Science.gov

Sample records for abstract reasoning ability

  1. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  2. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  3. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  4. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  5. Conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates the transition between familiar and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to 15-year-olds. Study 2 (n = 366) found a positive effect of simply generating alternatives, but only in 19-year-olds. Study 3 (n = 92) found that 9- to 11-year-olds were able to respond logically with false premises, whereas no such ability was observed in 6- to 7-year-olds. Reasoning with false premises was found to improve reasoning with semiabstract premises in the older children. These results support the idea that alternatives generation with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning.

  6. Speed of Reasoning and Its Relation to Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhammer, Frank; Klein Entink, Rinke H.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirical properties of reasoning speed which is conceived as the fluency of solving reasoning problems. Responses and response times in reasoning tasks are modeled jointly to clarify the covariance structure of reasoning speed and reasoning ability. To determine underlying abilities, the predictive validities of two…

  7. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra.

    PubMed

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students' first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students' ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16-17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15-16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students' transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition.

  8. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra

    PubMed Central

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students’ first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students’ ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16–17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15–16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students’ transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition. PMID:25228874

  9. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  10. Abstracting Sequences: Reasoning That Is a Key to Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K; Gadzichowski, K Marinka; Gallington, Debbie A; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; West, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand sequences of items may be an important cognitive ability. To test this proposition, 8 first-grade children from each of 36 classes were randomly assigned to four conditions. Some were taught sequences that represented increasing or decreasing values, or were symmetrical, or were rotations of an object through 6 or 8 positions. Control children received equal numbers of sessions on mathematics, reading, or social studies. Instruction was conducted three times weekly in 15-min sessions for seven months. In May, the children taught sequences applied their understanding to novel sequences, and scored as well or better on three standardized reading tests as the control children. They outscored all children on tests of mathematics concepts, and scored better than control children on some mathematics scales. These findings indicate that developing an understanding of sequences is a form of abstraction, probably involving fluid reasoning, that provides a foundation for academic achievement in early education.

  11. Using Analogy to Improve Abstract Conditional Reasoning in Adolescents: Not as Easy as It Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Doyon, Celine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning refers to the ability to reason logically with premises that do not allow reference to knowledge about the real world. This form of reasoning is complex and difficult, and at the same time, it is critical for understanding science and mathematics. Two studies examined the use of analogy as a method to bridge reasoning with…

  12. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  13. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD.

  14. Methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation - A survey.

    PubMed

    Charwat, Günther; Dvořák, Wolfgang; Gaggl, Sarah A; Wallner, Johannes P; Woltran, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Within the last decade, abstract argumentation has emerged as a central field in Artificial Intelligence. Besides providing a core formalism for many advanced argumentation systems, abstract argumentation has also served to capture several non-monotonic logics and other AI related principles. Although the idea of abstract argumentation is appealingly simple, several reasoning problems in this formalism exhibit high computational complexity. This calls for advanced techniques when it comes to implementation issues, a challenge which has been recently faced from different angles. In this survey, we give an overview on different methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation and compare their particular features. Moreover, we highlight available state-of-the-art systems for abstract argumentation, which put these methods to practice.

  15. Abstraction and Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Automated Software Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaki, S.; Clarke, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Pasareanu, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositional verification and abstraction are the key techniques to address the state explosion problem associated with model checking of concurrent software. A promising compositional approach is to prove properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. This article proposes a framework for performing abstraction and assume-guarantee reasoning of concurrent C code in an incremental and fully automated fashion. The framework uses predicate abstraction to extract and refine finite state models of software and it uses an automata learning algorithm to incrementally construct assumptions for the compositional verification of the abstract models. The framework can be instantiated with different assume-guarantee rules. We have implemented our approach in the COMFORT reasoning framework and we show how COMFORT out-performs several previous software model checking approaches when checking safety properties of non-trivial concurrent programs.

  16. Abstracting meaning from complex information (gist reasoning) in adult traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vas, Asha Kuppachi; Spence, Jeffrey; Chapman, Sandra Bond

    2015-01-01

    Gist reasoning (abstracting meaning from complex information) was compared between adults with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, n = 30) at least one year post injury and healthy adults (n = 40). The study also examined the contribution of executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and switching) and memory (immediate recall and memory for facts) to gist reasoning. The correspondence between gist reasoning and daily function was also examined in the TBI group. Results indicated that the TBI group performed significantly lower than the control group on gist reasoning, even after adjusting for executive functions and memory. Executive function composite was positively associated with gist reasoning (p < .001). Additionally, performance on gist reasoning significantly predicted daily function in the TBI group beyond the predictive ability of executive function alone (p = .011). Synthesizing and abstracting meaning(s) from information (i.e., gist reasoning) could provide an informative index into higher order cognition and daily functionality.

  17. Abstract-Reasoning Software for Coordinating Multiple Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Barrett, Anthony; Rabideau, Gregg; Knight, Russell

    2003-01-01

    A computer program for scheduling the activities of multiple agents that share limited resources has been incorporated into the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. In the original intended application, the agents would be multiple spacecraft and/or robotic vehicles engaged in scientific exploration of distant planets. The program could also be used on Earth in such diverse settings as production lines and military maneuvers. This program includes a planning/scheduling subprogram of the iterative repair type that reasons about the activities of multiple agents at abstract levels in order to greatly improve the scheduling of their use of shared resources. The program summarizes the information about the constraints on, and resource requirements of, abstract activities on the basis of the constraints and requirements that pertain to their potential refinements (decomposition into less-abstract and ultimately to primitive activities). The advantage of reasoning about summary information is that time needed to find consistent schedules is exponentially smaller than the time that would be needed for reasoning about the same tasks at the primitive level.

  18. Spatial vs. Nonspatial Reasoning Ability in Chronic Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Garber, Judy

    1976-01-01

    Compares spatial with nonspatial reasoning ability within the same patients to determine whether spatial reasoning deficits in schizophrenics are specific to spatial types of tasks or are indicative of generalized reasoning difficulties. (Author/RK)

  19. Understanding the Development of Analogical Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R.; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    This paper takes the position that theories about individual differences in childhood and theories about cognitive development both would be enhanced if the two lines of research were integrated. The heuristic value of this position is illustrated in the context of analogical reasoning tasks. A general model of analogy solution and potential…

  20. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  1. The Sport Students’ Ability of Literacy and Statistical Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, N.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of literacy and statistical reasoning is very important for the students of sport education college due to the materials of statistical learning can be taken from their many activities such as sport competition, the result of test and measurement, predicting achievement based on training, finding connection among variables, and others. This research tries to describe the sport education college students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning related to the identification of data type, probability, table interpretation, description and explanation by using bar or pie graphic, explanation of variability, interpretation, the calculation and explanation of mean, median, and mode through an instrument. This instrument is tested to 50 college students majoring in sport resulting only 26% of all students have the ability above 30% while others still below 30%. Observing from all subjects; 56% of students have the ability of identification data classification, 49% of students have the ability to read, display and interpret table through graphic, 27% students have the ability in probability, 33% students have the ability to describe variability, and 16.32% students have the ability to read, count and describe mean, median and mode. The result of this research shows that the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning has not been adequate and students’ statistical study has not reached comprehending concept, literary ability trining and statistical rasoning, so it is critical to increase the sport students’ ability of literacy and statistical reasoning

  2. Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

  3. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  4. Extended abstract: Managing disjunction for practical temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; Schrag, Bob; Carciofini, Jim

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems that must be dealt with in either a formal or implemented temporal reasoning system is the ambiguity arising from uncertain information. Lack of precise information about when events happen leads to uncertainty regarding the effects of those events. Incomplete information and nonmonotonic inference lead to situations where there is more than one set of possible inferences, even when there is no temporal uncertainty at all. In an implemented system, this ambiguity is a computational problem as well as a semantic one. In this paper, we discuss some of the sources of this ambiguity, which we will treat as explicit disjunction, in the sense that ambiguous information can be interpreted as defining a set of possible inferences. We describe the application of three techniques for managing disjunction in an implementation of Dean's Time Map Manager. Briefly, the disjunction is either: removed by limiting the expressive power of the system, or approximated by a weaker form of representation that subsumes the disjunction. We use a combination of these methods to implement an expressive and efficient temporal reasoning engine that performs sound inference in accordance with a well-defined formal semantics.

  5. Mathematics Teachers' Covariational Reasoning Levels and Predictions about Students' Covariational Reasoning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeytun, Aysel Sen; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2010-01-01

    Various studies suggest that covariational reasoning plays an important role on understanding the fundamental ideas of calculus and modeling dynamic functional events. The purpose of this study was to investigate a group of mathematics teachers' covariational reasoning abilities and predictions about their students. Data were collected through…

  6. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  7. The Use of a Cognitive Tutoring System in the Improvement of the Abstract Reasoning Component of Word Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, J. L.; Regian, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of ninth-grade students that evaluated the ability of the Word Problem Solving Tutor, a cognitive tutoring system, to improve the abstract-reasoning component of word-problem solving. Compares combinations of traditional instruction, computer-assisted instruction, and the tutoring program and discusses implications for math…

  8. Everyday Reasoning Abilities in Persons with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Young, Tiffany L.; Granic, Antoneta; Chen, Tuo Yu; Haley, Christine B.; Edwards, Jerri D.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients develop progressive cognitive decline 1-3. The degree to which such decline impacts instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia is not well documented. The Everyday Cognitive Battery Reasoning subtest (ECB) was used to assess ability to solve everyday reasoning tasks for IADL among 19 non-demented older adults with PD in comparison to 20 older adults without PD. The two groups were similar in age, education, race and gender. Individuals with PD had significantly lower scores (M = 61.98, SD = 12.03) than the comparison group (M = 69.80, SD = 9.48). Individuals with PD, who do not have dementia, may be more likely to experience difficulties in IADL requiring reasoning including medication use, finances, and nutrition. Even more serious implications lie in the capacity to make treatment choices 4. PMID:20939079

  9. [Occupational complexity and late-life memory and reasoning abilities].

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Yoshiko; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Megumi; Ogawa, Madoka; Kamide, Kei; Ikebe, Kazunori; Arai, Yasumichi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the associations between the complexity of an individual's primary lifetime occupation and his or her late-life memory and reasoning performance, using data from 824 community-dwelling participants aged 69-72 years. The complexity of work with data, people, and things was evaluated based on the Japanese job complexity score. The associations between occupational complexity and participant's memory and reasoning abilities were examined in multiple regression analyses. An association was found between more comple work with people and higher memory performance, as well as between more complex work with data and higher reasoning performance, after having controlled for gender, school records, and education. Further, an interaction effect was observed between gender and complexity of work with data in relation to reasoning performance: work involving a high degree of complexity with data was associated with high reasoning performance in men. These findings suggest the need to consider late-life cognitive functioning within the context of adulthood experiences, specifically those related to occupation and gender.

  10. Associations between conceptual reasoning, problem solving, and adaptive ability in high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Mazefsky, Carla A; Walker, Jon D; Minshew, Nancy J; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-11-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and without autism. The individuals with autism had weaker conceptual reasoning ability than individuals with typical development of similar age and cognitive ability. For the autism group, their flexible thinking scores were significantly correlated with laboratory measures of strategy formation and rule shifting and with reported overall adaptive behavior but not socialization scores. Therefore, in autism, flexibility of thought is potentially more important for adaptive functioning in the natural environment than conceptual reasoning or problem-solving.

  11. Does Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Score Reflect the Clinical Reasoning Ability of Medical Students?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Clinical reasoning ability is an important factor in a physician's competence and thus should be taught and tested in medical schools. Medical schools generally use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to measure the clinical competency of medical students. However, it is unknown whether OSCE can also evaluate clinical reasoning ability. In this study, the authors investigated whether OSCE scores reflected students' clinical reasoning abilities. Methods: Sixty-five fourth-year medical students participated in this study. Medical students completed the OSCE with 4 cases using standardized patients. For assessment of clinical reasoning, students were asked to list differential diagnoses and the findings that were compatible or not compatible with each diagnosis. The OSCE score (score of patient encounter), diagnostic accuracy score, clinical reasoning score, clinical knowledge score and grade point average (GPA) were obtained for each student, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: Clinical reasoning score was significantly correlated with diagnostic accuracy and GPA (correlation coefficient = 0.258 and 0.380; P = 0.038 and 0.002, respectively) but not with OSCE score or clinical knowledge score (correlation coefficient = 0.137 and 0.242; P = 0.276 and 0.052, respectively). Total OSCE score was not significantly correlated with clinical knowledge test score, clinical reasoning score, diagnostic accuracy score or GPA. Conclusions: OSCE score from patient encounters did not reflect the clinical reasoning abilities of the medical students in this study. The evaluation of medical students' clinical reasoning abilities through OSCE should be strengthened. PMID:25647834

  12. Proportional reasoning and the linguistic abilities required for hypothetico-deductive reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Lawson, David I.; Lawson, Chester A.

    The hypothesis is advanced that a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the acquisition of proportional reasoning during adolescence is the prior internalization of key linguistic elements of argumentation, essentially those used in hypothetico-deductive reasoning. This hypothesized internalization, which does not occur in all individuals, results in some who have acquired the ability to reflect upon the correctness of self-generated answers in a hypothetico-deductive manner, and others who have not. As an initial test of the hypothesis, 46 subjects (Ss) (mean age = 21.03 years) were classified into additive, transitional, or proportional reasoning categories based upon responses to a proportions task. Group differences were found in which proportional Ss performed better than transitional Ss who in turn performed better than additive Ss on a number of items testing Ss' abilities to identify, generate, and use the linguistic elements of argumentation. Further it was found that some Ss who were successful on the linguistic items failed the proportions task, but no Ss who were successful on the proportions task failed the linguistic items. This result supports the hypothesis that the internalization of linguistic elements of argumentation is a prerequisite for proportional reasoning and by inference other advanced reasoning schemata as well. Implications for science instruction are drawn.

  13. Methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation – A survey

    PubMed Central

    Charwat, Günther; Dvořák, Wolfgang; Gaggl, Sarah A.; Wallner, Johannes P.; Woltran, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, abstract argumentation has emerged as a central field in Artificial Intelligence. Besides providing a core formalism for many advanced argumentation systems, abstract argumentation has also served to capture several non-monotonic logics and other AI related principles. Although the idea of abstract argumentation is appealingly simple, several reasoning problems in this formalism exhibit high computational complexity. This calls for advanced techniques when it comes to implementation issues, a challenge which has been recently faced from different angles. In this survey, we give an overview on different methods for solving reasoning problems in abstract argumentation and compare their particular features. Moreover, we highlight available state-of-the-art systems for abstract argumentation, which put these methods to practice. PMID:25737590

  14. Abstract Reasoning and Friendship in High Functioning Preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Buaminger, Nirit; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and social functioning, 20 Israeli individuals with HFASD aged 8–12 and 22 age, maternal education, and receptive vocabulary–matched preadolescents with typical development (TYP) came to the lab with a close friend. Measures of abstract reasoning, friendship quality, and dyadic interaction during a play session were obtained. As hypothesized, individuals with HFASD were significantly impaired in abstract reasoning, and there were significant group differences in friend and observer reports of friendship quality. There also was consistency in reports between friends. Two factors—“relationship appearance” and “relationship quality” described positive aspects of the relationships. Disability status and age related to relationship appearance. Proband abstract reasoning was related to relationship quality. PMID:20467797

  15. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students’ cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed. PMID:21373364

  16. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  17. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  18. The Enhancement of Mathematical Reasoning Ability of Junior High School Students by Applying Mind Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayal, Carolina S.; Kusuma, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi Afgan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical reasoning ability, are component that must be governable by the student. Mathematical reasoning plays an important role, both in solving problems and in conveying ideas when learning mathematics. In fact there ability are not still developed well, even in middle school. The importance of mathematical reasoning ability (KPM are…

  19. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  20. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  1. Relationships between formal reasoning ability, locus of control, academic engagement and integrated process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    Twelve pupils from each of thirteen middle school science classes participated in the study. Measures were obtained for each pupil on nine engagement modes. Two engagement measures, attending and generalizing, together with formal reasoning ability, were related to process skill achievement and retention. Formal reasoning ability was the strongest predictor of process skill achievement and retention, accounting for approximately 36% of the variance in each case. Formal reasoning ability and locus of control were each correlated with specific engagement modes. Formal reasoning ability was positively related with rates of generalizing and comprehending. Locus of control was significantly related with rates of attending and total engagement.

  2. Path analysis: A model for the development of scientific reasoning abilities in adolescents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuessy, Carol L.

    A model was formulated and tested for the development of scientific reasoning abilities in adolescents. Piagetian theory provided the framework for choosing potential determinants of the dependent variable, scientific reasoning abilities. A model reflecting hypothesized causal relationships among determinants and with the dependent variable was developed a priori on the basis of theoretical and substantive reasoning. The hypothesized model was tested and revised using path analysis. Data from intact classes of middle-school (n = 101) and high-school (n = 89) students from an upper-middle-class suburb of a midwestern city revealed significant (p < 0.05) path coefficients for these variables and scientific reasoning abilities: age, I.Q., field dependence-independence, and experience. A path from locus of control to scientific reasoning abilities through field dependence-independence was also statistically significant. The revised model explained 61 percent of the variance in scientific reasoning abilities.

  3. Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study: Measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously presented normative data from a relatively large, population-based sample (n = 244) of centenarians and a reference group of octogenarians (n = 80) for several brief, global neurocognitive tasks adapted for use for older adults with physical and sensory limitations (Miller et al., 2010). Here, we present additional normative data on several domain-specific tasks from these samples from Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study, including measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function. Expected age differences were demonstrated across all cognitive measures, and, consistent with our previous findings, centenarians showed a stronger association between age and performance. Normative tables are presented unweighted as well as population-weighted, and stratified by age and education level. These findings offer a unique contribution to the literature on cognitive aging, as normative performance in this age group is understudied and largely unavailable to clinicians and researchers. PMID:23379531

  4. Reasoning about the Ability of Self and Others: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Miller, Arden T.

    1984-01-01

    Compares second-, fifth- and eighth-graders' reasoning about their relative ability and that of another child (who applied more or less effort) with their reasoning about the relative ability of two others (who differed in effort). Responses to specific questions may be more sensitive to situationally induced motivational influences than responses…

  5. Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

  6. Students' Achievement in Relation to Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated students' achievement regarding photosynthesis and respiration in plants in relation to reasoning ability, prior knowledge and gender. A total of 117 eighth-grade students participated in the study. Test of logical thinking and the two-tier multiple choice tests were administered to determine students' reasoning ability and…

  7. Spatial Reasoning: Improvement of Imagery and Abilities in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. Perspective to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Susan F.; Gobin, Latanya; Thurman, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial reasoning has become a demanded skill for students pursuing a science emphasis to compete with the dynamic growth of our professional society. The ability to reason spatially includes explorations in memory recollection and problem solving capabilities as well as critical thinking and reasoning skills. With these advancements, educational…

  8. Measuring the Ability of Transitive Reasoning, Using Product and Strategy Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive theories disagree about the processes and the number of abilities involved in transitive reasoning. This led to controversies about the influence of task characteristics on individuals' performance and the development of transitive reasoning. In this study, a computer test was constructed containing 16 transitive reasoning tasks having…

  9. Decline in renal functioning is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive functioning, abstract reasoning and verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Adam; Elias, Merrill F.; Robbins, Michael A.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Dore, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study with 590 community-living individuals (mean age 62.1 years, 60.2% female, 93.2% white, 11.4% with diabetes mellitus, mean eGFR 78.4 mL/min/1.73 m²) free from dementia, acute stroke and end-stage renal disease. To measure longitudinal change-over-time, cognitive performance measures were regressed on eGFR adjusting for baseline eGFR and cognitive performance, comorbidity and vascular risk factors. Outcome measures were scores from 17 separate tests of cognitive abilities that were used to index 5 theoretically relevant domains: verbal episodic memory, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, working memory and similarities (abstract reasoning). Results Declines in eGFR values were associated with cognitive declines, when adjusted for eGFR and cognitive function scores at baseline. Change in renal functioning over time was related to change observed in global cognitive ability [b = 0.21SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.38, P = .018], verbal episodic memory [b = 0.28 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, P = 0.038] and abstract reasoning [b = 0.36 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.67, P = 0.025]. Decline in cognitive functioning in association with declining renal functioning was observed despite statistical adjustment for demographic variables and CVD risk factors and the exclusion of persons with dementia or a history of acute stroke. Conclusions Early detection of mild to moderate kidney disease is an important public health concern with regard to cognitive decline. PMID

  10. Development of the formal reasoning abilities of college students in a general chemistry guided-inquiry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteyne, Kereen

    Reform efforts in science education have been galvanized around the idea that instruction based on inquiry will increase science achievement and promote the development of higher-order thinking skills. The problem with many inquiry-oriented curriculum materials at the college level that aim to increase conceptual understanding of science is the implicit assumption that students are already skilled in higher-order thinking. Research has shown that only 25% of college freshmen consistently apply these skills. The purpose of this research study is to compare the effectiveness of a formal-reasoning-centered to a chemistry-concept-centered general chemistry guided-inquiry laboratory curriculum. Each curriculum was delivered during twelve laboratory meetings over a period of one semester to a sample of 91 college students enrolled in a first-term general chemistry course. Measures used in this study include the ability to use formal reasoning skills, the ability to abstract use of formal reasoning from context, understanding of chemistry concepts, and perception of learning gains (attitude). The results of this research show that a formal-reasoning-centered curriculum is more effective than a chemistry-concept-centered curriculum on specific-transfer measures of formal reasoning using a chemistry context. No differences between the two curricula were found on specific- or nonspecific-transfer measures of formal reasoning using a general (non-chemistry) context. Students using a formal-reasoning-centered curriculum were more able to abstract use of formal reasoning from context. No differences between the curricula were found on measures of understanding chemistry concepts. Students using a chemistry-concept-centered curriculum reported more positive attitudes towards laboratory-based instruction.

  11. Covariation of learning and "reasoning" abilities in mice: evolutionary conservation of the operations of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Chris; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Smith, Andrew M; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary descriptions of human intelligence hold that this trait influences a broad range of cognitive abilities, including learning, attention, and reasoning. Like humans, individual genetically heterogeneous mice express a "general" cognitive trait that influences performance across a diverse array of learning and attentional tasks, and it has been suggested that this trait is qualitatively and structurally analogous to general intelligence in humans. However, the hallmark of human intelligence is the ability to use various forms of "reasoning" to support solutions to novel problems. Here, we find that genetically heterogeneous mice are capable of solving problems that are nominally indicative of inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, and that individuals' capacity for reasoning covaries with more general learning abilities. Mice were characterized for their general learning ability as determined by their aggregate performance (derived from principal component analysis) across a battery of five diverse learning tasks. These animals were then assessed on prototypic tests indicative of deductive reasoning (inferring the meaning of a novel item by exclusion, i.e., "fast mapping") and inductive reasoning (execution of an efficient search strategy in a binary decision tree). The animals exhibited systematic abilities on each of these nominal reasoning tasks that were predicted by their aggregate performance on the battery of learning tasks. These results suggest that the coregulation of reasoning and general learning performance in genetically heterogeneous mice form a core cognitive trait that is analogous to human intelligence.

  12. Come to think of it: Contributions of reasoning abilities and training schedule to skill acquisition in a virtual throwing task.

    PubMed

    Frömer, Romy; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2016-10-01

    According to Schmidt's schema theory skill acquisition is based on schema formation where multiple learning incidents with varying task features are abstracted to a unifying pattern, the schema. Practice can be scheduled block-wise, with low contextual interference (CI) or randomly, with high CI. The greater effort during high CI training usually results in reduced training success but enhanced retention and transfer performance. In contrast to well-established CI effects for simple tasks, findings for complex tasks are heterogeneous, supposedly due to the detrimental accumulation of task demands. We assumed that in complex tasks, cognitive reasoning abilities might impose a limit upon schema formation and hence the effectiveness of CI. In a virtual overarm-throwing experiment participants practiced target positions at center, left, or right and were retested for retention - at the center position - and transfer with a larger target distance. Although there was no main effect of CI on performance, either in training, retention or transfer, under high CI, training performance was better for participants with higher reasoning ability, as measured with the Raven matrices. This advantage persisted across retention and transfer. Under low CI, reasoning was positively related to performance improvement only in the last third of training. We argue, that variability of practice is a necessary prerequisite for beneficial effects of reasoning abilities. Based on previous findings, we discuss feedback evaluation as a possible locus of the relationship between reasoning and performance in motor skill acquisition.

  13. Obesity, academic performance and reasoning ability in Portuguese students between 6 and 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.

  14. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence.

  15. The Relationship between Visual-Spatial Reasoning Ability and Math and Geometry Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationship between visual-spatial reasoning abilities, as measured by the matrix reasoning and block design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), and geometry and math performance, as measured by geometry and overall math scores from the Massachusetts…

  16. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  17. Sex Differences in Verbal Reasoning Are Mediated by Sex Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Contreras, Ma Jose; Arend, Isabel; Leal, Oscar Garcia; Santacreu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown that males outperform females in overall spatial ability, while females outperform males in some verbal ability tests, but not in others. The present article measures sex differences in two computerized tests, one thought to reflect verbal reasoning and one thought to reflect dynamic spatial performance. The sample…

  18. Aspects of self-concept and their relationship to language performance and verbal reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Dermitzaki, I; Efklides, A

    2000-01-01

    It has been claimed that self-concept is multidimensional, with dimensions such as mathematical self-concept and self-concept in language. The present study investigated the relationship of academic self-concept in language with performance on school-related language tasks and verbal reasoning ability. A total of 512 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 rated four aspects of their academic self-concept in language: self-perception, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and others' perception of their abilities. Verbal reasoning ability and performance on language tasks were assessed. Path analysis showed that performance on language tasks was influenced strongly by verbal reasoning abilities. Self-esteem and others' perception of one's abilities were affected directly by language performance. No direct relationship was found between academic self-concept in language and verbal reasoning ability. The results suggest that adolescents do not construe their academic self-concept according to their abilities but according to their performance in school and others' response to it.

  19. Zambian pre-service junior high school science teachers' chemical reasoning and ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Asiana

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: examine junior high school pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning; and establish the extent to which the pre-service science teachers' chemical abilities explain their chemical reasoning. A sample comprised 165 junior high school pre-service science teachers at Mufulira College of Education in Zambia. There were 82 males and 83 females. Data were collected using a Chemical Concept Reasoning Test (CCRT). Pre-service science teachers' chemical reasoning was established through qualitative analysis of their responses to test items. The Rasch Model was used to determine the pre-service teachers' chemical abilities and item difficulty. Results show that most pre-service science teachers had incorrect chemical reasoning on chemical concepts assessed in this study. There was no significant difference in chemical understanding between the Full-Time and Distance Education pre-service science teachers, and between second and third year pre-service science teachers. However, there was a significant difference in chemical understanding between male and female pre-service science teachers. Male pre-service science teachers showed better chemical understanding than female pre-service science teachers. The Rasch model revealed that the pre-service science teachers had low chemical abilities, and the CCRT was very difficult for this group of pre-service science teachers. As such, their incorrect chemical reasoning was attributed to their low chemical abilities. These results have implications on science teacher education, chemistry teaching and learning, and chemical education research.

  20. Student Strategies Suggesting Emergence of Mental Structures Supporting Logical and Abstract Thinking: Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Jim

    2014-01-01

    For many students, developing mathematical reasoning can prove to be challenging. Such difficulty may be explained by a deficit in the core understanding of many arithmetical concepts taught in early school years. Multiplicative reasoning is one such concept that produces an essential foundation upon which higher-level mathematical thinking skills…

  1. White matter maturation supports the development of reasoning ability through its influence on processing speed.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Steele, Joel S; Green, Chloe T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2013-11-01

    The structure of the human brain changes in several ways throughout childhood and adolescence. Perhaps the most salient of these changes is the strengthening of white matter tracts that enable distal brain regions to communicate with one another more quickly and efficiently. Here, we sought to understand whether and how white matter changes contribute to improved reasoning ability over development. In particular, we sought to understand whether previously reported relationships between white matter microstructure and reasoning are mediated by processing speed. To this end, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging data as well as data from standard psychometric tests of cognitive abilities from 103 individuals between the ages of 6 and 18. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the network of relationships between brain and behavior variables. Our analyses provide support for the hypothesis that white matter maturation (as indexed either by microstructural organization or volume) supports improved processing speed, which, in turn, supports improved reasoning ability.

  2. The Enhancement of Students' Teacher Mathematical Reasoning Ability through Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohana

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the enhancement of mathematical reasoning ability through reflective learning. This study used quasi-experimental method with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The subject of this study were students of Mathematics Education Program in one of private universities in Palembang, South Sumatera,…

  3. Peirce's Philosophy of Mathematical Education: Fostering Reasoning Abilities for Mathematical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    I articulate Charles S. Peirce's philosophy of mathematical education as related to his conception of mathematics, the nature of its method of inquiry, and especially, the reasoning abilities required for mathematical inquiry. The main thesis is that Peirce's philosophy of mathematical education primarily aims at fostering the development of the…

  4. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  5. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  6. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Statistical Reasoning Ability, Self-Efficacy, and Value Beliefs in a University Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olani, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Harskamp, E.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study investigated the degree to which students' statistical reasoning abilities, statistics self-efficacy, and perceived value of statistics improved during a reform based introductory statistics course. The study also examined whether the changes in these learning outcomes differed with respect to the students' mathematical…

  8. Effects of Mathematics Computer Games on Special Education Students' Multiplicative Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Marjoke; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a teacher-delivered intervention with online mathematics mini-games on special education students' multiplicative reasoning ability (multiplication and division). The games involved declarative, procedural, as well as conceptual knowledge of multiplicative relations, and were accompanied with teacher-led lessons…

  9. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    PubMed

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  10. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  11. Expert-Novice Differences in Memory, Abstraction, and Reasoning in the Domain of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Colleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Explored the information processing abilities associated with expertise in literature in high school and college students. Found that literary experts were superior to novices in gist-level recall, extraction of interpretations, and breadth of aspects addressed of literary texts but not in comprehension of scientific texts. (AA)

  12. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    PubMed Central

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities—a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment. PMID:24782739

  13. The facilitatory effect of negative feedback on the emergence of analogical reasoning abilities.

    PubMed

    Ball, Linden J; Hoyle, Alison M; Towse, Andrea S

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on the development of analogical reasoning abilities in 5- and 6-year-old children. Our particular interest relates to the way in which analogizing is influenced by the provision of task-based feedback coupled with a self-explanation requirement. Both feedback and self-explanation provide children with opportunities to engage in self-reflective thinking about the process of analogical reasoning. To examine the role of such metacognitive factors in analogical strategy development the reported study combined a proportional analogy paradigm with a small-scale microgenetic approach involving multiple testing sessions over a restricted time period. The key manipulation involved exposing participants either to the correct or incorrect analogy completions of another reasoner that they were then asked to explain. The data revealed that the development of an effective analogizing strategy embodying a 'relational shift' from superficial to relational responding was modulated by the feedback condition that the child was placed in, with a negative feedback intervention providing the greatest developmental benefit. We suggest that the value of negative feedback for the acquisition of analogical reasoning abilities derives from the way in which a self-reflective analysis of the reasons for erroneous responses sensitizes the child to a deeper understanding of how to make effective relational mappings.

  14. Understanding the Correlations Among Undergraduates’ Spatial Reasoning Skills and Their Ability to Learn Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge

    2012-01-01

    We tacitly assume that astronomy is a conceptual domain deeply entrenched in three dimensions and that learners need to utilize spatial thinking to develop understanding of the field. In particular, cognitive science generally views students’ spatial thinking abilities as something that can be enhanced through purposeful instruction, whereas aptitude and ability to learn complex ideas might be immutable. Yet, precise investigations into the underlying relationship between students’ spatial reasoning ability and their ability to learn astronomy content in college science classes are beginning to reveal insight into how students cognitively engage in learning astronomy. In support, researchers at the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research conducted a first-steps correlational study of 148 non-science majoring undergraduate students. Using a single group, multiple-measures, longitudinal study design, students’ cognition was measured for pretest and posttest gains in astronomy understanding using established assessment tools, including the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) over the duration of instruction. In the middle of the semester they were tested for spatial reasoning ability using a subset of reliable spatial thinking assessment tools from the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC). Results suggest some instructional techniques can be predicted as successful a priori while others are as yet unresolved. This work was supported, in part, by the Wyoming Excellence in Higher Education Endowment.

  15. Categorization and abstraction abilities in 3-year-old children: a comparison with monkey data.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Dalila; Vauclair, Jacques; Blaye, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    Three-year-old children were tested on three categorization tasks of increasing levels of abstraction (used with adult baboons in an earlier study): the first was a conceptual categorization task (food vs toys), the second a perceptual matching task (same vs different objects), and the third a relational matching task in which the children had to sort pairs according to whether or not the two items belonged to the same or different categories. The children were tested using two different procedures, the first a replication of the procedure used with the baboons (pulling one rope for a category or a relationship between two objects, and another rope for the other category or relationship), the second a task based upon children's prior experiences with sorting objects (putting in the same box objects belonging to the same category or a pair of objects exemplifying the same relation). The children were able to solve the first task (conceptual categorization) when tested with the sorting into boxes procedure, and the second task (perceptual matching) when tested with both procedures. The children were able to master the third task (relational matching) only when the rules were clearly explained to them, but not when they could only watch sorting examples. In fact, the relational matching task without explanation requires analogy abilities that do not seem to be fully developed at 3 years of age. The discrepancies in performances between children tested with the two procedures, with the task explained or not, and the discrepancies observed between children and baboons are discussed in relation to differences between species and/or problem-solving strategies.

  16. Practicing a Musical Instrument in Childhood is Associated with Enhanced Verbal Ability and Nonverbal Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    Background In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Methodology/Principal Findings Children who received at least three years (M = 4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. Conclusions/Significance While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:18958177

  17. The domain-specific and domain-general relationships of visuospatial working memory to reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Shipstead, Zach; Yonehiro, Jade

    2016-10-01

    The degree to which visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is separable from working memory in general is an open question. On one hand, the construct is often researched as a unitary, domain-specific system. On the other, there is evidence that VWSM shares a common processing component with verbal memory. One might interpret this shared component as domain-general attention. We used confirmatory factor analysis to demonstrate that VSWM shares a domain-general component with verbal memory tasks and has a domain-specific component that is independent of verbal memory. Furthermore, the domain-general component was found to correlate with reasoning ability in both the visuospatial and verbal domains. The domain-specific component only correlated with reasoning ability when the tests had a strong visuospatial component. We argue that theories of VSWM need to place greater emphasis on its multiply determined nature.

  18. FCI normalized gain, scientific reasoning ability, thinking in physics, and gender effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    We observe no significant effect of gender on grades in our IE introductory mechanics courses at Loyola Marymount University, but we do observe a significant gender gap on FCI normalized gains, with males achieving higher gains than females. Over the past three years, FCI gains have improved for both male and female students in IE classes taught with the Thinking in Physics (TIP) pedagogy. However, a gender gap on FCI gains remains, even when scientific reasoning abilities are taken into account. Indeed, the gap appears much greater for students with the strongest scientific reasoning skills and the highest FCI gains. Data from IE introductory physics courses using modeling at Edward Little High School in Maine show a similar result with some additional data showing a reverse gender gap for those students with very weak scientific reasoning skills.

  19. Assessing clinical reasoning abilities of medical students using clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sunju; Kim, Do-Kyong; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Roh, Hye-Rin; Oh, Young-Rim; Seo, Ji-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX) for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students. Methods: Third-year medical school students (n=313) in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts. Chief complaint of the case was rhinorrhea, accompanied by fever, headache, and vomiting. Checklists focused on identifying of the main problem and systematic approach to the problem. Students interviewed the patient and recorded subjective and objective findings, assessments, plans (SOAP) note for 15 minutes. Two professors assessed students simultaneously. We performed statistical analysis on their scores and survey. Results: The Cronbach α of subject station was 0.878 and Cohen κ coefficient between graders was 0.785. Students agreed on CPX as an adequate tool to evaluate students’ performance, but some graders argued that the CPX failed to secure its validity due to their lack of understanding the case. One hundred eight students (34.5%) identified essential problem early and only 58 (18.5%) performed systematic history taking and physical examination. One hundred seventy-three of them (55.3%) communicated correct diagnosis with the patient. Most of them had trouble in writing SOAP notes. Conclusion: To gain reliability and validity, interrater agreement should be secured. Students' clinical reasoning skills were not enough. Students need to be trained on problem identification, reasoning skills and accurate record-keeping. PMID:26838567

  20. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach.

    PubMed

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2017-04-06

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history.

  1. An Examination of Juveniles' Miranda Abilities: Investigating Differences in Miranda Recall and Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Steadham, Jennifer A; Carter, Rachel M; Henry, Sarah A; Drogin, Eric Y; Robinson, Emily V

    2016-07-01

    Juvenile suspects are routinely expected to possess an accurate recall of written or oral Miranda warnings. This study addresses the Miranda-related comprehension recall and reasoning of legally involved juveniles. It is the first juvenile research to compare systematically two levels of complexity for Miranda warnings with the three modalities (oral, written, or combined) of administration. Unexpectedly, easily read written warnings marginally outperformed the combined modality. In order to examine Miranda reasoning, three juvenile groups were operationalized: impaired, questionable, and likely adequate. Predictably, the impaired and questionable groups possessed significantly lower verbal abilities than the likely-adequate reasoning group. In addition, the likely-adequate group exhibited the strongest appreciation of the adversarial context in which Miranda waiver decisions are rendered. The discussion addresses the marked disparities in Miranda recall from a total recall versus component-by-component understanding of Miranda rights. It also considers more generally how crucially important Miranda misconceptions might be remedied. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.

  3. Young Humeans: the role of emotions in children's evaluation of moral reasoning abilities.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Judith H; Keil, Frank C

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether children in grades K, 2, and 4 (n = 144) view emotional comprehension as important in solving moral dilemmas. The experiments asked whether a human or an artificially intelligent machine would be best at solving different types of problems, ranging from moral and emotional to nonmoral and pragmatic. In Experiment 1, children in all age groups indicated that a human would be superior to a computer not only at comprehending emotions, but also at solving moral dilemmas. In Experiment 2, older children also indicated that a human could solve moral dilemmas better than a 'robot' with human-like perceptual and physical abilities. Experiment 3 further demonstrated that these effects were not solely due to a bias towards humans. Thus, children as young as age 5 view emotional understanding as an important element for moral, but not for nonmoral, reasoning, suggesting that the basis for Humean intuitions emerges early in life.

  4. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-09-23

    Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played "Fruit Ninja" on a tablet computer for 15 min/day, 4 days/week, for 3 weeks. Children in the active control group (N = 20; 10 boys, mean age 4.88 ± 0.20 years) played a coloring game on a tablet computer for 10 min/day, 1-2 days/week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning task (Raven's Progressive Matrices) revealed a trend-level improvement from pre- to post-test. EEG indicated that the N2 effect of the go/no-go task was enhanced after training for girls. This study is the first to show that pure response inhibition training can potentially improve reasoning ability. Furthermore, gender differences in the training-induced changes in neural activity were found in preschoolers.

  5. The effects of inhibitory control training for preschoolers on reasoning ability and neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xinyi; Ziegler, Albert; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control (including response inhibition and interference control) develops rapidly during the preschool period and is important for early cognitive development. This study aimed to determine the training and transfer effects on response inhibition in young children. Children in the training group (N = 20; 12 boys, mean age 4.87 ± 0.26 years) played “Fruit Ninja” on a tablet computer for 15 min/day, 4 days/week, for 3 weeks. Children in the active control group (N = 20; 10 boys, mean age 4.88 ± 0.20 years) played a coloring game on a tablet computer for 10 min/day, 1–2 days/week, for 3 weeks. Several cognitive tasks (involving inhibitory control, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were used to evaluate the transfer effects, and electroencephalography (EEG) was performed during a go/no-go task. Progress on the trained game was significant, while performance on a reasoning task (Raven’s Progressive Matrices) revealed a trend-level improvement from pre- to post-test. EEG indicated that the N2 effect of the go/no-go task was enhanced after training for girls. This study is the first to show that pure response inhibition training can potentially improve reasoning ability. Furthermore, gender differences in the training-induced changes in neural activity were found in preschoolers. PMID:26395158

  6. Reasoning Abilities in Primary School: A Pilot Study on Poor Achievers vs. Normal Achievers in Computer Game Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagnino, Francesca Maria; Ballauri, Margherita; Benigno, Vincenza; Caponetto, Ilaria; Pesenti, Elia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary research on the assessment of reasoning abilities in primary school poor achievers vs. normal achievers using computer game tasks. Subjects were evaluated by means of cognitive assessment on logical abilities and academic skills. The aim of this study is to better understand the relationship between…

  7. The interrater reliability of an objective structured practical examination in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kevin A.; Babajanian, Jesika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) is a case-based assessment that can be used to assess the clinical reasoning ability of students. The reliability of using an OSPE for this purpose has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the OSPE in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students. Methods: Two examiners tested each student simultaneously when enough were available as a check for interrater reliability. The scores for students over 4 exam administrations were compiled, and we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using 1-way random single measures. Results: Paired scores were available for 133 students. The ICC was .685, showing a fair-to-good level of agreement for faculty in assessing the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students using an OSPE. Conclusion: The OSPE can be a valuable tool for testing clinical reasoning abilities because it can simulate the decision-making process that needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Faculty members at our chiropractic college were able to achieve an acceptable level of reliability in measuring the clinical reasoning abilities of students using an OSPE. Other health professional programs may consider using this tool for assessing the clinical reasoning skills of their students. PMID:27115474

  8. The Relationship between Deductive Reasoning Ability, Test Anxiety, and Standardized Test Scores in a Latino Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John D., Jr.; Fullard, William; Overton, Willis

    2011-01-01

    One Hundred and Twelve Latino students from Philadelphia participated in this study, which examined the development of deductive reasoning across adolescence, and the relation of reasoning to test anxiety and standardized test scores. As predicted, 11th and ninth graders demonstrated significantly more advanced reasoning than seventh graders.…

  9. Student Reasoning from Data Tables: Data Interpretation in Light of Student Ability and Prior Belief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Abigail Marie

    Here I present my work studying introductory physics students proficiency with the control of variables strategy to evaluate simple data tables. In this research, a primary goal was to identify and to describe the reasoning strategies that students use preferentially when evaluating simple data tables where the control of variables strategy is the normative evaluation strategy. In addition, I aimed to identify and describe the factors that affect students reasoning strategies when analyzing these simple data tables. In a series of experiments, I tested 1,360 introductory physics students, giving them simple tables of experimental data to analyze. Generally, each of the experiments that I conducted had two conditions. In both of these conditions, the data filling the tables was identical; however, in the first condition, the data table was presented in a physical context and students were given a short pre-test to measure their beliefs about the context. In the second condition, the table was given in a more generic context. This was repeated with multiple data tables and physical contexts. In addition to the data table task, students were given several measures of cognitive ability. By using students answers on the pretest about physical context, I was able to measure whether or not each students prior beliefs were consistent with the relationships shown in the data tables. Across all the experiments conducted here, I found that those students whose prior beliefs were consistent with the data were over three times more likely to draw a valid inference from the table than students whose prior beliefs were inconsistent with the data. By further analyzing students responses, I found evidence that this difference in performance could be accounted for by the presence of a belief bias. Students tended to cite data in suboptimal ways, frequently treating their own theories as a source of evidence to be supplemented by or illustrated with examples from the data. Because of

  10. Effects of cognitive training on change in accuracy in inductive reasoning ability.

    PubMed

    Boron, Julie Blaskewicz; Turiano, Nicholas A; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner

    2007-05-01

    We investigated cognitive training effects on accuracy and number of items attempted in inductive reasoning performance in a sample of 335 older participants (M = 72.78 years) from the Seattle Longitudinal Study. We assessed the impact of individual characteristics, including chronic disease. The reasoning training group showed significantly greater gain in accuracy and number of attempted items than did the comparison group; gain was primarily due to enhanced accuracy. Reasoning training effects involved a complex interaction of gender, prior cognitive status, and chronic disease. Women with prior decline on reasoning but no heart disease showed the greatest accuracy increase. In addition, stable reasoning-trained women with heart disease demonstrated significant accuracy gain. Comorbidity was associated with less change in accuracy. The results support the effectiveness of cognitive training on improving the accuracy of reasoning performance.

  11. Scientific Reasoning Abilities in Kindergarten: Dynamic Assessment of the Control of Variables Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Graaf, Joep; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic assessment tool was developed and validated using Mokken scale analysis to assess the extent to which kindergartners are able to construct unconfounded experiments, an essential part of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is one of the learning processes happening within science education. A commonly used, hands-on,…

  12. Natural-Born Arguers: Teaching How to Make the Best of Our Reasoning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Hugo; Boudry, Maarten; Paglieri, Fabio; Trouche, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the argumentative theory of reasoning, which claims that the main function of reasoning is to argue. In this theory, argumentation is seen as being essentially cooperative (people have to listen to others' arguments and be ready to change their mind) but with an adversarial dimension (their goal as argument producers is to convince).…

  13. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-06-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  14. Explicitly Targeting Pre-Service Teacher Scientific Reasoning Abilities and Understanding of Nature of Science through an Introductory Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Schen, Melissa; Bao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Development of a scientifically literate citizenry has become a national focus and highlights the need for K-12 students to develop a solid foundation of scientific reasoning abilities and an understanding of nature of science, along with appropriate content knowledge. This implies that teachers must also be competent in these areas; but…

  15. Does Marketing Attract Less Ethical Students? An Assessment of the Moral Reasoning Ability of Undergraduate Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herington, Carmel; Weaven, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the level of moral reasoning ability (MRA) of undergraduate marketing students and compares the results with the MRA of students in a range of other business disciplines. The aim was to determine if marketing attracts individuals who have a greater predisposition to unethical behaviors given that marketing is often reported…

  16. Formal Reasoning Skills of Secondary School Students as Related to Gender, Age, School Type and Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Michal; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    This study investigated: (1) whether boys and girls master formal reasoning tasks to the same degree at the same age; (2) if the variance of boys' and girls' performance in formal tasks could be predicted by the same cognitive learning abilities; and (3) what are the main and interactional effects of age, sex, and school type on the variance of…

  17. Interaction of Spatial Visualization and General Reasoning Abilities with Instructional Treatment in Quadratic Inequalities: A Further Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Phillip M.; Carry, L. Ray

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were randomly assigned to a deductively structured verbal-symbolic-numeric treatment or an inductively structured verbal-spatial-numeric treatment for a unit on quadratic inequalities. Success on the deductive symbolic approach was associated with general reasoning ability; success on the inductive spatial approach was associated with…

  18. Written Language and Writing Abilities: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1985 (Vol. 45 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 16 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) a study of the meanings of experience of ten published feminist women writers; (2) the composing activities of computer literate writers; (3) the informational…

  19. Written Language and Writing Abilities: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July 1979 through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with the following topics: (1) the adolescent writer's developing sense of audience; (2) the entry skills, methods, and attitudes of intermediate composition students in postsecondary composition programs; (3)…

  20. Written Language and Writing Abilities: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 33 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) children's sense of audience; (2) rhetorical foundations of technical communication; (3) sources of negative attitudes toward writing; (4) the development of…

  1. Language Use, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1977 (Vol. 38 No. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 27 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: facilitation of language development in disadvantaged preschool children; auditory-visual discrimination skills, language performance, and development of manual…

  2. Language Use, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 32 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the development of young children's metalinguistic understanding of "letter,""word," and "sentence"; (2) modifications in speech to elderly conversationalists;…

  3. Language Use, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 27 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the vocalization of /L/ in Philadelphia; (2) a second grade program to isolate and apply knowledge of vowel sounds in word identification; (3) phoneme and…

  4. Language Use, Language Ability, and Language Development: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) aspects of the organization of redundancy rules in the lexicon; (2) the adult role in early child language acquisition; (3) semantic categorization,…

  5. Formal Reasoning Abilities for Learning Disabled Adolescents: Implications for Mathematics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrtic, Thomas M.

    The study examined the level of formal reasoning in mathematics of 70 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD students from seventh and eighth grades. A review of previous research led to the hypothesis that mathematics interventions for LD students should involve concrete or pictorial, in addition to symbolic, representations of mathematical…

  6. Scientific Reasoning Abilities of Nonscience Majors in Physics-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on…

  7. Semantic, executive, and visuospatial abilities in mathematical reasoning of referred college students.

    PubMed

    Cirino, Paul T; Morris, Mary K; Morris, Robin D

    2007-03-01

    Semantic retrieval (SR) and executive-procedural (EP), but not visuospatial (VS) skills, have been found to be uniquely predictive of mathematical calculation skills in a sample of clinically referred college students. This study set out to cross-validate these results in an independent sample of clinically referred college students (N = 337) as well as extend them by examination of the contributions of these cognitive domains to math reasoning skills. Results indicate that these cognitive domains were able to predict 30% of the variance in calculation skills and 50% of the variance in math reasoning; however, in both cases, only the domains of semantic retrieval and visuospatial skill contributed uniquely. Differences between studies, and the lack of unique contribution of the EP domain to either type of math skill, may be due to measurement and sampling differences, the degree of shared relations among domains, and the choice of measures that represent the EP domain. Implications and future directions are explored.

  8. Two New Empirically Derived Reasons To Use the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, David F.; Williams, W. Larry; Follette, William C.

    2002-01-01

    Scores on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligences Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) were obtained for 30 adults with mental retardation. Correlations between the Vineland domains and ABLA were all significant. No participants performing below ABLA Level 6 were testable on the…

  9. Losing Our Language: How Multiculturalism Undermines Our Children's Ability To Read, Write & Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    This book argues that it is the incorporation of a multicultural agenda into basal readers, the primary tool for teaching reading in elementary schools, that has stunted American children's ability to read. The book shows how basal readers have been systematically "dumbed down" in an effort to raise minority students'"self…

  10. Sex Differences in High Mathematical Reasoning Ability: A Theory to Fit the Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    In talent searches for gifted junior high school youth, those who score in the top two to five percent on a standardized achievement test are eligible to take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) which is regarded as a high-level ability test. While no important sex differences on the SAT verbal test have been observed, substantial sex differences…

  11. Metaphorical motion in mathematical reasoning: further evidence for pre-motor implementation of structure mapping in abstract domains.

    PubMed

    Fields, Chris

    2013-08-01

    The theory of computation and category theory both employ arrow-based notations that suggest that the basic metaphor "state changes are like motions" plays a fundamental role in all mathematical reasoning involving formal manipulations. If this is correct, structure-mapping inferences implemented by the pre-motor action planning system can be expected to be involved in solving any mathematics problems not solvable by table lookups and number line manipulations alone. Available functional imaging studies of multi-digit arithmetic, algebra, geometry and calculus problem solving are consistent with this expectation.

  12. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  13. The role of research-article writing motivation and self-regulatory strategies in explaining research-article abstract writing ability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Chia; Cheng, Yuh-Show; Lin, Sieh-Hwa; Hsieh, Pei-Jung

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of research-article writing motivation and use of self-regulatory writing strategies in explaining second language (L2) research-article abstract writing ability, alongside the L2 literacy effect. Four measures were administered: a L2 literacy test, a research abstract performance assessment, and inventories of writing motivation and strategy. Participants were L2 graduate students in Taiwan (N=185; M age=25.8 yr., SD=4.5, range=22-53). Results of structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of motivation on research-article writing ability, but no direct effect of strategy or indirect effect of motivation via strategy on research-article writing ability, with L2 literacy controlled. The findings suggest research-article writing instruction should address writing motivation, besides L2 literacy.

  14. Integrating causal reasoning at different levels of abstraction. [in problem-solving system functioning as pilot assistant in commercial air transport emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a problem-solving system which uses a multilevel causal model of its domain is described. The system functions in the role of a pilot's assistant in the domain of commercial air transport emergencies. The model represents causal relationships among the aircraft subsystems, the effectors (engines, control surfaces), the forces that act on an aircraft in flight (thrust, lift), and the aircraft's flight profile (speed, altitude, etc.). The causal relationships are represented at three levels of abstraction: Boolean, qualitative, and quantitative, and reasoning about causes and effects can take place at each of these levels. Since processing at each level has different characteristics with respect to speed, the type of data required, and the specificity of the results, the problem-solving system can adapt to a wide variety of situations. The system is currently being implemented in the KEE(TM) development environment on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  15. A Study of the Reasoning Abilities of Ninth Standard Students with Respect to Their Gender and Type of the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Reasoning and learning are closely related, both being the methods of solving problems, learning usually results from the process of reasoning. All inventions, discoveries, art, literature and advances in culture and civilization are based on thinking, reasoning and problem solving capacity of human being. A sound reasoning leads to better…

  16. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Nicastri, Sergio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Bolla, Karen I

    2010-10-01

    Substance-dependence is highly associated with executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments. However, considering that it is difficult to assess ECF clinically, the aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility of a brief neuropsychological tool (the Frontal Assessment Battery - FAB) to detect specific ECF impairments in a sample of substance-dependent individuals (SDI). Sixty-two subjects participated in this study. Thirty DSM-IV-diagnosed SDI, after 2weeks of abstinence, and 32 healthy individuals (control group) were evaluated with FAB and other ECF-related tasks: digits forward (DF), digits backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SDI did not differ from the control group on sociodemographic variables or IQ. However, SDI performed below the controls in DF, DB, and FAB. The SDI were cognitively impaired in 3 of the 6 cognitive domains assessed by the FAB: abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. The FAB correlated with DF, SCWT, and WCST. In addition, some neuropsychological measures were correlated with the amount of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use. In conclusion, SDI performed more poorly than the comparison group on the FAB and the FAB's results were associated with other ECF-related tasks. The results suggested a negative impact of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use on the ECF. The FAB may be useful in assisting professionals as an instrument to screen for ECF-related deficits in SDI.

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Reasoning Level, Cognitive Restructuring Ability, Disembedding Ability, Working Memory Capacity, and Prior Knowledge On Students' Performance On Balancing Equations by Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Jacks, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the influence of five cognitive variables on high school students' performance on balancing chemical equations by inspection. Reports that reasoning, restructuring, and disembedding variables could be a single variable, and that working memory capacity does not influence overall performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis…

  18. An Investigation of Pre-Service Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Conduct Valid Proofs, Methods Used, and Reasons for Invalid Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiray, Esra; Isiksal Bostan, Mine

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate Turkish pre-service middle school mathematics teachers' ability in conducting valid proofs for statements regarding numbers and algebra in terms of their year of enrollment in a teacher education program, to determine the proof methods used in their valid proofs, and to examine the reasons for their…

  19. The Effectiveness of Interacting with Scientific Animations in Chemistry Using Mobile Devices on Grade 12 Students' Spatial Ability and Scientific Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The…

  20. The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess…

  1. Domain-Specific Identity, Epistemic Regulation, and Intellectual Ability as Predictors of Belief-Biased Reasoning: A Dual-Process Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.; Lavallee, Kristen L.

    2005-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that domain-specific identity development predicts reasoning biases, adolescents and young adults completed measures of domain-general and domain-specific identity, epistemic regulation, and intellectual ability and evaluated arguments that either supported or threatened their occupational goals. Biases were defined as…

  2. The Interaction of Logical Reasoning Ability and Socio-Economic Status on Achievement in Genetics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.; Okecha, Rita Ebele

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the interaction of logical reasoning ability (cognitive development) and socio-economic status on achievement in genetics amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Factorial Analysis of variance design with one dependent variable and two independent variables at two levels together with the t-test was used in the analysis of…

  3. Relationships among Measures of Learning Orientation, Reasoning Ability, and Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants for Grade 8 Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekkaya, Ceren; Yenilmez, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of students' reasoning ability and meaningful learning orientation to their understanding of the photosynthesis and respiration in plants concepts. Data were gathered through the use of the Test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Capie, 1981), the Learning Approach Questionnaire (Cavallo, 1996), and the Two-Tier…

  4. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  5. Evaluation of the Ability of People with Intellectual Disabilities to "Weigh Up" Information in Two Tests of Financial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Bailey, R.; Parry, R.; Dymond, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: An assessment of mental capacity includes an evaluation of the ability to "weigh up" information, but how to do this is uncertain. We have previously used a laboratory decision-making task, temporal discounting, which involves a trade-off between the value and the delay of expected rewards. Participants with intellectual disabilities…

  6. The Relationship between Students' Approaches to Studying, Formal Reasoning Ability, Prior Knowledge, and Gender and Their Achievement in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma B.; Giuliano, Frank J.

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the relationships among approaches to studying, prior knowledge, logical thinking ability, attitude, and performance in college freshman chemistry and to explore the effect of gender on the same variables. Subjects were 199 students (114 females, 85 males) enrolled in the second semester of a…

  7. Predicting Student Success in a Major's Introductory Biology Course via Logistic Regression Analysis of Scientific Reasoning Ability and Mathematics Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.

    2017-02-01

    Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.

  8. More than just IQ: school achievement is predicted by self-perceived abilities--but for genetic rather than environmental reasons.

    PubMed

    Greven, Corina U; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Plomin, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that children's self-perceptions of their abilities predict their school achievement even after one accounts for their tested cognitive ability (IQ). However, the roles of nature and nurture in the association between school achievement and self-perceived abilities (SPAs), independent of IQ, is unknown. Here we reveal that there are substantial genetic influences on SPAs and that there is genetic covariance between SPAs and achievement independent of IQ. Although it has been assumed that the origins of SPAs are environmental, this first genetic analysis of SPAs yielded a heritability of 51% in a sample of 3,785 pairs of twins, whereas shared environment accounted for only 2% of the variance in SPAs. Moreover, multivariate genetic analyses indicated that SPAs predict school achievement independently of IQ for genetic rather than environmental reasons. It should therefore be possible to identify "SPA genes" that predict school achievement independently of "IQ genes."

  9. Healthy Reasoning: The Role of Effective Argumentation for Enhancing Elderly Patients' Self-management Abilities in Chronic Care.

    PubMed

    Bigi, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for doctors working in chronic care is the correct management of the argumentation phases during the encounters with their patients. During these phases doctors should provide patients with acceptable reasons for being adherent to treatment and for changing certain unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles, something which is particularly difficult for elderly patients, for whom changing life long habits can be extremely hard. However, the medical literature on the subject of communication in the chronic care encounter shows lack of theoretical models and methodological approaches that can highlight which specific linguistic structures or elements in different communication styles favor or impede patient commitment, trust in the relationship and adherence to treatment. The contribution describes ongoing research on argumentative strategies in the encounter with diabetes patients. I describe one recently concluded research project on the argumentation phases of medical encounters in diabetes care, which highlighted critical areas in need of improvement. I also describe the design and aims of a new research project, aimed at testing the effectiveness and usability of certain argumentation schemes in the medical encounter.

  10. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity-the capacity for symbolic reasoning-as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

  11. The Development of Geometri Teaching Materials Based on Constructivism to Improve the Students' Mathematic Reasoning Ability through Cooperative Learing Jigsaw at the Class VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Izwita; Harahap, Muhammad Syahri

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to know the validity, practicality, and effectivity of geometrical learning material based on the constructivism to Increase students' mathematic reasoning ability and increasing students' mathematic reasoning ability by using learning material at the grade VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. Type of the…

  12. How logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge interact in the process of solving problems about light and vision among Taiwanese secondary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Chieh

    Piagetian scholars argue that the effect of problem content, e.g., empirical knowledge, should decrease with age. Indeed, they believe that the empirical knowledge cannot affect human problem-solving after individuals approach the formal operation stage. In arguing this point, this study uses an A-AR model to address how empirical knowledge affects the problem-solving process among Taiwanese secondary students. The A-AR model is borrowed from mathematics and the symbols, A, A, and R, represent Assumption, Answering, and Reasoning, respectively. Similar to solving mathematics problems, the A-AR model problems require participants to use the given assumptions by logical reasoning in order to respond to the problems. In this situation, the effect of empirical knowledge on problem-solving is easy to detect. There are three results about human problem-solving found in this study. First, the empirical knowledge still affects human problem-solving at the formal operation stage. Not like the Piagetian scholars' assumption: the effect of empirical knowledge is decreasing with age, this study finds that the effect of empirical knowledge is S-shape. The S-shape is a result of academic training. Second, the academic training, major, shapes human problem-solving strategies. For instance, the 12th grade science students' problem-solving strategy is based on logical reasoning ability by the given assumptions and the same grade social science students' strategy is according of their empirical knowledge. Third, the interference of logical reasoning ability and empirical knowledge is a predictor of the empirical knowledge effect on human problem-solving. The relation between the empirical knowledge and interference can be characterized as: the more negative interference the participants have, the more of the empirical knowledge effect they will have in the next year. This study does not agree with the Piagetian theory about human problem-solving: the effect of empirical knowledge

  13. Developing General vs. Specific Abilities and Their Relationship to Diversity. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (4th, Lawrence, Kansas, September 30-October 1, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 32 papers on the development of general versus specific abilities and their relationship to diversity in gifted and talented students. Sample topics include: creative development at the college level; cultural and linguistic differences in gifted children; Project High Hopes, a program for gifted students with…

  14. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

  15. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  16. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  17. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  18. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  19. From neural oscillations to reasoning ability: Simulating the effect of the theta-to-gamma cycle length ratio on individual scores in a figural analogy test.

    PubMed

    Chuderski, Adam; Andrelczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    Several existing computational models of working memory (WM) have predicted a positive relationship (later confirmed empirically) between WM capacity and the individual ratio of theta to gamma oscillatory band lengths. These models assume that each gamma cycle represents one WM object (e.g., a binding of its features), whereas the theta cycle integrates such objects into the maintained list. As WM capacity strongly predicts reasoning, it might be expected that this ratio also predicts performance in reasoning tasks. However, no computational model has yet explained how the differences in the theta-to-gamma ratio found among adult individuals might contribute to their scores on a reasoning test. Here, we propose a novel model of how WM capacity constraints figural analogical reasoning, aimed at explaining inter-individual differences in reasoning scores in terms of the characteristics of oscillatory patterns in the brain. In the model, the gamma cycle encodes the bindings between objects/features and the roles they play in the relations processed. Asynchrony between consecutive gamma cycles results from lateral inhibition between oscillating bindings. Computer simulations showed that achieving the highest WM capacity required reaching the optimal level of inhibition. When too strong, this inhibition eliminated some bindings from WM, whereas, when inhibition was too weak, the bindings became unstable and fell apart or became improperly grouped. The model aptly replicated several empirical effects and the distribution of individual scores, as well as the patterns of correlations found in the 100-people sample attempting the same reasoning task. Most importantly, the model's reasoning performance strongly depended on its theta-to-gamma ratio in same way as the performance of human participants depended on their WM capacity. The data suggest that proper regulation of oscillations in the theta and gamma bands may be crucial for both high WM capacity and effective complex

  20. Imagery Ability and Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    size of the dots was varied to test visual * . acuity , the number of dots was varied to test the ability to maintain complex images, and the trajectory...REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Report #2 Ti b i / V Q/) _ 4. TITLE ( amd Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT...Mental imagery Visual thinking Spatial reasoning . 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide If necesery mid identify by block numtber) Kosslyn, Brunn

  1. Visual Reasoning Tools in Action: Double Number Lines, Area Models, and Other Diagrams Power Up Students' Ability to Solve and Make Sense of Various Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tad

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) identifies the strategic use of appropriate tools as one of the mathematical practices and emphasizes the use of pictures and diagrams as reasoning tools. Starting with the early elementary grades, CCSSM discusses students' solving of problems "by drawing." In later…

  2. The adolescent personality, formal reasoning, and values.

    PubMed

    Darmody, J P

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from the Rokeach Value Survey. The subjects were 448 secondary school students (mean age = 16.25 years). The results of the study were consistent with predictions about the likely changes in value rankings as formal reasoning ability develops. Subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on immediate gratification. They also favored the instrumental values of self-reliance, competence, and independence. Low scorers on formal reasoning showed a preference for value groupings which were personal, hedonistic, and involved immediate gratification and social approval.

  3. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations.

  4. Storage and Non-Storage Components of Working Memory Predicting Reasoning: A Simultaneous Examination of a Wide Range of Ability Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Stefan; Schmidt-Atzert, Lothar; Buehner, Markus; Ziegler, Matthias; Michalczyk, Kurt; Arrow, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined basic cognitive abilities that are related to or included in the concept of working memory (WM): different WM components, three executive functions, simple short-term storage (STM), and sustained attention. Tasks were selected from well-established models and balanced in terms of content. The predictive power of storage…

  5. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-07-29

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  6. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  7. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than…

  8. Self-reported strategies in decisions under risk: role of feedback, reasoning abilities, executive functions, short-term-memory, and working memory.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    In decisions under objective risk conditions information about the decision options' possible outcomes and the rules for outcomes' occurrence are provided. Thus, deciders can base decision-making strategies on probabilistic laws. In many laboratory decision-making tasks, choosing the option with the highest winning probability in all trials (=maximization strategy) is probabilistically regarded the most rational behavior. However, individuals often behave less optimal, especially in case the individuals have lower cognitive functions or in case no feedback about consequences is provided in the situation. It is still unclear which cognitive functions particularly predispose individuals for using successful strategies and which strategies profit from feedback. We investigated 195 individuals with two decision-making paradigms, the Game of Dice Task (GDT) (with and without feedback), and the Card Guessing Game. Thereafter, participants reported which strategies they had applied. Interaction effects (feedback × strategy), effect sizes, and uncorrected single group comparisons suggest that feedback in the GDT tended to be more beneficial to individuals reporting exploratory strategies (e.g., use intuition). In both tasks, the self-reported use of more principled and more rational strategies was accompanied by better decision-making performance and better performances in reasoning and executive functioning tasks. The strategy groups did not significantly differ in most short-term and working-memory tasks. Thus, particularly individual differences in reasoning and executive functions seem to predispose individuals toward particular decision-making strategies. Feedback seems to be useful for individuals who rather explore the decision-making situation instead of following a certain plan.

  9. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  10. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  11. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  12. Qualitative Constraint Reasoning For Image Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John L.

    1987-05-01

    Military planners and analysts are exceedingly concerned with increasing the effectiveness of command and control (C2) processes for battlefield management (BM). A variety of technical approaches have been taken in this effort. These approaches are intended to support and assist commanders in situation assessment, course of action generation and evaluation, and other C2 decision-making tasks. A specific task within this technology support includes the ability to effectively gather information concerning opposing forces and plan/replan tactical maneuvers. Much of the information that is gathered is image-derived, along with collateral data supporting this visual imagery. In this paper, we intend to describe a process called qualitative constraint reasoning (QCR) which is being developed as a mechanism for reasoning in the mid to high level vision domain. The essential element of QCR is the abstraction process. One of the factors that is unique to QCR is the level at which the abstraction process occurs relative to the problem domain. The computational mechanisms used in QCR belong to a general class of problem called the consistent labeling problem. The success of QCR is its ability to abstract out from a visual domain a structure appropriate for applying the labeling procedure. An example will be given that will exemplify the abstraction process for a battlefield management application. Exploratory activities are underway for investigating the suitability of QCR approach for the battlefield scenario. Further research is required to investigate the utility of QCR in a more complex battlefield environment.

  13. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  14. Teaching to Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros Rotge, Hector G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Physics courses is that the students learn how to use what they know to solve problems in the real world (competencies), but no one learns to do that seeing as the professor think in the blackboard. The program of a course uses topics as examples of reasoning. Reasoning involves the ability to use their knowledge. If we precisely…

  15. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  16. Geometric reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, R. F.; Oppenheim, I. J.

    1987-01-01

    Cognitive robot systems are ones in which sensing and representation occur, from which task plans and tactics are determined. Such a robot system accomplishes a task after being told what to do, but determines for itself how to do it. Cognition is required when the work environment is uncontrolled, when contingencies are prevalent, or when task complexity is large; it is useful in any robotic mission. A number of distinguishing features can be associated with cognitive robotics, and one emphasized here is the role of artificial intelligence in knowledge representation and in planning. While space telerobotics may elude some of the problems driving cognitive robotics, it shares many of the same demands, and it can be assumed that capabilities developed for cognitive robotics can be employed advantageously for telerobotics in general. The top level problem is task planning, and it is appropriate to introduce a hierarchical view of control. Presented with certain mission objectives, the system must generate plans (typically) at the strategic, tactical, and reflexive levels. The structure by which knowledge is used to construct and update these plans endows the system with its cognitive attributes, and with the ability to deal with contingencies, changes, unknowns, and so on. Issues of representation and reasoning which are absolutely fundamental to robot manipulation, decisions based upon geometry, are discussed here, not AI task planning per se.

  17. Ability Versus Will: The Reason Insurgents Surrender

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    ensues. Jus ad bellum is yet another factor to consider when deciding to go to war. Deciding to engage in war is just the first of many decisions a...airplane offered a panacea to prolonged conflict and could be the decisive factor in war. As a result of Douhet, Mitchell and others like them, efforts...of several diametrically opposed elements. In both cases decisions to begin, continue, and end war are still necessary, but the factors leading to

  18. Abstract thinking following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, B P; Charbonneau, S; Solomon, C R; Lepore, F

    1993-01-01

    Abstract abilities were studied in a sample of 34 individuals with severe TBI and a control group. The results indicate that TBI interferes with performance on tests requiring individuals to process information into new categories. There appears to be a dissociation between verbal abstract abilities and visual-perceptual abstract abilities. There is evidence that Goldstein and Sheerer's [1] postulate of a general 'abstract attitude' was at least partially correct. This attitude does not appear to be related to a general verbal ideational process, as dysphasic subjects were only deficient on a purely verbal abstract task.

  19. Correlates of Formal Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven

    This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…

  20. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  1. Psychosocial Experiences and Adjustment among Adult Swedes with Superior General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…

  2. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  3. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  4. Predicting reasoning from memory.

    PubMed

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the presence of stimuli from other categories, there was a high correlation between reasoning and memory responses (average r = .87), and these manipulations showed similar effects on the 2 tasks. The results point to common mechanisms underlying inductive reasoning and recognition memory abilities. A mathematical model, GEN-EX (generalization from examples), derived from exemplar models of categorization, is presented, which predicts both reasoning and memory responses from pairwise similarities among the stimuli, allowing for additional influences of subtyping and deterministic responding.

  5. Legal Reasoning and Jury Deliberations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hurlbert, Mike J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the relationship of legal reasoning abilities and dominance in jury deliberations. Explains that the study considered both reasoning scores and verbal behavior during deliberations. Concludes that jury deliberations reflect the talking and opinions of members holding the most advanced legal reasoning possible.…

  6. Critical Numeracy and Abstraction: Percentages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Mike; Wilson, Sue; Faragher, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Being numerate involves using mathematical ideas efficiently to make sense of the world, which is much more than just being able to calculate. What is needed is the accurate interpretation of mathematical information and the ability to draw sound conclusions based on mathematical reasoning. This skill may be called "critical numeracy", defined as…

  7. Reasoning and dyslexia: is visual memory a compensatory resource?

    PubMed

    Bacon, Alison M; Handley, Simon J

    2014-11-01

    Effective reasoning is fundamental to problem solving and achievement in education and employment. Protocol studies have previously suggested that people with dyslexia use reasoning strategies based on visual mental representations, whereas non-dyslexics use abstract verbal strategies. This research presents converging evidence from experimental and individual differences perspectives. In Experiment 1, dyslexic and non-dyslexic participants were similarly accurate on reasoning problems, but scores on a measure of visual memory ability only predicted reasoning accuracy for dyslexics. In Experiment 2, a secondary task loaded visual memory resources during concurrent reasoning. Dyslexics were significantly less accurate when reasoning under conditions of high memory load and showed reduced ability to subsequently recall the visual stimuli, suggesting that the memory and reasoning tasks were competing for the same visual cognitive resource. The results are consistent with an explanation based on limitations in the verbal and executive components of working memory in dyslexia and the use of compensatory visual strategies for reasoning. There are implications for cognitive activities that do not readily support visual thinking, whether in education, employment or less formal everyday settings.

  8. A neurocomputational system for relational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Barbara J; Morrison, Robert G; Hummel, John E; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    The representation and manipulation of structured relations is central to human reasoning. Recent work in computational modeling and neuroscience has set the stage for developing more detailed neurocomputational models of these abilities. Several key neural findings appear to dovetail with computational constraints derived from a model of analogical processing, 'Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies' (LISA). These include evidence that (i) coherent oscillatory activity in the gamma and theta bands enables long-distance communication between the prefrontal cortex and posterior brain regions where information is stored; (ii) neurons in prefrontal cortex can rapidly learn to represent abstract concepts; (iii) a rostral-caudal abstraction gradient exists in the PFC; and (iv) the inferior frontal gyrus exerts inhibitory control over task-irrelevant information.

  9. Training in Inductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomic, Welko

    This study investigated the effects of K. J. Klauer's (1989) inductive reasoning training program of teaching children. Effects of training and the range of transfer of the training were assessed. The subjects were 34 third-grade Dutch children of average ability, matched on age, sex, and IQ. Children from the training condition (N=17) received…

  10. Reasonable Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a sample legal battle that illustrates school officials' "reasonable forecasts" of substantial disruption in the school environment. In 2006, two students from a Texas high school came to school carrying purses decorated with images of the Confederate flag. The school district has a zero-tolerance policy for…

  11. Verbal Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  12. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  13. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  14. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  15. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  16. Inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  18. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  19. Neurocognitive Development of Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.; Wendelken, Carter; van Leijenhorst, Linda; Honomichl, Ryan D.; Christoff, Kalina; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2009-01-01

    Relational reasoning is an essential component of fluid intelligence, and is known to have a protracted developmental trajectory. To date, little is known about the neural changes that underlie improvements in reasoning ability over development. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, children aged 8-12 and adults…

  20. Effects of higher-order cognitive strategy training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Hull, Elizabeth L; Lyon, G Reid

    2010-01-01

    Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students' native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student

  1. Detecting Edges in Images by Use of Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A method of processing digital image data to detect edges includes the use of fuzzy reasoning. The method is completely adaptive and does not require any advance knowledge of an image. During initial processing of image data at a low level of abstraction, the nature of the data is indeterminate. Fuzzy reasoning is used in the present method because it affords an ability to construct useful abstractions from approximate, incomplete, and otherwise imperfect sets of data. Humans are able to make some sense of even unfamiliar objects that have imperfect high-level representations. It appears that to perceive unfamiliar objects or to perceive familiar objects in imperfect images, humans apply heuristic algorithms to understand the images

  2. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  3. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  5. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  6. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  8. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  9. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  10. Ability to Consent to Parkinson Disease Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... asked the participants questions about their understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and choice. These 4 areas make up decision- ... decision-making capacity Types of abilities Understanding Appreciation Reasoning Choice Meaning of abilities Know the basic facts ...

  11. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  12. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  13. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  14. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  16. Development of abstract thinking during childhood and adolescence: the role of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise

    2014-10-01

    Rostral prefrontal cortex (RPFC) has increased in size and changed in terms of its cellular organisation during primate evolution. In parallel emerged the ability to detach oneself from the immediate environment to process abstract thoughts and solve problems and to understand other individuals' thoughts and intentions. Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is thought to play an important role in supporting the integration of abstract, often self-generated, thoughts. Thoughts can be temporally abstract and relate to long term goals, or past or future events, or relationally abstract and focus on the relationships between representations rather than simple stimulus features. Behavioural studies have provided evidence of a prolonged development of the cognitive functions associated with RLPFC, in particular logical and relational reasoning, but also episodic memory retrieval and prospective memory. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies provide further support for a prolonged development of RLPFC during adolescence, with some evidence of increased specialisation of RLPFC activation for relational integration and aspects of episodic memory retrieval. Topics for future research will be discussed, such as the role of medial RPFC in processing abstract thoughts in the social domain, the possibility of training abstract thinking in the domain of reasoning, and links to education.

  17. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  18. Exploring visuospatial abilities and their contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2017-01-09

    The present study aimed at exploring relationships among the visuospatial tasks included in the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA), and at assessing the relative contribution of different facets of visuospatial processing on tests tapping constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. One hundred forty-four healthy subjects with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination completed the BVA plus Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Constructional Apraxia test. We used Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis to investigate relationships among the BVA visuospatial tasks, and performed regression analyses to assess the visuospatial contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis revealed two eigenvalues exceeding 1, accounting for about 60% of the variance. A 2-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 included sub-tests exploring "complex" visuospatial skills, whereas Factor 2 included two subtests tapping "simple" visuospatial skills. Regression analyses revealed that both Factor 1 and Factor 2 significantly affected performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, whereas only the Factor 1 affected performance on Constructional Apraxia test. Our results supported functional segregation proposed by De Renzi, suggesting clinical caution to utilize a single test to assess visuospatial domain, and qualified the visuospatial contribution in drawing and non-verbal intelligence test.

  19. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  20. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  1. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  2. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  3. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  4. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  5. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  6. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  7. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  8. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  10. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  11. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  13. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  14. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  15. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  16. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  18. Enhancing inferential abilities in adolescence: new hope for students in poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Motes, Michael M.; Riddle, Russell; Lyon, G. Reid; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to extrapolate essential gist through the analysis and synthesis of information, prediction of potential outcomes, abstraction of ideas, and integration of relationships with world knowledge is critical for higher-order learning. The present study investigated the efficacy of cognitive training to elicit improvements in gist reasoning and fact recall ability in 556 public middle school students (grades seven and eight), vs. a sample of 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group, to determine if changes in gist reasoning and fact recall were demonstrated without cognitive training. The results showed that, in general, cognitive training increased gist reasoning and fact recall abilities in students from families in poverty as well as students from families living above poverty. However, the magnitude of gains in gist reasoning varied as a function of gender and grade level. Our primary findings were that seventh and eighth grade girls and eighth grade boys showed significant increases in gist reasoning after training regardless of socioeconomic status (SES). There were no significant increases in gist reasoning or fact recall ability for the 357 middle school students who served as a comparison group. We postulate that cognitive training in middle school is efficacious for improving gist reasoning ability and fact recall in students from all socioeconomic levels. PMID:25505393

  19. More evidence for a dual-process model of conditional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Forgues, Hugues Lortie; Brunet, Marie-Laurence

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have shown that the deductive inferences that people make have global properties that reflect the statistical information implicit in the premises. This suggests that such reasoning can be explained by a single, underlying probabilistic model. In contrast, the dual process model of conditional reasoning (Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle, 2005b) proposes that people can use either a logical, counterexample-based strategy or a probabilistic one. In two studies, we presented reasoners with sequences of affirmation-of-the-consequent inferences that differed with respect to the statistical properties of the premises, either explicitly or implicitly. As predicted by the dual-process model, an analysis of individual response patterns showed the presence of two distinct strategies, with use of the counterexample strategy being associated with higher levels of abstract-reasoning competence. Use of the counterexample strategy was facilitated by the explicit presentation of counterexample information. In a further study, we then examined explicitly probabilistic inferences. This study showed that although most reasoners made statistically appropriate inferences, the ability to make more-accurate inferences was associated with higher levels of abstract reasoning competence. These results show that deductive inferential reasoning cannot be explained by a single, unitary process and that any analysis of reasoning must consider individual differences in strategy use.

  20. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  1. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. DRS: Derivational Reasoning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bhaskar

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability requirements for airborne systems requires fault-tolerant architectures to address failures in the presence of physical faults, and the elimination of design flaws during the specification and validation phase of the design cycle. Although much progress has been made in developing methods to address physical faults, design flaws remain a serious problem. Formal methods provides a mathematical basis for removing design flaws from digital systems. DRS (Derivational Reasoning System) is a formal design tool based on advanced research in mathematical modeling and formal synthesis. The system implements a basic design algebra for synthesizing digital circuit descriptions from high level functional specifications. DRS incorporates an executable specification language, a set of correctness preserving transformations, verification interface, and a logic synthesis interface, making it a powerful tool for realizing hardware from abstract specifications. DRS integrates recent advances in transformational reasoning, automated theorem proving and high-level CAD synthesis systems in order to provide enhanced reliability in designs with reduced time and cost.

  4. The cognition and neuroscience of relational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2012-01-05

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the complex cognitive processes that give rise to human reasoning. This review focuses on the cognitive and neural characteristics of relational reasoning and analogy performance. Initially relational reasoning studies that have investigated the neural basis of abstract reasoning with an emphasis on the prefrontal cortex are described. Next studies of analogical reasoning are reviewed with insights from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. Additionally, studies of cognitive components in analogical reasoning are described. This review draws together insights from numerous studies and concludes that prefrontal areas exhibit domain independence in relational reasoning, while posterior areas within the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes show evidence of domain dependence in reasoning. Lastly, future directions in the study of relational reasoning are discussed.

  5. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  6. The Effects of 3-Dimensional CADD Modeling on the Development of the Spatial Ability of Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, K. Lynn; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial abilities are fundamental to human functioning in the physical world. Spatial reasoning allows people to use concepts of shape, features, and relationships in both concrete and abstract ways, to make and use things in the world, to navigate, and to communicate. Surgeons, pilots, architects, engineers, mechanics, builders, farmers, trades…

  7. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  8. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  9. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  11. Causal reasoning with forces

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Causal composition allows people to generate new causal relations by combining existing causal knowledge. We introduce a new computational model of such reasoning, the force theory, which holds that people compose causal relations by simulating the processes that join forces in the world, and compare this theory with the mental model theory (Khemlani et al., 2014) and the causal model theory (Sloman et al., 2009), which explain causal composition on the basis of mental models and structural equations, respectively. In one experiment, the force theory was uniquely able to account for people's ability to compose causal relationships from complex animations of real-world events. In three additional experiments, the force theory did as well as or better than the other two theories in explaining the causal compositions people generated from linguistically presented causal relations. Implications for causal learning and the hierarchical structure of causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:25653611

  12. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  13. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.

  14. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  15. Educational strategies for improving clinical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Cutrer, William B; Sullivan, William M; Fleming, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Clinical reasoning serves as a crucial skill for all physicians regardless of their area of expertise. Helping trainees develop effective and appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a central aim of medical education. Teaching clinical reasoning however can be a very difficult challenge for practicing physicians. Better understanding of the different cognitive processes involved in physician clinical reasoning provides a foundation from which to guide learner development of effective reasoning skills, while pairing assessment of learner reasoning abilities with understanding of different improvement strategies offers the opportunity to maximize educational efforts for learners. Clinical reasoning errors often can occur as a result of one of four problems in trainees as well as practicing physicians; inadequate knowledge, faulty data gathering, faulty data processing, or faulty metacognition. Educators are encouraged to consider at which point a given learner's reasoning is breaking down. Experimentation with different strategies for improving clinical reasoning can help address learner struggles in each of these domains. In this chapter, various strategies for improving reasoning related to knowledge acquisition, data gathering, data processing, and clinician metacognition will be discussed. Understanding and gaining experience using the different educational strategies will provide practicing physicians with a toolbox of techniques for helping learners improve their reasoning abilities.

  16. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions.

  17. Neural Representations of Emotion Are Organized around Abstract Event Features

    PubMed Central

    Skerry, Amy E.; Saxe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Summary Research on emotion attribution has tended to focus on the perception of overt expressions of at most five or six basic emotions. However, our ability to identify others' emotional states is not limited to perception of these canonical expressions. Instead, we make fine-grained inferences about what others feel based on the situations they encounter, relying on knowledge of the eliciting conditions for different emotions. In the present research, we provide convergent behavioral and neural evidence concerning the representations underlying these concepts. First, we find that patterns of activity in mentalizing regions contain information about subtle emotional distinctions conveyed through verbal descriptions of eliciting situations. Second, we identify a space of abstract situation features that well captures the emotion discriminations subjects make behaviorally and show that this feature space outperforms competing models in capturing the similarity space of neural patterns in these regions. Together, the data suggest that our knowledge of others' emotions is abstract and high dimensional, that brain regions selective for mental state reasoning support relatively subtle distinctions between emotion concepts, and that the neural representations in these regions are not reducible to more primitive affective dimensions such as valence and arousal. PMID:26212878

  18. Neural representations of emotion are organized around abstract event features.

    PubMed

    Skerry, Amy E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-03

    Research on emotion attribution has tended to focus on the perception of overt expressions of at most five or six basic emotions. However, our ability to identify others' emotional states is not limited to perception of these canonical expressions. Instead, we make fine-grained inferences about what others feel based on the situations they encounter, relying on knowledge of the eliciting conditions for different emotions. In the present research, we provide convergent behavioral and neural evidence concerning the representations underlying these concepts. First, we find that patterns of activity in mentalizing regions contain information about subtle emotional distinctions conveyed through verbal descriptions of eliciting situations. Second, we identify a space of abstract situation features that well captures the emotion discriminations subjects make behaviorally and show that this feature space outperforms competing models in capturing the similarity space of neural patterns in these regions. Together, the data suggest that our knowledge of others' emotions is abstract and high dimensional, that brain regions selective for mental state reasoning support relatively subtle distinctions between emotion concepts, and that the neural representations in these regions are not reducible to more primitive affective dimensions such as valence and arousal.

  19. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  20. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  1. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  2. Adaptation and Extension of the Framework of Reducing Abstraction in the Case of Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raychaudhuri, Debasree

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no consensus in regard to a unique meaning for abstraction, there is a recognition of the existence of several theories of abstraction, and that the ability to abstract is imperative to learning and doing meaningful mathematics. The theory of "reducing abstraction" maps the abstract nature of mathematics to the nature…

  3. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  4. Relations between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

    2010-05-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments. Experiment 1 showed 2 dissociations: For a common set of arguments, deduction judgments were more affected by validity, and induction judgments were more affected by similarity. Moreover, Experiment 2 showed that fast deduction judgments were like induction judgments-in terms of being more influenced by similarity and less influenced by validity, compared with slow deduction judgments. These novel results pose challenges for a 1-process account of reasoning and are interpreted in terms of a 2-process account of reasoning, which was implemented as a multidimensional signal detection model and applied to receiver operating characteristic data.

  5. Form, Content and Justice in Moral Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Robert P.

    1976-01-01

    Formalistic theories of moral development enunciated by L. Kohlberg and R. M. Hare are criticized for failing to recognize that normative principles are also necessary to the development of moral reasoning abilities. (GW)

  6. Approximate reasoning using terminological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Vaidya, Nitin

    1992-01-01

    Term Subsumption Systems (TSS) form a knowledge-representation scheme in AI that can express the defining characteristics of concepts through a formal language that has a well-defined semantics and incorporates a reasoning mechanism that can deduce whether one concept subsumes another. However, TSS's have very limited ability to deal with the issue of uncertainty in knowledge bases. The objective of this research is to address issues in combining approximate reasoning with term subsumption systems. To do this, we have extended an existing AI architecture (CLASP) that is built on the top of a term subsumption system (LOOM). First, the assertional component of LOOM has been extended for asserting and representing uncertain propositions. Second, we have extended the pattern matcher of CLASP for plausible rule-based inferences. Third, an approximate reasoning model has been added to facilitate various kinds of approximate reasoning. And finally, the issue of inconsistency in truth values due to inheritance is addressed using justification of those values. This architecture enhances the reasoning capabilities of expert systems by providing support for reasoning under uncertainty using knowledge captured in TSS. Also, as definitional knowledge is explicit and separate from heuristic knowledge for plausible inferences, the maintainability of expert systems could be improved.

  7. Clinical Reasoning in Massage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    LeMoon, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist. Methods: A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client’s symptoms; knowledge of the client’s anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns. Results: The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client’s symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution. Conclusion: The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education. PMID:21589814

  8. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  9. Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…

  10. Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Barros, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Before starting school, many children reason logically about concepts that are basic to their later mathematical learning. We describe a measure of quantitative reasoning that was administered to children at school entry (mean age 5.8 years) and accounted for more variance in a mathematical attainment test than general cognitive ability 16 months…

  11. A Framework of Mathematics Inductive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of the literature in inductive reasoning, a framework for prescribing and assessing mathematics inductive reasoning of primary school students was formulated and validated. The major constructs incorporated in this framework were students' cognitive abilities of finding similarities and/or dissimilarities among attributes and…

  12. Relational Reasoning in Science, Medicine, and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    This review brings together the literature that pertains to the role of relational reasoning, or the ability to discern meaningful patterns within any stream of information, in the mental work of scientists, medical doctors, and engineers. Existing studies that measure four forms of relational reasoning--analogy, anomaly, antinomy, and…

  13. Inductive Reasoning in the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Gloria A.; Binko, James B.

    It has been alleged that few American students can use their knowledge effectively in thinking and reasoning. This study urges teachers to give more attention to student abilities in analyzing, classifying, comparing, formulating hypotheses, and drawing conclusions--that is, thinking skills essential to reasoning processes. Designed to familiarize…

  14. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  15. Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Deadlock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    and non-circular assume-guarantee rules [Pnueli 85, de Roever 98, Barringer 03]. Amla and colleagues have presented a sound and complete assume...guarantee method in the context of an abstract process composition framework [ Amla 03]. However, they do not discuss deadlock detection or explore the use of...NY: Springer-Verlag, July 2005. [ Amla 03] Amla , N.; Emerson, E. A.; Namjoshi, K. S.; & Trefler, R. J. “Abstract Patterns of Compositional Reasoning

  16. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  17. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  18. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  19. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  20. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  1. Reason, Unfettered by Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2007-01-01

    In a speech at the University of Regensburg, the pope emphasized the role of theology in correlating faith with reason. He argued that within the university it should be accepted without question that "it is still necessary and reasonable to raise the question of God through the use of reason." That speech created an uproar in the Muslim…

  2. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  3. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  4. Internal Structure and Partial Invariance across Gender in the Spanish Version of the Reasoning Test Battery.

    PubMed

    Elosua, Paula; Mujika, Josu

    2015-10-13

    The Reasoning Test Battery (BPR) is an instrument built on theories of the hierarchical organization of cognitive abilities and therefore consists of different tasks related with abstract, numerical, verbal, practical, spatial and mechanical reasoning. It was originally created in Belgium and later adapted to Portuguese. There are three forms of the battery consisting of different items and scales which cover an age range from 9 to 22. This paper focuses on the adaptation of the BPR to Spanish, and analyzes different aspects of its internal structure: (a) exploratory item factor analysis was applied to assess the presence of a dominant factor for each partial scale; (b) the general underlined model was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis, and (c) factorial invariance across gender was studied. The sample consisted of 2624 Spanish students. The results concluded the presence of a general factor beyond the scales, with equivalent values for men and women, and gender differences in the factorial structure which affect the numerical reasoning, abstract reasoning and mechanical reasoning scales.

  5. Exploring students' patterns of reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students' reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students' reasoning, we developed open-ended written content questions with the distinguishing feature of applying recently learned concepts in a new context. We devised a protocol for developing written content questions that provided a common structure for probing and classifying students' sophistication level of reasoning. In designing our protocol, we considered several distinct criteria, and classified students' responses based on their performance for each criterion. First, we classified concepts into three types: Descriptive, Hypothetical, and Theoretical and categorized the abstraction levels of the responses in terms of the types of concepts and the inter-relationship between the concepts. Second, we devised a rubric based on Bloom's revised taxonomy with seven traits (both knowledge types and cognitive processes) and a defined set of criteria to evaluate each trait. Along with analyzing students' reasoning, we visited universities and observed the courses in which the students were enrolled. We used the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to rank the courses with respect to characteristics that are valued for the inquiry courses. We conducted logistic regression for a sample of 18courses with about 900 students and reported the results for performing logistic regression to estimate the relationship between traits of reasoning and RTOP score. In addition, we analyzed conceptual structure of students' responses, based on conceptual classification schemes, and clustered students' responses into six categories. We derived regression model, to estimate the relationship between the sophistication of the categories of conceptual structure and RTOP scores. However, the

  6. Can Individuals with Autism Abstract Prototypes of Natural Faces?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Wilkinson, Desiree A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with face processing. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie face processing difficulties is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype formation with natural faces using eye-tracking in high-functioning adults with…

  7. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  9. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  10. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  11. Visual categorization: accessing abstraction in non-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    Fabre-Thorpe, Michèle

    2003-01-01

    Evolution might have set the basic foundations for abstract mental representation long ago. Because of language, mental abilities would have reached different degrees of sophistication in mammals and in humans but would be, essentially, of the same nature. Thus, humans and animals might rely on the same basic mechanisms that could be masked in humans by the use of sophisticated strategies. In this paper, monkey and human abilities are compared in a variety of perceptual tasks including visual categorization to assess behavioural similarities and dissimilarities, and to determine the level of abstraction of monkeys' mental representations. The question of how these abstract representations might be encoded in the brain is then addressed. A comparative study of the neural processing underlying abstract cognitive operations in animals and humans might help to understand when abstraction emerged in the phylogenetic scale, and how it increased in complexity. PMID:12903657

  12. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance.

  13. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  14. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  15. Anatomy of deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod

    2007-10-01

    Much of cognitive research on deductive reasoning has been preoccupied with advocating for or against visuospatial (mental model theory) or linguistic/syntactic (mental logic theory) models of logical reasoning. Neuroimaging studies bear on this issue by pointing to both language-based and visuospatial systems being engaged during logical reasoning, and by raising additional issues not anticipated by these cognitive theories. Here, the literature on the neural basis of deductive reasoning from the past decade is reviewed. Although these results might seem chaotic and inconsistent, we identify several interesting patterns and articulate their implications for cognitive theories of reasoning. Cognitive neuroscience data point away from a unitary system for logical reasoning and towards a fractionated system dynamically reconfigured in response to specific task and environmental cues.

  16. Metacognition and reasoning.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Logan; Carruthers, Peter

    2012-05-19

    This article considers the cognitive architecture of human meta-reasoning: that is, metacognition concerning one's own reasoning and decision-making. The view we defend is that meta-reasoning is a cobbled-together skill comprising diverse self-management strategies acquired through individual and cultural learning. These approximate the monitoring-and-control functions of a postulated adaptive system for metacognition by recruiting mechanisms that were designed for quite other purposes.

  17. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  18. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  19. Ability Estimation for Conventional Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jwa K.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Bias, standard error, and reliability of five ability estimators were evaluated using Monte Carlo estimates of the unknown conditional means and variances of the estimators. Results indicate that estimates based on Bayesian modal, expected a posteriori, and weighted likelihood estimators were reasonably unbiased with relatively small standard…

  20. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  1. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  2. Model-Based Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  3. Reasoning: A Dog's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Derek; Stacey, Kaye; FitzSimons, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The authors illustrate three basic types of reasoning used in mathematics by showing how they operate in practical and mathematical situations. The importance and function of the different types of reasoning in each situation is outlined. As a consequence the authors note that while introducing new techniques by example is good from a pedagogical…

  4. Sail-assisted commercial marine vehicles: bibliography and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shortall, J.W. III

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography that contains abstracts of 331 articles published on the subject of commercial sailing vessels and sail-assisted work boats of all kinds is presented. This is part of a continuing project supported both by the University of South Florida and the Florida Sea Grant College, and is an update of the previous publication of abstracts, Florida Sea Grant College Technical Paper No.24, May, 1982. Abstracts are compiled regularly, and subsequent reports will be issued periodically. A brief discussion of modern and historical commercial sail, the reasons for serious interest in same, and commercial sailing fishing vessels is presented.

  5. Effects of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding.

    PubMed

    De Stasio, Simona; Fiorilli, Caterina; Di Chiacchio, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the role of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding, testing the hypothesis that fluid intelligence predicts the development of emotion comprehension over and above age and verbal ability. One hundred and two children (48 girls) aged 3.6-6 years completed the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) that comprised external and mental components, the Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Test for Reception of Grammar. Regression analysis showed that fluid intelligence was not equally related to the external and mental components of the TEC (Pons & Harris, 2000). Specifically, the results indicated that the external component was related to age and verbal ability only, whereas recognition of mental emotional patterns required abstract reasoning skills more than age and verbal ability. It is concluded that the development of fluid intelligence has a significant role in the development of mental component of emotion comprehension.

  6. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  7. Toward efficient default reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Etherington, D.W.; Crawford, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Early work on default reasoning aimed to formalize the notion of quickly {open_quotes}jumping to conclusions{close_quotes}. Unfortunately, the resulting formalisms have proven more computational complex than classical logics. This has dramatically limited the applicability of formal methods to real problems involving defaults. The complexity of consistency checking is one of the two problems that must be addressed to reduce the complexity of default reasoning. We propose to approximate consistency checking using a novel synthesis of limited contexts and fast incomplete checks, and argue that this combination overcomes the limitations of its component parts. Our approach trades correctness for speed, but we argue that the nature of default reasoning makes this trade relatively inexpensive and intuitively plausible. We present a prototype implementation of a default reasoner based on these ideas, and a preliminary empirical evaluation.

  8. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  9. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Magda L.; Joergensen, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity. PMID:26986760

  10. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  11. Abstract Rationality in Education: From Vygotsky to Brandom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract rationality has increasingly been a target of attack in contemporary educational research and practice and in its place practical reason and situated thinking have become a focus of interest. The argument here is that something is lost in this. In illustrating how we might think about the issue, this paper makes a response to the charge…

  12. Non-Traditional Methods of Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on techniques of teaching abstract algebra which were developed to achieve multiple student objectives: reasoning and communication skills, deep content knowledge, student engagement, independence, and pride. The approach developed included a complementary combination of inquiry-based learning, individual (not group) homework…

  13. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  14. Learning to Reason: A Journey of Professional Socialisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajjawi, Rola; Higgs, Joy

    2008-01-01

    One of the key attributes that health professional students and new graduates develop during professional socialisation is clinical reasoning ability. Clinical reasoning is a complex skill that is essential for professional practice. There is limited research specifically addressing how physiotherapists learn to reason in the workplace. The…

  15. Teacher's Guide for the Basic Competencies in Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    This guide defines the basic competencies in reasoning and describes how to incorporate them into the educational program at all grade levels. Reasoning is the ability to approach day-to-day problems with intelligent decision-making skills. It is important for students to begin developing reasoning skills at an early age and in all subject areas.…

  16. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  17. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  18. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  19. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  20. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  1. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  3. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  4. Levels of abstraction in orangutan (Pongo abelii) categorization.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2004-03-01

    Levels of abstraction have rarely been manipulated in studies of natural concept formation in nonhumans. Isolated examples have indicated that animals, relative to humans, may learn concepts at varying levels of abstraction with differential ease. The ability of 6 orangutans (Pongo abelii) of various ages to make natural concept discriminations at 3 levels of abstraction was therefore investigated. The orangutans were rewarded for selecting photos of orangutans instead of humans and other primates (concrete level), primates instead of other animals (intermediate level), and animals instead of nonanimals (abstract level) in a 2-choice touch screen procedure. The results suggest that, like a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) tested previously (Vonk & MacDonald, 2002), orangutans can learn concepts at each level of abstraction, and unlike other nonhumans, most of these subjects rapidly learned the intermediate level discrimination.

  5. The Development of a Novel Measure of Scientific Reasoning Growth among College Freshmen: The Constructive Inquiry Science Reasoning Skills Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Jeff; Stier, Matt; McNew-Birren, Jill

    2011-01-01

    The development of students' science reasoning abilities is a goal of science education. Researchers measure science reasoning using a variety of instruments, each with limitations and restrictions. In this study, contrasting instructional modes were analyzed for students' science reasoning development over the course of a semester. A novel…

  6. Improving Reasoning Skills in Secondary History Education by Working Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariës, Roel Jacobus; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2015-01-01

    Secondary school pupils underachieve in tests in which reasoning abilities are required. Brain-based training of working memory (WM) may improve reasoning abilities. In this study, we use a brain-based training programme based on historical content to enhance reasoning abilities in history courses. In the first experiment, a combined intervention…

  7. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  8. Intensional reasoning about knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    As demands and ambitions increase in Artificial Intelligence, the need for formal systems that facilitate a study and a simulation of a machine cognition has become an inevitability. This paper explores and develops the foundations of a formal system for propositional reasoning about knowledge. The semantics of every meaningful expression in the system is fully determined by its intension, the set of complexes in which the expression is confirmed. The knowledge system is based on three zeroth-order theories of epistemic reasoning for consciousness, knowledge, and entailed knowledge. The results presented determine the soundness and the completeness of the knowledge system. The modes of reasoning and the relations among the various epistemic notions emphasize the expressive power of the intensional paradigm.

  9. Reasoning about procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial aspect of automated reasoning about space operations is that knowledge of the problem domain is often procedural in nature - that is, the knowledge is often in the form of sequences of actions or procedures for achieving given goals or reacting to certain situations. In this paper a system is described that explicitly represents and reasons about procedural knowledge. The knowledge representation used is sufficiently rich to describe the effects of arbitrary sequences of tests and actions, and the inference mechanism provides a means for directly using this knowledge to reach desired operational goals. Furthermore, the representation has a declarative semantics that provides for incremental changes to the system, rich explanatory capabilities, and verifiability. The approach also provides a mechanism for reasoning about the use of this knowledge, thus enabling the system to choose effectively between alternative courses of action.

  10. Civil Liberties Support in Relation to Moral Reasoning Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Roger; Zalkind, Sheldon S.

    Civil liberties are rights enjoyed by individuals guaranteeing them protection from the arbitrary or discriminatory acts of government. Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of moral reasoning and studies of behavioral/abstract attitudinal measures provide a rationale for examining moral reasoning processes, intelligence, and selected…

  11. Happy and Sad Thoughts: An Exploration of Children's Integer Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Ian; Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L. C.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary children's conceptions that might serve as foundations for integer reasoning. Working from an abstract algebraic perspective and using an opposite-magnitudes context that is relevant to children, we analyzed the reasoning of 33 children in grades K-5. We focus our report on three prominent…

  12. Analogical Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…

  13. Science Teaching and the Development of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karplus, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In your interactions with secondary school students learning science, you have probably become aware of large differences in student ability to understand science concepts, conduct investigations, and/or solve specific problems. Some students are extremely capable, while others demonstrate peculiar and inappropriate reasoning strategies.…

  14. Reasoning by Analogy in Solving Comparison Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates 10-year-old children's abilities to reason by analogy in solving addition and subtraction comparison problems involving unknown compare sets and unknown reference sets. Children responded in a consistent manner to the tasks involving the basic addition problems, indicating substantial relational knowledge of these but responded in an…

  15. Relations between Adolescents' Text Processing and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Goldman, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    This research examines adolescents' learning about a historical issue from multiple information sources. Adolescents read 2 contradictory texts explaining the Fall of Rome and thought out loud after each sentence. After reading, a series of questions probed their understanding and ability to reason with the information. Think-aloud protocols were…

  16. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  17. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  18. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  19. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  20. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    difference, consider an example frequently discussed in the history of science, namely the Ptolemaic system in which the planet earth is surrounded by...tend to imagine systems with the human observer in the center. While a Ptolemaic viewpoint is known to be wrong (or, more precisely, infeasible) in...physics, it naturally appears in the systems we construct. Consequently, the Ptolemaic viewpoint yields a natural abstraction principle for computer

  1. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  2. Groundwater abstraction pollution risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P

    2003-01-01

    A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.

  3. Diagnostic Reasoning Model Validation in Digestive Endoscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract: The development of a computer -assisted diagnostic system in digestive endoscopy implies to understand the reasoning process of endoscopists. The...that could be used in computer -assisted diagnostic, as referring data. Development of "intelligent" tools, which can retrieve referring images...of the computer -assisted diagnosis system performance was realized with indices, extracted from endoscopist talks. The system responses were compared

  4. Parallel and Distributed Systems for Probabilistic Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    High-Level Abstractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 8 Future Work 156 8.1 Scalable Online Probabilistic Reasoning...this chapter can be obtained from our online repository at http://gonzalezlabs/thesis. 3.1 Belief Propagation A core operation in probabilistic...models is not strictly novel. In the setting of online inference in Russell and Norvig [1995] used the notion of Fixed Lag Smoothing to eliminate the

  5. Handbook of Reasonable Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Sandra M.; And Others

    The booklet discusses a basic concept in affirmative action and nondiscrimination for the handicapped, which requires federal agencies to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of a qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the agency. Reasonable…

  6. Statistical Reasoning over Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selmer, Sarah J.; Bolyard, Johnna J.; Rye, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Students in the 21st century are exposed daily to a staggering amount of numerically infused media. In this era of abundant numeric data, students must be able to engage in sound statistical reasoning when making life decisions after exposure to varied information. The context of nutrition can be used to engage upper elementary and middle school…

  7. Reasoning with Geometric Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Geometry belongs to branches of mathematics that develop students' visualisation, intuition, critical thinking, problem solving, deductive reasoning, logical argument and proof (Jones, 2002). It provides the basis for the development of spatial sense and plays an important role in acquiring advanced knowledge in science, technology, engineering,…

  8. The reason project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, William; Blankenbecler, Richard; Kunz, Paul F.; Mours, Benoit; Weir, Andrew; Word, Gary

    1990-08-01

    Reason is a software package to allow one to do physics analysis with the look and feel of the Apple Macintosh. It was implemented on a NeXT computer which does not yet support the standard HEP packages for graphics and histogramming. This paper will review our experiences and the program.

  9. Reasoning from Incomplete Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan M.; And Others

    People use a variety of plausible, but uncertain inferences to answer questions about which their knowledge is incomplete. Such inferential thinking and reasoning is being incorporated into the SCHOLAR computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system. Socratic tutorial techniques in CAI systems such as SCHOLAR are described, and examples of their…

  10. Children's Mechanistic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Molly S.; Kobiela, Marta; Weinberg, Paul J.; Lehrer, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning about mechanisms is one of the hallmarks of disciplined inquiry in science and engineering, but comparatively little is known about its precursors and development. Children at grades 2 and 5 predicted and explained the motion of simple mechanical systems composed entirely of visible linkages (levers). Students' explanations of device…

  11. 10 Reasons to Flip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Kathleen P.

    2012-01-01

    A small school in southern Minnesota, strapped for funds and needing new math books and a fresh curriculum, flipped its classrooms and raised achievement and student engagement. The math teachers led and implemented the changes. Upon reflection, they found 10 good reasons educators should consider flipping their classroom. Among the most…

  12. Constraint Reasoning Over Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.

  13. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  14. Reasoning and Sense Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, W. Gary; Kasmer, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In late 2009, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics released "Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making" (NCTM 2009). This new NCTM policy publication is designed to offer guidance for high school mathematics teachers in providing focus and coherence that parallels what "Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten…

  15. Professor's Page: Why Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    Reasoning is one of the proficiency strands of the new Australian Curriculum. It has always been important in mathematics and its importance has always been recognised in mathematics curricula across Australia. However, the new proficiency strand provides an opportunity for all teachers to reconsider how they teach this essential aspect of…

  16. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  17. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  18. Reasoning about Function Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  19. A Comparative Study of Effect of New and Old Science Curriculum on Chinese Junior High School Students' Abstract Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Weiping; Chen, Ming

    2008-01-01

    "Teenagers' abstract thinking ability test" was designed in accordance with the structure and performance of teenagers' ability to think abstractly. 138 Chinese junior high school students who learned New curriculum and old curriculum separately were measured. A comparison between the two kinds of students shows that abstract thinking…

  20. Translucent Procedures, Abstraction without Opacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    que dI no pudo recibir. con este trabajo realizo. Lo proinetido es deuda. Acknowledgments There are many people to whom I owe my sanity and to whom I...21 2.1.1 Fundamental Differences .......................... 23 2.1.2 Accidental Differences ....... ...................... 26 2.2 The...no a-priori reason why the whole code could not. be written in TScheme. TScheme differs from Scheme in both fundamental and accidental ways. 2.1

  1. Inductive reasoning in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, E E; Rhee, J; Dennis, K; Grossman, M

    2001-12-01

    We evaluated knowledge of basic level and superordinate semantic relations and the role of cognitive resources during inductive reasoning in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nineteen mildly demented AD patients and 17 healthy control subjects judged the truthfulness of arguments with a premise and a conclusion that contain familiar concepts coupled with "blank" predicates, such as "Spiders contain phosphatidylcholine; therefore all insects contain phosphatidylcholine." Like healthy control subjects, AD patients were relatively insensitive to the typicality of the premise category when judging the strength of arguments with a conclusion containing a basic-level concept, but were relatively sensitive to typicality during judgments of arguments containing a superordinate in the conclusion. Moreover, AD patients resembled control subjects in judging arguments with an immediate superordinate in the conclusion compared to arguments with a distant superordinate. AD patients differed from control subjects because they could not take advantage of two premises in an argument containing basic-level concepts. We conclude that semantic knowledge is sufficiently preserved in AD to support inductive reasoning, but that limited cognitive resources may interfere with AD patients' ability to consider the entire spectrum of information available during semantic challenges.

  2. Modeling uncertainty reasoning with possibilistic Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Liu, K R; Chiang, Weiling

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of perceptions is a remarkable human capability in a wide variety of physical and mental tasks under fuzzy or uncertain surroundings. Possibilistic reasoning can be treated as a mechanism that mimics human inference mechanisms with uncertain information. Petri nets are a graphical and mathematical modeling tool with powerful modeling and analytical ability. The focus of this paper is on the integration of Petri nets with possibilistic reasoning to reap the benefits of both formalisms. This integration leads to a possibilistic Petri nets model (PPN) with the following features. A possibilistic token carries information to describe an object and its corresponding possibility and necessity measures. Possibilistic transitions are classified into four types: inference transitions, duplication transitions, aggregation transitions, and aggregation-duplication transitions. A reasoning algorithm, based on possibilistic Petri nets, is also presented to improve the efficiency of possibilistic reasoning and an example related to diagnosis of cracks in reinforced concrete structures is used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  3. Cognitive Abstractness, Interpersonal Perception, Factual and Social Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckloff, Maurine C.; Petelle, John

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive abstractness levels, interpersonal perception abilities, and task type (factual or social problem solving) on group performance as measured by time consumed and adequacy of solutions. Eighteen college classes from Kearney State College participated in testing of perceptual…

  4. Enhanced visual processing contributes to matrix reasoning in autism

    PubMed Central

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Samson, Fabienne; Barbeau, Elise B.; Sahyoun, Cherif; Strangman, Gary E.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Recent behavioral investigations have revealed that autistics perform more proficiently on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) than would be predicted by their Wechsler intelligence scores. A widely-used test of fluid reasoning and intelligence, the RSPM assays abilities to flexibly infer rules, manage goal hierarchies, and perform high-level abstractions. The neural substrates for these abilities are known to encompass a large frontoparietal network, with different processing models placing variable emphasis on the specific roles of the prefrontal or posterior regions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the neural bases of autistics' RSPM problem solving. Fifteen autistic and eighteen non-autistic participants, matched on age, sex, manual preference and Wechsler IQ, completed 60 self-paced randomly-ordered RSPM items along with a visually similar 60-item pattern matching comparison task. Accuracy and response times did not differ between groups in the pattern matching task. In the RSPM task, autistics performed with similar accuracy, but with shorter response times, compared to their non-autistic controls. In both the entire sample and a subsample of participants additionally matched on RSPM performance to control for potential response time confounds, neural activity was similar in both groups for the pattern matching task. However, for the RSPM task, autistics displayed relatively increased task-related activity in extrastriate areas (BA18), and decreased activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the medial posterior parietal cortex (BA7). Visual processing mechanisms may therefore play a more prominent role in reasoning in autistics. PMID:19530215

  5. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  6. Reasoning about Codata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Ralf

    Programmers happily use induction to prove properties of recursive programs. To show properties of corecursive programs they employ coinduction, but perhaps less enthusiastically. Coinduction is often considered a rather low-level proof method, in particular, as it departs quite radically from equational reasoning. Corecursive programs are conveniently defined using recursion equations. Suitably restricted, these equations possess unique solutions. Uniqueness gives rise to a simple and attractive proof technique, which essentially brings equational reasoning to the coworld. We illustrate the approach using two major examples: streams and infinite binary trees. Both coinductive types exhibit a rich structure: they are applicative functors or idioms, and they can be seen as memo-tables or tabulations. We show that definitions and calculations benefit immensely from this additional structure.

  7. Reasons of state

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.

    1993-05-01

    This editor's note is concerned with historical aspects of the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons program. Noted in the article is the viewpoint of Yuli Khariton, who has been speaking out lately in an attempt to set the record straight regarding the early years of the weapons program. Stories told by Andrei Sakharov are included to ultimately make the point that history teaches many lessons, not the least of which is that many crimes are committed by reasons of state.

  8. Problem Solving and Reasoning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Sloan Foundation (HAS). This paper is a draft of a chapter to appear in R. C. Atkinson, R. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R. D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ...D. Luce (Eds.), Stevens ’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, (Revised Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons. PROBLEM SOLVING AND REASONING James G... LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill

  9. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  10. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  11. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  12. Abstract art by shape classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Zhe; Pickup, David; Li, Chuan; Rosin, Paul; Hall, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This paper shows that classifying shapes is a tool useful in nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) from photographs. Our classifier inputs regions from an image segmentation hierarchy and outputs the "best" fitting simple shape such as a circle, square, or triangle. Other approaches to NPR have recognized the benefits of segmentation, but none have classified the shape of segments. By doing so, we can create artwork of a more abstract nature, emulating the style of modern artists such as Matisse and other artists who favored shape simplification in their artwork. The classifier chooses the shape that "best" represents the region. Since the classifier is trained by a user, the "best shape" has a subjective quality that can over-ride measurements such as minimum error and more importantly captures user preferences. Once trained, the system is fully automatic, although simple user interaction is also possible to allow for differences in individual tastes. A gallery of results shows how this classifier contributes to NPR from images by producing abstract artwork.

  13. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  14. Abstract reasoning in a specific group of perceptually impaired children: namely, the learning-disabled.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, L J

    1978-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether learning-disabled children differ from normal achievers in terms of logical thought and wheter they exhibit décalages intheir acquisition of Piagetian concepts. The Ss comprised 35 learning-disabled boys attending full-time remedial schools and 35 matched normal achievers. The group mean was 9 years 1 month and the mean IQ was 109. S s were tested on a measure of visual perception and on 11 Piagetian tasks measuring conservation of quantitiy and number, seriation, and classification. Results indicated a significant difference between the groups in terms of perception but not in terms of logical thought. The rank order of the 11 Piagetain tasks was significantly correlated for the two groups (r = .89). It was concluded that the perceptual problems of the learning-disabled reside at a functional rather than at an organizational level, thus effecting only specific congnitive activities.

  15. Laptop Usage Affects Abstract Reasoning of Children in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nina; Koudenburg, Namkje; Hiersemann, Rena; Tellegen, Peter J.; Kocsev, Marton; Postmes, Tom

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising trend to provide low-cost laptops to children in developing countries. Notwithstanding strong claims about the educational effectiveness of these programs, there is very little systematic evidence. Given the level of modernization and the teacher-led learning environment in developing countries, the usage of laptops in such…

  16. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... summary report available... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 12 hours ago Good ...

  17. How Spatial Abilities Enhance, and Are Enhanced by, Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Mary; Keehner, Madeleine; Khooshabeh, Peter; Montello, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs,…

  18. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  19. Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    i.e., their boundaries can be placed in such a way that they coincide with the cell boundaries of the appropriate partition of the time-line. (Think of...respect to some appropriate partition of the time-line. For example, I felt well on Saturday. When I measured my temperature I had a fever on Monday and on...Bittner / Approximate Qualitative Temporal Reasoning 49 [27] I. A. Goralwalla, Y. Leontiev , M. T. Özsu, D. Szafron, and C. Combi. Temporal granularity for

  20. Semi-deterministic reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chengjiang Mao

    1996-12-31

    In typical AI systems, we employ so-called non-deterministic reasoning (NDR), which resorts to some systematic search with backtracking in the search spaces defined by knowledge bases (KBs). An eminent property of NDR is that it facilitates programming, especially programming for those difficult AI problems such as natural language processing for which it is difficult to find algorithms to tell computers what to do at every step. However, poor efficiency of NDR is still an open problem. Our work aims at overcoming this efficiency problem.

  1. Compositional Verification with Abstraction, Learning, and SAT Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    of the human mind To love and music To nature iv Abstract Compositional reasoning is an approach for scaling model checking to complex com- puter...Charlotte Yano were two indispensable people who made my life at CMU so much easier! Music has been a significant part of my non-academic life at CMU. I...thank the Indian Graduate Student Association and the fellow students of the Indian music team for giving me a platform to take rebirth in music , after

  2. Unusual use of objects after unilateral brain damage: the technical reasoning model.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; Jarry, Christophe; Allain, Philippe; Aubin, Ghislaine; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Richard, Isabelle; Bernard, Isabelle; Le Gall, Didier

    2009-06-01

    It has been suggested that gesture engrams, conceptual knowledge and/or the ability to infer function from structure can support object use. The present paper proposes an alternative view which is based upon the idea that object use requires solely the ability to reason about technical means provided by objects. Technical means are abstract principles which are not linked with any object representation (e.g., cutting involves the opposition between dense and permeable material). The technical reasoning model predicts that the inability to perform technical reasoning should impair performance in any situation requiring the use of objects (in a conventional way or not). Twenty left brain-damaged (LBD) patients, 11 right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and 41 healthy controls were examined on experimental tests assessing the conventional use of objects (e.g., screwing a screw with a screwdriver), conceptual knowledge about object function, pantomime of object use and recognition of object utilization gestures. We also designed the Unusual Use of Objects Test, which demands unusual applications of objects to achieve a purpose for which the usually applied object is not provided (e.g., screwing a screw with a knife). The key findings are that only LBD patients have more difficulties on the Unusual Use of Objects Test than controls or RBD patients, and that the severity of their impairment is correlated with that on conventional use of objects. Correlations with tests assessing conceptual knowledge as well as with tests of pantomime of object use and recognition of object utilization gestures were weaker. These results support the technical reasoning model and question the role of conceptual knowledge and gesture engrams in object use. Since the technical reasoning model also predicts two distinct technical disorders, the discussion focuses on the existence of these disorders in regard to individual performance profiles obtained in the Unusual Use of Objects Test.

  3. Analogical reasoning in amazons.

    PubMed

    Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior.

  4. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  5. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  6. Changes in analogical reasoning in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Clark, E; Gardner, M K; Brown, G; Howell, R J

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to investigate adult intellectual development through an analysis of a particular type of cognitive ability, verbal analogical reasoning. The performance of 60 individuals between the ages of 20 and 79 was compared on 100 verbal analogies. The subjects consisted of six groups of ten individuals each (five males and five females), matched as a group for education and gender. Solution times and error rates served as the dependent measures. Results showed that there was a significant trend for the older subjects (60- and 70-year-olds) to be slower than the young subjects (20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-year-olds), but not necessarily more error prone. These data suggest that verbal analogical reasoning changes with age. Supplemental data demonstrated a change in other abilities as well (i.e., decline in perceptual-motor speed and spatial skill).

  7. The Abstract Thinking Levels of the Science-Education Students in Gaza Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwish, Ata H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the abstract thinking levels of the science students attending the first and fourth year at two Palestinian Universities (Al-Aqsa and Al-Azhar). The sample consisted of 133 students from Science Education Departments (SE). The tool, used to measure abstract thinking, was one of the Science Reasoning Tasks…

  8. Directed abstraction: Encouraging broad, personal generalizations following a success experience.

    PubMed

    Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique.

  9. Classification-based reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    A representation formalism for N-ary relations, quantification, and definition of concepts is described. Three types of conditions are associated with the concepts: (1) necessary and sufficient properties, (2) contingent properties, and (3) necessary properties. Also explained is how complex chains of inferences can be accomplished by representing existentially quantified sentences, and concepts denoted by restrictive relative clauses as classification hierarchies. The representation structures that make possible the inferences are explained first, followed by the reasoning algorithms that draw the inferences from the knowledge structures. All the ideas explained have been implemented and are part of the information retrieval component of a program called Snowy. An appendix contains a brief session with the program.

  10. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  11. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  12. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  13. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  14. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways.

  15. Internship Abstract and Final Reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective for this internship is the evaluation of an embedded natural language processor (NLP) as a way to introduce voice control into future space suits. An embedded natural language processor would provide an astronaut hands-free control for making adjustments to the environment of the space suit and checking status of consumables procedures and navigation. Additionally, the use of an embedded NLP could potentially reduce crew fatigue, increase the crewmember's situational awareness during extravehicular activity (EVA) and improve the ability to focus on mission critical details. The use of an embedded NLP may be valuable for other human spaceflight applications desiring hands-free control as well. An embedded NLP is unique because it is a small device that performs language tasks, including speech recognition, which normally require powerful processors. The dedicated device could perform speech recognition locally with a smaller form-factor and lower power consumption than traditional methods.

  16. A reasoned action approach to health promotion.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and abilities can moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Similar to the theory of planned behavior, the IM also assumes that intentions are a function of attitudes, perceived normative pressure and self-efficacy, but it views perceived normative pressure as a function of descriptive as well as of injunctive (i.e., subjective) norms. After describing the theory and addressing some of the criticisms directed at a reasoned action approach, the paper illustrates how the theory can be applied to understanding and changing health related behaviors.

  17. Evaluating moral reasoning in nursing education.

    PubMed

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee

    2014-06-01

    Evidence-based practice suggests the best approach to improving professionalism in practice is ethics curricula. However, recent research has demonstrated that millennium graduates do not advocate for patients or assert themselves during moral conflicts. The aim of this article is the exploration of evaluation techniques to evaluate one measurable outcome of ethics curricula: moral reasoning. A review of literature, published between 1995 and 2013, demonstrated that the moral orientations of care and justice as conceptualized by Gilligan and Kohlberg are utilized by nursing students to solve ethical dilemmas. Data obtained by means of reflective journaling, Ethics of Care Interview (ECI) and Defining Issues Test (DIT), would objectively measure the interrelated pathways of care-based and justice-based moral reasoning. In conclusion, educators have an ethical responsibility to foster students' ability to exercise sound clinical judgment, and support their professional development. It is recommended that educators design authentic assessments to demonstrate student's improvement of moral reasoning.

  18. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  19. Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: A Learning Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robert Lee; Forrester, Jennifer Harris; Christus, Jennifer Schuttlefield; Peterson, Franziska Isabel; Bonilla, Rachel; Yestness, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR) learning progression was created with three progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. An iterative research design was used as it…

  20. Development of the Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory (SRBCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    We followed established best practices in concept inventory design and developed a 12-item inventory to assess student ability in statistical reasoning in biology (Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory [SRBCI]). It is important to assess student thinking in this conceptual area, because it is a fundamental requirement of being…

  1. Analogical Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights from Cognitive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Richland, Lindsey E.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Applying knowledge from one context to another is a notoriously difficult problem, both for children and adults, but lies at the heart of educational endeavors. Analogical reasoning is a cognitive underpinning of the ability to notice and draw similarities across contexts. Reasoning by analogy is especially challenging for students, who must…

  2. Developing Reasoning through Proof in High School Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, John Robert

    2008-01-01

    Developing students' ability to reason has long been a fundamental goal of mathematics education. A primary way in which mathematics students develop reasoning skills is by constructing mathematical proofs. This article presents a number of nontypical results, along with their proofs, that can be explored with students in any calculus classroom.…

  3. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    PubMed

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  4. Prediction and causal reasoning in planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, T.; Boddy, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear planners are often touted as having an efficiency advantage over linear planners. The reason usually given is that nonlinear planners, unlike their linear counterparts, are not forced to make arbitrary commitments to the order in which actions are to be performed. This ability to delay commitment enables nonlinear planners to solve certain problems with far less effort than would be required of linear planners. Here, it is argued that this advantage is bought with a significant reduction in the ability of a nonlinear planner to accurately predict the consequences of actions. Unfortunately, the general problem of predicting the consequences of a partially ordered set of actions is intractable. In gaining the predictive power of linear planners, nonlinear planners sacrifice their efficiency advantage. There are, however, other advantages to nonlinear planning (e.g., the ability to reason about partial orders and incomplete information) that make it well worth the effort needed to extend nonlinear methods. A framework is supplied for causal inference that supports reasoning about partially ordered events and actions whose effects depend upon the context in which they are executed. As an alternative to a complete but potentially exponential-time algorithm, researchers provide a provably sound polynomial-time algorithm for predicting the consequences of partially ordered events.

  5. Writing competitive research conference abstracts: AMEE Guide no. 108.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Amiel, Jonathan; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-09-01

    The ability to write a competitive research conference abstract is an important skill for medical educators. A compelling and concise abstract can convince peer reviewers, conference selection committee members, and conference attendees that the research described therein is worthy for inclusion in the conference program and/or for their attendance in the meeting. This AMEE Guide is designed to help medical educators write research conference abstracts that can achieve these outcomes. To do so, this Guide begins by examining the rhetorical context (i.e. the purpose, audience, and structure) of research conference abstracts and then moves on to describe the abstract selection processes common to many medical education conferences. Next, the Guide provides theory-based information and concrete suggestions on how to write persuasively. Finally, the Guide offers some writing tips and some proofreading techniques that all authors can use. By attending to the aspects of the research conference abstract addressed in this Guide, we hope to help medical educators enhance this important text in their writing repertoire.

  6. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  7. Core foundations of abstract geometry.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Huang, Yi; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-27

    Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children's use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Children's navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, children's analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, children's performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, children's use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.

  8. The Role of Social Context and Agent in the Development of Abstract Rights Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.

    Research suggests that adolescents as young as 13 years old reason about such abstract rights as freedom of speech and religion. It is unclear whether such reasoning develops earlier. Also unclear is the role of adults as agents in inculating in children the adults' views on such rights. A study examined 184 Canadian students in the first, third,…

  9. Factors Affecting the Development of Analogical Reasoning in Young Children: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdellatif, Hanaa R.; Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to use analogical reasoning traditionally has been considered a higher-level ability characteristic of thinking of older children and adults. Such reasoning has not been thought to be accessible to younger children. However, recently, it has been suggested that younger children's ability to understand and solve analogical problems…

  10. "Clinical Reasoning Theater": A New Approach to Clinical Reasoning Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Custers, Eugene J. F. M.; van Gijn, Jan; ten Gate, Olle Th. J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a new approach to clinical reasoning education called clinical reasoning theater (CRT). With students as the audience, the doctor's clinical reasoning skills are modeled in CRT when he or she thinks aloud during conversations with the patient. Preliminary results of students' evaluations of the relevance of CRT reveal that they…

  11. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  12. Depressive symptoms and inductive reasoning performance: findings from the ACTIVE reasoning training intervention.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Jeanine M; Franchetti, Mary Kathryn; Rebok, George W; Spira, Adam P; Carlson, Michelle C; Willis, Sherry L; Gross, Alden L

    2014-12-01

    Within the context of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE; Ball et al., 2002; Jobe et al., 2001; Willis et al., 2006), we examined the longitudinal association of baseline depressive symptoms on inductive reasoning performance over a 10-year period between the reasoning training and control conditions (N = 1,375). At baseline, 322 participants (23%) reported elevated depressive symptoms, defined by a score ≥9 on the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Radloff, 1977). Differences in baseline depressive status were not associated with immediate posttraining gains or with subsequent annual change in reasoning performance, suggesting that the presence of elevated baseline depressive symptoms does not impact the ability to benefit from reasoning training.

  13. Expectations in Counterfactual and Theory of Mind Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Heather J.; Scheepers, Christoph; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    During language comprehension, information about the world is exchanged and processed. Two essential ingredients of everyday cognition that are employed during language comprehension are the ability to reason counterfactually, and the ability to understand and predict other peoples' behaviour by attributing independent mental states to them…

  14. Reflecting on Classroom Practice: Spatial Reasoning and Simple Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Spatial reasoning--the ability to visualise and play with shapes in one's mind--is essential in many fields, and crucial in any Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics [STEM] discipline. It is, for example, the ability that the engineer needs to build bridges; the chemist to see the three-dimensional structure of a molecule; the architect to…

  15. Relational Reasoning in Medical Education: Patterns in Discourse and Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Baker, Lisa M.; Jablansky, Sophie; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Relational reasoning, which has been defined as the ability to discern meaningful patterns within any informational stream, is a foundational cognitive ability associated with education, including in scientific domains. This study entailed the analysis of instructional conversations in which an attending clinical neurologist and his team of…

  16. 10 Reasons to Get Vaccinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features 10 Reasons To Get Vaccinated Language: English Español (Spanish) ... many reasons to get vaccinated; here are just 10. You may be at risk for serious diseases ...

  17. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  18. EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH ABSTRACTING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HYER, ANNA L.

    THIS PROJECT PROVIDED ABSTRACTING COVERAGE OF 33 FINAL REPORTS OF U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION FINANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS IN EDUCATIONAL MEDIA. AN ABSTRACTOR, DR. WILLIAM ALLEN, WAS HIRED TO EVALUATE AND EDIT OR REWRITE ABSTRACTS SUBMITTED BY RESEARCHERS, AND TO PREPARE ABSTRACTS IF NECESSARY. TWO ANALYTICAL REVIEWS ON SELECTED AREAS OF MEDIA RESEARCH…

  19. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  20. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  1. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  2. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  3. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  4. Reasons, reasonability and establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

    PubMed

    Card, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    This paper builds upon previous work in which I argue that we should assess a provider's reasons for his or her objection before granting a conscientious exemption. For instance, if the medical professional's reasoned basis involves an empirical mistake, an accommodation is not warranted. This article poses and begins to address several deep questions about the workings of what I call a reason-giving view: What standard should we use to assess reasons? What policy should we adopt in order to evaluate the reasons offered by medical practitioners in support of their objections? I argue for a reasonability standard to perform the essential function of assessing reasons, and I offer considerations in support of a policy establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.

  5. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  6. Understanding Proportional Reasoning for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is an important cornerstone in children's mathematical development. This sort of reasoning has been shown to develop across the early years of schooling (ages 8 to 10) through the middle years (ages 11-14). In the early years, children tend to use additive reasoning to generate solutions to problems, while later comparisons…

  7. Improving Student Reasoning in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bobson; Bukalov, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    In their years of teaching geometry, Wong and Bukalov realized that the greatest challenge has been getting students to improve their reasoning. Many students have difficulty writing formal proofs--a task that requires a good deal of reasoning. Wong and Bukalov reasoned that the solution was to divide the lessons into parallel tasks, allowing…

  8. Reasoning Serves Argumentation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The argumentative theory of reasoning (Mercier & Sperber, in press) claims that reasoning evolved for argumentation: to find and evaluate arguments in dialogic contexts. The theory has drawn most of its supportive evidence from work with adults, leaving open the possibility that argumentive features of reasoning are in fact entirely learned.…

  9. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  10. Abstract models of molecular walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the

  11. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  12. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  13. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  14. Sex differences in spatial cognition, computational fluency, and arithmetical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C; Saults, S J; Liu, F; Hoard, M K

    2000-12-01

    Alternative explanations for the male advantage in arithmetical reasoning, as measured by the ability to solve complex word problems, include a male advantage in spatial cognition and a male advantage in computational fluency. The current study was designed to test these competing hypotheses. To this end, 113 male and 123 female undergraduates were administered arithmetical computations and arithmetical reasoning tests, along with an IQ test and a test of spatial cognition. There was no sex difference on the IQ test, but males showed significantly higher mean scores on the arithmetical computations, arithmetical reasoning, and spatial cognition measures. A series of structural equation models indicated that individual differences in arithmetical reasoning were related to individual differences in IQ, spatial abilities, and computational fluency. Moreover, the results suggested that the male advantage in arithmetical reasoning is mediated by the male advantages in both computational fluency and spatial cognition.

  15. Mathematical Abstraction in the Solving of Ill-Structured Problems by Elementary School Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jee Yun; Kim, Min Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Ill-structured problems can be regarded as one of the measures that meet recent social needs emphasizing students' abilities to solve real-life problems. This study aimed to analyze the mathematical abstraction process in solving such problems, and to identify the mathematical abstraction level ([I] Recognition of mathematical structure through…

  16. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations. PMID:19192280

  17. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  18. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  19. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  20. Lay abstracts and summaries: writing advice for scientists.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Catherine E; Lapane, Kate L

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals, institutional review boards, and funding sources often require abstracts or research summaries written specifically for the lay public. Making research findings understandable to the public helps raise awareness and speed adoption of practices that may lead to improved health. We provide advice on writing lay abstracts and summaries which includes the following: (1) make reasonable assumptions about grade-level, vocabulary, prior experience, and interests of the audience; (2) practice a verbal explanation with someone from your audience; (3) start writing by using a simple headline followed by a brief and relevant synopsis in common language then expand; (4) read your draft aloud and revise; (5) check readability statistics and simplify as needed; and (6) have both lay audience and peer scientists read your summary to assure that it is accessible to the public while remaining true to the science.

  1. A Novel Analog Reasoning Paradigm: New Insights in Intellectually Disabled Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curie, Aurore; Brun, Amandine; Cheylus, Anne; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana; Bussy, Gérald; Delange, Karine; Paulignan, Yves; Mercier, Sandra; David, Albert; Marignier, Stéphanie; Merle, Lydie; de Fréminville, Bénédicte; Prieur, Fabienne; Till, Michel; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Toutain, Annick; Bieth, Eric; Touraine, Renaud; Sanlaville, Damien; Chelly, Jamel; Kong, Jian; Ott, Daniel; Kassai, Behrouz; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Gollub, Randy L.; des Portes, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual Disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in intellectual functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, and learning. As new avenues are emerging for treatment of genetically determined ID (such as Down’s syndrome or Fragile X syndrome), it is necessary to identify objective reliable and sensitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials. Objective We developed a novel visual analogical reasoning paradigm, inspired by the Progressive Raven’s Matrices, but appropriate for Intellectually Disabled patients. This new paradigm assesses reasoning and inhibition abilities in ID patients. Methods We performed behavioural analyses for this task (with a reaction time and error rate analysis, Study 1) in 96 healthy controls (adults and typically developed children older than 4) and 41 genetically determined ID patients (Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and ARX mutated patients). In order to establish and quantify the cognitive strategies used to solve the task, we also performed an eye-tracking analysis (Study 2). Results Down syndrome, ARX and Fragile X patients were significantly slower and made significantly more errors than chronological age-matched healthy controls. The effect of inhibition on error rate was greater than the matrix complexity effect in ID patients, opposite to findings in adult healthy controls. Interestingly, ID patients were more impaired by inhibition than mental age-matched healthy controls, but not by the matrix complexity. Eye-tracking analysis made it possible to identify the strategy used by the participants to solve the task. Adult healthy controls used a matrix-based strategy, whereas ID patients used a response-based strategy. Furthermore, etiologic-specific reasoning differences were evidenced between ID patients groups. Conclusion We suggest that this paradigm, appropriate for ID patients and developmental populations as well as adult healthy controls, provides an

  2. Counterfactual Reasoning Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Castellví, Pere; Caño, Agnès; Benejam, Bessy

    2016-01-01

    Background Counterfactual thinking is a specific type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Although it has been broadly studied in the general population, research on schizophrenia is still scarce. The aim of the current study was to further examine counterfactual reasoning in this illness. Methods Forty schizophrenia patients and 40 controls completed a series of tests that assessed the influence of the “causal order effect” on counterfactual thinking, and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences from a hypothetical situation. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as neurocognitive variables, were also examined. Results Compared to controls, the schizophrenia patients generated fewer counterfactual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. The pattern of response when assessing the causality effect of the order was also different between the groups, with the patients being more frequently unable to attribute any ordering of events than the control subjects. Additionally, the schizophrenia patients showed more difficulties when deriving normative counterfactual inferences from hypothetical social situations. None of the counterfactual reasoning measures was associated to any of the cognitive functions or clinical and socio-demographic variables assessed. Conclusions A global impairment in counterfactual thinking characterizes schizophrenia patients. Because of the potential impact of such deficits on psychosocial functioning, targeting counterfactual reasoning for improvement might be considered in future treatment approaches. PMID:26828931

  3. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  4. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  5. A brief on writing a successful abstract.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.

  6. The Evidence-Based Reasoning Framework: Assessing Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nathaniel J. S.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Timms, Michael; Nagashima, Sam O.; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recent science education reforms have emphasized the importance of students engaging with and reasoning from evidence to develop scientific explanations. A number of studies have created frameworks based on Toulmin's (1958/2003) argument pattern, whereas others have developed systems for assessing the quality of students' reasoning to support…

  7. A Characterization of Dynamic Reasoning: Reasoning with Time as Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Karen Allen

    2007-01-01

    Students incorporate and use the implicit and explicit parameter time to support their mathematical reasoning and deepen their understandings as they participate in a differential equations class during instruction on solutions to systems of differential equations. Therefore, dynamic reasoning is defined as developing and using conceptualizations…

  8. Social Epistemology, the Reason of "Reason" and the Curriculum Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Not-with-standing the current topoi of the Knowledge Society, a particular "fact" of modernity is that power is exercised less through brute force and more through systems of reason that order and classify what is known and acted on. This article explored the system of reason that orders and classifies what is talked about, thought and…

  9. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  10. Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2014-08-01

    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults' Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed "Basic Conditional Reasoning" (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent.

  11. Easy as ABCABC: Abstract Language Facilitates Performance on a Concrete Patterning Task.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Emily R; McNeil, Nicole M; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    The labels used to describe patterns and relations can influence children's relational reasoning. In this study, 62 preschoolers (Mage  = 4.4 years) solved and described eight pattern abstraction problems (i.e., recreated the relation in a model pattern using novel materials). Some children were exposed to concrete labels (e.g., blue-red-blue-red) and others were exposed to abstract labels (e.g., A-B-A-B). Children exposed to abstract labels solved more problems correctly than children exposed to concrete labels. Children's correct adoption of the abstract language into their own descriptions was particularly beneficial. Thus, using concrete learning materials in combination with abstract representations can enhance their utility for children's performance. Furthermore, abstract language may play a key role in the development of relational thinking.

  12. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  13. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  14. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  15. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  16. Abstracts of Selected Management Training Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Ilene

    Intended for evaluators--whether trainers, psychologists, management consultants or professors--this bibliography samples findings in management training evaluation between 1953 and 1975. It contains 28 abstracts of representative articles from journals in applied psychology and personnel management. Each abstract is a one-half to one-page…

  17. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  18. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  19. Discourse-Level Structure in Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    An investigation was undertaken into the possibility of automatically detecting how concepts exist in relation to each other in abstracts, a text-type commonly used in free-text retrieval. The end goal of this research is to capture these relationships in structured representations of abstracts' contents so that users can require not only that the…

  20. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  1. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  2. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  3. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  4. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  5. Hurrah for the Reasonable Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Dorothy

    1994-01-01

    Recent court cases on sexual harassment, and the outcomes, were reviewed in terms of how the court viewed a "reasonable" woman. Rulings in such cases can vary because of different interpretations of the "reasonable" concept. Also discusses how recent rulings will affect sexual harassment policymakers in the workplace and educational institutions.…

  6. Patterns to Develop Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    What is the role of patterns in developing algebraic reasoning? This important question deserves thoughtful attention. In response, this article examines some differing views of algebraic reasoning, discusses a controversy regarding patterns, and describes how three types of patterns--in contextual problems, in growing geometric figures, and in…

  7. Assessing Understanding through Reasoning Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sally K.; Tayeh, Carla

    2010-01-01

    To focus on mathematical reasoning and what makes a good argument, the authors developed an assignment that requires college students to submit a book of mathematical reasoning as an assessment during the semester. To begin, the authors looked for questions and tasks that lend themselves to developing mathematical arguments and justifications and…

  8. Mathematical Reasoning in Teachers' Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, Tomas; Lithner, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers' ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on…

  9. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  10. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  11. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  12. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning. PMID:22478015

  13. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

  14. The 4th R: Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    Reviews sources of information on materials for teaching reasoning with a microcomputer. Suggests microcomputer magazines, catalogs of commercial materials, CONDUIT (a nonprofit organization devoted to educational computer use), and local microcomputer users groups. Lists Apple II software for strategy games with reasoning applications. (DMM)

  15. Building Bridges to Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Jessica F.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, which involves "building and manipulating mental representations of two-and three-dimensional objects and perceiving an object from different perspectives" is a critical aspect of geometric thinking and reasoning. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation…

  16. Learning to Reason from Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zvi, Dani; Bakker, Arthur; Makar, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce the topic of "learning to reason from samples," which is the focus of this special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" on "statistical reasoning." Samples are data sets, taken from some wider universe (e.g., a population or a process) using a particular procedure…

  17. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  18. Prefrontal Cortex Organization: Dissociating Effects of Temporal Abstraction, Relational Abstraction, and Integration with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  19. Reading Instruction: Remedial and Compensatory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1977 (Vol. 38 Nos. 1 through 6), Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with the following topics: disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged students' detection of written fallacies in reasoning; the effects of remedial reading instruction, a camp-style reading/study program, and reading…

  20. Innate spatial-temporal reasoning and the identification of genius.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Balzarini, Doreen; Bodner, Mark; Jones, Edward G; Phillips, Tiffany; Richardson, Debra; Shaw, Gordon L

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics is invariably language-based, but spatial-temporal (ST) reasoning (making a mental image and thinking ahead in space and time) is crucial to the understanding of math. Here we report that Big Seed, a demanding ST video game, based upon the mathematics of knot theory and previously applied to understanding DNA structure and function, can be used to reveal innate ST reasoning. Big Seed studies with middle and elementary school children provide strong evidence that ST reasoning ability is not only innate but far exceeds optimistic expectations based on age, the percentage of children achieving exceptional ST performance in less than 7 h of training, and retention of ability. A third grader has been identified as a genius (functionally defined) in ST performance. Big Seed may be used for training and assessing 'creativity' (functionally defined) and ST reasoning as well as discovering genius.

  1. Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent. PMID:25729114

  2. Modelling default and likelihood reasoning as probabilistic reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1990-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis of plausible reasoning about defaults and about likelihood is presented. Likely and by default are in fact treated as duals in the same sense as possibility and necessity. To model these four forms probabilistically, a qualitative default probabilistic (QDP) logic and its quantitative counterpart DP are derived that allow qualitative and corresponding quantitative reasoning. Consistency and consequent results for subsets of the logics are given that require at most a quadratic number of satisfiability tests in the underlying propositional logic. The quantitative logic shows how to track the propagation error inherent in these reasoning forms. The methodology and sound framework of the system highlights their approximate nature, the dualities, and the need for complementary reasoning about relevance.

  3. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  4. Probability misjudgment, cognitive ability, and belief in the paranormal.

    PubMed

    Musch, Jochen; Ehrenberg, Katja

    2002-05-01

    According to the probability misjudgment account of paranormal belief (Blackmore & Troscianko, 1985), believers in the paranormal tend to wrongly attribute remarkable coincidences to paranormal causes rather than chance. Previous studies have shown that belief in the paranormal is indeed positively related to error rates in probabilistic reasoning. General cognitive ability could account for a relationship between these two variables without assuming a causal role of probabilistic reasoning in the forming of paranormal beliefs, however. To test this alternative explanation, a belief in the paranormal scale (BPS) and a battery of probabilistic reasoning tasks were administered to 123 university students. Confirming previous findings, a significant correlation between BPS scores and error rates in probabilistic reasoning was observed. This relationship disappeared, however, when cognitive ability as measured by final examination grades was controlled for. Lower cognitive ability correlated substantially with belief in the paranormal. This finding suggests that differences in general cognitive performance rather than specific probabilistic reasoning skills provide the basis for paranormal beliefs.

  5. The development of causal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2012-05-01

    How do inference rules for causal learning themselves change developmentally? A model of the development of causal reasoning must address this question, as well as specify the inference rules. Here, the evidence for developmental changes in processes of causal reasoning is reviewed, with the distinction made between diagnostic causal inference and causal prediction. Also addressed is the paradox of a causal reasoning literature that highlights the competencies of young children and the proneness to error among adults. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:327-335. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1160 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity.

  7. Development of the Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory (SRBCI).

    PubMed

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    We followed established best practices in concept inventory design and developed a 12-item inventory to assess student ability in statistical reasoning in biology (Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory [SRBCI]). It is important to assess student thinking in this conceptual area, because it is a fundamental requirement of being statistically literate and associated skills are needed in almost all walks of life. Despite this, previous work shows that non-expert-like thinking in statistical reasoning is common, even after instruction. As science educators, our goal should be to move students along a novice-to-expert spectrum, which could be achieved with growing experience in statistical reasoning. We used item response theory analyses (the one-parameter Rasch model and associated analyses) to assess responses gathered from biology students in two populations at a large research university in Canada in order to test SRBCI's robustness and sensitivity in capturing useful data relating to the students' conceptual ability in statistical reasoning. Our analyses indicated that SRBCI is a unidimensional construct, with items that vary widely in difficulty and provide useful information about such student ability. SRBCI should be useful as a diagnostic tool in a variety of biology settings and as a means of measuring the success of teaching interventions designed to improve statistical reasoning skills.

  8. Development of the Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory (SRBCI)

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    We followed established best practices in concept inventory design and developed a 12-item inventory to assess student ability in statistical reasoning in biology (Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory [SRBCI]). It is important to assess student thinking in this conceptual area, because it is a fundamental requirement of being statistically literate and associated skills are needed in almost all walks of life. Despite this, previous work shows that non–expert-like thinking in statistical reasoning is common, even after instruction. As science educators, our goal should be to move students along a novice-to-expert spectrum, which could be achieved with growing experience in statistical reasoning. We used item response theory analyses (the one-parameter Rasch model and associated analyses) to assess responses gathered from biology students in two populations at a large research university in Canada in order to test SRBCI’s robustness and sensitivity in capturing useful data relating to the students’ conceptual ability in statistical reasoning. Our analyses indicated that SRBCI is a unidimensional construct, with items that vary widely in difficulty and provide useful information about such student ability. SRBCI should be useful as a diagnostic tool in a variety of biology settings and as a means of measuring the success of teaching interventions designed to improve statistical reasoning skills. PMID:26903497

  9. Correlation of Inductive and Deductive Logical Reasoning to College Physics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart, Morris A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Questions and substantiates that both inductive and deductive components of logical reasoning contribute to achievement in an introductory college physics course, with deductive logical abilities contributing more to achievement. Performance on tests requiring both inductive and deductive logical reasoning ability correlated significantly with…

  10. Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions (Child Development, 2010, Vol. 81, pp. 376–389). By continuing to use the same method, the main result of the current Study 1 was that performance of the 9- to 11-year-olds was comparable to that of the 6-year-olds, whereas the 12- to 14-year-olds approximated adult performance. Study 2, using an intuitively simpler task based on Harris and colleagues (Cognition, 1996, Vol. 61, pp. 233–259), resulted in a similar conclusion, specifically that the ability to apply counterfactual reasoning is not fully developed in all children before 12 years of age. We conclude that children who failed our tasks seem to lack an understanding of what needs to be changed (events that are causally dependent on the counterfactual assumption) and what needs to be left unchanged and so needs to be kept as it actually happened. Alternative explanations, particularly executive functioning, are discussed in detail. PMID:23219156

  11. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions to tree nuts may outgrow their sensitivity. A carefully performed food challenge can safely document ... is drastically reduced. 4. Discover the degree of sensitivity. Discovering the degree of sensitivity is another reason ...

  12. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  13. The Relationship between Students' Epistemologies and Model-Based Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobert, Janice; Discenna, Jennifer

    Models and modeling are frequently used as instructional tools in science education to convey important information concerning both the explanatory and structural features of topic areas in science. The efficacy of models as such rests almost entirely upon students' ability to conceptualize them as abstracted "representations" of…

  14. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  15. Paraphrasing for condensation in journal abstracting.

    PubMed

    Kittredge, Richard

    2002-08-01

    When authors of empirical science articles write abstracts, they employ a wide variety of distinct linguistic operations which interact to condense and rephrase a subset of sentences from the source text. An on-going comparison of biological and biomedical journal articles with their author-written abstracts is providing a basis for a more linguistically detailed model of abstract derivation using syntactic representations of selected source sentences. The description makes use of rich dictionary information to formulate paraphrasing rules of differing degrees of generality, including some which are sublanguage-specific, and others which appear valid in several languages when formulated using "lexical functions" to express important semantic relationships between lexical items. Some paraphrase operations may use both lexical functions and rhetorical relations between sentences to reformulate larger chunks of text in a concise abstract sentence. The descriptive framework is computable and utilizes existing linguistic resources.

  16. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  17. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  18. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  19. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  20. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  1. Adversarial reasoning and resource allocation: the LG approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Many existing automated tools purporting to model the intelligent enemy utilize a fixed battle plan for the enemy while using flexible decisions of human players for the friendly side. According to the Naval Studies Board, "It is an open secret and a point of distress ... that too much of the substantive content of such M&S has its origin in anecdote, ..., or a narrow construction tied to stereotypical current practices of 'doctrinally correct behavior.'" Clearly, such runs lack objectivity by being heavily skewed in favor of the friendly forces. Presently, the military branches employ a variety of game-based simulators and synthetic environments, with manual (i.e., user-based) decision-making, for training and other purposes. However, without an ability to automatically generate the best strategies, tactics, and COA, the games serve mostly to display the current situation rather than form a basis for automated decision-making and effective training. We solve the problem of adversarial reasoning as a gaming problem employing Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory demonstrating significant increase in size in gaming problems solvable in real and near-real time. It appears to be a viable approach for solving such practical problems as mission planning and battle management. Essentially, LG may be structured into two layers: game construction and game solving. Game construction includes construction of a game called an LG hypergame based on a hierarchy of Abstract Board Games (ABG). Game solving includes resource allocation for constructing an advantageous initial game state and strategy generation to reach a desirable final game state in the course of the game.

  2. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  3. Information Technology Division Technical Paper Abstracts 1995,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Division (ITD), one of the largest research and development collectives at the Naval Research Laboratory. The abstracts are organized into sections that represent the six branches with ITD: the Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Communications Systems, the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems, Transmission Technology, Advanced Information Technology , and the Center for Computational Science. Within each section, a list of branch papers published in 1993 and 1994 has also been included; abstracts

  4. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  5. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Expertise in Medicine--Insights into Their Relationship Using Functional Neuroimaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Pam; Krigolson, Olav; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Hecker, Kent G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is dependent upon working memory (WM). More precisely, during the clinical reasoning process stored information within long-term memory is brought into WM to facilitate the internal deliberation that affords a clinician the ability to reason through a case. In the present study, we examined the relationship between clinical…

  6. Trauma-Related Predictors of Deontic Reasoning: A Pilot Study in a Community Sample of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Chu, Ann T.; Combs, Melody D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Deontic reasoning (i.e., reasoning about duties and obligations) is essential to navigating interpersonal relationships. Though previous research demonstrates links between deontic reasoning abilities and trauma-related factors (i.e., dissociation, exposure to multiple victimizations) in adults, studies have yet to examine deontic…

  7. Logic and Belief across the Lifespan: The Rise and Fall of Belief Inhibition during Syllogistic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neys, Wim; Van Gelder, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Popular reasoning theories postulate that the ability to inhibit inappropriate beliefs lies at the heart of the human reasoning engine. Given that people's inhibitory capacities are known to rise and fall across the lifespan, we predicted that people's deductive reasoning performance would show similar curvilinear age trends. A group of children…

  8. Object-oriented reasoning in cognitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korniak, Janusz

    2000-06-01

    The intelligence agent architecture widely employs methods of logic of belief. The goal of the paper is to find a correct and effective inference mechanism that can substantially improve resolution based traditional methods. The semantics of the mechanism is based on Minsky's frames. Each agent is modeled by Minsky's frames with their slots representing what agent believes in. Inference process is realized by daemons filling the frames slots. The filling in this context means setting unknown slot values. The order of reasoning is established by a directed acyclic graph and driven by the topological sorting as a reasoning strategy. The inference algorithm analysis shows that the new method works in polynomial time. Therefore it is more efficient than NP, resolution based traditional methods. The correctness of object oriented implementation of the algorithm is established by considering the inference process in terms of abstract relational systems and their isomorphisms. Finally an implementation methodology of agents and their inference process in object oriented language is presented. All the considered concepts and methodology are illustrated in object oriented solution to `three wisemen problem' implemented in Smalltalk.

  9. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  10. David Lukens Reasoner (1941-1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Rick

    David Lukens Reasoner, former head of NASA's Ionospheric Physics branch, died on April 21, 1992. Reasoner was born July 1, 1941. He worked tirelessly to expand NASA's Space Physics Division, bringing his deep experience and personal expertise to bear on the challenges of growth.During the magical period of the late 1950s and early 1960s when America turned its eyes toward space and the Moon, David Lukens Reasoner journeyed north from the nearby Texas town of Dickinson to Rice University with an idea of getting involved in exploring the frontiers of space. He pursued a course of study in electrical engineering and received a bachelor's degree in 1963 and a master's degree in 1964. In the early 1960s, the Space Science Department at Rice was formed, and President John Kennedy visited to say that America chose to go to space not because it is easy but because it is hard and because it would require the very best talents of our nation to succeed. Dave Reasoner was one of those talented people. His excellence in electrical engineering and physics, combined with his natural abilities in the laboratory, suited him ideally for building the machines of space. As a student, he built sounding rocket payloads and multiple instruments for satellites and experiment packages that were placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. He completed his doctoral degree in space science in 1968. It was in these early thrilling days of space exploration that I first met Dave, beginning a friendship and collegial relationship that was to last 27 years.

  11. The Relationship between American Sign Language Vocabulary and the Development of Language-Based Reasoning Skills in Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The language-based analogical reasoning abilities of Deaf children are a controversial topic. Researchers lack agreement about whether Deaf children possess the ability to reason using language-based analogies, or whether this ability is limited by a lack of access to vocabulary, both written and signed. This dissertation examines factors that…

  12. The quest for the gist: on challenges of going abstract in social and personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, Arie W

    2004-01-01

    Abstraction and generalization constitute important aims of science (Kruglanski, 2001, in press), yet broad theorizing is rather rare in social and personality psychology. Some reasons for this state of affairs are examined, including the considerable staying power of insufficiently abstract theories and the broad resistance that abstract theories can incite. The trials and tribulations of abstract theorizing are considered, drawing on my own work on lay epistemics. Its problems and pitfalls notwithstanding, abstract theorizing is what our field needs more of if progress is to take place and social and personality psychology is to obtain the voice it merits in the general cultural dialogue about societal issues. To encourage such theorizing, 3 principles are offered, including the commonality focus (the horizontal voyage), the data focus (the vertical voyage), and the restructuration focus (the upstream voyage) principles.

  13. Labelled Unit Superposition Calculi for Instantiation-Based Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Konstantin; Sticksel, Christoph

    The Inst-Gen-Eq method is an instantiation-based calculus which is complete for first-order clause logic modulo equality. Its distinctive feature is that it combines first-order reasoning with efficient ground satisfiability checking which is delegated in a modular way to any state-of-the-art ground SMT solver. The first-order reasoning modulo equality employs a superposition-style calculus which generates the instances needed by the ground solver to refine a model of a ground abstraction or to witness unsatisfiability.

  14. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  15. Dyslexia and reasoning: the importance of visual processes.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Alison M; Handley, Simon J

    2010-08-01

    Recent research has suggested that individuals with dyslexia rely on explicit visuospatial representations for syllogistic reasoning while most non-dyslexics opt for an abstract verbal strategy. This paper investigates the role of visual processes in relational reasoning amongst dyslexic reasoners. Expt 1 presents written and verbal protocol evidence to suggest that reasoners with dyslexia generate detailed representations of relational properties and use these to make a visual comparison of objects. Non-dyslexics use a linear array of objects to make a simple transitive inference. Expt 2 examined evidence for the visual-impedance effect which suggests that visual information detracts from reasoning leading to longer latencies and reduced accuracy. While non-dyslexics showed the impedance effects predicted, dyslexics showed only reduced accuracy on problems designed specifically to elicit imagery. Expt 3 presented problems with less semantically and visually rich content. The non-dyslexic group again showed impedance effects, but dyslexics did not. Furthermore, in both studies, visual memory predicted reasoning accuracy for dyslexic participants, but not for non-dyslexics, particularly on problems with highly visual content. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of visual and semantic processes in reasoning for individuals with dyslexia, and we argue that these processes play a compensatory role, offsetting phonological and verbal memory deficits.

  16. Reading Achievement: Characteristics Associated with Success and Failure: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. Among the topics covered in the 26 titles are the following: self concept and reading achievement; eye movement patterns and reading ability; psychological and neuropsychological measures of performance of children with variations in…

  17. Theatre and Oral Interpretation: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the relative effects of two creative drama approaches on the dramatic behavior and mental imagery ability of elementary school students; (2) the history of the…

  18. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 20 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) reading readiness, linguistic awareness, and nonverbal problem solving ability in relation to first grade reading achievement; (2) predictive accuracy of third…

  19. Literature, Literary Response, and the Teaching of Literature: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) humorous children's literature and divergent thinking; (2) the development of children's ability to apprehend and distribute attention to important elements in…

  20. Teaching of Writing: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1985 (Vol. 45 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 39 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the assessment of writing ability; (2) small group discussion as a prewriting activity; (3) effects of evaluation methods in learning technical writing skills;…