, Rondi; Shelton, Julia; Wang, Weiwei; Cioffi, William G.; Holcomb, John B.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a primary venue for presenting research results, abstracts selected for presentation at national meetings should be of the highest scientific merit and research quality. It is uncertain to what degree this is achieved as the methodological quality of abstracts submitted to national surgical meetings has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to evaluate abstracts presented at a leading trauma meeting for methodological quality. METHODS All abstracts accepted for the 2009 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma meeting were reviewed and scored for methodological quality based on 10 criteria (scores, 0–10; 10 being the highest). Criteria were based on nationally published methodology guidelines. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to institution, region, and author reviewed each abstract. RESULTS A total of 187 abstracts were accepted for presentation (67 oral and 120 posters). The most frequent clinical topics were shock/transfusion (23%), abdomen (12%), and nervous system (11%). Shock/transfusion abstracts were more common in the oral presentations (31% vs. 19%; p =0.06). Abstracts from the northeast and south regions were the most common in both oral (26% and 29%) and posters (25% and 24%). Basic science accounted for 12% of accepted studies, while 51% were clinical and 28% were health services/outcomes. Only 8% of abstracts presented randomized data and only 11% reported null findings. Overall abstract scores ranged from 3 to 10 (median, 7; mean, 7.4). Abstracts selected for poster presentation had an overall higher score than those selected for oral presentation (7.4 ±1.7 vs. 6.8 ±1.7; p =0.02). CONCLUSION Although oral presentations traditionally receive the most attention and interest, the methodological quality of abstracts accepted for poster presentation equals (and sometimes exceeds) that of oral abstracts. Attendees of these national meetings should reconsider their time spent in viewing and visiting

  20. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  1. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  2. Object Signing in Bamboo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    maximum 200 words) The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many...basis for ensuring secure transactions throughout the Internet . However, this technology is prohibitively expensive for the majority of users. Object...BLANK iv ABSTRACT The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, relying on e

  3. [Special methodology, qualitative methods and abstract concepts].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ana R

    2010-08-01

    Generally speaking, this paper comments on the role of qualitative methods in scientific psychology. To begin with, general and special methodology are defined; then, the main uses of qualitative methods are described and the focus of the paper on the study of meaning and of abstract concepts in the context of embodied cognition is justified. It is emphasized that three uses of qualitative methods converge in the study of embodied cognition: (1) classification, given that it is centered on concepts, (2) discovery, because theories are not yet well articulated and inductive effort is required, and (3) the study of meaning. The final recommendation is to profit from the opportunity of constructing special techniques that the transformation of cognitive psychology is favoring; in this context, varieties of emotion become a privileged object of study.

  4. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  5. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  6. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  7. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  8. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways.

  9. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  10. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  11. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  12. Abstract and concrete categories? Evidences from neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Eleonora; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Plebani, Valentina; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the performance of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA) in a series of tasks involving both abstract and concrete stimuli, which were controlled for most of the variables that have been shown to affect performance on lexical-semantic tasks. Our aims were to compare the patients׳ performance on abstract and concrete stimuli and to assess category-effects within the abstract and concrete domains. The results showed: (i) a better performance on abstract than concrete concepts in sv-PPA patients. (ii) Category-related effects in the abstract domain, with emotion concepts being preserved in AD and social relations being selectively impaired in sv-PPA. In addition, a living-non living dissociation may be (infrequently) observed in individual AD patients after controlling for an extensive set of potential confounds. Thus, differences between and within the concrete or abstract domain may be present in patients with semantic memory disorders, mirroring the different brain regions involved by the different pathologies.

  13. Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

    1992-01-01

    A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

  14. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  15. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. What does the brain tell us about abstract art?

    PubMed Central

    Aviv, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I focus on the question of why we are attracted to abstract art (perhaps more accurately, non-representational or object-free art). After elaborating on the processing of visual art in general and abstract art in particular, I discuss recent data from neuroscience and behavioral studies related to abstract art. I conclude with several speculations concerning our apparent appeal to this particular type of art. In particular, I claim that abstract art frees our brain from the dominance of reality, enabling it to flow within its inner states, create new emotional and cognitive associations, and activate brain-states that are otherwise harder to access. This process is apparently rewarding as it enables the exploration of yet undiscovered inner territories of the viewer’s brain. PMID:24616683

  17. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  18. Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

  19. EMR Curriculum Guide: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschmeier, Veronica M., Ed.; Rockwell, Linda, Ed.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for educable mentally retarded children in primary and intermediate grades which specifies behavioral and interim objectives in the areas of basic verbal and arithmetic skills, vocational competencies, social competencies, and physical skills. Objectives such as the following are identified at the primary level:…

  20. An Analytic Study of the Postgraduate Students' Difficulties in Writing Abstracts in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the Egyptian postgraduate students' difficulties in writing abstracts in English. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, a list of criteria for writing a good and effective abstract has been developed in the light of the review of literature. Besides, a content analysis of 35 abstracts written in English…

  1. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  2. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  3. EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH ABSTRACTING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HYER, ANNA L.

    THIS PROJECT PROVIDED ABSTRACTING COVERAGE OF 33 FINAL REPORTS OF U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION FINANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS IN EDUCATIONAL MEDIA. AN ABSTRACTOR, DR. WILLIAM ALLEN, WAS HIRED TO EVALUATE AND EDIT OR REWRITE ABSTRACTS SUBMITTED BY RESEARCHERS, AND TO PREPARE ABSTRACTS IF NECESSARY. TWO ANALYTICAL REVIEWS ON SELECTED AREAS OF MEDIA RESEARCH…

  4. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  5. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  8. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  9. 0.625" FPPW Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid-state process that is the primary close out method for Self- Reacting Friction Stir Welding (SR-FSW). This process uses a servo hydraulic machine to spin an aluminum plug to several thousand revolutions per minute and pull the plug with several thousand pound force into an aluminum piece of material. This process, which has been around for approximately a decade, has proven to be a very difficult process to develop. There are large number of variables with interactions and correlations that are difficult to detect. Historically this method only provided good results on aluminum material up to 0.327" thick. The SLS rocket required weld land configurations of up to 0.625" thick. This not only pushed the limits of the process but also of the tools procured for materials 1/2 as thick. Ultimate Tensile Results was typically the response used for FPPW input variables. The problem was there were multiple processes including, welding, post weld machining, Non Destructive Evaluation, specimen fabrication and mechanical testing between the FPPW inputs and the mechanical test results. This only compiled the list of variables and made the process of FPPW even more difficult to develop. This presentation and paper describes the new process development methodology, which uses the FPPW tool's feedback to observe the process and develop it systematically. It captures 6 months and 600 plugs worth of work using only the tool's feedback as a response to the process. This presentation describes the solution to the issue, a solution whose methodology could apply to a variety of other processes.

  10. Perception of emotion in abstract artworks: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Melcher, David; Bacci, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing and fundamental debate regarding how emotion can be expressed by fine art. Some artists and theorists have claimed that certain features of paintings, such as color, line, form, and composition, can consistently express an "objective" emotion, while others have argued that emotion perception is subjective and depends more on expertise of the observer. Here, we discuss two studies in which we have found evidence for consistency in observer ratings of emotion for abstract artworks. We have developed a stimulus set of abstract art images to test emotional priming, both between different painting images and between paintings and faces. The ratings were also used in a computational vision analysis of the visual features underlying emotion expression. Overall, these findings suggest that there is a strong bottom-up and objective aspect to perception of emotion in abstract artworks that may tap into basic visual mechanisms.

  11. Abstract models of molecular walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the

  12. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  13. Abstract thinking following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, B P; Charbonneau, S; Solomon, C R; Lepore, F

    1993-01-01

    Abstract abilities were studied in a sample of 34 individuals with severe TBI and a control group. The results indicate that TBI interferes with performance on tests requiring individuals to process information into new categories. There appears to be a dissociation between verbal abstract abilities and visual-perceptual abstract abilities. There is evidence that Goldstein and Sheerer's [1] postulate of a general 'abstract attitude' was at least partially correct. This attitude does not appear to be related to a general verbal ideational process, as dysphasic subjects were only deficient on a purely verbal abstract task.

  14. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I.; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J.; Calixto-Romo, M. Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  15. Representations of Abstract Grammatical Feature Agreement in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un[subscript MASC]ravole "a ravole"). Test trials…

  16. Non-Traditional Methods of Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on techniques of teaching abstract algebra which were developed to achieve multiple student objectives: reasoning and communication skills, deep content knowledge, student engagement, independence, and pride. The approach developed included a complementary combination of inquiry-based learning, individual (not group) homework…

  17. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  18. Primary Journal Literature of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Thayer, Candace W.

    Four hundred and ninety one primary journals covered by "Physics Abstracts" in 1965 have been studied and their basic characteristics analyzed in terms of sponsorship, distribution by country, language, frequency, and coverage by secondary services other than "Physics Abstracts," and the number of libraries holding each…

  19. Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract (CSA) Instruction: A Decision Rule for Improving Instructional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealander, Karen A.; Johnson, Gae R.; Lockwood, Adam B.; Medina, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    A concrete-semiconcrete-abstract (CSA) instructional approach derived from discovery learning (DIS) was embedded in a direct instruction (DI) methodology to teach eight elementary students with math disabilities. One-minute abstract-level probes were the primary metric used to assess student performance on subtraction problems (minuends 0-9). A…

  20. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  1. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  2. A brief on writing a successful abstract.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.

  3. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1984-04-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  4. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  5. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-10-01

    Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

  6. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  7. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  8. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  9. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  10. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  11. Abstracts of Selected Management Training Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Ilene

    Intended for evaluators--whether trainers, psychologists, management consultants or professors--this bibliography samples findings in management training evaluation between 1953 and 1975. It contains 28 abstracts of representative articles from journals in applied psychology and personnel management. Each abstract is a one-half to one-page…

  12. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  13. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  14. Discourse-Level Structure in Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    An investigation was undertaken into the possibility of automatically detecting how concepts exist in relation to each other in abstracts, a text-type commonly used in free-text retrieval. The end goal of this research is to capture these relationships in structured representations of abstracts' contents so that users can require not only that the…

  15. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  16. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  17. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  18. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  19. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  20. Assessing the quality of primary care in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Hannah H; Bitton, Asaf; Jerome, J Gregory; Thermidor, Roody; Joseph, Jean Paul; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a composite measure of primary care quality and apply it to Haiti’s primary care system. Methods Using the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative’s framework, we defined four domains of primary care service delivery: (i) accessible care; (ii) effective service delivery; (iii) management and organization; and (iv) primary care functions. We gave each primary care facility in Haiti a quality score for each domain and overall, with poor, fair and good quality indicated by scores of 0.00–0.49, 0.50–0.74 and 0.75–1.00, respectively. We quantified access and effective access to primary care as the proportions of the population within 5 km of any primary care facility and a good facility, respectively. Findings Of the 786 primary care facilities in Haiti in 2013, only 332 (43%) facilities were classified as good for accessible care. Fewer facilities were classified as good in the domains of effective service delivery (30; 4%), management and organization (91; 12%) and primary care functions (43; 5%). Although about 91% of the population lived within 5 km of a primary care facility, only an estimated 23% of the entire population – including just 5% of the rural population – had access to primary care of good quality. Conclusion Despite an extensive network of health facilities, a minority of Haitians had access to a primary care facility of good quality. Such facilities were especially scarce in rural areas. Similar systematic analyses of the quality of primary care could inform national efforts to strengthen health systems. PMID:28250531

  1. Prefrontal Cortex Organization: Dissociating Effects of Temporal Abstraction, Relational Abstraction, and Integration with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  2. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity. PMID:24711791

  3. Beauty in abstract paintings: perceptual contrast and statistical properties.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Birgit; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combined the behavioral and objective approach in the field of empirical aesthetics. First, we studied the perception of beauty by investigating shifts in evaluation on perceived beauty of abstract artworks (Experiment 1). Because the participants showed heterogeneous individual preferences for the paintings, we divided them into seven clusters for the test. The experiment revealed a clear pattern of perceptual contrast. The perceived beauty of abstract paintings increased after exposure to paintings that were rated as less beautiful, and it decreased after exposure to paintings that were rated as more beautiful. Next, we searched for correlations of beauty ratings and perceptual contrast with statistical properties of abstract artworks (Experiment 2). The participants showed significant preferences for particular image properties. These preferences differed between the clusters of participants. Strikingly, next to color measures like hue, saturation, value and lightness, the recently described Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG) self-similarity value seems to be a predictor for aesthetic appreciation of abstract artworks. We speculate that the shift in evaluation in Experiment 1 was, at least in part, based on low-level adaptation to some of the statistical image properties analyzed in Experiment 2. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the perception of beauty in abstract artworks is altered after exposure to beautiful or non-beautiful images and correlates with particular image properties, especially color measures and self-similarity.

  4. A Review of the Availability of Primary Scientific and Technical Documents within the United States, Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James L.

    Volume I of this three-volume final report contains a summary of the objectives and results of a study conducted by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS), to determine the availability of the scientific and technical primary literature which the user identifies through the use of secondary services…

  5. Amenorrhea - primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  6. Pharmacy journal abstracts published in PubMed that abide by the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Blair, Daniel A; Hughes, Peter J; Woolley, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the proportion of abstracts in pharmacy journals that are prepared according to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for abstracts. Certain abstracts for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed were eligible for inclusion, with the primary endpoint being median overall compliance to CONSORT recommendations for abstracts. A total of 63 RCT abstracts were included in the analysis, with only 56% of the recommended CONSORT items represented in the sample. It is recommended that pharmacy journals encourage authors to follow CONSORT recommendations for abstracts when submitting RCTs for publication.

  7. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  8. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  9. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  10. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  11. Paraphrasing for condensation in journal abstracting.

    PubMed

    Kittredge, Richard

    2002-08-01

    When authors of empirical science articles write abstracts, they employ a wide variety of distinct linguistic operations which interact to condense and rephrase a subset of sentences from the source text. An on-going comparison of biological and biomedical journal articles with their author-written abstracts is providing a basis for a more linguistically detailed model of abstract derivation using syntactic representations of selected source sentences. The description makes use of rich dictionary information to formulate paraphrasing rules of differing degrees of generality, including some which are sublanguage-specific, and others which appear valid in several languages when formulated using "lexical functions" to express important semantic relationships between lexical items. Some paraphrase operations may use both lexical functions and rhetorical relations between sentences to reformulate larger chunks of text in a concise abstract sentence. The descriptive framework is computable and utilizes existing linguistic resources.

  12. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  13. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  14. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  15. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  16. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  17. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  18. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  19. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  20. Information Technology Division Technical Paper Abstracts 1995,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Division (ITD), one of the largest research and development collectives at the Naval Research Laboratory. The abstracts are organized into sections that represent the six branches with ITD: the Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Communications Systems, the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems, Transmission Technology, Advanced Information Technology , and the Center for Computational Science. Within each section, a list of branch papers published in 1993 and 1994 has also been included; abstracts

  1. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  2. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  3. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  4. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  5. New Data in the ADS Abstract and Article Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    1996-05-01

    In the last few months the data holdings in the ADS have been considerably expanded. In the abstracts databases we have included over 50,000 abstracts from SPIE conference proceedings (provided by SPIE), a complete set of references for lunar and planetary sciences, and abstracts from recent Lunar and Planetary Institute sponsored conferences (both provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute). We also extended our cooperation with the CDS in Strasbourg, France by providing a link to the list of objects that are in the SIMBAD database for each reference. The ADS article service now holds full-text articles for 20 years of the Astrophysical Journal Letters, the Astronomical Journal, and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and 5 years of the Astrophysical Journal on-line. The following journals are being processed and some may be on-line for this AAS meeting: Astrophysical Journal (1975-1989), Astronomy and Astrophysics, Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Revista Mexicana, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, Obs. Reports of Skalnate Pleso, and Baltic Astronomy. We are now working with two scanning companies to speed up the scanning process and hope that by the end of the year we have all of these journals completely on-line for at least the period 1975 - 1995. Usage statistics for Jan - March 1996: Users Queries References Full Abstracts retrieved retrieved ------------------------------------------- 13,823 365,812 7,953,930 309,866

  6. Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

  7. Primary health care models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; French, Reta; McCulloch, Amy; Clendinning, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the knowledge and perceptions of fourth-year medical students regarding the new models of primary health care (PHC) and to ascertain whether that knowledge influenced their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario in London. Participants Fourth-year medical students graduating in 2009 who indicated family medicine as a possible career choice on their Canadian Residency Matching Service applications. Methods Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted between January and April of 2009. Data were analyzed using an iterative and interpretive approach. The analysis strategy of immersion and crystallization assisted in synthesizing the data to provide a comprehensive view of key themes and overarching concepts. Main findings Four key themes were identified: the level of students’ knowledge regarding PHC models varied; the knowledge was generally obtained from practical experiences rather than classroom learning; students could identify both advantages and disadvantages of working within the new PHC models; and although students regarded the new PHC models positively, these models did not influence their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Conclusion Knowledge of the new PHC models varies among fourth-year students, indicating a need for improved education strategies in the years before clinical training. Being able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the PHC models was not enough to influence participants’ choice of specialty. Educators and health care policy makers need to determine the best methods to promote and facilitate knowledge transfer about these PHC models. PMID:22518904

  8. Quality indicators for patient safety in primary care. A review and Delphi-survey by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Pareja-Rossell, Clara; Gens-Barber, Montse; Oliva-Oliva, Glòria; Alava-Cano, Fernando; Wensing, Michel; Davins-Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Quality indicators are measured aspects of healthcare, reflecting the performance of a healthcare provider or healthcare system. They have a crucial role in programmes to assess and improve healthcare. Many performance measures for primary care have been developed. Only the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care identifies key domains of patient safety in primary care. Objective: To present an international framework for patient safety indicators in primary care. Methods: Literature review and online Delphi-survey, starting from the Catalan model. Results: A set of 30 topics is presented, identified by an international panel and organized according to the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care. Most topic areas referred to specific clinical processes; additional topics were leadership, people management, partnership and resources. Conclusion: The framework can be used to organize indicator development and guide further work in the field. PMID:26339833

  9. Automata Learning with Automated Alphabet Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik

    on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.

  10. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  11. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is PRIMARY HYPERPARATH YROIDIS M? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition ...

  12. Primary thrombocythemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... as myeloproliferative disorders. Others include: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Polycythemia vera Primary myelofibrosis This disorder is most common ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 68. Tefferi A. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytoemia, and primary myelofibrosis. In: Goldman ...

  13. Primary Aldosteronism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrinology Find an Endocrinologist Value of an Endocrinologist Learn About Clinical Trials Keep Your Body in Balance › Primary Aldosteronism Fact Sheet Primary Aldosteronism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Paul Stewart, MD, FRCP William Young, ...

  14. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1985 (Vol. 46 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) effects of creative drama instruction on the story grammar knowledge of field-dependent and field-independent primary grade students; (2) a content assessment…

  15. Rhetoric and Public Address: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) John F. Kennedy's rhetoric during the 1960 West Virginia presidential primary; (2) male and female modes of rhetoric; (3) charismatic communication and faith healers; (4) the ideology…

  16. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  17. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  18. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam H.; Carton, Amelia M.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26748236

  19. Supramodal neural processing of abstract information conveyed by speech and gesture

    PubMed Central

    Straube, Benjamin; He, Yifei; Steines, Miriam; Gebhardt, Helge; Kircher, Tilo; Sammer, Gebhard; Nagels, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Abstractness and modality of interpersonal communication have a considerable impact on comprehension. They are relevant for determining thoughts and constituting internal models of the environment. Whereas concrete object-related information can be represented in mind irrespective of language, abstract concepts require a representation in speech. Consequently, modality-independent processing of abstract information can be expected. Here we investigated the neural correlates of abstractness (abstract vs. concrete) and modality (speech vs. gestures), to identify an abstractness-specific supramodal neural network. During fMRI data acquisition 20 participants were presented with videos of an actor either speaking sentences with an abstract-social [AS] or concrete-object-related content [CS], or performing meaningful abstract-social emblematic [AG] or concrete-object-related tool-use gestures [CG]. Gestures were accompanied by a foreign language to increase the comparability between conditions and to frame the communication context of the gesture videos. Participants performed a content judgment task referring to the person vs. object-relatedness of the utterances. The behavioral data suggest a comparable comprehension of contents communicated by speech or gesture. Furthermore, we found common neural processing for abstract information independent of modality (AS > CS ∩ AG > CG) in a left hemispheric network including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), temporal pole, and medial frontal cortex. Modality specific activations were found in bilateral occipital, parietal, and temporal as well as right inferior frontal brain regions for gesture (G > S) and in left anterior temporal regions and the left angular gyrus for the processing of speech semantics (S > G). These data support the idea that abstract concepts are represented in a supramodal manner. Consequently, gestures referring to abstract concepts are processed in a predominantly left hemispheric language

  20. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1990 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The research objectives of the 280 projects placed under contract in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1990 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 program are described. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses in response to NASA's 1990 SBIR Phase 1 Program Solicitation. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 280, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. The document also includes Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference in the 1990 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA field center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number.

  1. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1992, phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Sacknoff, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of 346 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1992 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 346, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1992 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  2. Abstract and research accomplishments of University Coal Research Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their respective projects in time for distribution at a conference on June 13--14, 1995 at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to that request. For convenience, the 70 grants reported in this book are stored into eight technical areas, Coal Science, Coal Surface Science, Reaction Chemistry, Advanced Process Concepts, Engineering Fundamentals and Thermodynamics, Environmental Science, high Temperature Phenomena, and Special topics. Indexes are provided for locating projects by subject, principal investigators, and contracting organizations. Each extended abstract describes project objectives, work accomplished, significance to the Fossil Energy Program, and plans for the next year.

  3. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1991 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. Carl; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of 301 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1991 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 301, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1991 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  5. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2002 through. December 2002. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included

  6. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2000 through December 2000. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in most records

  7. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2001 through December 2001. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in

  8. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  12. Using ClinicalTrials.gov to Supplement Information in Ophthalmology Conference Abstracts about Trial Outcomes: A Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Roberta W.; Huynh, Lynn; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background Including results from unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a systematic review may ameliorate the effect of publication bias in systematic review results. Unpublished RCTs are sometimes described in abstracts presented at conferences, included in trials registers, or both. Trial results may not be available in a trials register and abstracts describing RCT results often lack study design information. Complementary information from a trials register record may be sufficient to allow reliable inclusion of an unpublished RCT only available as an abstract in a systematic review. Methods We identified 496 abstracts describing RCTs presented at the 2007 to 2009 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) meetings; 154 RCTs were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two persons extracted verbatim primary and non-primary outcomes reported in the abstract and ClinicalTrials.gov record. We compared each abstract outcome with all ClinicalTrials.gov outcomes and coded matches as complete, partial, or no match. Results We identified 800 outcomes in 152 abstracts (95 primary [51 abstracts] and 705 [141 abstracts] non-primary outcomes). No outcomes were reported in 2 abstracts. Of 95 primary outcomes, 17 (18%) agreed completely, 53 (56%) partially, and 25 (26%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among 705 non-primary outcomes, 56 (8%) agreed completely, 205 (29%) agreed partially, and 444 (63%) had no match with a ClinicalTrials.gov primary or non-primary outcome. Among the 258 outcomes partially agreeing, we found additional information on the time when the outcome was measured more often in ClinicalTrials.gov than in the abstract (141/258 (55%) versus 55/258 (21%)). We found no association between the presence of non-matching “new” outcomes and year of registration, time to registry update, industry sponsorship, or multi-center status. Conclusion Conference abstracts may be a valuable source of

  13. Guideline for primary care management of headache in adults

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To increase the use of evidence-informed approaches to diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of headache for patients in primary care. Quality of evidence A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant guidelines and systematic reviews published between January 2000 and May 2011. The guidelines were critically appraised using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) tool, and the 6 highest-quality guidelines were used as seed guidelines for the guideline adaptation process. Main message A multidisciplinary guideline development group of primary care providers and other specialists crafted 91 specific recommendations using a consensus process. The recommendations cover diagnosis, investigation, and management of migraine, tension-type, medication-overuse, and cluster headache. Conclusion A clinical practice guideline for the Canadian health care context was created using a guideline adaptation process to assist multidisciplinary primary care practitioners in providing evidence-informed care for patients with headache. PMID:26273080

  14. Abstracting of Legal Cases: The Potential of Clustering Based on the Selection of Representative Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moens, Marie-Francine; Uyttendaele, Caroline; Dumortier, Jos

    1999-01-01

    The SALOMON project automatically summarizes Belgian criminal cases to improve access to existing and future court decisions. This article gives background information about the texts of the cases and describes the output, design models, and architecture of the SALOMON system. Evaluation of 700 criminal cases demonstrates that the algorithms have…

  15. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  16. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  18. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  19. Abstracts of Research, July 1975-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 62 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; computer facilities; information analysis; linguistics analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical technigues; systems programming;…

  20. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  1. Three New Z Cam Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) I will present the evidence and discovery stories of three cataclysmic variables who appear to be members of the Z Cam class of dwarf novae. One discovered by a lone visual observer and his unwavering patience and persistence, one through the directed effort of the ongoing Z CamPaign and one via survey data from the Gaia satellite.

  2. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  3. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  4. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  5. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  6. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  7. Harmonious Triptychs: From Realism to Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The author of this article is continually trying to come up with interesting ways for beginning art students to put color theory into practice. This article describes a project that integrates new learning about color schemes with previously learned concepts such as observational contour drawing and abstraction and converting two-dimensional shape…

  8. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts."…

  9. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  10. RCDPM 1992 Conference Book of Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    This booklet contains 51 abstracts of papers presented at the 1992 conference for the Research Council for Diagnostic and Prescriptive Mathematics (RCDPM). Topics covered include: the use of expressive writing to enhance metacognition, adult assessment, cooperative learning assessment, visualization in problem solving, deaf students' beliefs about…

  11. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  12. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  13. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  14. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  15. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  16. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  17. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  18. The Learnability of Abstract Syntactic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Regier, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Children acquiring language infer the correct form of syntactic constructions for which they appear to have little or no direct evidence, avoiding simple but incorrect generalizations that would be consistent with the data they receive. These generalizations must be guided by some inductive bias--some abstract knowledge--that leads them to prefer…

  19. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  20. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel.

  1. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of…

  2. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-11-22

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  3. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  4. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  5. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry…

  6. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636

  7. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  8. Dome: Distributed Object Migration Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Best Available Copy AD-A281 134 Computer Science Dome: Distributed object migration environment Adam Beguelin Erik Seligman Michael Starkey May 1994...Beguelin Erik Seligman Michael Starkey May 1994 CMU-CS-94-153 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract Dome... Linda [4], Isis [2], and Express [6] allow a pro- grammer to treat a heterogeneous network of computers as a parallel machine. These tools allow the

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF CASCADE ANNEALING IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-03-31

    The objective of this work is to study the annealing of primary cascade damage created by primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of various energies, at various temperatures in bulk tungsten using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.

  3. Infants' Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Xu, Fei

    2001-01-01

    Examines evidence that the research community studying infants' object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention have been studying the same natural kind. Maintains that the discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both…

  4. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2017-03-23

    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol(-1). This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans

  5. Standard Stars for the BYU H-alpha Photometric System (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We present primary standard stars for the BYU H-alpha photometric system. This system is similar to the H-beta photometric system that is often used with the intermediate band uvby system. Both systems use the difference between magnitudes measured in a wide (15-20-nm) and narrow (3-nm) bandpass centered on one of the strong Balmer lines of hydrogen to establish a color index. Line indices formed in this manner are independent of atmospheric extinction and interstellar reddening. These indices provide intrinsic measures of effective temperature for stars with spectral types between B and G. The present primary standard stars for the BYU system as established using spectroscopic observations that cover the region between the H-alpha and H-beta lines. The indices were formed using synthetic photometry reductions to convolve ideal filter profiles with the observed spectra. The number of observations per star is generally in excess of 25. Some stars have been observed more than 100 times over a period of 7 years. The typical error per observation for these stars is on the order of 1-3 mmag. In addition to the standard field stars, we present H-alpha and H-beta observations of individual stars that are members of selected open clusters. These include the Hyades, Pleiades, Coma, and NGC 752 clusters. Additional stars that exhibit varying degrees of hydrogen emission are easily distinguished in a plot of the alpha-beta plane. We have found that candidates for emission line objects, high mass x-ray binaries, and young stellar objects are readily identified in our alpha-beta plots. We acknowledge continued support from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as support from NSF Grant AST #0618209. We also thank the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory for continued allocation of robotic observing time for spectroscopy on the 1.2-m telescope.

  6. Summer School on Interstellar Processes: Abstracts of contributed papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J. (Editor); Thronson, H. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Summer School on Interstellar Processes was held to discuss the current understanding of the interstellar medium and to analyze the basic physical processes underlying interstellar phenomena. Extended abstracts of the contributed papers given at the meeting are presented. Many of the papers concerned the local structure and kinematics of the interstellar medium and focused on such objects as star formation regions, molecular clouds, HII regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants, and shock waves. Other papers studied the galactic-scale structure of the interstellar medium either in the Milky Way or other galaxies. Some emphasis was given to observations of interstellar grains and

  7. A study of optimal abstract jamming strategies vs. noncoherent MFSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the performance of uncoded MFSK modulation in the presence of arbitrary additive jamming, taking into account the objective to devise robust antijamming strategies. An abstract model is considered, giving attention to the signal strength as a nonnegative real number X, the employment of X as a random variable, its distribution function G(x), the transmitter's strategy G, the jamming noise as an M-dimensional random vector Z, and the error probability. A summary of previous work on the considered problem is provided, and the results of the current study are presented.

  8. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOEpatents

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  9. FFCAct Clearinghouse, Directory of abstracts. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, T.

    1994-05-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. Information can be accessed for use in responding to FFCAct requirements, and the clearinghouse provides search capabilities on particular topics and issues related to STP development. Appendix A includes: contacts from each site, for which contact has been made, who are developing STPs; the FFCAct Clearinghouse Fact Sheet and; additional hard copy forms to be used to populate the database. This report contains 50 abstracts related to the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program.

  10. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  11. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  12. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  13. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  14. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  15. Artificial Intelligence Technical Paper Abstracts 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-08

    Strategy Acquisition with Genetic Algorithms , John J. Grefenstene 28 [ ] AIC-91-014 Lamarckian Learning in Multi-agent Environments, John J...LEARNING Title: Is the Genetic Algorithm a Cooperative Leamner? Author(s): Helen G. Cobb E-mail Address: cobb@aic.nrl.navy.mil Citation: submitted to...the Second Workshop on Foundations of Genetic Algorithms (FOGA-92) Date: Forthcoming, 1992 AIC Report No.: AIC-91-001 Abstract This paper begins to

  16. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  17. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  18. Analysis of Vietnamization: Data Abstract. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-07-01

    AD/A-005 361 ANALYSIS OF VILTNAMIZATION: DATA ABS TRACT William G. Prince 0. 0 Bendix Corporation ca) V) Prepared for: Defense Advanced Research...DISSRISUTtOlN 8TATGEMENT Quali fied requestors may obcain copies of this report from D)C: It SURWLCMENTARV N6TES2 t TPONSORINGI %"LITANY ACTIVIY Defense Advanced ...BSR 4033 ANALYSIS OF VIETNAMIZATION: -"O DATA ABSTRACT Final Report Volume III Sponsored by: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA Order No

  19. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  20. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  1. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  2. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    out of. And development continues from early objects to new objects. New and renewed understandings of analytic events necessarily guide the analyst in the timing of his traditional activities of attending, listening, talking, and relating. A contemporary surge of clinical understanding has led to a more active and informed relatedness on the part of the analyst that allows for a more compassionate approach to verbalization, whether with adults or children. We now know that not every word and every dynamic needs to be funneled through interpretation. The spontaneous powers for recovery that are stimulated by the analytic ground and the analytic process may come to be more accepted as a component of therapeutic gain. Appreciation of the balance of power between the verbal and nonverbal aspects of the analytic process in bringing about therapeutic change has increased. This has led to a greater parity of power and responsibility in the therapeutic alliance. The idea of a "tilted partnership" in which both members work for or against the powerful forces of the analytic process, or of a reciprocal relationship between analyst and analysand has become available to replace the former emphasis on the "tilted relationship." The analyst need no longer be so much in charge of the proceedings whether through deep interpretations of the unconscious or by obsessive attention to associational detail. The ongoing process of developing a body of theoretical and technical understanding that is both reliable and plastic demands an openness that at times flies in the face of the imperative needs of our patients and our profession for clinical confidence and certainty. The analytic clinician, part artist and part scientist, is forever struggling to balance the interminable task of culling new understanding from experience while imposing previously derived understandings that while sure are yet subject to changes stimulated by analytic experience. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  3. Decoding Concrete and Abstract Action Representations During Explicit and Implicit Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Ariani, Giacomo; Greenlee, Mark W; Lingnau, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Action understanding requires a many-to-one mapping of perceived input onto abstract representations that generalize across concrete features. It is debated whether such abstract action concepts are encoded in ventral premotor cortex (PMv; motor hypothesis) or, alternatively, are represented in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC; cognitive hypothesis). We used fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis to decode observed actions at concrete and abstract, object-independent levels of representation. Participants observed videos of 2 actions involving 2 different objects, using either an explicit or implicit task with respect to conceptual action processing. We decoded concrete action representations by training and testing a classifier to discriminate between actions within each object category. To identify abstract action representations, we trained the classifier to discriminate actions in one object and tested the classifier on actions performed on the other object, and vice versa. Region-of-interest and searchlight analyses revealed decoding in LOTC at both concrete and abstract levels during both tasks, whereas decoding in PMv was restricted to the concrete level during the explicit task. In right inferior parietal cortex, decoding was significant for the abstract level during the explicit task. Our findings are incompatible with the motor hypothesis, but support the cognitive hypothesis of action understanding.

  4. NASA Patent Abstracts October 2006: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is an annual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA-owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included were originally published in NASA s Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2005 through September 2006. The range of subjects covered includes the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide's 10 broad subject divisions separated further into 76 specific categories. However, not all categories contain citations during the dates covered for this issue; therefore, the Table of Contents does not include all divisions and categories. This scheme was devised in 1975 and last revised in 2005 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. When available, citations contain a

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  6. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  7. Unifying the object-oriented paradigm with semantic data models

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, D.W. ); Nartker, T.; Taghva, K. . Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    The object-oriented paradigm can be used to model behavior, and to a lesser extent, the structure of a problem domain. Semantic data models describe structure and semantics. This paper unifies the behavioral focus of the object-oriented paradigm with the structural and semantic focus of semantic data models. It presents abstractions to model static and derived data, composite objects, part hierarchies, semantic constraints, and abstractions for identifying behavior. The abstractions keep the model close to the problem domain, are independent of language features, and can be translated into object-oriented, relational or network implementations. This paper makes three principal contributions. First, a comprehensive set of data structuring abstractions is described. Second, semantic constraints inherent in the graphical representation of the abstractions are identified. Third, abstractions for identifying behavior are described. 14 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miriam H; Carton, Amelia M; Hardy, Christopher J; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Fletcher, Phillip D; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R; Henley, Susie M D; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2016-01-29

    art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. From action to abstraction: Gesture as a mechanism of change

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Piaget was a master at observing the routine behaviors children produce as they go from knowing less to knowing more about at a task, and making inferences not only about how the children understood the task at each point, but also about how they progressed from one point to the next. In this paper, I examine a routine behavior that Piaget overlooked—the spontaneous gestures speakers produce as they explain their solutions to a problem. These gestures are not mere hand waving. They reflect ideas that the speaker has about the problem, often ideas that are not found in that speaker’s talk. But gesture can do more than reflect ideas—it can also change them. In this sense, gesture behaves like any other action; both gesture and action on objects facilitate learning problems on which training was given. However, only gesture promotes transferring the knowledge gained to problems that require generalization. Gesture is, in fact, a special kind of action in that it represents the world rather than directly manipulating the world (gesture does not move objects around). The mechanisms by which gesture and action promote learning may therefore differ—gesture is able to highlight components of an action that promote abstract learning while leaving out details that could tie learning to a specific context. Because it is both an action and a representation, gesture can serve as a bridge between the two and thus be a powerful tool for learning abstract ideas. PMID:26692629

  10. From action to abstraction: Gesture as a mechanism of change.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Piaget was a master at observing the routine behaviors children produce as they go from knowing less to knowing more about at a task, and making inferences not only about how the children understood the task at each point, but also about how they progressed from one point to the next. In this paper, I examine a routine behavior that Piaget overlooked-the spontaneous gestures speakers produce as they explain their solutions to a problem. These gestures are not mere hand waving. They reflect ideas that the speaker has about the problem, often ideas that are not found in that speaker's talk. But gesture can do more than reflect ideas-it can also change them. In this sense, gesture behaves like any other action; both gesture and action on objects facilitate learning problems on which training was given. However, only gesture promotes transferring the knowledge gained to problems that require generalization. Gesture is, in fact, a special kind of action in that it represents the world rather than directly manipulating the world (gesture does not move objects around). The mechanisms by which gesture and action promote learning may therefore differ-gesture is able to highlight components of an action that promote abstract learning while leaving out details that could tie learning to a specific context. Because it is both an action and a representation, gesture can serve as a bridge between the two and thus be a powerful tool for learning abstract ideas.

  11. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  12. Solar thermal components. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozman, W. R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts literature and technical papers on components applied to solar thermal energy utilization. The quarterly volumes are divided into ten categories: material properties; flat plat collectors; concentrating collectors; thermal storage; heat pumps; coolers and heat exchangers; solar ponds and distillation; greenhouses; process pleat; and irrigation pumps. Each quarterly volume is compiled from a wide variety of data bases, report literature, technical briefs, journal articles and other traditional and non traditional sources. The Technology Application Center maintains a library containing many of the articles and publications referenced in the series.

  13. The Mystery of V523 Lyrae (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the course of vetting submissions to VSX, it was suggested by a user that V523 Lyrae might be a Z Cam star. Investigations led to quite a bit of confusion initially because V523 Lyr was addressed in two separate papers on Kepler observations of cataclysmic variables, with two different light curves and conclusions as to its nature and classification. Adding to the confusion was the fact that the principle author of one paper was also a co-author on the other paper.

  14. The Lyncis Two for One Special (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The pulsating delta Scuti star AN Lyn and the near contact binary UU Lyn are conveniently located at high declination in the northern constellation of Lynx. These variable stars are about 15 arc minutes apart in the sky and differ in average brightness by roughly one magnitude. This combination makes it fairly straightforward to secure photometric data on both stars at the same time using a common set of comparison stars. We present observations made at the BYU West Mountain Observatory during the spring of 2015 and outline some preliminary conclusions that can be drawn about these distinctly different variable stars.

  15. Education Abstracts: Burma. September-December 1968, January-April 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba. U., Comp.

    Summaries of 243 Burmese newspaper articles, published from September through December 1968 and January through April 1969, offering information on educational seminars, educational statistics, primary and secondary education, and higher education, are reproduced in this two-volume bibliography with abstracts. Editorials and miscellaneous…

  16. Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices Primary Author: Nicholas R. Flanders 109 T.W. Alexander Drive Mail Code: E343-02 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 919-541-3660 Flanders.nick@Epa.gov Topic categ...

  17. MetaTracker: integration and abstraction of 3D motion tracking data from multiple hardware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecky, Ken; Winer, Eliot

    2014-06-01

    Motion tracking has long been one of the primary challenges in mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR). Military and defense training can provide particularly difficult challenges for motion tracking, such as in the case of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) and other dismounted, close quarters simulations. These simulations can take place across multiple rooms, with many fast-moving objects that need to be tracked with a high degree of accuracy and low latency. Many tracking technologies exist, such as optical, inertial, ultrasonic, and magnetic. Some tracking systems even combine these technologies to complement each other. However, there are no systems that provide a high-resolution, flexible, wide-area solution that is resistant to occlusion. While frameworks exist that simplify the use of tracking systems and other input devices, none allow data from multiple tracking systems to be combined, as if from a single system. In this paper, we introduce a method for compensating for the weaknesses of individual tracking systems by combining data from multiple sources and presenting it as a single tracking system. Individual tracked objects are identified by name, and their data is provided to simulation applications through a server program. This allows tracked objects to transition seamlessly from the area of one tracking system to another. Furthermore, it abstracts away the individual drivers, APIs, and data formats for each system, providing a simplified API that can be used to receive data from any of the available tracking systems. Finally, when single-piece tracking systems are used, those systems can themselves be tracked, allowing for real-time adjustment of the trackable area. This allows simulation operators to leverage limited resources in more effective ways, improving the quality of training.

  18. Directory of Energy Information Administration Model Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-16

    This directory partially fulfills the requirements of Section 8c, of the documentation order, which states in part that: The Office of Statistical Standards will annually publish an EIA document based on the collected abstracts and the appendices. This report contains brief statements about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models active through March 1985 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these proprietary models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  19. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  20. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  1. Using Learning Objects in Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minović, Miroslav; Milovanović, Miloš; Starcevic, Dusan

    Our research in game based learning area is moving from traditional web-based Learning Management Systems towards game-based Learning Management Systems, with the intention of integrating upsides of using games in university education. This paper gives insight in to our recent work in area of reusability of Learning Objects between web-based LMSs and game-based LMSs. One of the major issues was how to use classical Learning Objects in development of educational games. We decided to apply a Model Driven Approach to Learning Objects repurposing, which represents a two-step process. Web based Learning Object is transformed into more abstract model and then returned enriched with game specific attributes to a platform specific model. For that purpose we propose a new term Educational Game Learning Object (EGLO). Different games that use different environment and settings can simply reuse Educational Game Learning Objects. Another contribution of our work is a software tool that can be used to import, transform, edit and add metadata, store and export Learning Objects. Applicability of this approach is demonstrated in one simple example.

  2. New Primary School Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Culture (Trinidad and Tobago).

    This official syllabus of Trinidad and Tobago's primary schools gives detailed guidelines on the teaching objectives of each curriculum area and how these can best be realized, as well as descriptions of the subject matter. The curriculum is divided into three levels: Level I (5- to 7-year-olds), Level II (7- to 9-year-olds) and Level III (10+- to…

  3. 32 CFR 631.12 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Objectives. 631.12 Section 631.12 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.12 Objectives. The primary objectives of off-installation operations are to— (a) Render assistance and provide information...

  4. 7 CFR 14.3 - Objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective. 14.3 Section 14.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.3 Objective. The objective of the determinations made under part 14 is to provide maximum...

  5. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2–4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  6. New abstraction networks and a new visualization tool in support of auditing the SNOMED CT content.

    PubMed

    Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan

    2012-01-01

    Medical terminologies are large and complex. Frequently, errors are hidden in this complexity. Our objective is to find such errors, which can be aided by deriving abstraction networks from a large terminology. Abstraction networks preserve important features but eliminate many minor details, which are often not useful for identifying errors. Providing visualizations for such abstraction networks aids auditors by allowing them to quickly focus on elements of interest within a terminology. Previously we introduced area taxonomies and partial area taxonomies for SNOMED CT. In this paper, two advanced, novel kinds of abstraction networks, the relationship-constrained partial area subtaxonomy and the root-constrained partial area subtaxonomy are defined and their benefits are demonstrated. We also describe BLUSNO, an innovative software tool for quickly generating and visualizing these SNOMED CT abstraction networks. BLUSNO is a dynamic, interactive system that provides quick access to well organized information about SNOMED CT.

  7. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... D blood test. This test is recommended because vitamin D deficiency is common in people with primary hyperparathyroidism. How ... bone density measurements every 1 to 2 years. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected if present. Patients who are ...

  8. Lessons in Medical Record Abstraction from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) National Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Latifa; Lamerato, Lois E; Varner, Julie; Shambaugh, Vicki L; Cordes, Jill E; Ragard, Lawrence R; Marcus, Pamela M

    2015-01-01

    The most rigorous and accurate approach to evaluating clinical events in cancer screening studies is to use data obtained through medical record abstraction (MRA). Although MRA is complex, the particulars of the procedure-such as the specific training and quality assurance processes, challenges of implementation, and other factors that influence the quality of abstraction--are usually not described in reports of studies that employed the technique. In this paper, we present the details of MRA activities used in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, which used MRA to determine primary and secondary outcomes and collect data on other clinical events. We describe triggers of the MRA cycle and the specific tasks that were part of the abstraction process. We also discuss training and certification of abstracting staff, and technical methods and communication procedures used for data quality assurance. We include discussion of challenges faced and lessons learned.

  9. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  10. The Common Element Effect of Abstract-to-Abstract Mapping in Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Wang, Guixiang; Liang, Yuchan

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been much discussion about how concepts are learned and processed. Many researchers believe that the experienced bodily states (i.e., embodied experiences) should be an important factor that affects concepts' learning and use, and metaphorical mappings between abstract concepts, such as TIME and POWER, and concrete concepts, such as SPATIAL ORIENTATION, STRUCTURED EXPERIENCEs, etc., suggest the abstract-concrete concepts' connections. In most of the recent literature, we can find common elements (e.g., concrete concepts) shared by different abstract-concrete metaphorical expressions. Therefore, we assumed that mappings might also be found between two abstract concepts that share common elements, though they have no symbolic connections. In the present study, two lexical decision tasks were arranged and the priming effect between TIME and ABSTRACT ACTIONs was used as an index to test our hypothesis. Results showed a robust priming effect when a target verb and its prime belonged to the same duration type (TIME consistent condition). These findings suggest that mapping between concepts was affected by common elements. We propose a dynamic model in which mappings between concepts are influenced by common elements, including symbolic or embodied information. What kind of elements (linguistic or embodied) can be used would depend on how difficult it is for a concept to be learned or accessed.

  11. The Common Element Effect of Abstract-to-Abstract Mapping in Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqian; Wang, Guixiang; Liang, Yuchan

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been much discussion about how concepts are learned and processed. Many researchers believe that the experienced bodily states (i.e., embodied experiences) should be an important factor that affects concepts’ learning and use, and metaphorical mappings between abstract concepts, such as TIME and POWER, and concrete concepts, such as SPATIAL ORIENTATION, STRUCTURED EXPERIENCEs, etc., suggest the abstract-concrete concepts’ connections. In most of the recent literature, we can find common elements (e.g., concrete concepts) shared by different abstract-concrete metaphorical expressions. Therefore, we assumed that mappings might also be found between two abstract concepts that share common elements, though they have no symbolic connections. In the present study, two lexical decision tasks were arranged and the priming effect between TIME and ABSTRACT ACTIONs was used as an index to test our hypothesis. Results showed a robust priming effect when a target verb and its prime belonged to the same duration type (TIME consistent condition). These findings suggest that mapping between concepts was affected by common elements. We propose a dynamic model in which mappings between concepts are influenced by common elements, including symbolic or embodied information. What kind of elements (linguistic or embodied) can be used would depend on how difficult it is for a concept to be learned or accessed. PMID:27822192

  12. Improving a data-acquisition software system with abstract data type components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract data types and object-oriented design are active research areas in computer science and software engineering. Much of the interest is aimed at new software development. Abstract data type packages developed for a discontinued software project were used to improve a real-time data-acquisition system under maintenance. The result saved effort and contributed to a significant improvement in the performance, maintainability, and reliability of the Goldstone Solar System Radar Data Acquisition System.

  13. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  14. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  15. Gasohol sourcebook - Literature survey and abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    A review is provided of biomass and bioconversion technology literature, giving particular attention to gasohol and related fuels. Literature cited and reviewed covers a variety of subjects such as properties of biomass, overviews of bioconversion technologies, toxic and hazardous properties of alcohols, and sources of biomass. Source listings and selected abstracts are provided back to 1965. Both U.S. government reports and journal publications are listed. Foreign publications are also included. A listing is presented of both U.S. and foreign patents on various subjects related to bioconversion technology and gasohol production. Ethanol and methanol production is considered along with automotive and other fuel uses, the production of chemical feedstocks, and the economics of alcohol production.

  16. eta Carinae Continues to Evolve (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eta Carinae affords us a unique opportunity to study the pre-supernova evolution of the most massive stars. For at least the last half century, it has maintained a 5.5-year spectroscopic cycle that culminates with abrupt decreases in the strong stellar wind emission features. Over the last 15 years, the star has brightened at an accelerated rate and altered its spectrum, in addition to the spectroscopic cycle, indicating an ongoing change in state. We present Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy and synthetic photometry from the most recent spectroscopic event (2014.5) that shows notable differences with past events and provides clues to the on-going evolution of the star.

  17. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  18. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  19. Eggen Card Project: Progress and Plans (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Eggen Card Project has been running since 2009 and has involved 30+ AAVSO staff and volunteers. Let me offer a short review of the project, our progress this year and our plans for the future. Phase 1 of the project has been to index the 108,000 card images, identifying the stars they belong too. We've passed the 75% point on this phase. The next phase is how to use this data. Jack Crast has identified the photometric schemes used by Olin and developed a spreadsheet tool to prepare this data for inclusion into the AAVSO International Database (AID). Anyone want good photometry from 1970? We got it!

  20. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  1. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  2. Journalism and Journalism Education: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1984 (Vol. 45 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics: (1) Robert Kennedy and the American press; (2) objective reporting, muckraking, and the "New Journalism" from 1950 to 1975; (3) the coverage of welfare by the New York press;…

  3. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 33 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) storytelling; (2) the short story; (3) metaphor and simile; (4) fairy tales; (5) American science fiction; (6) contemporary American fiction; (7) objective and…

  4. From mind to matter: neural correlates of abstract and concrete mindsets

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Much work in the field of social cognition shows that adopting an abstract (vs concrete) mindset alters the way people construe the world, thereby exerting substantial effects across innumerable aspects of human behavior. In order to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of these effects, we scanned participants as they performed two widely used tasks that induce an abstracting vs concretizing mindsets. Specifically, participants: (i) indicated ‘why’ perform certain activities (a task that involves abstraction) or ‘how’ the same activities are performed (a task that involves concretization) and (ii) generated superordinate categories for certain objects (a task that involves abstraction) or subordinate exemplars for the same objects (a task that involves concretization). We conducted a conjunction analysis of the two tasks, in order to uncover the neural activity associated with abstraction and concretization. The results showed that concretization was associated with activation in fronto-parietal regions implicated in goal-directed action; abstraction was associated with activity within posterior regions implicated in visual perception. We discuss these findings in light of construal-level theory’s notion of abstraction. PMID:23482624

  5. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  6. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  7. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options. PMID:26985167

  8. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the conference were to examine current technologies, research efforts, and advanced ideas, and to identify technical barriers which affect the advancement of electrochemical energy storage systems for space applications. Papers were presented and workshops were conducted in four technical areas: advanced concepts, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers, the nickel electrode, and advanced rechargeable batteries.

  9. Abstracting Sequences: Reasoning That Is a Key to Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K; Gadzichowski, K Marinka; Gallington, Debbie A; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; West, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand sequences of items may be an important cognitive ability. To test this proposition, 8 first-grade children from each of 36 classes were randomly assigned to four conditions. Some were taught sequences that represented increasing or decreasing values, or were symmetrical, or were rotations of an object through 6 or 8 positions. Control children received equal numbers of sessions on mathematics, reading, or social studies. Instruction was conducted three times weekly in 15-min sessions for seven months. In May, the children taught sequences applied their understanding to novel sequences, and scored as well or better on three standardized reading tests as the control children. They outscored all children on tests of mathematics concepts, and scored better than control children on some mathematics scales. These findings indicate that developing an understanding of sequences is a form of abstraction, probably involving fluid reasoning, that provides a foundation for academic achievement in early education.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  11. Strengthening Structured Abstracts for Education Research: The Need for Claim-Based Structured Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Yin, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy recommendations involving the putative primacy of randomized clinical trials in educational settings have reignited research paradigm debates. The authors of this article use the vehicle of strengthening structured journal abstracts to point out the argumentative character of all education research claims. They offer suggestions to…

  12. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    PubMed Central

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D.; Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., “printed schedule”); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., “conditional schedule”); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., “thin schedule”). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  13. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  14. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  15. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  16. Going Over to the Dark Side (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) This is the tale of my continuing journey transforming from a visual to a CCD photometrist. It is my hope that sharing my experiences will help and encourage others to consider taking the same path. It has been hard, but fun; a wonderful opportunity as a newly retired physician to expand my horizons. However, my brain did have to make the switch from Biology to Physics. The major barrier that concerned me was cost, but change itself was also a challenge. Other issues included dealing with the complexity of technical systems and a myriad of details. My solution was to be patient and think small to insure success and then build upon all those little victories. The pedagogical component of this project was critical as well. It began with a good mentor and continued via networking with other members at meetings, taking CHOICE courses, and most importantly: practice, practice, practice. Each plateau suggested many new possibilities. I think “The Force” is now with me! The adventure continues.

  17. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  18. Primary care for the Roma in Europe: Position paper of the European forum for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica; Zelko, Erika; Vintges, Marga; Willems, Sara; Hanssens, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Roma populations’ low health status and limited access to health services, including primary care, has been documented in many European countries, and warrants specific health policies and practices. A variety of experiences shows how primary care can adjust its practices to reduce the barriers to primary care for Roma populations. At local level, establishing collaboration with Roma organisations helps primary care to improve mutual relations and quality of care. Mediation has proved to be an effective tool. Skills training of primary care practitioners may enhance their individual competences. Research and international sharing of experiences are further tools to improve primary care for the Roma people. PMID:27703542

  19. Screening for frailty in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Patel, Tejal; Costa, Andrew; Bryce, Erin; Hillier, Loretta M.; Slonim, Karen; Hunter, Susan W.; Heckman, George; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the accuracy of individual Fried frailty phenotype measures in identifying the Fried frailty phenotype in primary care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting A community-based primary care practice in Kitchener, Ont. Participants A total of 516 patients 75 years of age and older who underwent frailty screening. Main outcome measures Using modified Fried frailty phenotype measures, frailty criteria included gait speed, hand-grip strength as measured by a dynamometer, and self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight loss. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision were calculated for single-trait and dual-trait markers. Results Complete frailty screening data were available for 383 patients. The overall prevalence of frailty based on the presence of 3 or more frailty criteria was 6.5%. The overall prevalence of individual Fried frailty phenotype markers ranged from 2.1% to 19.6%. The individual criteria all showed sensitivity and specificity of more than 80%, with the exception of weight loss (8.3% and 97.4%, respectively). The positive predictive value of the single-item criteria in predicting the Fried frailty phenotype ranged from 12.5% to 52.5%. When gait speed and hand-grip strength were combined as a dual measure, the positive predictive value increased to 87.5%. Conclusion There is a need for frailty measures that are psychometrically sound and feasible to administer in primary care. While use of gait speed or grip strength alone was found to be sensitive and specific as a proxy for the Fried frailty phenotype, use of both measures together was found to be accurate, precise, specific, and more sensitive than other possible combinations. Assessing both measures is feasible within primary care. PMID:28115460

  20. [Primary hyperoxaluria].

    PubMed

    Cochat, Pierre; Fargue, Sonia; Bacchetta, Justine; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Sabot, Jean-François; Harambat, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    Primary hyperoxalurias are rare recessive inherited inborn errors of glyoxylate metabolism. They are responsible for progressive renal involvement, which further lead to systemic oxalate deposition, which can even occur in infants. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is the most common form in Europe and is due to alanine-glyoxylate aminostransferase deficiency, a hepatic peroxisomal pyridoxin-dependent enzyme. Therefore primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is responsible for hyperoxaluria leading to aggressive stone formation and nephrocalcinosis. As glomerular filtration rate decreases, systemic oxalate storage occurs throughout all the body, and mainly in the skeleton. The diagnosis is first based on urine oxalate measurement, then on genotyping, which may also allow prenatal diagnosis to be proposed. Conservative measures - including hydration, crystallization inhibitors and pyridoxine - are safe and may allow long lasting renal survival, provided it is given as soon as the diagnosis has been even suspected. No dialysis procedure can remove enough oxalate to compensate oxalate overproduction from the sick liver, therefore a combined liver and kidney transplantation should be planned before advanced renal disease has occurred, in order to limit/avoid systemic oxalate deposition. In the future, primary hyperoxaluria type 1 may benefit from hepatocyte transplantation, chaperone molecules, etc.

  1. Object Oriented Modeling and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.

  2. Deformylation Reaction by a Nonheme Manganese(III)-Peroxo Complex via Initial Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction.

    PubMed

    Barman, Prasenjit; Upadhyay, Pranav; Faponle, Abayomi S; Kumar, Jitendra; Nag, Sayanta Sekhar; Kumar, Devesh; Sastri, Chivukula V; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-09-05

    Metal-peroxo intermediates are key species in the catalytic cycles of nonheme metalloenzymes, but their chemical properties and reactivity patterns are still poorly understood. The synthesis and characterization of a manganese(III)-peroxo complex with a pentadentate bispidine ligand system and its reactivity with aldehydes was studied. Manganese(III)-peroxo can react through hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions instead of the commonly proposed nucleophilic addition reaction. Evidence of the mechanism comes from experiments which identify a primary kinetic isotope effect of 5.4 for the deformylation reaction. Computational modeling supports the established mechanism and identifies the origin of the reactivity preference of hydrogen-atom abstraction over nucleophilic addition.

  3. Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are by theory, experiment, and bench-level testing of small systems, to develop scientifically-sound engineering processes and facility specifications for producing propellants and fuels, construction and shielding materials, and life support substances from the lithospheres and atmospheres of lunar, planetary, and asteroidal bodies. Current emphasis is on the production of oxygen, other usefull gases, metallic, ceramic/composite, and related byproducts from lunar regolith, carbonaceous chrondritic asteroids, and the carbon dioxide rich Martian atmosphere.

  4. Abstracting GIS Layers from Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    road network” final object map discrepancies. . . . . . . . 4-36 4.27. Examples of conservative and aggressive road finding. . . . . . 4-37 4.28. The...is a result of particles (e.g. pollen , water, or dust) in the air between the imager and the source. Refraction is the result of light bending at the...perspectral endmember spectra for hundreds of materials. The materials are separated into categories: Man-Made, Mixture, Volatile (water), Plant , and

  5. A Mediator Architecture for Abstract Data Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    results are ready for prototys implementation, the main motivation for issuing this report is to \\ provide an overview with enough detail in some...for prototype implementation, the main motivation for issuing this report is to provide an overview with enough detail in some areas to allow the...the relational representation is typically changed to an object- or frame-based representation. A related project, PENGUIN, focuses on this issue ; we

  6. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  7. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  8. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  9. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  10. Temporal and comparative outcomes of cardiac electrophysiology abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher X; Sun, Michelle T; Cheng, Yi Han; Dang, Jerry; Barlow, David S; Chia, Nicholas H; Wong, Nicole X; Wong, Michelle X; Lau, Dennis H; Brooks, Anthony G; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2013-07-15

    Although conferences are important vehicles for discussing scientific findings, the translation of presented research into peer-reviewed manuscripts is a crucial subsequent step in the research process. Given the evolving subspecialization of cardiology, we sought to characterize the temporal and comparative outcomes of abstracts presented at a subspecialty cardiac electrophysiology conference. Abstracts presented at the Heart Rhythm Society conference (1994 through 2006; HRS abstracts) and abstracts presented at the American Heart Association conference (2003; AHA abstracts) were studied. Subsequent publications, impact factors, and citation rates were determined. A total of 3,850 HRS and 1,000 AHA abstracts were studied. More human abstracts were presented at HRS than AHA (p <0.05). Compared with HRS abstracts, more AHA abstracts were published (p <0.001) and had higher impact factors and citation rates (p <0.001 for both). These differences were attributable in part to the greater proportion of human HRS abstracts. Compared with HRS abstracts, electrophysiology-related AHA abstracts were published less (p <0.001), and these publications had similar impact factors (p = 0.38) although greater citation rates (p = 0.001). The number and publication rate of HRS abstracts increased over the 15-year period, as did their publication impact factors and citation rates (p <0.001 for all). In conclusion, there are significant differences between AHA and HRS abstracts. Although AHA abstracts were more likely to be published overall, the publication rate and impact of electrophysiology abstracts presented at both a subspecialty (HRS) and a major cardiovascular conference (AHA) were comparable. There has also been a growth in the number and impact of cardiac electrophysiology abstracts presented at HRS in recent years.

  11. Brief interventions for depression in primary care

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess existing, brief nonpharmacologic interventions that are available for primary care physicians with minimal training in psychotherapy to use in managing depression in adult patients. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE was searched from 1996 to 2007, EMBASE was searched from 1980 to 2007, and EBM Reviews was searched from 1999 to 2007. STUDY SELECTION Several randomized controlled trials were selected using specified criteria. Selected articles were subsequently appraised and qualitatively analyzed. SYNTHESIS Significant improvements on depression scales were found in 6 out of 8 studies (P < .05) using various brief interventions and formal control groups. Successful interventions included bibliotherapy, websites based on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), and CBT-based computer programs. Completion rates were highest when interventions were shorter, more structured, and included frequent contact or reminders from study staff. Validity limitations included small sample sizes, non-blinding of studies, and an uncertain degree of generalizability. CONCLUSION Bibliotherapy, CBT-based websites, and CBT-based computer programs might be effective in assisting primary care physicians who have minimal training in psychotherapy in treating adult patients with depression. Health care personnel contact with patients undergoing these interventions might result in increased effectiveness. Future research is warranted in this area, and despite several limitations, findings from this study could help guide efforts in the development and evaluation of such research. PMID:19675262

  12. Models of primary care for frail patients

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Wilson, C. Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss models of care for frail seniors provided in primary care settings and those developed by Canadian FPs. Sources of information Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane database were searched from 2010 to January 2014 using the terms models of care, family medicine, elderly, and geriatrics. Main message New models of funding for primary care have opened opportunities for ways of caring for complex frail older patients. Severity of frailty is an important factor, and more severe frailty should prompt consideration of using an alternate model of care for a senior. In Canada, models in use include integrated care systems, shared care models, home-based care models, and family medicine specialty clinics. No one model should take precedence but FPs should be involved in developing and implementing strategies that meet the needs of individual patients and communities. Organizational and remunerative supports will need to be put in place to achieve widespread uptake of such models. Conclusion Given the increased numbers of frail seniors and the decrease in access to hospital beds, prioritized care models should include ones focused on optimizing health, decreasing frailty, and helping to avoid hospitalization of frail and well seniors alike. The Health Care of the Elderly Program Committee at the College of Family Physicians of Canada is hosting a repository for models of care used by FPs and is asking physicians to submit their ideas for how to best care for frail seniors. PMID:26380850

  13. Decoding abstract and concrete concept representations based on single-trial fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Baucom, Laura B; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2013-05-01

    Previously, multi-voxel pattern analysis has been used to decode words referring to concrete object categories. In this study we investigated if single-trial-based brain activity was sufficient to distinguish abstract (e.g., mercy) versus concrete (e.g., barn) concept representations. Multiple neuroimaging studies have identified differences in the processing of abstract versus concrete concepts based on the averaged activity across time by using univariate methods. In this study we used multi-voxel pattern analysis to decode functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data when participants perform a semantic similarity judgment task on triplets of either abstract or concrete words with similar meanings. Classifiers were trained to identify individual trials as concrete or abstract. Cross-validated accuracies for classifying trials as abstract or concrete were significantly above chance (P < 0.05) for all participants. Discriminating information was distributed in multiple brain regions. Moreover, accuracy of identifying single trial data for any one participant as abstract or concrete was also reliably above chance (P < 0.05) when the classifier was trained solely on data from other participants. These results suggest abstract and concrete concepts differ in representations in terms of neural activity patterns during a short period of time across the whole brain.

  14. Primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Govett, G; White, J

    1989-07-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a pathological entity due to excessive secretion of parathormone from a single or multiple parathyroid glands. The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is an elevated serum calcium. The relationship of the parathyroid glands with the thymus gland in fetal development accounts for the occasional aberrant location of the parathyroids. By utilizing computed tomography or nuclear scanning or both preoperatively, the surgeon can isolate the hyperfunctioning adenoma and resect it, thus minimizing potential complications.

  15. Primary productivity in the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in primary productivity is discussed in the book based on 27 symposia texts and 19 poster abstracts. Most papers deal with particular cellular processes in pelagic phytoplankton and their relationship to whole plant photosynthesis and growth. In addition, presentations on the productivity of the seaweed, Laminaria, zooxanthellae and whole corals are included. Other articles discuss predictive modeling, new developments in remote sensing, nutrient regeneration within the sea, grazing effects, and carbon cycling. (JMT)

  16. Behavioral Objectives?-No!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Bill L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)

  17. Teaching the Abstract as an Introduction to Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Suggests using abstract writing to introduce students to various elements of technical writing such as organization, stylistic choice, and revision. Provides examples of students' condensations and summarizes the benefits of teaching abstract writing. (SRT)

  18. A Review of Errors in the Journal Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    (percentage) of abstracts that involved with errors, the most erroneous part of the abstract, and the types and frequency of errors. Also the purpose expanded to compare the results with those of the previous…

  19. Introducing structured abstracts for A&A articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertout, Claude; Schneider, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Context: Due to their wide availability, abstracts have become the most important part of any astrophysical paper. Aims: Having noticed that abstracts published in astronomical journals are not always optimal, we introduce the concept of structured abstracts for A&A articles. Methods: We explain what structured abstracts are and where they come from, provide examples showing how to structure an abstract, and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this novel concept. In an on-line appendix, we show what some published abstracts look like once they are structured. Results: We demonstrate the improvements in information content, readability, and style that can be made when writing structured abstracts instead of traditional ones. Conclusions: A new version 6.0 of the A&A LaTeX macro is now available for structuring the abstracts of articles, and A&A authors are kindly invited to use it for their new submissions.

  20. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  1. Clad Degradation- Summary and Abstraction for LA

    SciTech Connect

    D. Stahl

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this model report is to develop the summary cladding degradation abstraction that will be used in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Most civilian commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. The model addressed in this report is intended to describe the postulated condition of commercial Zircaloy-clad fuel as a function of postclosure time after it is placed in the repository. Earlier total system performance assessments analyzed the waste form as exposed UO{sub 2}, which was available for degradation at the intrinsic dissolution rate. Water in the waste package quickly became saturated with many of the radionuclides, limiting their release rate. In the total system performance assessments for the Viability Assessment and the Site Recommendation, cladding was analyzed as part of the waste form, limiting the amount of fuel available at any time for degradation. The current model is divided into two stages. The first considers predisposal rod failures (most of which occur during reactor operation and associated activities) and postdisposal mechanical failure (from static loading of rocks) as mechanisms for perforating the cladding. Other fuel failure mechanisms including those caused by handling or transportation have been screened out (excluded) or are treated elsewhere. All stainless-steel-clad fuel, which makes up a small percentage of the overall amount of fuel to be stored, is modeled as failed upon placement in the waste packages. The second stage of the degradation model is the splitting of the cladding from the reaction of water or moist air and UO{sub 2}. The splitting has been observed to be rapid in comparison to the total system performance assessment time steps and is modeled to be instantaneous. After the cladding splits, the rind buildup inside the cladding widens the split, increasing the diffusion area from the fuel rind to the waste package interior. This model report summarizes

  2. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O’Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and thus guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in two masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets’ first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar co-activated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. PMID:26618911

  3. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  4. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes--color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation--for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes.

  5. Reliability Abstracts and Technical Reviews January - December 1970. Volume 10, Nos. 1-12; R70-14805 - R70-15438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Reliability Abstracts and Technical Reviews is an abstract and critical analysis service covering published and report literature on reliability. The service is designed to provide information on theory and practice of reliability as applied to aerospace and an objective appraisal of the quality, significance, and applicability of the literature abstracted.

  6. If the results of an article are noteworthy, read the entire article; do not rely on the abstract alone.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, R; Castell, M V; García-Puig, J

    2015-11-01

    Clinicians typically update their knowledge by reading articles on the Internet. Easy access to the articles' abstracts and a lack of time to access other information sources creates a risk that therapeutic or diagnostic decisions will be made after reading just the abstracts. Occasionally, however, the abstracts of articles from clinical trials that have not obtained statistically significant differences in the primary study endpoint have reported other positive results, for example, of a secondary endpoint or a subgroup analysis. The article, however, correctly reports all results, including those of the primary endpoint. In the abstract, the safety information of the experimental treatment is usually deficient. The whole article should be read if a clinical decision is to be made.

  7. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  8. Dale Avenue Performance Objective Model Pre-Primary-Primary Performance Objectives Prekindergarten Through Grade Three: Manual; Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helen B.; Gavzy, Rita

    The Dale Avenue Early Childhood Education Project was developed in the Dale Avenue School in Paterson, New Jersey through funding from the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title III. The Project was validated in 1973 by the standards and guidelines of the U.S. Office of Education as innovative, successful, cost effective, and exportable. As a…

  9. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  10. Computational study on SiH4 dissociation channels and H abstraction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Toshio; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2016-07-01

    The primary dissociation channels of SiH4 were investigated using computational chemistry. The results showed properties very similar to those of CH4. The main dissociation product was SiH2 and the second dissociation product was SiH3. SiH was produced through SiH3 to SiH + H2 dissociation by electronic excitation. H abstraction reactions by H and SiH3 were also calculated for SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, and Si9H14(100) cluster models. The energy barriers of H abstraction reactions were lower than those of SiH3 abstraction reactions. This result is considerably important for deposition in SiH4/H2 process plasma.

  11. Calibration of the MEDUSA neutron spectrometer (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Lerche, R. A.; Phillips, T. W.; Stoeckl, C.; Padalino, S. J.; Olliver, H.; Thompson, S.

    2001-01-01

    The MEDUSA array is a multielement, scintillator-based neutron time-of-flight spectrometer designed primarily to measure primary and secondary neutron production from indirect drive DD and DT capsule implosions at the Omega Laser in Rochester, NY. The array consists of 824 identical scintillator-photomultiplier tube detectors coupled to analog signal discriminators and high resolution, multihit time-to-digital converters, and is located 19.4 m from the center of the Omega target chamber. It is possible to accurately measure the neutron energy spectrum by simply measuring an adequate sample of neutron flight times to the array (the burn time width is negligible). However it is essential to understand the response of the array detectors to the fusion neutrons before an energy spectrum can be deduced from the data. This array response function is generally given in terms of a calibration constant that relates the expected number of detector hits in the array to the number of source neutrons. The calibration constant is a function of the individual detector gains, the thresholds of the discriminators, and the amount of neutron attenuating material between the array and the target. After gain matching the detectors, a calibration constant can be generated by comparing the array response against a known yield of neutrons (this requires dozens of implosions) or from a first principles measurement of the individual detector efficiencies. In this article, we report on the results of both calibrations of the MEDUSA array. In particular, we will focus on the issues and errors associated with the very different measurements required and discuss a new technique being considered for rapid in situ future calibrations.

  12. Statistical learning is constrained to less abstract patterns in complex sensory input (but not the least).

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lauren L; Rubinstein, Dani Y

    2016-08-01

    The influence of statistical information on behavior (either through learning or adaptation) is quickly becoming foundational to many domains of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, from language comprehension to visual development. We investigate a central problem impacting these diverse fields: when encountering input with rich statistical information, are there any constraints on learning? This paper examines learning outcomes when adult learners are given statistical information across multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously: from abstract, semantic categories of everyday objects to individual viewpoints on these objects. After revealing statistical learning of abstract, semantic categories with scrambled individual exemplars (Exp. 1), participants viewed pictures where the categories as well as the individual objects predicted picture order (e.g., bird1-dog1, bird2-dog2). Our findings suggest that participants preferentially encode the relationships between the individual objects, even in the presence of statistical regularities linking semantic categories (Exps. 2 and 3). In a final experiment we investigate whether learners are biased towards learning object-level regularities or simply construct the most detailed model given the data (and therefore best able to predict the specifics of the upcoming stimulus) by investigating whether participants preferentially learn from the statistical regularities linking individual snapshots of objects or the relationship between the objects themselves (e.g., bird_picture1-dog_picture1, bird_picture2-dog_picture2). We find that participants fail to learn the relationships between individual snapshots, suggesting a bias towards object-level statistical regularities as opposed to merely constructing the most complete model of the input. This work moves beyond the previous existence proofs that statistical learning is possible at both very high and very low levels of abstraction (categories vs. individual

  13. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  14. Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritic Society are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Antarctic meteorites; nebula and parent body processing; primary and secondary SNC parent planet processes; enstatite chondrites and aubrites; achondrite stew; refractory inclusions; meteorite exposure ages and sizes; interstellar/meteorite connections; lunar origins, processes and meteorites; craters, cratering and tektites; cretaceous-tertiary impact(s); IDPs (LDEF, stratosphere, Greenland and Antarctica); chondrules; and chondrites.

  15. A temporal-abstraction system for patient monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Y.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    RESUME is a system that performs temporal abstraction of time-stamped data. RESUME is based on a model of three temporal-abstraction mechanisms: point temporal abstraction (a mechanism for abstracting values of several parameters into a value of another parameter); temporal inference (a mechanism for inferring sound logical conclusions over a single interval or two meeting intervals); and temporal interpolation (a mechanism for bridging nonmeeting temporal intervals). Making explicit the knowledge required for temporal abstraction supports the acquisition of that knowledge. PMID:1482852

  16. Abstract:Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multienvironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of the location with a sand soil in the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarca...

  17. Analyzing Mathematics Textbooks through a Constructive-Empirical Perspective on Abstraction: The Case of Pythagoras' Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing how Pythagoras' theorem is handled in three versions of Taiwanese textbooks using a conceptual framework of a constructive-empirical perspective on abstraction, which comprises three key attributes: the generality of the object, the connectivity of the subject and the functionality of diagrams as the focused semiotic…

  18. Level of Abstraction and Feelings of Presence in Virtual Space: Business English Negotiation in Open Wonderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Tai, David Wen-Shung; Chen, Farn-Shing; Chao, Chich-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Virtual spaces allow abstract representations of reality that not only encourage student self-directed learning but also reinforce core content of the learning objective through visual metaphors not reproducible in the physical world. One of the advantages of such a space is the ability to escape the restrictions of the physical classroom, yet…

  19. Overstatements in abstract conclusions claiming effectiveness of interventions in psychiatry: a study protocol for a meta-epidemiological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Suganuma, Aya M; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Imai, Hissei; Takeshima, Nozomi; Hayasaka, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abstracts are the major and often the most important source of information for readers of the medical literature. However, there is mounting criticism that abstracts often exaggerate the positive findings and emphasise the beneficial effects of intervention beyond the actual findings mentioned in the corresponding full texts. In order to examine the magnitude of this problem, we will introduce a systematic approach to detect overstated abstracts and to quantify the extent of their prevalence in published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of psychiatry. Methods and analysis We will source RCTs published in 2014 from the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) that claim effectiveness of any intervention for mental disorders. The abstract conclusions will be categorised into three types: superior (only stating significant superiority of intervention to control), limited (suggesting that intervention has limited superiority to control) and equal (claiming equal effectiveness of intervention as control). The full texts will also be classified as one of the following based on the primary outcome results: significant (all primary outcomes were statistically significant in favour of the intervention), mixed (primary outcomes included both significant and non-significant results) or all non-significant results. By comparing the abstract conclusion classification and that of the corresponding full text, we will assess whether each study exhibited overstatements in its abstract conclusion. Ethics and dissemination This trial requires no ethical approval. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number UMIN000018668; Pre-results. PMID:27103624

  20. [Primary aldosteronism].

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism affects 6% of hypertensive patients. The diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with severe or resistant hypertension or hypertension associated with hypokalemia. The screening test consists on the assessment of the aldosterone to renin ratio. In case of an elevated ratio, the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism is confirmed by either elevated concentrations of basal plasma and/or urinary aldosterone or absence of suppression of aldosterone during dynamic test (including the saline infusion test). CT aims to ensure the absence of adrenal carcinoma and to study the morphology of the adrenals. The unilateral or bilateral type of aldosterone secretion is based on the realization of an adrenal venous sampling. When the hypersecretion is unilateral, the treatment consists of adrenalectomy leading to cure of hypertension in 42% of cases, improvement in 40% of cases. For patient with bilateral disease or who don't want to undergo surgery, treatment is based on spironolactone usually at doses of 25 or 50 mg in combination with other antihypertensives drugs such as diuretics or calcium channel blockers.