Science.gov

Sample records for abstract science concepts

  1. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  2. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  3. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  4. Identification and description of the momentum effect in studies of learning: An abstract science concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Sool; Mayer, Victor J.

    Several studies of the validity of the intensive time series design have revealed a post-intervention increase in the level of achievement data. This so called momentum effect has not been demonstrated through the application of an appropriate analysis technique. The purpose of this study was to identify and apply a technique that would adequately represent and describe such an effect if indeed it does occur, and to use that technique to study the momentum effect as it is observed in several data sets on the learning of the concept of plate tectonics. Subsequent to trials of several different analyses, a segmented straight line regression analysis was chosen and used on three different data sets. Each set revealed similar patterns of inflection points between lines with similar time intervals between inflections for those data from students with formal cognitive tendencies. These results seem to indicate that this method will indeed be useful in representing and identifying the presence and duration of the momentum effect in time series data on achievement. Since the momentum effect could be described in each of the data sets and since its presence seems a function of similar circumstances, support is given for its presence in the learning of abstract scientific concepts for formal cognitive tendency students. The results indicate that the duration of the momentum effect is related to the level of student understanding tested and the cognitive level of the learners.

  5. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  7. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  8. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  9. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  10. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  11. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  12. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  13. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  14. Editors' Introduction: Abstract Concepts: Structure, Processing, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Marianna; Steen, Gerard

    2018-06-22

    Our ability to deal with abstract concepts is one of the most intriguing faculties of human cognition. Still, we know little about how such concepts are formed, processed, and represented in mind. For example, because abstract concepts do not designate referents that can be experienced through our body, the role of perceptual experiences in shaping their content remains controversial. Current theories suggest a variety of alternative explanations to the question of "how abstract concepts are represented in the human mind." These views pinpoint specific streams of semantic information that would play a prominent role in shaping the content of abstract concepts, such as situation-based information (e.g., Barsalou & Wiemer-Hastings, ), affective information (Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, & Del Campo, ), and linguistic information (Louwerse, ). Rarely, these theoretical views are directly compared. In this special issue, current views are presented in their most recent and advanced form, and directly compared and discussed in a debate, which is reported at the end of each article. As a result, new exciting questions and challenges arise. These questions and challenges, reported in this introductory article, can arguably pave the way to new empirical studies and theoretical developments on the nature of abstract concepts. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. The use of Museum Based Science Centres to Expose Primary School Students in Developing Countries to Abstract and Complex Concepts of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Trust; Sigauke, Esther

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology, and it is regarded as the basis for the next industrial revolution. In developing countries, nanotechnology promises to solve everyday challenges, such as the provision of potable water, reliable energy sources and effective medication. However, there are several challenges in the exploitation of nanotechnology. One of the notable challenges is the lack of adequate knowledge about how materials behave at the nanoscale. As nanotechnology is relatively new, the current generation of scientists have not had the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of the technology at an early stage. Young students who are at the primary school level may follow the same trajectory if they are not exposed to the technology. There is a need to lay a strong foundation by introducing nanoscience and nanotechnology to students at the primary school level. It is during the early stages of child development that students master basic concepts for life long learning. Nevertheless, many primary school children, particularly those in developing countries are missing the chance of learning about nanoscience and nanotechnology because it is regarded as being abstract and complex. In this paper, we argue that despite the complexity of nanoscience and nanotechnology, science centres can be used as one of the platforms for exposing young students to the discipline. We use a case study of a museum-based science centre as an example to illustrate that young students can be exposed to nanoscience and nanotechnology using tactile and hands-on experience. The early engagement of primary school children with nanoscience and nanotechnology is important in raising the next generation of scientists who are firmly grounded in the discipline.

  16. DSMS science operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connally, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Science Operations Concept describes the vision for enabling the use of the DSMS, particularly the Deep Space Network (DSN) for direct science observations in the areas of radio astronomy, planetary radar, radio science and VLBI.

  17. Teaching Abstract Concepts: Keys to the World of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Joannis K.; Gittinger, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Specific teaching strategies to help hearing-impaired secondary students comprehend abstract concepts include (1) pinpointing facts and fallacies, (2) organizing information visually, (3) categorizing ideas, and (4) reinforcing new vocabulary and concepts. Figures provide examples of strategy applications. (DB)

  18. Concept Abstractness and the Representation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu; Paulson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research on noun-noun combinations has been largely focusing on concrete concepts. Three experiments examined the role of concept abstractness in the representation of noun-noun combinations. In Experiment 1, participants provided written interpretations for phrases constituted by nouns of varying degrees of abstractness. Interpretive focus (the…

  19. Abstract concepts, language and sociality: from acquisition to inner speech.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Barca, Laura; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Tummolini, Luca

    2018-08-05

    The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts. We will discuss evidence obtained in our and other laboratories showing that processing of abstract concepts evokes linguistic interaction and social experiences, leading to the activation of the mouth motor system. We will discuss the possible mechanisms that underlie this activation. Mouth motor system activation can be due to re-enactment of the experience of conceptual acquisition, which occurred through the mediation of language. Alternatively, it could be due to the re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner speech. Finally, it can be due to a metacognitive process revealing low confidence in the meaning of our concepts. This process induces in us the need to rely on others to ask/negotiate conceptual meaning. We conclude that with abstract concepts language works as a social tool: it extends our thinking abilities and pushes us to rely on others to integrate our knowledge.This article is part of the theme issue 'Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use, and representation in the brain'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Abstract Concept of TRAPPIST-1 System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-22

    This artist's concept appeared on the Feb. 23, 2017 cover of the journal Nature announcing that the TRAPPIST-1 star, an ultra-cool dwarf, has seven Earth-size planets orbiting it. Any of these planets could have liquid water on them. Planets that are farther from the star are more likely to have significant amounts of ice, especially on the side that faces away from the star. The system has been revealed through observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) telescope, as well as other ground-based observatories. The system was named for the TRAPPIST telescope. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21421

  1. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  2. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  3. (abstract) Space Science with Commercial Funding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The world-wide recession, and other factors, have led to reduced or flat budgets in real terms for space agencies around the world. Consequently space science projects and proposals have been under pressure and seemingly will continue to be pressured for some years into the future. A new concept for space science funding is underway at JPL. A partnership has been arranged with a commercial, for-profit, company that proposes to implement a (bandwidth-on-demand) information and telephone system through a network of low earth orbiting satellites (LEO). This network will consist of almost 1000 satellites operating in polar orbit at Ka-band. JPL has negotiated an agreement with this company that each satellite will also carry one or more science instruments for astrophysics, astronomy, and for earth observations. This paper discussed the details of the arrangement and the financial arrangements. It describes the technical parameters, such as the 60 GHz wideband inter-satellite links and the frequency, time, and position control, on which the science is based, and it also discusses the complementarity of this commercially funded space science with conventional space science.

  4. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  5. How Pupils Use a Model for Abstract Concepts in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Donovan, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the way pupils of different age groups use a model to understand abstract concepts in genetics. Pupils from early childhood to late adolescence were taught about genes and DNA using an analogical model (the wool model) during their regular biology classes. Changing conceptual understandings of the…

  6. Can Abstract Concepts Be Taught to All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Steve

    A review of the literature was conducted to determine if there are instructional treatments that are effective at fostering the learning (conceptualization) of abstract concepts and what personal and/or cognitive attributes favor conceptualization. Areas addressed include: reporting relative effectiveness of findings (including the reporting of…

  7. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  8. Moral concepts set decision strategies to abstract values.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-04-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a "balancing and weighing" strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a "fight-and-flight" strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses.

  9. Abstracts in Journal of Animal Science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Journal of Animal Science (JAS) is the leading international journal for animal science research. The American Society of Animal Science publishes JAS to support its mission, “To discover, disseminate, and apply knowledge for sustainable use of animals for food and other human needs.” Thus, JAS cont...

  10. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  11. Concepts in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, O. P.

    Contained in this experimental test are instructional materials for a one-semester course designed to give liberal arts students an appreciation of (1) the nature of science, (2) the development of science, (3) the contributions of scientists, (4) the impact of scientific discoveries on mankind, and (5) the possible future effects of science. The…

  12. Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a “balancing and weighing” strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a “fight-and-flight” strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses. PMID:21483767

  13. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  14. On Teaching Abstraction in Computer Science to Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a key concept in CS, one of the most fundamental ideas underlying CS and its practice. However, teaching this soft concept to novices is a very difficult task, as discussed by many CSE experts. This paper discusses this issue, and suggests a general framework for teaching abstraction in CS to novices, a framework that would fit into…

  15. Exoplanet Observing: from Art to Science (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.; Gleeson, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) This paper will review the now well-established best practices for conducting high precision exoplanet observing with small telescopes. The paper will also review the AAVSO's activities in promoting these best practices among the amateur astronomer community through training material and online courses, as well as through the establishment of an AAVSO Exoplanet Database. This latter development will be an essential element in supporting followup exoplanet observations for upcoming space telescope missions such as TESS and JWST.

  16. Struggling to understand abstract science topics: a Roundhouse diagram-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

    2002-06-01

    This study explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. It is based on a metacognition-based visual learning model proposed by Wandersee in 1994. Ward and Wandersee introduced the Roundhouse diagram strategy and showed how it could be applied in science education. This article aims at elucidating the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current understandings to reach the intended meaningful understanding of complex science topics. The main findings of this study are that (a) it is crucial that relevant prior knowledge and dysfunctional alternative conceptions not be ignored during new learning if low-performing science students are to understand science well; (b) as the student's mastery of the Roundhouse diagram construction improved, so did science achievement; and (c) the student's apt choice of concept-related visual icons aided progress toward meaningful understanding of complex science concepts.

  17. Science Club--A Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  18. Struggling To Understand Abstract Science Topics: A Roundhouse Diagram-Based Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. Based on a metacognition-based visual learning model, aims to elucidate the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current…

  19. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  20. Sound iconicity of abstract concepts: Place of articulation is implicitly associated with abstract concepts of size and social dominance.

    PubMed

    Auracher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness. However, to date the relative influence of perceptual and conceptual cognitive processing on this association is not clear. To bridge this gap, three experiments were conducted in which associations between nonsense words and pictures of animals or emotional body postures were tested. In these experiments participants had to infer the relation between visual stimuli and the notion of size from the content of the pictures, while directly perceivable features did not support-or even contradicted-the predicted association. Results show that implicit associations between articulatory-acoustic characteristics of phonemes and pictures are mainly influenced by semantic features, i.e., the content of a picture, whereas the influence of perceivable features, i.e., size or shape, is overridden. This suggests that abstract semantic concepts can function as an interface between different sensory modalities, facilitating cross-modal associations.

  1. Journal article overlap among Index Medicus, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, and Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed Central

    Poyer, R K

    1984-01-01

    Journal article overlap is defined as the same journal article being indexed by two or more services. Using journal references from seventy dissertations written in the preclinical sciences, the extent of journal article overlap among Index Medicus, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, and Chemical Abstracts was examined. Of the 7,969 journal references cited, 92% were indexed by at least two of these services; 591 articles were covered by only one of the services, and 55 articles were not indexed. A discussion of the advantages and costs of journal article overlap is presented. PMID:6388693

  2. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.; Pendl, Suzanne L.; Humphries, Colin J.; Gross, William L.; Conant, Lisa L.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes—color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation—for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes. PMID:25750259

  3. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.; Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  4. Learning and Processing Abstract Words and Concepts: Insights From Typical and Atypical Development.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay

    2018-05-21

    The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states. Each hypothesis makes specific predictions with regards to when and which abstract words are more likely to be learned; also they make different predictions concerning the impact of developmental disorders. We start by providing a review of work characterizing how abstract words and concepts are learned in development, especially between the ages of 6 and 12. Second, we review some work from our group that tests the two hypotheses above. This work investigates typically developing (TD) children and children with atypical development (developmental language disorders [DLD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD] with and without language deficits). We conclude that the use of strategies based on emotional information, or on co-occurrences in language, may play a role at different developmental stages. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society Inc.

  5. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton

    2018-05-01

    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  6. Enhancements to the NASA Astrophysics Science Information and Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1995-05-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics Science Information and Abstract Service, the extension of the ADS Abstract Service continues rapidly to expand in both use and capabilities. Each month the service is used by about 4,000 different people, and returns about 1,000,000 pieces of bibliographic information. Among the recent additions to the system are: 1. Whole Text Access. In addition to the ApJ Letters we now have whole text for the ApJ on-line, soon we will have AJ and Rev. Mexicana. Discussions with other publishers are in progress. 2. Space Instrumentation Database. We now provide a second abstract service, covering papers related to space instruments. This is larger than the astronomy and astrophysics database in terms of total abstracts. 3. Reference Books and Historical Journals. We have begun putting the SAO Annals and the HCO Annals on-line. We have put the Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics by M.V. Zombeck (Cambridge U.P.) on-line. 4. Author Abstracts. We can now include original abstracts in addition to those we get from the NASA STI Abstracts Database. We have included abstracts for A&A in collaboration with the CDS in Strasbourg, and are collaborating with the AAS and the ASP on others. We invite publishers and editors of journals and conference proceedings to include their original abstracts in our service; send inquiries via e-mail to ads@cfa.harvard.edu. 5. Author Notes. We now accept notes and comments from authors of articles in our database. These are arbitrary html files and may contain pointers to other WWW documents, they are listed along with the abstracts, whole text, and data available in the index listing for every reference. The ASIAS is available at: http://adswww.harvard.edu/

  7. Social Science Concepts and the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancett, Verna S.; And Others

    Intended to introduce teachers to the concept approach in teaching social studies materials, the five chapters of this publication discuss (1) a definition of "concept" and the term's relationship to facts and generalizations, (2) the function of concepts in the social sciences, (3) how concepts develop, (4) how concepts are related to inquiry and…

  8. Exploring Concepts from Abstract Algebra Using Variations of Generalized Woven Figure Eights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tara; Knoll, Eva; Landry, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Students often struggle with concepts from abstract algebra. Typical classes incorporate few ways to make the concepts concrete. Using a set of woven paper artifacts, this paper proposes a way to visualize and explore concepts (symmetries, groups, permutations, subgroups, etc.). The set of artifacts used to illustrate these concepts is derived…

  9. On problems in defining abstract and metaphysical concepts--emergence of a new model.

    PubMed

    Nahod, Bruno; Nahod, Perina Vukša

    2014-12-01

    Basic anthropological terminology is the first project covering terms from the domain of the social sciences under the Croatian Special Field Terminology program (Struna). Problems that have been sporadically noticed or whose existence could have been presumed during the processing of terms mainly from technical fields and sciences have finally emerged in "anthropology". The principles of the General Theory of Terminology (GTT), which are followed in Struna, were put to a truly exacting test, and sometimes stretched beyond their limits when applied to concepts that do not necessarily have references in the physical world; namely, abstract and metaphysical concepts. We are currently developing a new terminographical model based on Idealized Cognitive Models (ICM), which will hopefully ensure a better cross-filed implementation of various types of concepts and their relations. The goal of this paper is to introduce the theoretical bases of our model. Additionally, we will present a pilot study of the series of experiments in which we are trying to investigate the nature of conceptual categorization in special languages and its proposed difference form categorization in general language.

  10. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as “freedom.” Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  11. Abstracts: Energy Sciences programs, January--December 1978

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This report presents abstracts of all publications in the Energy Sciences programs of the Department of Energy and Environment from January 1, 1978 through December 31, 1978. It is a companion report to Annual Highlights of Programs in Energy Sciences - (December 1978, BNL 50973). Together, they present scientific and/or technical highlights of the Energy Sciences programs for the past calendar year, detailed descriptions of all the programs, and the publication issuing from the work performed. The following are some of the topics included: porphyrin chemistry; chemistry of energetic compounds; combustion; coal utilization; metal hydrides; cyclic separations process research; tracemore » element analysis; materials properties and structures; radiation damage; superconducting materials; materials of construction for geothermal applications; repair of deteriorated concrete; development of glass--polymer composite sewer pipe; flash hydropyrolysis of coal; desulfurization of high-temperature combustion and fuel gases; and synthetic fuels development. (RWR)« less

  12. Are Abstract and Concrete Concepts Organized Differently? Evidence from the Blocked Translation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2013-01-01

    Using the blocked-translation paradigm with healthy participants, we examined Crutch and Warrington's hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are organized by distinct principles: concrete concepts by semantic similarities and abstract ones by associations. In three experiments we constructed two types of experimental blocking (similar…

  13. Contextual Processing of Abstract Concepts Reveals Neural Representations of Non-Linguistic Semantic Content

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Martin, Alex; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts develop for many aspects of experience, including abstract internal states and abstract social activities that do not refer to concrete entities in the world. The current study assessed the hypothesis that, like concrete concepts, distributed neural patterns of relevant, non-linguistic semantic content represent the meanings of abstract concepts. In a novel neuroimaging paradigm, participants processed two abstract concepts (convince, arithmetic) and two concrete concepts (rolling, red) deeply and repeatedly during a concept-scene matching task that grounded each concept in typical contexts. Using a catch trial design, neural activity associated with each concept word was separated from neural activity associated with subsequent visual scenes to assess activations underlying the detailed semantics of each concept. We predicted that brain regions underlying mentalizing and social cognition (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus) would become active to represent semantic content central to convince, whereas brain regions underlying numerical cognition (e.g., bilateral intraparietal sulcus) would become active to represent semantic content central to arithmetic. The results supported these predictions, suggesting that the meanings of abstract concepts arise from distributed neural systems that represent concept-specific content. PMID:23363408

  14. The Concept Currency of K-12 Science Textbooks Relative to Earth Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Delmar Lester

    This study was undertaken to determine the degree of agreement between science textbooks and scholars in earth science relative to earth science concepts to be included in the K-12 science curriculum. The study consisted of two phases: (1) the identification of a sample of earth science concepts rated by earth scientists as important for inclusion…

  15. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  16. Interoception: the forgotten modality in perceptual grounding of abstract and concrete concepts.

    PubMed

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot; Banks, Briony

    2018-08-05

    Conceptual representations are perceptually grounded, but when investigating which perceptual modalities are involved, researchers have typically restricted their consideration to vision, touch, hearing, taste and smell. However, there is another major modality of perceptual information that is distinct from these traditional five senses; that is, interoception, or sensations inside the body. In this paper, we use megastudy data (modality-specific ratings of perceptual strength for over 32 000 words) to explore how interoceptive information contributes to the perceptual grounding of abstract and concrete concepts. We report how interoceptive strength captures a distinct form of perceptual experience across the abstract-concrete spectrum, but is markedly more important to abstract concepts (e.g. hungry , serenity ) than to concrete concepts (e.g. capacity , rainy ). In particular, interoception dominates emotion concepts, especially negative emotions relating to fear and sadness , moreso than other concepts of equivalent abstractness and valence. Finally, we examine whether interoceptive strength represents valuable information in conceptual content by investigating its role in concreteness effects in word recognition, and find that it enhances semantic facilitation over and above the traditional five sensory modalities. Overall, these findings suggest that interoception has comparable status to other modalities in contributing to the perceptual grounding of abstract and concrete concepts.This article is part of the theme issue 'Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Preservice Teachers' Alternative Conceptions in Elementary Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Isil; Yager, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice teachers held alternative conceptions in elementary science concepts. Eighty-six preservice elementary teachers participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions…

  18. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  19. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  20. Naming a Lego World. The Role of Language in the Acquisition of Abstract Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  1. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  2. Reducing Abstraction in High School Computer Science Education: The Case of Definition, Implementation, and Use of Abstract Data Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhnini, Victoria; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article deals with the difficulties and mental processes involved in the definition, implementation, and use of abstract data types encountered by 12th grade advanced-level computer science students. Research findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of "reducing abstraction" [Hazzan 1999]. The…

  3. Role of Visualization in Mathematical Abstraction: The Case of Congruence Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Rezan; Argun, Ziya

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in mathematical thinking. Also, visualization is a strong tool for searching mathematical problems, giving meaning to mathematical concepts and the relationships between them. In this paper, we aim to investigate the role of visualizations in mathematical abstraction through a case study on five…

  4. Construction of High School Students' Abstraction Levels in Understanding the Concept of Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Khabibah, Siti; Setianingsih, Rini

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the abstraction thinking or the vertical reorganization activity of mathematical concepts of high school students while taking account of the abstraction that was constructed earlier, and the socio-cultural background. This study was qualitative in nature with task-based interviews as the method of…

  5. Neural reuse leads to associative connections between concrete (physical) and abstract (social) concepts and motives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Bargh, John A

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with neural reuse theory, empirical tests of the related "scaffolding" principle of abstract concept development show that higher-level concepts "reuse" and are built upon fundamental motives such as survival, safety, and consumption. This produces mutual influence between the two levels, with far-ranging impacts from consumer behavior to political attitudes.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Parachute, Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-03

    This artist concept is of NASA Mars Science Laboratory MSL Curiosity rover parachute system; the largest parachute ever built to fly on a planetary mission. The parachute is attached to the top of the backshell portion of the spacecraft aeroshell.

  7. A pragmatic conception of science: Implications for science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessoms, Deidre Bates

    In this dissertation, I examine various philosophical conceptions of the nature of science---its goals, methods and products---and link those views to how science is taught. While the review begins in the 1600s, the focus is primarily on logical positivism. The logical positivist view of science prevailed for much of the twentieth century and has greatly influenced how science is taught. The review section culminates with current conceptions of science from the fields of philosophy, sociology, feminist studies and radical studies of science. These various conceptions of the nature of science are linked to how science is currently taught, at the K--12 level and at the university. In particular, the logical positivist conception has influenced the teaching of science by emphasizing the products of science (factual knowledge and theories) over the processes of science (the social methods of knowledge production). As a result of viewing science as the logical positivists did, teachers primarily focus on science as unchanging factual knowledge, at the expense of examining the social and cultural aspects of scientific practices. I develop a pragmatic conception of the method of science as reflective thinking that we effectively use in our everyday lives. Linking that conception with the aims that John Dewey outlined for schools in a democratic society points the way towards certain goals and methods for teaching science. Therefore, I explore the type of science teaching that might result when viewing science as a pragmatic activity conducted in a democracy. Teaching of this sort would involve students in working together on shared problems that arise in the context of daily life. For science students at the university, this would include participating in and critiquing scientific research in active research laboratories. Implementing this view of science teaching might result in modifications in the practices and goals of science. Lastly, the experiences of a group of

  8. Using Concept Maps in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping is a pedagogical technique that was developed in the 1970s and is being used in K-12 and postsecondary education. Although it has shown excellent results in other fields, it is still rare in political science. In this research note, I discuss the implementation and testing of concept mapping in my Advanced Introduction to…

  9. A study of understanding: Alchemy, abstraction, and circulating reference in tertiary science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Brett W.

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an empirical study of the concept of understanding. After analyzing various constructions of understanding in current U.S. education literature, I suggest that understanding is defined by five distinct features---they are knowledge (or knowledge base), coherence, transfer, extrapolation, and cognition--- and that these features are heavily informed and shaped by the psychological sciences. This relationship is neither good nor bad, I argue, but it means that teaching for and learning with understanding are not heavily informed and shaped by, for example, the natural sciences. Drawing from historical, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives of science, but especially from the work of Bruno Latour, I enact a radical revision(ing) of psychological notions such as "abstraction" and "transfer." The two main purposes of this re-visioning are (1) to draw critical attention to particular characteristics of a cognitive learning theory that emphasizes abstract concepts, and (2) to align many of the principles and tools used in science education more closely with those used in empirical scientific research. Finally, by bringing some examples of teaching and learning from an undergraduate biology classroom into conversation with both psychological and empirical practices and perspectives, I suggest that problematizing the current construction of understanding creates much needed room in mainstream science education for more empirical forms of learning and styles of teaching. A shift to such forms and styles, I conclude, should prove to be more inclusive and less constraining for both students and teachers.

  10. Student conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Amanda L.

    Research has shown that students from elementary school to college have major misconceptions about the nature of science. While an appropriate understanding of the nature of science has been an objective of science education for a century, researchers using a variety of instruments, continue to document students' inadequate conceptions of what science is and how it operates as an enterprise. Current research involves methods to improve student understanding of the nature of science. Students often misunderstand the creative, subjective, empirical, and tentative nature of science. They do not realize the relationship between laws and theories, nor do they understand that science does not follow a prescribed method. Many do not appreciate the influence culture, society, and politics; nor do they have an accurate understanding of the types of questions addressed by science. This study looks at student understanding of key nature of science (NOS) concepts in order to examine the impact of implementing activities intended to help students better understand the process of science and to see if discussion of key NOS concepts following those activities will result in greater gains in NOS understanding. One class received an "activities only" treatment, while the other participated in the same activities followed by explicit discussion of key NOS themes relating to the activity. The interventions were implemented for one school year in two high school anatomy and physiology courses composed of juniors and seniors. Student views of the nature of science were measured using the Views of the Nature of Science-Form C (VNOS-C). Students in both classes demonstrated significant gains in NOS understanding. However, contrary to current research, the addition of explicit discussion did not result in significantly greater gains in NOS understanding. This suggests that perhaps students in higher-level science classes can draw the correlations between NOS related activities and

  11. Prospective Science Teachers' Conceptions about Astronomical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify prospective science teachers' conceptions on basic astronomical phenomena. A questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was administered to 327 prospective science teachers. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive review of the literature and took into consideration the reported…

  12. Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…

  13. Using Food to Demonstrate Earth Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Francek, M.

    2001-12-01

    One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.

  14. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST). Annual Meeting (65th, Cambridge, Massachusetts, March 21-25, 1992). Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindarajan, Girish, Ed.

    This product of an annual meeting presents abstracts of symposia, contributed papers, paper sets, discussion groups, reports, poster sessions, and panel presentations. Topics include: science teaching, gender differences, science education reform, constructivism, biological concepts, concept mapping, attitude/behavior change, conceptual…

  15. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and the benefits of new technology for implicit body manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Eerland, Anita; Zijlmans, Josjan; Post, Lysanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as “power is up” and “more is up” representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations. PMID:25191282

  16. Concept Acquisition in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Factors Affecting the Abstraction of Prototypical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Conway, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated effects of variations in the number of instances comprising a category on concept acquisition by 31 children (ages 9-14) with mild intellectual disability and 19 controls. Intellectual disability had little effect on ability to abstract a category prototype but did reduce use of exemplar-specific information for recognition.…

  17. The ChemViz Project: Using a Supercomputer To Illustrate Abstract Concepts in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, E. Kenneth; Nelson, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Chemistry Visualization (ChemViz) Project, a Web venture maintained by the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) that enables high school students to use computational chemistry as a technique for understanding abstract concepts. Discusses the evolution of computational chemistry and provides a…

  18. Abstraction of complex concepts with a refined partial-area taxonomy of SNOMED

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

    2012-01-01

    An algorithmically-derived abstraction network, called the partial-area taxonomy, for a SNOMED hierarchy has led to the identification of concepts considered complex. The designation “complex” is arrived at automatically on the basis of structural analyses of overlap among the constituent concept groups of the partial-area taxonomy. Such complex concepts, called overlapping concepts, constitute a tangled portion of a hierarchy and can be obstacles to users trying to gain an understanding of the hierarchy’s content. A new methodology for partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, is presented. Different kinds of overlapping concepts with varying degrees of complexity are identified. This leads to an abstract model of the overlapping concepts called the disjoint partial-area taxonomy, which serves as a vehicle for enhanced, high-level display. The methodology is demonstrated with an application to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy. Overall, the resulting disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a refined view of the hierarchy’s structural organization and conceptual content that can aid users, such as maintenance personnel, working with SNOMED. The utility of the disjoint partial-area taxonomy as the basis for a SNOMED auditing regimen is presented in a companion paper. PMID:21878396

  19. Abstract memory representations in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus support concept generalization.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Zeithamova, Dagmar

    2018-02-07

    Memory function involves both the ability to remember details of individual experiences and the ability to link information across events to create new knowledge. Prior research has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the hippocampus as important for integrating across events in service of generalization in episodic memory. The degree to which these memory integration mechanisms contribute to other forms of generalization, such as concept learning, is unclear. The present study used a concept-learning task in humans (both sexes) coupled with model-based fMRI to test whether VMPFC and hippocampus contribute to concept generalization, and whether they do so by maintaining specific category exemplars or abstract category representations. Two formal categorization models were fit to individual subject data: a prototype model that posits abstract category representations and an exemplar model that posits category representations based on individual category members. Latent variables from each of these models were entered into neuroimaging analyses to determine whether VMPFC and the hippocampus track prototype or exemplar information during concept generalization. Behavioral model fits indicated that almost three quarters of the subjects relied on prototype information when making judgments about new category members. Paralleling prototype dominance in behavior, correlates of the prototype model were identified in VMPFC and the anterior hippocampus with no significant exemplar correlates. These results indicate that the VMPFC and portions of the hippocampus play a broad role in memory generalization and that they do so by representing abstract information integrated from multiple events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether people represent concepts as a set of individual category members or by deriving generalized concept representations abstracted across exemplars has been debated. In episodic memory, generalized memory representations have been shown

  20. The Abstract Thinking Levels of the Science-Education Students in Gaza Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwish, Ata H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the abstract thinking levels of the science students attending the first and fourth year at two Palestinian Universities (Al-Aqsa and Al-Azhar). The sample consisted of 133 students from Science Education Departments (SE). The tool, used to measure abstract thinking, was one of the Science Reasoning Tasks…

  1. Developing Science Concepts through Story-Telling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banister, Fiona; Ryan, Charly

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the use of story-telling to develop children's ideas about the water-cycle. Shows that children remember abstract science ideas better when taught in a story format and that they can distinguish the real from the anthropomorphic. (Author/MM)

  2. Auditing complex concepts of SNOMED using a refined hierarchical abstraction network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A; Case, James T; Hripcsak, George

    2012-02-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. "Complex" concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED's Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Auditing Complex Concepts of SNOMED using a Refined Hierarchical Abstraction Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Case, James T.; Hripcsak, George

    2012-01-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. “Complex” concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. PMID:21907827

  4. Semantic domain-specific functional integration for action-related vs. abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-03-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence suggesting partially segregated anatomo-functional correlates for concrete vs. abstract concepts, by directly testing the semantic domain-specific patterns of functional integration between language and modal semantic brain regions. We report evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, in which healthy participants listened to sentences with either an action-related (actions involving physical entities) or an abstract (no physical entities involved) content. We measured functional integration using dynamic causal modeling, and found that the left superior temporal gyrus was more strongly connected: (1) for action-related vs. abstract sentences, with the left-hemispheric action representation system, including sensorimotor areas; (2) for abstract vs. action-related sentences, with left infero-ventral frontal, temporal, and retrosplenial cingulate areas. A selective directionality effect was observed, with causal modulatory effects exerted by perisylvian language regions on peripheral modal areas, and not vice versa. The observed condition-specific modulatory effects are consistent with embodied and situated language processing theories, and indicate that linguistic areas promote a semantic content-specific reactivation of modal simulations by top-down mechanisms. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits and the Global Self.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Hammond, Matthew D; Mazza, Giulia; Corry, Grace

    2017-11-01

    There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts-specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4-7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  7. Sixteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Press abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A broad range of topics concerned with lunar and planetary science are discussed. Topics among those included are, the sun, the planets, comets, meteorities, asteroids, satellites, space exploration, and the significance of these to Earth.

  8. Semantic Size of Abstract Concepts: It Gets Emotional When You Can’t See It

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Vasiljevic, Milica; Weick, Mario; Sereno, Margaret E.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Size is an important visuo-spatial characteristic of the physical world. In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically “big” (e.g., jungle) versus “small” (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically “big” and “small” concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to “big” words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to “small” words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word’s semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words. Our findings provide novel insights into the semantic representations of size in abstract concepts and highlight that affective attributes of words may not always index lexical access. PMID:24086421

  9. Semantic size of abstract concepts: it gets emotional when you can't see it.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Vasiljevic, Milica; Weick, Mario; Sereno, Margaret E; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2013-01-01

    Size is an important visuo-spatial characteristic of the physical world. In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically "big" (e.g., jungle) versus "small" (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically "big" and "small" concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to "big" words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to "small" words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word's semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words. Our findings provide novel insights into the semantic representations of size in abstract concepts and highlight that affective attributes of words may not always index lexical access.

  10. Constructing Concept Maps to Encourage Meaningful Learning in Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate science teaching and assessing what is learned via using concept maps. Concept mapping is a technique for visually representing the structure of information. Concept mapping allows students to understand the relationships between concepts of science by creating a visual map of the connections. Concept…

  11. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Nuclear science abstracts (NSA) database 1948--1974 (on the Internet)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) is a comprehensive abstract and index collection of the International Nuclear Science and Technology literature for the period 1948 through 1976. Included are scientific and technical reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission, US Energy Research and Development Administration and its contractors, other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations. Coverage of the literature since 1976 is provided by Energy Science and Technology Database. Approximately 25% of the records in the file contain abstracts. These are from the following volumes of the print Nuclear Science Abstracts: Volumes 12--18, Volume 29, and Volume 33. The database containsmore » over 900,000 bibliographic records. All aspects of nuclear science and technology are covered, including: Biomedical Sciences; Metals, Ceramics, and Other Materials; Chemistry; Nuclear Materials and Waste Management; Environmental and Earth Sciences; Particle Accelerators; Engineering; Physics; Fusion Energy; Radiation Effects; Instrumentation; Reactor Technology; Isotope and Radiation Source Technology. The database includes all records contained in Volume 1 (1948) through Volume 33 (1976) of the printed version of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). This worldwide coverage includes books, conference proceedings, papers, patents, dissertations, engineering drawings, and journal literature. This database is now available for searching through the GOV. Research Center (GRC) service. GRC is a single online web-based search service to well known Government databases. Featuring powerful search and retrieval software, GRC is an important research tool. The GRC web site is at http://grc.ntis.gov.« less

  13. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…

  14. An Analysis of World-Wide Contributions to "Nuclear Science Abstracts," Volume 22 (1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, William M.

    Beginning with volume 20, "Nuclear Science Abstracts" (NSA) citations, exclusive of abstracts, have been recorded on magnetic tape. The articles have been categorized by 34 elements of the citations such as title, author, source, journal, report number, etc. At the time of this report more than 130,000 citations had been stored for…

  15. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  16. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  17. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. 50th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication provides abstracts of papers presented at the 50th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching held in Cincinnati, Ohio March 22-24, 1977. The entries represent a wide range of topics in the field of science education. Topics include instruction, teacher education, learning, enrollments, concept…

  18. Embodiment of abstract concepts: good and bad in right- and left-handers.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Do people with different kinds of bodies think differently? According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people who interact with their physical environments in systematically different ways should form correspondingly different mental representations. In a test of this hypothesis, 5 experiments investigated links between handedness and the mental representation of abstract concepts with positive or negative valence (e.g., honesty, sadness, intelligence). Mappings from spatial location to emotional valence differed between right- and left-handed participants. Right-handers tended to associate rightward space with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but left-handers showed the opposite pattern, associating rightward space with negative ideas and leftward with positive ideas. These contrasting mental metaphors for valence cannot be attributed to linguistic experience, because idioms in English associate good with right but not with left. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they could act more fluently with their dominant hands. These results support the body-specificity hypothesis and provide evidence for the perceptuomotor basis of even the most abstract ideas.

  19. Seeding science success: Relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with aspirations and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage

    identified barriers to promoting science in schools were: the difficulty of the subject matter, lack of student interest, the large amount of subject content, lack of perceived relevance of the subject matter to day-to-day life, ineffective teacher characteristics, lack of aspirations to pursue science as a career, inadequate teaching methods, lack of adequate teacher training, lack of proper policies to reward science teachers, and inadequate support for science from the media. Overall, the results from this study provide a greater understanding of the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with aspirations and achievement in different science domains across gender and age levels. Hence, this research makes a valuable contribution to the literature by providing new insight. The findings will be useful for science educators in planning and developing science curriculum and policies with regard to student self-concepts and motivation. Equally, science teachers may find implications for classroom practices, for the planning and conducting of science lessons, for conveying scientific concepts and principles to students more effectively, and in considering the need to generate enthusiasm about the subject in young science students. Thus, the findings may offer the necessary strategies to assist in reducing the decline of students' enrolments in science through efficacious attention to student self-concepts and motivation. The newly developed instrument provides a new opportunity for future research to confidently interrogate the psychosocial issues central to science education and promotion. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Adaptation of Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire into Turkish and Science Teacher Candidates' Conceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp; Kapucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) adapt an instrument "The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire" into Turkish, and (2) to determine Turkish science teacher candidates' COLS. Adapting the instrument four steps were followed. Firstly, COLS questionnaire was translated into Turkish. Secondly, COLS questionnaire was…

  1. Learning abstract visual concepts via probabilistic program induction in a Language of Thought.

    PubMed

    Overlan, Matthew C; Jacobs, Robert A; Piantadosi, Steven T

    2017-11-01

    The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding. Because the model makes use of symbolic variables as well as Bayesian inference and programs with stochastic primitives, it combines many of the advantages of both symbolic and statistical approaches to cognitive modeling. To evaluate the model, we conducted an experiment in which human subjects viewed training items and then judged which test items belong to the same concept as the training items. We found that the HLOT model provides a close match to human generalization patterns, significantly outperforming two variants of the Generalized Context Model, one variant based on string similarity and the other based on visual similarity using features from a deep convolutional neural network. Additional results suggest that variable binding happens automatically, implying that binding operations do not add complexity to peoples' hypothesized rules. Overall, this work demonstrates that a cognitive model combining symbolic variables with Bayesian inference and stochastic program primitives provides a new perspective for understanding people's patterns of generalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Students' Energy Conception in Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…

  3. Thinking Connections: Concept Maps for Life Science. Book B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burggraf, Frederick

    The concept maps contained in this book (for grades 7-12) span 35 topics in life science. Topics were chosen using the National Science Education Standards as a guide. The practice exercise in concept mapping is included to give students an idea of what the tasks ahead will be in content rich maps. Two levels of concept maps are included for each…

  4. Exploring Prospective Teachers' Worldviews and Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiang-Yao; Lederman, Norman G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship, if any, between an individual's culturally based worldviews and conceptions of nature of science. In addition, the implications of this relationship (or lack of relationship) for science teaching and learning are discussed. Participants were 54 Taiwanese prospective science teachers. Their conceptions of…

  5. Lunar Science. 3: Revised abstracts of papers presented at the Third Lunar Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, C. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to the meeting some 375 preliminary abstracts were printed for distribution to conference participants, with the provision that revised abstracts of up to three typed pages each could be submitted before the end of the conference. These updated expanded abstracts are collected here.

  6. From grasp to language: embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the macaque monkey and the discovery of a homologous "mirror system for grasping" in Broca's area in the human brain has revived the gestural origins theory of the evolution of the human capability for language, enriching it with the suggestion that mirror neurons provide the neurological core for this evolution. However, this notion of "mirror neuron support for the transition from grasp to language" has been worked out in very different ways in the Mirror System Hypothesis model [Arbib, M.A., 2005a. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, 105-167; Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A., 1998. Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience 21(5), 188-194] and the Embodied Concept model [Gallese, V., Lakoff, G., 2005. The brain's concepts: the role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22, 455-479]. The present paper provides a critique of the latter to enrich analysis of the former, developing the role of schema theory [Arbib, M.A., 1981. Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Brooks, V.B. (Ed.), Handbook of Physiology--The Nervous System II. Motor Control. American Physiological Society, pp. 1449-1480].

  7. Material science and Condensed matter Physics. 8th International Conference. Abstracts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyuk, L. L.; Paladi, Florentin; Canter, Valeriu; Nikorich, Valentina; Filippova, Irina

    2016-08-01

    The book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 8th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics (MSCMP 2016), a traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP).A total of 346 abstracts has been included in the book. The Conference programm included plenary lectures, topical keynote lectures, contributed oral and poster presentations distributed into 7 sections: * Condensed Matter Theory; * Advanced Bulk Materials; * Design and Structural Characterization of Materials; * Solid State Nanophysics and Nanotechnology; * Energy Conversion and Storage. Solid State Devices; * Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry; * Digital and Optical holography: Materials and Methods. The abstracts are arranged according to the sections mentioned above. The Abstracts book includes a table of matters at the beginning of the book and an index of authors at the finish of the book.

  8. Nuclear medicine. Bibliography from Nuclear Science Abstracts, Volumes 31--33

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1976-12-01

    References to 4362 publications related to nuclear medicine announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) volumes 31(Jan.--June 1975), 32(July--Dec. 1975), and 33(Jan.--June 1976) are contained in this bibliography. References are arranged in order by the original NSA abstract number which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference, and the indexes refer to these sequence numbers. Indexes included are: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number.

  9. On performing concepts during science lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    When lecturing, teachers make use of both verbal and nonverbal communication. What is called teaching, therefore, involves not only the words and sentences a teacher utters and writes on the board during a lesson, but also all the hands/arms gestures, body movements, and facial expressions a teacher performs in the classroom. All of these communicative modalities constitute resources that are made available to students for making sense of and learning from lectures. Yet in the literature on teaching science, these other means of communication are little investigated and understood - and, correspondingly, they are undertheorized. The purpose of this position paper is to argue for a different view of concepts in lectures: they are performed simultaneously drawing on and producing multiple resources that are different expressions of the same holistic meaning unit. To support our point, we provide examples from a database of 26 lectures in a 12th-grade biology class, where the human body was the main topic of study. We analyze how different types of resources - including verbal and nonverbal discourse and various material artifacts - interact during lectures. We provide evidence for the unified production of these various sense-making resources during teaching to constitute a meaning unit, and we emphasize particularly the use of gestures and body orientations inside this meaning unit. We suggest that proper analyses of meaning units need to take into account not only language and diagrams but also a lecturer's pointing and depicting gestures, body positions, and the relationships between these different modalities. Scientific knowledge (conceptions) exists in the concurrent display of all sense-making resources, which we, following Vygotsky, understand as forming a unit (identity) of nonidentical entities.

  10. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  11. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 93

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-21

    BlOMEDICAL SCIENCES Agrotechnology 1 Biochemistry 7 Biophysics n Environmental and Ecological Problems 12 Epidemiology 15 Hydrobiology 20...Agrotechnology USSR UDC 631.452(571.1) RAISING THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY OF AGBICULTURAL CROPS OF WESTERN SIBERIA Novosibirsk SIBIRSKIY VESTNIK...Scientific Research Institute of the Economics of Agriculture [Abstract] The need for improvement of agricultural productivity in Western Siberia will

  12. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  13. Weight, Mass, and Gravity: Threshold Concepts in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Brosh, Yaffa; Sneider, Cary

    2016-01-01

    Threshold concepts are essential ideas about the natural world that present either a barrier or a gateway to a deep understanding of science. Weight, mass, and gravity are threshold concepts that underpin students' abilities to understand important ideas in all fields of science, embodied in the performance expectations in the Next Generation…

  14. Turkish Science Student Teachers' Conceptions on the States of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah; Altuk, Yasemin Gödek

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine science students teachers' conceptions on the concepts related to "the matter and the states of the matter". 112 Turkish science student teachers participated at this research. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen open-ended items was designed to collect the data. The questionnaire aimed to reveal the…

  15. Exploring Exemplary Elementary Teachers' Conceptions and Implementation of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploration of the conceptions of inquiry science held by exemplary elementary teachers. The origins of these conceptions were explored in order to establish how best to improve elementary teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry science teaching. Four focus group sessions were held as well as classroom observations.…

  16. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  17. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  18. Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E., Ed.; Dibner, Kenne A., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Science is a way of knowing about the world. At once a process, a product, and an institution, science enables people to both engage in the construction of new knowledge as well as use information to achieve desired ends. Access to science--whether using knowledge or creating it--necessitates some level of familiarity with the enterprise and…

  19. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…

  20. Comparing Children's and Student Teachers' Ideas about Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Karen; Beggs, Jim; Murphy, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Children and teachers may not think in the same way about particular science concepts. Such parallel lines of thought can compound children's confusion and misunderstanding as they learn science at primary school. The situation could be more acute when student teachers are teaching science, because of their limited experience of considering…

  1. Mechanisms for Aiding Worker Adjustment to Technological Change: Volume 2: Concepts, Review of the Literature, Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Human Resources Inst.

    Volume 2, which accompanies "Mechanisms for Aiding Worker Adjustment to Technological Change, Volume 1," consists of a key word index for locating specific topics and the abstracts of literature reviewed in Volume 1. Key words, referring to aspects of worker adjustment to technological change appearing in the abstracted literature, are grouped…

  2. The Mental Representation of Integers: An Abstract-to-Concrete Shift in the Understanding of Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics has a level of structure that transcends untutored intuition. What is the cognitive representation of abstract mathematical concepts that makes them meaningful? We consider this question in the context of the integers, which extend the natural numbers with zero and negative numbers. Participants made greater and lesser judgments of…

  3. The Effectiveness of Using the Instructional Strategy Diagnostic Profile to Prescribe Improvements in Self-Instructional Materials Teaching Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Barry L.

    1981-01-01

    This study conducted to determine the effectiveness of using the Instructional Strategy Diagnostic Profile to revise self-instructional materials that teach abstract concepts examined three sets of materials: the original set, the set with improved consistency rating, and the set with improved consistency and adequacy ratings. Forty-six references…

  4. Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Jugnu; Morin, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy…

  5. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  6. Structure and dynamics of European sports science textual contents: Analysis of ECSS abstracts (1996-2014).

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Aceski, Aleksandar; Balague, Natalia; Seifert, Ludovic; Tufekcievski, Aleksandar; Cecilia, Aguirre

    2017-02-01

    The article discusses general structure and dynamics of the sports science research content as obtained from the analysis of 21998 European College of Sport Science abstracts belonging to 12 science topics. The structural analysis showed intertwined multidisciplinary and unifying tendencies structured along horizontal (scope) and vertical (level) axes. Methodological (instrumental and mode of inquiry) integrative tendencies are dominant. Theoretical integrative tendencies are much less detectable along both horizontal and vertical axes. The dynamic analysis of written abstracts text content over the 19 years reveals the contextualizing and guiding role of thematic skeletons of each sports science topic in forming more detailed contingent research ideas and the role of the latter in stabilizing and procreating the former. This circular causality between both hierarchical levels and functioning on separate characteristic time scales is crucial for understanding how stable research traditions self-maintain and self-procreate through innovative contingencies. The structure of sports science continuously rebuilds itself through use and re-use of contingent research ideas. The thematic skeleton ensures its identity and the contingent conceptual sets its flexibility and adaptability to different research or applicative problems.

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Number 47

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-27

    temperature intervals may vary and depends on the composition and previous heat treatment history of the alloy. Figures 2; references 13: 1 Russian, 12... HISTORY OF AMg6 ALLOY INTERMEDIATE WORKPIECES ON THE TIGHTNESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WELDS Kiev AVTOMATICHESKAYA SVARKA In Russian No 5(290), May...of Sciences Ukrainian SSR [Abstract] The effect of flux composition during argon-arc welding of titani - um with a nonconsumable electrode on melting

  8. Natural concepts in a juvenile gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla) at three levels of abstraction.

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Jennifer; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which nonhumans are able to form conceptual versus perceptual discriminations remains a matter of debate. Among the great apes, only chimpanzees have been tested for conceptual understanding, defined as the ability to form discriminations not based solely on simple perceptual features of stimuli, and to transfer this learning to novel stimuli. In the present investigation, a young captive female gorilla was trained at three levels of abstraction (concrete, intermediate, and abstract) involving sets of photographs representing natural categories (e.g., orangutans vs. humans, primates vs. nonprimate animals, animals vs. foods). Within each level of abstraction, when the gorilla had learned to discriminate positive from negative exemplars in one set of photographs, a novel set was introduced. Transfer was defined in terms of high accuracy during the first two sessions with the new stimuli. The gorilla acquired discriminations at all three levels of abstraction but showed unambiguous transfer only with the concrete and abstract stimulus sets. Detailed analyses of response patterns revealed little evidence of control by simple stimulus features. Acquisition and transfer involving abstract stimulus sets suggest a conceptual basis for gorilla categorization. The gorilla's relatively poor performance with intermediate-level discriminations parallels findings with pigeons, and suggests a need to reconsider the role of perceptual information in discriminations thought to indicate conceptual behavior in nonhumans. PMID:12507006

  9. Females in Science: A Contradictory Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background: the belief that women and science, including mathematics and medicine, are incompatible has had a long and complex history and still often works to exclude women from and/or marginalise them in science. Purpose: this article will seek to explore gender and educational achievement through investigating how such gendered presumptions…

  10. Young Children's Conceptions of Science and Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…

  11. Proving or Improving Science Learning? Understanding High School Students' Conceptions of Science Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Classroom assessment is a critical aspect of teaching and learning. In this paper, Taiwanese high school students' conceptions of science assessment and the relationship between their conceptions of science assessment and of science learning were investigated. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, 60 students were…

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Teachers' Nature of Science Conceptions and Their Practice of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Gallard, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In addition to recommending inquiry as the primary approach to teaching science, developers of recent reform efforts in science education have also strongly suggested that teachers develop a sound understanding of the nature of science. Most studies on teachers' NOS conceptions and inquiry beliefs investigated these concepts of teachers' NOS…

  13. Minority Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Science: Sources of Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores five minority preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching science and identifies the sources of their strategies for helping students learn science. Perspectives from the literature on conceptions of teaching science and on the role constructs used to describe and distinguish minority preservice teachers from their mainstream…

  14. The struggle of translating science into action: Foundational concepts of implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Clay‐Williams, Robyn; Churruca, Kate; Shih, Patti; Hogden, Anne; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims, and objectives “Implementation science,” the scientific study of methods translating research findings into practical, useful outcomes, is contested and complex, with unpredictable use of results from routine clinical practice and different levels of continuing assessment of implementable interventions. The authors aim to reveal how implementation science is presented and understood in health services research contexts and clarify the foundational concepts: diffusion, dissemination, implementation, adoption, and sustainability, to progress knowledge in the field. Method Implementation science models, theories, and frameworks are critiqued, and their value for laying the groundwork from which to implement a study's findings is emphasised. The paper highlights the challenges of turning research findings into practical outcomes that can be successfully implemented and the need for support from change agents, to ensure improvements to health care provision, health systems, and policy. The paper examines how researchers create implementation plans and what needs to be considered for study outputs to lead to sustainable interventions. This aspect needs clear planning, underpinned by appropriate theoretical paradigms that rigorously respond to a study's aims and objectives. Conclusion Researchers might benefit from a return to first principles in implementation science, whereby applications that result from research endeavours are both effective and readily disseminated and where interventions can be supported by appropriate health care personnel. These should be people specifically identified to promote change in service organisation, delivery, and policy that can be systematically evaluated over time, to ensure high‐quality, long‐term improvements to patients' health. PMID:28371050

  15. Science Application of Area and Ratio Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Virginia M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes using area and ratio concepts to examine why some animals, or people wearing different types of shoes, sink into the surface on which they are standing. Students compute "sinking values" to explain these differences. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Developing a taxonomy of science concepts based on a scale of empirical distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    The term ‘concept’ is used in different ways within educational literature and has at least two different, although related, referents in relation to science knowledge, namely, public knowledge and private understandings. A taxonomic structure for ‘science concepts’ (public knowledge) has been developed to provide a rationale for the choice of phenomena to be used in the investigation of students’ ‘concepts’ and also to act as a frame of reference for generating insights about the data to be collected. Furthermore, it may be a useful heuristic to predict other science concepts likely to be highly problematic in school teaching situations and thus worthy of detailed research. The taxonomy, called a ‘Scale of Empirical Distance’ (SED), enables science concepts to be mapped according to their degree of closeness to concrete realities. The scale shows a recognition of the empirical basis of science concepts and the role of human senses in the perception of the material world even though “absolute objectivity of observation is not a possible ideal of science” as Harre (1972) has noted. The scale uses two binary variables, namely, ‘visual’ and ‘tactile’, to generate four categories of science concepts ranging on a continuum from concrete to abstract. Some concepts related to ‘matter’ will be classified and discussed.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft During Cruise, Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-03

    This is an artist concept of NASA Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft during its cruise phase between launch and final approach to Mars. The spacecraft includes a disc-shaped cruise stage on the left attached to the aeroshell.

  18. Deceleration of Mars Science Laboratory in Martian Atmosphere, Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-03

    This artist concept depicts the interaction of NASA Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft with the upper atmosphere of Mars during the entry, descent and landing of the Curiosity rover onto the Martian surface.

  19. NAS Panel endorses science center concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Science and technology centers, as proposed by President Ronald Reagan in his January 1987 State of the Union message, could make “significant contributions to science and to the nation's economic competitiveness,” according to a new report by a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel. What will be necessary to realize these contributions, the panel cautioned, are proper management, adequate resources, and, “above all, the selection of programs for which the centers are the most effective form of organization.”NSF plans to support science and technology centers, beginning October 1, 1988, which is the start of fiscal year 1988. NSF requested guidance from the NAS panel in implementing the program. Although other government agencies will participate in the program, NSF will play the primary role.

  20. Investigating inquiry beliefs and nature of science (NOS) conceptions of science teachers as revealed through online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    inquiry science instruction in variety of ways. In a nutshell, these include: (1) The teachers become more confident in their ability to implement inquiry-based science classes; (2) Better understanding of NOS conceptions assists the teachers develop a higher appreciation of inquiry science instruction; (3) The teachers' misconceptions about nature of science appear to be connected to their misconceptions about inquiry science instruction; (4) A better understanding of NOS concepts seems to have stimulate the teachers to put more emphasis on some aspects of inquiry more than others; and (5) Sophistication of teachers' NOS conceptions influences their decisions about the type of inquiry they plan to incorporate in their instruction. This study also suggests that enhancing teachers' NOS conceptions should be among the main objectives of inquiry-based professional development programs and courses that are taught in science education programs. This study reveals that enhancing NOS conceptions helps teachers in their efforts to integrate inquiry into their instruction by boosting their confidence in their abilities to teach science through inquiry. This study reveals that especially teachers who lack strong science backgrounds and prior experience with inquiry science are at risk. Not having a strong background in science and lacking extensive experience with inquiry science negatively influences the teachers' confidence and thus delays their efforts to implement inquiry-based science lessons. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Preservice elementary teachers' alternative conceptions of science and their self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, Isil

    The present study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held alternative conceptions in fundamental elementary science concepts from earth/space science, life science, and physical science along with their self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching and to determine the relationship between these two issues. Eighty-six preservice elementary education majors enrolled in the four sections of the course titled "07E:162 Methods Elementary School Science" offered in the Science Education Center, College of Education, the University of Iowa during the 2005-2006 academic year participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions in Science Instrument constructed by Schoon and Boone (1998), Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) constructed by Enochs and Riggs (1990), a participant information form, and through utilization of interviews. The results from the alternative conception instrument indicated that the majority of preservice elementary teachers held a number of alternative conceptions with most being in the physical sciences followed by earth/space, and then life science. Various sources of alternative conceptions emerged during the interview sessions. Participants mainly cited science teachers, science textbooks, and previous science experiences as sources of their alternative conceptions. On the other hand, the analysis of the self-efficacy instrument and follow-up interviews revealed generally positive self-efficacy beliefs. Findings from the study also confirmed that science courses completed in high school and college do not seem to have influenced participants' number and types of alternative conceptions regarding earth/space science, life science, and physical science and self-efficacy beliefs about science teaching. The results also indicate that participants with the lowest number of

  2. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  3. Vehicle Concept Model Abstractions For Integrated Geometric, Inertial ,Rigid Body, Powertrain and FE Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    structure through quantitative assessment of stiffness and modal parameter changes resulting from modifications to the beam geometries and positions...power transmission assembly. If the power limit at a wheel exceeds the traction limit, then depending on the type of differential placed on the axle ...components with appropriate model connectivity instead to determine the free modal response of powertrain type components, without abstraction

  4. Disciplinarity and sport science in Europe: A statistical and sociological study of ECSS conference abstracts.

    PubMed

    Champely, Stéphane; Fargier, Patrick; Camy, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Abstracts of European College of Sports Science conferences (1995-2014) are studied. The number of abstracts has been increasing regularly (+90 per year). This rise is in recent years largely due to extra-European countries. The magnitude and accumulation of the different topics of discussion are examined. An operational criterion determines four stages of evolution of a topic: social network, cluster, specialty, and discipline. The scientific production can, therefore, be classified as disciplinary or non-disciplinary. The disciplinary part is more important but has been less dynamic recently. The cognitive content of sport science is then explored through a multidimensional scaling of the topics based on the keywords used in the abstracts. Three areas are visible: social sciences and humanities, sports medicine and physiology, and biomechanics and neurophysiology. According to the field theory of Bourdieu ( 1975 ), three scientific habitus are distinguished. The logic of academic disciplinary excellence is the consequence of the autonomy of this scientific field, its closure, peer-review process, and barriers to entry. The distribution of scientific capital and professional capital is unequal across the three areas. Basically, conservation strategies of academic disciplinary excellence are predicted in biomechanics and neurophysiology, subversion strategies of interdisciplinarity based on professional concerns can appear in the sports medicine and physiology area, and critical strategies of interdisciplinarity based on social utility in social sciences and humanities. Moreover, additional tensions within these areas are depicted. Lastly methods based on co-citations of disciplines and boundary objects are proposed to find tangible patterns of multidisciplinarity confirming these strategies.

  5. Concept Mapping Revisited: Nurturing Children's Writing Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping has long been used an assessment tool by educators to illustrate students' conceptual development of a topic over time. In this article, we chronicle the use of concept maps in a language arts environment. Focusing on a literacy tutoring program for struggling readers/writers centered on hands-on science experiments, we explain how…

  6. Concept Mapping and Pupils' Learning in Primary Science in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Yuan; Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study which examined the effectiveness of concept mapping as a revision tool in enhancing pupils' examination performances in primary science. The research objective seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in achievement between the concept mapping and traditional method of revision…

  7. Future Science Teachers' Understandings of Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…

  8. Key Concept Mathematics and Management Science Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Thomas G.; Dery, George C.

    1973-01-01

    The presentation of topics in calculus and matrix algebra to second semester freshmen along with a treatment of exponential and power functions would permit them to cope with a significant portion of the mathematical concepts that comprise the essence of several disciplines in a business school curriculum. (Author)

  9. The Nature of Science in Science Curricula: Methods and Concepts of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article shows methods and concepts of analysis of the nature of science in science curricula through an exemplary study made in Portugal. The study analyses the extent to which the message transmitted by the Natural Science curriculum for Portuguese middle school considers the nature of science. It is epistemologically and sociologically…

  10. Science and the Concept of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    The contents of this book, an outgrowth of a symposium held at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington on December 30, 1966, are organized in three sections. Section one, "Behavior-Genetic Analyses and Their Relevance to the Construct of Race," includes the following essays: "The Construct Race and the…

  11. Beyond the Clock--Using the Computer to Teach the Abstract Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Julie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses several projects to help teach and reinforce the concept of time, using the books "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" (by Eric Carle) and "Charlotte's Web (by E. B. White) as well as the computer software program "Timeliner" (by Tom Snyder). (SR)

  12. Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

  13. Using Technology To Bring Abstract Concepts into Focus: A Programming Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Thad; Butterfield, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the three-step implementation of an instructional technology tool and associated pedagogy to support teaching and learning computer programming concepts. The Flowchart Interpreter (FLINT) was proven through experiments to support novice programmers better than the traditional textbook approach. (EV)

  14. The science knowledge, conceptions of the nature of science, attitudes about teaching science, and science instructional strategies of bilingual and English-only elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Adelina Victoria

    The goal of this study was to explore bilingual and English-only elementary teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and their self-reported science instructional skills. In this study, a bilingual teacher was defined as a teacher who provides instruction in Spanish and English in core academic subjects and has completed and/or is completing a bilingual certification program. An English-only teacher was defined as a monolingual teacher that only speaks and instructs in English. The principal questions guiding this dissertation investigation were the following: How do bilingual elementary teachers differ from English-only elementary teachers in (a) their science knowledge, (b) their conceptions of the nature of science, (c) their attitude about teaching science, and (d) their self-reported science instructional skills? This dissertation study is a component of a three-year long Eisenhower Project granted to Hueneme School District and the University of California, Santa Barbara Southcoast Science Project. While the Project will last three years (1997--2000), this dissertation study was developed to answer only a subset of questions of the entire project and data was collected in 1998. The research design for this study consisted of a self-administered questionnaire that was given to Hueneme School District elementary teachers that teach science and was developed by reviewing the relevant literature about teachers' science knowledge, their conceptions of the nature of science, their attitudes about teaching science, and the instructional strategies that support science learning. The findings showed that both the bilingual and the English-only respondents demonstrated a similar science knowledge base, which is suggested, by this researcher, to be limited. That both bilingual and English-only teacher respondents demonstrated similar positive attitudes about teaching science and both reported making

  15. Professional Development of Elementary and Science Teachers in a Summer Science Camp: Changing Nature of Science Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Many countries all over the world have recently integrated nature of science (NOS) concepts into their science education standards. Providing professional support to teachers about NOS concepts is crucially important for successful implementation of the standards. For this purpose, a summer science camp was offered to elementary and science…

  16. Abstracts for the symposium on the Application of neural networks to the earth sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are a group of mathematical methods that attempt to mimic some of the processes in the human mind. Although the foundations for these ideas were laid as early as 1943 (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943), it wasn't until 1986 (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986; Masters, 1995) that applications to practical problems became possible. It is the acknowledged superiority of the human mind at recognizing patterns that the artificial neural networks are trying to imitate with their interconnected neurons. Interconnections used in the methods that have been developed allow robust learning. Capabilities of neural networks fall into three kinds of applications: (1) function fitting or prediction, (2) noise reduction or pattern recognition, and (3) classification or placing into types. Because of these capabilities and the powerful abilities of artificial neural networks, there have been increasing applications of these methods in the earth sciences. The abstracts in this document represent excellent samples of the range of applications. Talks associated with the abstracts were presented at the Symposium on the Application of Neural Networks to the Earth Sciences: Seventh International Symposium on Mineral Exploration (ISME–02), held August 20–21, 2002, at NASA Moffett Field, Mountain View, California. This symposium was sponsored by the Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan (MMIJ), the U.S. Geological Survey, the Circum-Pacific Council, and NASA. The ISME symposia have been held every two years in order to bring together scientists actively working on diverse quantitative methods applied to the earth sciences. Although the title, International Symposium on Mineral Exploration, suggests exclusive focus on mineral exploration, interests and presentations have always been wide-ranging—abstracts presented here are no exception.

  17. Results and Implications of a 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Science Concept Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the methods and outcomes of a 12-year longitudinal study into the effects of an early intervention program, while reflecting back on changes that have occurred in approaches to research, learning and instruction since the preliminary inception stages of the study in the mid 1960s. We began the study to challenge the prevailing consensus at the time that primary school children were either preoperational or concrete operational in their cognitive development and they could not learn abstract concepts. Our early research, based on Ausubelian theory, suggested otherwise. The paper describes the development and implementation of a Grade 1-2 audio tutorial science instructional sequence, and the subsequent tracing over 12 years, of the children's conceptual understandings in science compared to a matched control group. During the study the concept map was developed as a new tool to trace children's conceptual development. We found that students in the instruction group far outperformed their non-instructed counterparts, and this difference increased as they progressed through middle and high school. The data clearly support the earlier introduction of science instruction on basic science concepts, such as the particulate nature of matter, energy and energy transformations. The data suggest that national curriculum standards for science grossly underestimate the learning capabilities of primary-grade children. The study has helped to lay a foundation for guided instruction using computers and concept mapping that may help both teachers and students become more proficient in understanding science.

  18. Life Sciences and Allied Fields: Indexes and Abstracts, Book Review Indexes, Serials Bibliographies, Translations. Bibliographic Series No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colpitts, D. Corinne

    The information sources for the life sciences and allied fields listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Citations include indexes and abstracts dealing with national and international literature in medicine, the biological sciences, environmental science, veterinary medicine, agriculture, botany, and zoology, as…

  19. Secondary Physical Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching in a Context of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Dale L.; Booth, Shirley

    2015-05-01

    Pre-service teachers enter initial teacher education programmes with conceptions of teaching gleaned from their own schooling. These conceptions, which include teachers' beliefs, may be resistant to change, which is a challenge in contexts where teacher educators hope that teachers will teach in ways different from their own schooling. Conceptions of teaching found in different cultural and disciplinary contexts have contextual differences but have resonances with the results of research into teacher beliefs. Our sample of eight South African secondary physical science teachers was schooled in a system which encouraged knowledge transmission, but they were prepared in their initial teacher education for a learner-centred approach. After they had taught for a few years, we explored their conceptions of science teaching, using phenomenographic interviews. Four conceptions emerged inductively from the analysis: transferring science knowledge from mind to mind; transferring problematic science knowledge from mind to mind; creating space for learning science knowledge and creating space for learning problematic science knowledge. Internally these conceptions are constituted by three dimensions of variation: the nature of the science knowledge to be learnt, the role of the students and the role of the teacher. Media and practical work play different roles in the external horizon of these conceptions. These conceptions reflect the disciplinary context as well as the emphases of the sample's initial teacher education programme. This suggests that initial teacher education can significantly shape teachers' conceptions of teaching.

  20. Aerospace-Related Life Science Concepts for Use in Life Science Classes Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

    The purpose of this guide is to provide the teacher of secondary school life science classes with resource materials for activities to familiarize students with recent discoveries in bioastronautics. Each section introduces a life science concept and a related aerospace concept, gives background information, suggested activities, and an annotated…

  1. The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the development of science concept in Turkey. It is seen that the historical process of science concept in Turkey has developed within two stages. The first setting is the later stages of the Ottoman State and the Republican Era, at which time positivism was prevalent as noted in the objectives of the national…

  2. Turkish Grade 10 Students' and Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Nihal; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to assess grade 10 Turkish students' and science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) and whether these conceptions were related to selected variables. These variables included participants' gender, geographical region, and the socioeconomic status (SES) of their city and region; teacher disciplinary background, years…

  3. Exploiting abstract possibilities: a critique of the concept and practice of product patenting.

    PubMed

    Radder, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Developments in biotechnology and genomics have moved the issue of patenting scientific and technological inventions toward the center of interest. In particular, the patentability of genes of plants, animals, or humans and of genetically modified (parts of) living organisms has been discussed, and questioned, from various normative perspectives. This paper aims to contribute to this debate. For this purpose, it first explains a number of relevant aspects of the theory and practice of patenting. The focus is on a special and increasingly significant type of patents, namely product patents. The paper provides three general arguments against the concept and practice of product patenting. The first argument briefly considers the claim that patents are legitimate because they promote socially useful innovation. Against this claim, it is argued that product patents may hamper rather than promote such innovation. The second and main argument concludes that product patents are not adequately based on actual technological inventions, as they should be according to the usual criteria of patentability. The principal moral issue is that product patents tend to reward patentees for inventions they have not really made available. The final argument proposes a method for patenting the heat of the sun. Assuming that granting this patent will be generally considered absurd, the argument exposes a further, fundamental problem of the concept and practice of product patenting.

  4. Imagine that! ERPs provide evidence for distinct hemispheric contributions to the processing of concrete and abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Although abstract and concrete concepts are processed and remembered differently, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. The current study used visual half-field (VF) presentation methods and event-related potential (ERP) measures to examine how the left (LH) and right (RH) cerebral hemispheres process concrete and abstract meanings of polysemous nouns (e.g., “green book,” referring to the concrete, physical object that is a book, versus “engaging book,” referring to the abstract information that a book conveys). With presentation to the right VF, nouns preceded by concrete modifiers were associated with more positivity on the P2 and N400, suggesting that concrete concepts were easier for the LH to process perceptually and semantically. In contrast, with presentation to the left VF (RH), nouns used in a concrete sense elicited a sustained frontal negativity (500-900 ms) that has been previously linked to imagery. The results thus reveal multiple, distinct neural and cognitive sources for concreteness effects and point to a critical role for the RH in linking language input to sensory imagery. PMID:19631274

  5. Playing with Science: An Investigation of Young Children's Science Conceptions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolleck, Lori; Hershberger, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the conceptions and misconceptions of young children (ages 3-8) related to science concepts, skills, and phenomena. These conceptions and misconceptions were investigated within the framework of the Pennsylvania Early Learning Standards for Pre-Kindergarten and the Pennsylvania Standards for…

  6. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  7. Turkish Preservice Elementary Science Teachers' Conceptions of Learning Science and Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs: Is There a Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Kapucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate conceptions of learning science (COLS) and personal science teaching efficacy belief (PSTE) of Turkish preservice elementary science teachers (PSTs) and to explore the relationship between these variables. Two instruments COLS questionnaire and PSTE subscale of Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

  8. Thai and Bangladeshi In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak; Abedin Forhad, Ziaul

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of nature of science (NOS) serves as one of the desirable characteristics of science teachers. The current study explored 55 Thai and 110 Bangladeshi in-service secondary science teachers' conceptions of NOS regarding scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, by using the Myths of Science…

  9. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak; Sung-ong, Sunun

    2009-01-01

    The conceptions of the nature of science (NOS), particularly scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, of 113 Thai pre-service science teachers were was captured by the Myths of Science Questionnaire (MOSQ) in the first semester of the 2008 academic year. The data was quantitatively and qualitatively…

  10. Thai In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS) serves as one of the desirable characteristics of science teachers. The current study attempted to explore 101 Thai in-service science teachers' conceptions of the NOS, particularly scientific knowledge, the scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise, by using the Myths of Science…

  11. A Window on Science: Exploring the JASON Project and Student Conceptions of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the JASON project was implemented in a self-contained 4th grade classroom and examines this project within the overall context of student-scientist partnership (SSP) models of science education reform. Examines changes in student conceptions of the nature of science as a result of participating in science. (Contains 24 references.)…

  12. Methodological support for the further abstraction of and philosophical examination of empirical findings in the context of caring science.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Elisabeth; Österberg, Sofia A; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena in caring science are often complex and laden with meanings. Empirical research with the aim of capturing lived experiences is one way of revealing the complexity. Sometimes, however, results from empirical research need to be further discussed. One way is to further abstract the result and/or philosophically examine it. This has previously been performed and presented in scientific journals and doctoral theses, contributing to a greater understanding of phenomena in caring science. Although the intentions in many of these publications are laudable, the lack of methodological descriptions as well as a theoretical and systematic foundation can contribute to an ambiguity concerning how the results have emerged during the analysis. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodological support for the further abstraction of and/or philosophical examination of empirical findings. When trying to systematize the support procedures, we have used a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach. Based on the assumptions in RLR, this article will present methodological support for a theoretical examination that can include two stages. In the first stage, data from several (two or more) empirical results on an essential level are synthesized into a general structure. Sometimes the analysis ends with the general structure, but sometimes there is a need to proceed further. The second stage can then be a philosophical examination, in which the general structure is discussed in relation to a philosophical text, theory, or concept. It is important that the theories are brought in as the final stage after the completion of the analysis. Core dimensions of the described methodological support are, in accordance with RLR, openness, bridling, and reflection. The methodological support cannot be understood as fixed stages, but rather as a guiding light in the search for further meanings.

  13. Methodological support for the further abstraction of and philosophical examination of empirical findings in the context of caring science

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Elisabeth; Österberg, Sofia A.; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena in caring science are often complex and laden with meanings. Empirical research with the aim of capturing lived experiences is one way of revealing the complexity. Sometimes, however, results from empirical research need to be further discussed. One way is to further abstract the result and/or philosophically examine it. This has previously been performed and presented in scientific journals and doctoral theses, contributing to a greater understanding of phenomena in caring science. Although the intentions in many of these publications are laudable, the lack of methodological descriptions as well as a theoretical and systematic foundation can contribute to an ambiguity concerning how the results have emerged during the analysis. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodological support for the further abstraction of and/or philosophical examination of empirical findings. When trying to systematize the support procedures, we have used a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach. Based on the assumptions in RLR, this article will present methodological support for a theoretical examination that can include two stages. In the first stage, data from several (two or more) empirical results on an essential level are synthesized into a general structure. Sometimes the analysis ends with the general structure, but sometimes there is a need to proceed further. The second stage can then be a philosophical examination, in which the general structure is discussed in relation to a philosophical text, theory, or concept. It is important that the theories are brought in as the final stage after the completion of the analysis. Core dimensions of the described methodological support are, in accordance with RLR, openness, bridling, and reflection. The methodological support cannot be understood as fixed stages, but rather as a guiding light in the search for further meanings. PMID:26925926

  14. Science teacher’s idea about environmental concepts in science learning as the first step of science teacher training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    To refresh natural environmental concepts in science, science teacher have to attend a teacher training. In teacher training, all participant can have a good sharing and discussion with other science teacher. This study is the first step of science teacher training program held by education foundation in Bandung and attended by 20 science teacher from 18 Junior High School. The major aim of this study is gathering science teacher’s idea of environmental concepts. The core of questions used in this study are basic competencies linked with environmental concepts, environmental concepts that difficult to explain, the action to overcome difficulties and references in teaching environmental concepts. There are four major findings in this study. First finding, most environmental concepts are taught in 7th grade. Second finding, most difficult environmental concepts are found in 7th grade. Third finding, there are five actions to overcome difficulties. Fourth finding, science teacher use at least four references in mastering environmental concepts. After all, teacher training can be a solution to reduce difficulties in teaching environmental concepts.

  15. Students’ Conception on Heat and Temperature toward Science Process Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Sukarmin, S.; Suparmi, S.; Aminah, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    This research is aimed to analyze the effect of students’ conception toward science process skill. This is a descriptive research with subjects of the research were 10th-grade students in Surakarta from high, medium and low categorized school. The sample selection uses purposive sampling technique based on physics score in national examination four latest years. Data in this research collecting from essay test, two-tier multiple choice test, and interview. Two-tier multiple choice test consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of science process skill. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that students’ conception of heat and temperature affect science process skill of students. The students’ conception that still contains the wrong concept can emerge misconception. For the future research, it is suggested to improve students’ conceptual understanding and students’ science process skill with appropriate learning method and assessment instrument because heat and temperature is one of physics material that closely related with students’ daily life.

  16. Understanding Primary Science: Ideas, Concepts and Explanations. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenham, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This book has been written to help teachers develop the background knowledge and understanding needed to teach science effectively at primary level. It is intended principally as a resource in attempting to set out facts, develop concepts, and explain theories which primary teachers may find it useful to know and understand in order to plan…

  17. Relation of Technology, Science, Self-Concept, Interest, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ingeborg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the relation of technology, science, self-concept, interest, and gender. For nearly 20 years the topic of "women and technology" has played an important role in discussions about gender equality in Germany. The very first project for promoting females started in 1978 under the title "Women in…

  18. Using Concepts from Complexity Science to Accelerate Curricular Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ellen F.; Mintz, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Curricular revision can be an arduous and challenging process. The literature favors a rational planned process for doing so, but offers little advice regarding how to proceed when the time required for such an approach is not available. This article describes our use of four concepts from complexity science to revise a medical school curriculum…

  19. Vague Concepts in the Educational Sciences: Implications for Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blikstad-Balas, Marte

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that many key theoretical concepts and core areas of study in the educational sciences are couched in paradigmatically vague terms. The shared features of vague terms and two different readings of vagueness are discussed. "Practice", which is widely used both as a theoretical and an empirical term in the field of…

  20. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  1. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions on the Concept of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aysegul, Derman; Serdar, Derman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions of the concept of science by asking them to use metaphors to describe it. A metaphor elicitation method was employed in this study. The data obtained from the study were considered with both quantitative and qualitative (Content Analysis) analyses. The study determined the…

  2. The early emergence and puzzling decline of relational reasoning: Effects of knowledge and search on inferring abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Caren M; Bridgers, Sophie; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-11-01

    We explore the developmental trajectory and underlying mechanisms of abstract relational reasoning. We describe a surprising developmental pattern: Younger learners are better than older ones at inferring abstract causal relations. Walker and Gopnik (2014) demonstrated that toddlers are able to infer that an effect was caused by a relation between two objects (whether they are the same or different), rather than by individual kinds of objects. While these findings are consistent with evidence that infants recognize same-different relations, they contrast with a large literature suggesting that older children tend to have difficulty inferring these relations. Why might this be? In Experiment 1a, we demonstrate that while younger children (18-30-month-olds) have no difficulty learning these relational concepts, older children (36-48-month-olds) fail to draw this abstract inference. Experiment 1b replicates the finding with 18-30-month-olds using a more demanding intervention task. Experiment 2 tests whether this difference in performance might be because older children have developed the general hypothesis that individual kinds of objects are causal - the high initial probability of this alternative hypothesis might override the data that favors the relational hypothesis. Providing additional information falsifying the alternative hypothesis improves older children's performance. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrates that prompting for explanations during learning also improves performance, even without any additional information. These findings are discussed in light of recent computational and algorithmic theories of learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  4. What conceptions of science communication are espoused by science research funding bodies?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sarah E; Schibeci, Renato A

    2014-07-01

    We examine the conceptions of science communication, especially in relation to "public engagement with science" (PES), evident in the literature and websites of science research funding bodies in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Oceania, and Africa. The analysis uses a fourfold classification of science communication to situate these conceptions: professional, deficit, consultative and deliberative. We find that all bodies engage in professional communication (within the research community); however, engagement with the broader community is variable. Deficit (information dissemination) models still prevail but there is evidence of movement towards more deliberative, participatory models.

  5. The concept verification testing of materials science payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.

    1976-01-01

    The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.

  6. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  7. Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Montgomery, Georgina M.; Soranno, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scientists have been debating for centuries the nature of proper scientific methods. Currently, criticisms being thrown at data-intensive science are reinvigorating these debates. However, many of these criticisms represent long-standing conflicts over the role of hypothesis testing in science and not just a dispute about the amount of data used. Here, we show that an iterative account of scientific methods developed by historians and philosophers of science can help make sense of data-intensive scientific practices and suggest more effective ways to evaluate this research. We use case studies of Darwin's research on evolution by natural selection and modern-day research on macrosystems ecology to illustrate this account of scientific methods and the innovative approaches to scientific evaluation that it encourages. We point out recent changes in the spheres of science funding, publishing, and education that reflect this richer account of scientific practice, and we propose additional reforms. PMID:29599533

  8. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  9. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  10. Toward using games to teach fundamental computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Jeffrey Michael

    Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.

  11. Teaching Science for Understanding: Implications of Spontaneous Conceptions and the History of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dougal

    This study explored the usefulness of an approach to science instruction which specifically considered children's spontaneous conceptions about natural phenomena. The aim of the instruction was the development of conceptual understanding. The instructional approach involved diagnosing children's spontaneous conceptions, making them aware of their…

  12. Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Md. Mahbub Alam; Gomes, Jui Judith

    2010-01-01

    This study explored Bangladeshi science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) with a particular focus on the nature of (a) scientific knowledge, (b) scientific inquiry and (c) scientific enterprise. The tentative, inferential, subjective and creative NOS, in addition to the myths of the scientific method and experimentation, the nature…

  13. The concept of nature in Islamic science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarman, Wendi

    2016-02-01

    Science teaching is basically value laden activities. One of the values tells that science is not related to any religion. This secular value is reflected to science teaching in many places, including religious country like Indonesia. However, we argue that in Indonesia science teaching should not be secular as in the Western country since one of the basic aim of National Education according to the Indonesian constitution Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, is to inculcate faith and god-fearing to One God Almighty. As we know, Indonesia is a Moslem country and has many Islamic schools in it too. Thus, it is important to design a science teaching framework base on Islamic teaching to fulfill the basic aim of National Education This paper discusses concept of nature, the key term in science, based on Islamic view that may used as a framework to develop Islamic science teaching. In Islam, science has a strong relation to religion since nature reflects the existence of the Creator. This concept is derived from the analysis of several verses from Qur'an as the main source of Islamic teaching. There are several principle can be derived from this analysis. Firstly, visible world is not the only world, but there is also the unseen world. Secondly, the nature is not merely matter that doesn't have any sacred value, but it is the indication or symbol of God existence and His Nature. Thirdly, The Qur'an and the nature are both Books of Allah that contain messages of Him, so they are complementary to each other

  14. Radio Science Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo, J. C.; Folkner, W. M.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radio Science experiments have been conducted on most deep space missions leading to numerous scientific discoveries. A set of concepts and approaches are proposed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) to apply Radio Science tools to investigate the interior structures of the Galilean Satellites and address key questions on their thermal and dynamical evolution. Measurements are identified that utilize the spacecraft's telecommunication system. Additional instruments can augment these measurements in order to leverage observational synergies. Experiments are also offered for the purpose of investigating the atmospheres and surfaces of the satellites.

  15. Science-based occupations and the science curriculum: Concepts of evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2005-03-01

    What science-related knowledge is actually used by nurses in their day-to-day clinical reasoning when attending patients? The study investigated the knowledge-in-use of six acute-care nurses in a hospital surgical unit. It was found that the nurses mainly drew upon their professional knowledge of nursing and upon their procedural understanding that included a common core of concepts of evidence (concepts implicitly applied to the evaluation of data and the evaluation of evidence - the focus of this research). This core included validity triangulation, normalcy range, accuracy, and a general predilection for direct sensual access to a phenomenon over indirect machine-managed access. A cluster of emotion-related concepts of evidence (e.g. cultural sensitivity) was also discovered. These results add to a compendium of concepts of evidence published in the literature. Only a small proportion of nurses (one of the six nurses in the study) used canonical science content in their clinical reasoning, a result consistent with other research. This study also confirms earlier research on employees in science-rich workplaces in general, and on professional development programs for nurses specifically: canonical science content found in a typical science curriculum (e.g. high school physics) does not appear relevant to many nurses' knowledge-in-use. These findings support a curriculum policy that gives emphasis to students learning how to learn science content as required by an authentic everyday or workplace context, and to students learning concepts of evidence.

  16. Leveraging Cognitive Science Underpinnings to Enhance NGSS Astronomy Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.

    2014-06-01

    National-scale science education reform efforts have been hampered by highly fragmented frameworks and standards that vary considerably from one state to the next. In an effort to improve the quality of science education across the nation’s K-12 schools, the 2013 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been designed to guide states in specifying the learning targets and performance expectations of all K-12 students. The NGSS is designed to reflect the 2011 Framework for K-12 Science Education developed by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. As teachers, curriculum developers, and assessment experts begin to implement the NGSS in specific geographical and socio-economic contexts, moving beyond an examination of common student misconceptions and reasoning difficulties to delineate the specific cognitive sources of those difficulties, and the specific interventions that can serve as countermeasures, should be a fruitful next step. While astronomy education researchers have already documented challenges in teaching system processes that operate with the space system, solar system, and interconnected Earth science systems, we are far from a thorough understanding of student thinking in astronomy. Many of these ideas can be better taught-and tested-by carefully examining the underlying cognitive science including learners’ difficulties with spatial thinking and the prescribed astronomy and space science concepts. The NGSS may prove to be useful as a framework for next steps in the cognitive science within astronomy, and this work may benefit from deliberate collaborations between education researchers, curriculum developers, and those who engage in teacher professional development.

  17. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Kathryn I; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. © 2015 K. I. Danielson and K. D. Tanner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Science Data Center concepts for moderate-sized NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Han, D.; Pedelty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the approaches taken by the NASA Science Data Operations Center to the concepts for two future NASA moderate-sized missions, the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The OSL space science mission will be a free-flying spacecraft with a complement of science instruments, placed in a high-inclination, sun synchronous orbit to allow continuous study of the sun for extended periods. The TRMM is planned to be a free-flying satellite for measuring tropical rainfall and its variations. Both missions will produce 'standard' data products for the benefit of their communities, and both depend upon their own scientific community to provide algorithms for generating the standard data products.

  19. Elucidating elementary science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A view to beliefs about both science and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keske, Kristina Palmer

    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to elucidate the conceptions of the nature of science held by seven elementary science teachers. The constructivist paradigm provided the philosophical and methodological foundation for the study. Interviews were employed to collect data from the participants about their formal and informal experiences with science. In addition, the participants contributed their perspectives on four aspects of the nature of science: what is science; who is a scientist; what are the methods of science; and how is scientific knowledge constructed. Data analysis not only revealed these teachers' views of science, but also provided insights into how they viewed science teaching. Four themes emerged from the data. The first theme developed around the participants' portrayals of the content of science, with participant views falling on a continuum of limited to universal application of science as procedure. The second theme dealt with the participants' views of the absolute nature of scientific knowledge. Participants' perceptions of the tentative nature of science teaching provided the basis for the third theme concerning the need for absolutes in practice. The fourth theme drew parallels between participants' views of science and science teaching, with two participants demonstrating a consistency in beliefs about knowledge construction across contexts. This study revealed both personal and contextual factors which impacted how the participants saw science and science teaching. Many of the participants' memories of formal science revolved around the memorization of content and were viewed negatively. All the participants had limited formal training in science. Of the seven participants, only two had chosen to be science teachers at the beginning of their careers. The participants' limited formal experiences with science provided little time for exploration into historical, philosophical, and sociological studies of science, a necessary

  20. Annual Report and Abstracts of Research of the Department of Computer and Information Science, July 1976-June 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    The annual report of the Department of Computer and Information Science includes abstracts of research carried out during the 1976-77 academic year with support from grants by governmental agencies and industry, as well as The Ohio State University. The report covers the department's organizational structure, objectives, highlights of department…

  1. Information in Our World: Conceptions of Information and Problems of Method in Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Many concepts of information have been proposed and discussed in library and information science. These concepts of information can be broadly categorized as empirical and situational information. Unlike nomenclatures in many sciences, however, the concept of information in library and information science does not bear a generally accepted…

  2. Science Teachers' Use of a Concept Map Marking Guide as a Formative Assessment Tool for the Concept of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Mihye; Krabbe, Heiko; Ley, Siv Ling; Treagust, David F.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the value of a concept map marking guide as an alternative formative assessment tool for science teachers to adopt for the topic of energy. Eight high school science teachers marked students' concept maps using an itemized holistic marking guide. Their marking was compared with the researchers' marking and the scores…

  3. Rhetorical Variation across Research Article Abstracts in Environmental Science and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeeaw, Supachai; Tangkiengsirisin, Supong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking…

  4. Investigations in Science Education, Vol. 3, No. 3. Expanded Abstracts and Critical Analyses of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.; Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.

    This issue contains expanded abstracts of research reports grouped into two clusters and a section of individual studies. The first cluster contains abstracts of two research reports dealing with trait-treatment interaction studies. The second cluster deals with examination items categorized according to Bloom's Taxonomy. The final section,…

  5. Applying the best available science to fire management: Individual and organizational influences to success (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years of scientific literature on human behavior, communication and organizations offers numerous insights into the communication and use of science in the context of public land management. Using diverse but complementary social science theories and methods, I studied individual and organizational influences on the use of science by federal fire managers and...

  6. Is homeopathy a science?--Continuity and clash of concepts of science within holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2009-06-01

    The question of whether homeopathy is a science is currently discussed almost exclusively against the background of the modern concept of natural science. This approach, however, fails to notice that homeopathy-in terms of history of science-rests on different roots that can essentially be traced back to two most influential traditions of science: on the one hand, principles and notions of Aristotelism which determined 2,000 years of Western history of science and, on the other hand, the modern concept of natural science that has been dominating the history of medicine for less than 200 years. While Aristotle's "science of the living" still included ontologic and teleologic dimensions for the sake of comprehending nature in a uniform way, the interest of modern natural science was reduced to functional and causal explanations of all phenomena for the purpose of commanding nature. In order to prevent further ecological catastrophes as well as to regain lost dimensions of our lives, the one-sidedness and theory-loadedness of our modern natural-scientific view of life should henceforth be counterbalanced by lifeworld-practical Aristotelic categories. In this way, the ground would be ready to conceive the scientific character of homeopathy-in a broader, Aristotelian sense.

  7. Science Objectives and Mission Concepts for Europa Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Senske, D. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Oberto, R.; Zimmerman, W.; JPL's Team-X Team

    2000-10-01

    Since the arrival of the Galileo spacecraft to the Jovian system in 1995, evidence indicating a liquid water ocean beneath the icy Europan crust has become much stronger. This evidence combined with the fact that Europa is greater than 90 wt% water [1] makes it a candidate body to harbor extant or extinct life. The outstanding Europa science questions [2] are to determine whether or not there is or has been a liquid water layer under the ice and whether or not liquid water currently exists on the surface or has in the geologically recent past, what geological processes create the ice rafts and other ice-tectonic processes that affect the surface, the composition of the deep interior , geochemical sources of energy, the nature of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere, and the nature of the radiation environment, especially with regard to its implications for organic and biotic chemistry. In addition, in situ studies of the surface of Europa would offer the opportunity to characterize the chemistry of the ice including organics, pH, salinity, and redox potential. In order to address these scientific objectives, a Europa program, involving multiple spacecraft, is envisioned. The JPL Outer Planets program has been helping to lay the groundwork for such a program. This effort is being conducted with particular emphasis on compiling and identifying science objectives which will flow down to a Europa mission architecture. This poster will show the tracability of observational methods from the science objectives. Also in support of developing a Europa mission architecture, JPL's Team-X has conducted a variety of Europa mission studies . A comparison of the studies done to date will be presented, highlighting science objectives accomplished, technological challenges, and cost. A more detailed presentation will be given on a Europa Lander concept study. First, the science objectives and instrumentation will be shown, including instrument mass, power usage, volume, and data

  8. The comparative effect of individually-generated vs. collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on science concept learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, So Young

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However

  9. Conceptions, Self-Regulation, and Strategies of Learning Science among Chinese High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mang; Zheng, Chunping; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Zhang, Yun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the structural relationships among secondary school students' conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science in mainland China. Three questionnaires, namely conceptions of learning science (COLS), self-regulation of learning science (SROLS), and strategies of learning science (SLS) were developed for…

  10. Conceptions of Teaching Science Held by Novice Teachers in an Alternative Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koballa, Thomas R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Upson, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Case studies to investigate the conceptions of teaching science held by three novice teachers participating in an alternative secondary science teacher certification program were conducted, along with the relationships between their conceptions of science teaching and their science teaching practice. Data used to build the cases included the…

  11. Evaluation of Online Teacher and Student Materials for the Framework for K-12 Science Education Science and Engineering Crosscutting Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council developed and published the "Framework for K-12 Science Education," a new set of concepts that many states were planning on adopting. Part of this new endeavor included a set of science and engineering crosscutting concepts to be incorporated into science materials and activities, a first in science…

  12. The Conceptions of Learning Science by Laboratory among University Science-Major Students: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Number 42.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-27

    Films 37 Titanium 38 Welding • • 42 Miscellaneous 43 -a - [III - USSR - 21- G S & T] Aluminum and Its Alloys USSR UDC 669.715:621.74...GAYNUTDINOV, R. G . and GOLUBNICHIY, A. V., Kiev Institute of Civil Aviation Engineering [Abstract] Results are presented from a study of the influence of...Sep-Oct 76 pp 38-41 manuscript received 16 Jul 75 TELESHOV, V. V. and KUDRYASHOV, V. G ., All-Union Institute of Light Alloys, Moscow [Abstract] A

  14. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 94.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-14

    support the hypothesis that the earlier appearance of fungi toxic products resulting from phenol oxidation may be a factor in the resistance of Vyatka rye...Mironovka Research Institute of Wheat Breeding and Grain Production [Abstract] In order to determine factors which influence sprouting and germination of...2, 1978 pp 105-122 BEDO, Sandor, Chinoin Pharmaceuticals and Chemical Products Factory, Budapest [Abstract] The following subjects are discussed

  15. Developing great abstracts and posters: how to use the tools of science communication.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Raymond; O'Neal, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    All nurses, clinicians and researchers are encouraged to share information on the programs they develop or the studies they conduct. This communication serves to advance the knowledge and clinical wisdom of the nursing and other health care professions. One way to do this is to submit an abstract or poster to a conference, where you can present your findings to other health care professionals. This article gives useful tips for developing successful abstracts and posters. © 2013 AWHONN.

  16. Correlation of Students' Brain Types to Their Conceptions of Learning Science and Approaches to Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeon, Dongryul

    2015-01-01

    The systemizing and empathizing brain type represent two contrasted students' characteristics. The present study investigated differences in the conceptions and approaches to learning science between the systemizing and empathizing brain type students. The instruments are questionnaires on the systematizing and empathizing, questionnaires on the…

  17. Learner Perceptions on Instructional Design of Multimedia in Learning Abstract Concepts in Science at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulasekara, Geetha Udayangani; Jayatilleke, Buddhini Gayathri; Coomaraswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore learner perceptions on the instructional design features of interactive multimedia (IMM), which was especially designed to support the open and distance learners studying microbiology as a part of the BSc degree programme of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). The purpose of developing this IMM was to…

  18. Role of Suzanne Mubarak Science Exploration Center in Motivating Physics Learning (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, Mona

    2009-04-01

    The role of Science Exploration centers to promote learning ``beyond school walls'' is demonstrated. The Suzane Mubarak Science Exploration Center (www.smsec.com) at Hadaek El Kobba, Cairo, was inaugurated in 1998 with the assistance of Zusane Mubarak, the first lady of Egypt and the minister of education. It was the first interactive science and technology center in Egypt. After 10 years, the number of centers has increased to 33 nationwide. Since its inauguration the center has received over 3 million visitors. Through different facilities, such as the internet, science cities, multimedia, and virtual reality programs, basic principles of science are simplified and their technological applications in our daily lives are explored. These facilities are fully equipped with new media such as video conferencing, videotapes, overhead projectors, data shows, and libraries, as well as demonstration tools for basic science. The main objectives of the science exploration centers are discussed such as: (1) curricula development for on-line learning; (2) integration of e-learning programs into basic science (physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology) and (3) workshops and organizations for students, teachers, and communities dealing with basic science programs.

  19. Explorers of the Universe: Metacognitive Tools for Learning Science Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.

    1998-01-01

    Much of school learning consists of rote memorization of facts with little emphasis on meaningful interpretations. Knowledge construction is reduced to factual knowledge production with little regard for critical thinking, problem solving, or clarifying misconceptions. An important role of a middle and secondary teacher when teaching science is to aid students' ability to reflect upon what they know about a given topic and make available strategies that will enhance their understanding of text and science experiments. Developing metacognition, the ability to monitor one's own knowledge about a topic of study and to activate appropriate strategies, enhances students' learning when faced with reading, writing and problem solving situations. Two instructional strategies that can involve students in developing metacognitive awareness are hierarchical concept mapping, and Vee diagrams. Concept maps enable students to organize their ideas and reveal visually these ideas to others. A Vee diagram is a structured visual means of relating the methodological aspects of an activity to its underlying conceptual aspect in ways that aid learners in meaningful understanding of scientific investigations.

  20. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  1. Conceptions of the nature of science and worldviews of preservice elementary science teachers in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiang-Yao

    This exploratory investigation aimed to identify preservice science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS), and worldviews that represent their culturally dependent beliefs about the world, in the context of Taiwan. The interrelationships between the responses elicited from both the assessments of NOS understandings and worldviews were examined. Participants included 54 third-year students enrolled in the departments of science education and mathematics education at a teachers college. Their worldviews and NOS conceptions were tabulated by two questionnaires and 14 of them were purposefully selected to participate follow-up interviews. The worldview questionnaire contained five open-ended items, of which each examines one of the worldview domains in Kearney's model (1984). The NOS questionnaire consisting of nine open-ended questions was developed, specifically addressing cultural characteristics, to assess participants' views on the development of scientific knowledge. An anthropocentric-moderate continuum emerged to describe participants' views of the humanity's relationship with Nature. It was found that participants with informed NOS conceptions were more likely to emphasize harmony with Nature, recognize the limitations of scientific knowledge, and accept the idea that science involves subjective and cultural components. On the other hand, participants who provided a pragmatic perspective of Nature seemed to possess narrow views about the scientific enterprises by describing science as close to technology and as a materialistic benefit. Authoritarianism was also a noticeable cultural trait hindering some participants from reflecting on the values inherent to the development of scientific knowledge, and also prohibiting them from searching empirical evidence to solve problems. It was found that there were differences between science education and mathematics education majors in their worldviews and NOS understandings. The results in this study not

  2. [Foucault's concept of gouvernmentality: an instrument to analyse nursing science].

    PubMed

    Friesacher, Heiner

    2004-12-01

    The following article will present the concept of gouvernmentality by the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984). I will point out in which way his idea could be applied to nursing science. The notion gouvernmentality goes back to the late works of Michel Foucault. The idea of gouvernmentality continues, broadens and shifts the stress of his influential work on the analysis of power. The strategic concept of power is not sufficient to investigate from a consistent analytical perspective into the complex problems of the state and subjectivity. Only Foucault's findings of the notion and the concept of gouvernmentality has come up to an adequate analytical method. Relations of power are investigated from the point of view and hereby social technologies and self-technologies can be analysed in relation to each other The analysis of neo-liberal gouvernmentality finally succeeds by using this broadening of perspective. A new definition of state and economy can be revealed: the market turns into a regulating principle and economics grasps all kinds of human actions and proceedings. Apart from a few exceptions the hitherto Foucault-reception in nursing science does not follow the late works of Foucault and limits its research possibilities. In this article I will analyse examples of the quality discourse and the problems of an interpretation of needs. It will be shown how both areas might shape patients as well as nurses in the sense of neo-liberal subject formation and how finally the act and art of nursing will be transformed into an act of economics.

  3. Microsatellites for Affordable Space Science: Capability and Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithies, Chad; Meerman, Max; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, space science has been performed using the most advanced technology available: the rationale being to obtain data that is as accurate and precise as possible. Pushing the envelope has led to a drive towards one-off, complex missions (as regards both the payloads and bus) that result in a high cost and long lead-time. The role for small, low cost satellites to complement these high cost, large platforms that are only accessible to the wealthiest nations has been demonstrated by Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). Building on the experience gained from the 20 small satellites launched over 20 years, SSTL has pioneered innovative design and cost-effective engineering techniques for small satellites. The modular design of all three of Surrey's core platforms for the nano-, micro- and mini-satellites allows for a versatile capability that is well matched to the changing requirements demanded by scientific investigation. This capability, traditionally associated with LEO, is currently being studied for Lunar, Near Earth Object and Interplanetary missions. The affordability, modularity and rapid build philosophy of Surrey's small satellite platforms allow for an alternate approach to science missions. The opportunity now exists for lower cost instruments that can launched more frequently and affordably, as well as offering an alternative approach to redundancy and risk - for example, through distributed constellations. The paper will present a design concept of a cost-capped, science payload-driven spacecraft.

  4. Beyond the Abstractions!: Adult Education Research from Idealism to Critical Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

    The anniversary of the "International Journal of Lifelong Education" can participate in a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc. are abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies…

  5. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientifc Abstracts Materials Science and Metallurgy No 43.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-09

    Institute [Abstract] A study is made of the influence of stoichiometry on the characteristics of microplastic deformation in powders of zirconium and... microplasticity , stoichiometric carbides can be arranged in the following sequence of increasing brittleness: NbC, ZrC, TiC. References 18: 13 Soviet

  6. An Exploration into the Use of Manipulatives to Develop Abstract Reasoning in an Introductory Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fencl, Heidi; Butler, Angie Huenink

    2007-01-01

    Classical physics has a long history of using demonstrations and experiments to develop ideas in introductory courses. The purpose of this exploration is to examine the effectiveness of a desk-top activity for helping students develop abstract reasoning. In the pilot exploration, students in three laboratory sections of a single physics course…

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 72

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-03

    of the hydrolyzate of coniferous wood contaminate the obtained furfural. The results of analysis of the water-insoluble portion of the terpene...psychology, psychiatry and related fields. 17. Key Words and Document Analysis . 17a. Descriptors USSR Aerospace Medicine Agrotechnology Biology...and Scientific Technics, Department of Cybernetic Systems] [Abstract] Mathematical methods are necessary for a logical summarization and analysis of

  8. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  9. Exploring Seventh-Grade Students' and Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…

  10. Teaching Concepts of Natural Sciences to Foreigners through Content-Based Instruction: The Adjunct Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satilmis, Yilmaz; Yakup, Doganay; Selim, Guvercin; Aybarsha, Islam

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates three models of content-based instruction in teaching concepts and terms of natural sciences in order to increase the efficiency of teaching these kinds of concepts in realization and to prove that the content-based instruction is a teaching strategy that helps students understand concepts of natural sciences. Content-based…

  11. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  12. Relationship between mathematical abstraction in learning parallel coordinates concept and performance in learning analytic geometry of pre-service mathematics teachers: an investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-05-01

    As one of the non-conventional mathematics concepts, Parallel Coordinates is potential to be learned by pre-service mathematics teachers in order to give them experiences in constructing richer schemes and doing abstraction process. Unfortunately, the study related to this issue is still limited. This study wants to answer a research question “to what extent the abstraction process of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning concept of Parallel Coordinates could indicate their performance in learning Analytic Geometry”. This is a case study that part of a larger study in examining mathematical abstraction of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning non-conventional mathematics concept. Descriptive statistics method is used in this study to analyze the scores from three different tests: Cartesian Coordinate, Parallel Coordinates, and Analytic Geometry. The participants in this study consist of 45 pre-service mathematics teachers. The result shows that there is a linear association between the score on Cartesian Coordinate and Parallel Coordinates. There also found that the higher levels of the abstraction process in learning Parallel Coordinates are linearly associated with higher student achievement in Analytic Geometry. The result of this study shows that the concept of Parallel Coordinates has a significant role for pre-service mathematics teachers in learning Analytic Geometry.

  13. The Analysis of Nine Process-Concepts in Elementary Science. Technical Report No. 428.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    Theory and research background regarding the teaching of concepts are presented. Procedures are given in detail on how a concept can be analyzed in order to aid in teaching and preparing instructional materials. Nine processes of science drawn from a published elementary science curriculum ("Science: A Process Approach") are treated as concepts…

  14. Accuracy of Scale Conceptions in Science: Mental Maneuverings across Many Orders of Spatial Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James

    2006-01-01

    The use of unifying themes that span the various branches of science is recommended to enhance curricular coherence in science instruction. Conceptions of spatial scale are one such unifying theme. This research explored the accuracy of spatial scale conceptions of science phenomena across a spectrum of 215 participants: fifth grade, seventh…

  15. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Number 45

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-11

    constants VQ and q. The values of the critical stress intensity factor produced by the authors by their indirect method are compared with...and TEREKHOV, A. N., Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys [Russian abstract provided by the source] [Text] The method of high-temperature...their melting point. References 9; all Russian. USSR ’ UDC 539𔃽 IMPROVING THE PRECISION OF THE ACOUSTIC METHOD OF STRESS DETERMINATION Kiev

  16. USSR and Eastern Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 62

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-18

    this concentrate has valuable biological and nutritional properties. Maximum transition from the digestive tract into the blood stream has been... digestion . The extent of these changes 1/2 32 USSR LYCHAGIN, V. V., ADAMOVICH, G. G., MIKHAYLOVA, T. N., KUZLOVA, YU. G., KINZHIBALOVA, ZH. V...ANTIBIOTICS IN THE FEED OF BROILERS Sofia DOKLADY BOLGARSKOY AKADEMII NAUR" in English Vol 29 No 8 1976 pp 1177- 1178 [Abstract] Objections have

  17. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 78.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-02

    references 9: 7 Russian, 2 Western. USSR UDC 612.215.014.2.014.426 MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN NASAL MUCOSA DUE TO THE ACTION OF UHF...Nose and Throat Diseases and of Human Anatomy, Zaporozhe Medical Institute [Abstract] It has been established that the changes occurring in nasal ...varies for different plastics. Histologically, a large part of the developing tumor is made up of fibrosarcomas ; however, also seen are osteosarcomas

  18. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 54

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-18

    in Russian No 7 1976 pp 41-46 (Text: English language abstract supplied by authors) The capacity to de - crease the frequency of chromosome...resin-bearing plants and placed them on agar cultures on the surface of a rubber sheet. The appearance of clarified zones indicated des - truction of...SEMEN» KOVA , L. I. and KUPERMAN, E. M. An Epidemlological and Immunological Description of Postvaccine Anti-Measles Immunity in Moldavian Children 65

  19. Science Rationale for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred; Turtle, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    to meet key Io measurement requirements, and the failed high-gain antennae resulted in severely limited data return for a world that is highly variable in space, time, and wavelength. IVO will be designed specifically to address Io science as currently understood and will return, on every orbit, ˜100x the total Io data return of GLL over 8 years. The Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission concept from ESA could provide complementary monitoring but does not include close encounters with Io.

  20. Translating Neuroscience, Psychology and Education: An Abstracted Conceptual Framework for the Learning Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoghue, Gregory M.; Horvath, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators strive to understand and apply knowledge gained through scientific endeavours. Yet, within the various sciences of learning, particularly within educational neuroscience, there have been instances of seemingly contradictory or incompatible research findings and theories. We argue that this situation arises through confusion between…

  1. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Beomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 58

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-23

    Institute for Fertilizers and Agronomic Soil Science imeni D. N. Pryanishnikov] and several scientific institutions are studying these effects on winter...incidence of occupational sickness was shown in chemical industry, where occupational dermatoses led the field, followed by chronic intoxications ...and measures of first aid for the intoxications indicated. The book is intended for a wide circle of physician-therapists, radiobiolo- gists

  2. A Study of Understanding: Alchemy, Abstraction, and Circulating Reference in Tertiary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an…

  3. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  4. Investigations in Science Education, Vol. 5, Special Issue. Expanded Abstracts and Critical Analyses of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Steiner, Robert L., Ed.

    This issue contains copies of the five principal addresses given at the 1979 annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. The five papers speak to the theme of the meeting "The Impact of Learning Paradigms on Teaching and Research." Titles of the papers and their authors are: "The Implications of…

  5. Abstracts of Master of Military Art and Science (MMAS) Theses and Special Studies 1964-1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Missions. They are listed below in a probable chronological order of appli- cation. 1. Undertake self-preparation to become familiar with the concept of...analyst. Familiarity with these tools has the tendency to reduce the reluc- tance sometimes evidenced by the military decision-maker to include such...the fundamentals of combat service support, initiating a branch immaterial logistics familiarization course, teaching a Senior Officer Combat Service

  6. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Number 54

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-28

    DEFEKTOSKOPIYA in Russian No 2, Feb 78 pp 49-52 manuscript received 28 Feb 77 DEVYATCHENKO, L. D., YESIPOV, I. V. , BATURINA, S. K., KIRILLOVA, G . K...received 10 Apr 77 KARPINOS, D. M., MAKSIMOVICH, G . G ., LYUTYY, YE. M., FILIPOVSKIY, A. V., and KADYROV, V. KH., Physico-Mechanical Institute and the...OBRABOTKI MATERIALOV in Russian No 1, Jan/Feb 78 pp 149-151 manuscript received 20 Jun 77 KARPINOS, D. M. and ZIL’BERBERG, V. G ., Kiev [Abstract] The

  7. Comparison of Science-Technology-Society Approach and Textbook Oriented Instruction on Students' Abilities to Apply Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapici, Hasan Ozgur; Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    It is important for students to learn concepts and using them for solving problems and further learning. Within this respect, the purpose of this study is to investigate students' abilities to apply science concepts that they have learned from Science-Technology-Society based approach or textbook oriented instruction. Current study is based on…

  8. Comparative Effects of Computer-Based Concept Maps, Refutational Texts, and Expository Texts on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Cavagnetto, Andy; Hunsu, Nathaniel J.; Anguiano, Carlos; Lloyd, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    This study used a between-subjects experimental design to examine the effects of three different computer-based instructional strategies (concept map, refutation text, and expository scientific text) on science learning. Concept maps are node-link diagrams that show concepts as nodes and relationships among the concepts as labeled links.…

  9. Concept Mapping as a Tool to Develop and Measure Students' Understanding in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…

  10. Investigating the Nature of Third Grade Students' Experiences with Concept Maps to Support Learning of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    To support and improve effective science teaching, educators need methods to reveal student understandings and misconceptions of science concepts and to offer all students an opportunity to reflect on their own knowledge construction and organization. Students can benefit by engaging in scientific activities in which they build personal…

  11. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  12. Abstracts, 21st Annual Meeting Society of Engineering Science, Inc., October 15, 16 and 17, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF ADHESIVE JOINTS IN FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES by C. Burger*, D. Mallik **, A. Voloshin* and S. Mahadevan* *Department of Engineering Science...N. 33 (15A,44)Halkus, D.S. 301 ( 16 PM6) Olaosebikan, L. 89,95 (15PM2) Mallik , D. 356 (17AH2) Olhoff, N. 456,459 (l7PM4)Malone, J.B. 128 (15PM5

  13. Developing Science Operations Concepts for the Future of Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; McAdam, A.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Garry, W. B.; Whelley, P. L.; Scheidt, S.; Carter, L.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Glotch, T.; Lewis, R.

    2017-02-01

    Human exploration of other planetary bodies is crucial in answering critical science questions about our solar system. As we seek to put humans on other surfaces by 2050, we must understand the science operations concepts needed for planetary EVA.

  14. USL NASA/RECON project presentations at the 1985 ACM Computer Science Conference: Abstracts and visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Gallagher, Suzy; Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents the abstracts and visuals associated with presentations delivered by six USL NASA/RECON research team members at the above named conference. The presentations highlight various aspects of NASA contract activities pursued by the participants as they relate to individual research projects. The titles of the six presentations are as follows: (1) The Specification and Design of a Distributed Workstation; (2) An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval; (3) Critical Comparative Analysis of the Major Commercial IS and R Systems; (4) Design Criteria for a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Systems; (5) The Design of an Object-Oriented Graphics Interface; and (6) Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval: Techniques and Applications.

  15. Come Fly with Me! Exploring Science 7-9 through Aviation/Aerospace Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housel, David C.; Housel, Doreen K. M.

    This guide contains 67 activities dealing with various aerospace/aviation education concepts. The activities are presented in units related to physical science, earth science, and life science. In addition, there is a section related to student involvement in the space shuttle programs. The physical science unit (activities 1-23) focuses on the…

  16. Supramolecular Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Novel Concept Combining Pharmaceutical Sciences and Supramolecular Chemistry with a Focus on Cyclodextrin-Based Supermolecules.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.

  17. Mapping the Multiple Graded Contributions of the Anterior Temporal Lobe Representational Hub to Abstract and Social Concepts: Evidence from Distortion-corrected fMRI.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2016-09-06

    A growing body of recent convergent evidence indicates that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has connectivity-derived graded differences in semantic function: the ventrolateral region appears to be the transmodal, omni-category center-point of the hub whilst secondary contributions come from the peripheries of the hub in a manner that reflects their differential connectivity to different input/output modalities. One of the key challenges for this neurocognitive theory is how different types of concept, especially those with less reliance upon external sensory experience (such as abstract and social concepts), are coded across the graded ATL hub. We were able to answer this key question by using distortion-corrected fMRI to detect functional activations across the entire ATL region and thus to map the neural basis of social and psycholinguistically-matched abstract concepts. Both types of concept engaged a core left-hemisphere semantic network, including the ventrolateral ATL, prefrontal regions and posterior MTG. Additionally, we replicated previous findings of weaker differential activation of the superior and polar ATL for the processing of social stimuli, in addition to the stronger, omni-category activation observed in the vATL. These results are compatible with the view of the ATL as a graded transmodal substrate for the representation of coherent concepts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Mapping the Multiple Graded Contributions of the Anterior Temporal Lobe Representational Hub to Abstract and Social Concepts: Evidence from Distortion-corrected fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Binney, Richard J.; Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of recent convergent evidence indicates that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has connectivity-derived graded differences in semantic function: the ventrolateral region appears to be the transmodal, omni-category center-point of the hub whilst secondary contributions come from the peripheries of the hub in a manner that reflects their differential connectivity to different input/output modalities. One of the key challenges for this neurocognitive theory is how different types of concept, especially those with less reliance upon external sensory experience (such as abstract and social concepts), are coded across the graded ATL hub. We were able to answer this key question by using distortion-corrected fMRI to detect functional activations across the entire ATL region and thus to map the neural basis of social and psycholinguistically-matched abstract concepts. Both types of concept engaged a core left-hemisphere semantic network, including the ventrolateral ATL, prefrontal regions and posterior MTG. Additionally, we replicated previous findings of weaker differential activation of the superior and polar ATL for the processing of social stimuli, in addition to the stronger, omni-category activation observed in the vATL. These results are compatible with the view of the ATL as a graded transmodal substrate for the representation of coherent concepts. PMID:27600844

  19. Promoting Creative Thinking and Expression of Science Concepts among Elementary Teacher Candidates through Science Content Movie Creation and Showcasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechter, Richard P.; Guy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the phases of design and use of video editing technology as a medium for creatively expressing science content knowledge in an elementary science methods course. Teacher candidates communicated their understanding of standards-based core science concepts through the creation of original digital movies. The movies were assigned…

  20. Outcomes of Nature of Science Instruction along a Context Continuum: Preservice Secondary Science Teachers' Conceptions and Instructional Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Randy L.; Mulvey, Bridget K.; Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined outcomes associated with nature of science (NOS) instruction along a science-content context continuum on the development of secondary preservice science teachers' conceptions of and plans to teach NOS, moving beyond the common dichotomy of contextualized versus noncontextualized instruction. Participants comprised six…

  1. How Often Do Early Childhood Teachers Teach Science Concepts? Determinants of the Frequency of Science Teaching in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore how often teachers of young children teach science concepts in kindergarten and examine the factors that influence the frequency of science teaching in early years. A theoretical model of the determinants of the frequency of science teaching in kindergarten was developed and tested using a…

  2. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  3. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  4. The effects of collaborative concept mapping on the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledger, Antoinette Frances

    This study sought to examine whether collaborative concept mapping would affect the achievement, science self-efficacy and attitude toward science of female eighth grade science students. The research questions are: (1) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the achievement of female students in science? (2) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the science self-efficacy of female students? (3) Will the use of collaborative concept mapping affect the attitudes of females toward science? The study was quasi-experimental and utilized a pretest-posttest design for both experimental and control groups. Eighth grade female and male students from three schools in a large northeastern school district participated in this study. The achievement test consisted of 10 multiple choice and two open-response questions and used questions from state-wide and national assessments as well as teacher-constructed items. A 29 item Likert type instrument (McMillan, 1992) was administered to measure science self-efficacy and attitude toward science. The study was of 12 weeks duration. During the study, experimental group students were asked to perform collaborative concept map construction in single sex dyads using specific terms designated by the classroom teacher and the researcher. During classroom visitations, student perceptions of collaborative concept mapping were collected and were used to provide insight into the results of the quantitative data analysis. Data from the pre and posttest instruments were analyzed for both experimental and control groups using t-tests. Additionally, the three teachers were interviewed and their perceptions of the study were also used to gain insight into the results of the study. The analysis of data showed that experimental group females showed significantly higher gains in achievement than control group females. An additional analysis of data showed experimental group males showed significantly greater gains in

  5. Planetary Science Education - Workshop Concepts for Classrooms and Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musiol, S.; Rosenberg, H.; Rohwer, G.; Balthasar, H.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-12-01

    the Martian surface and presented their results in the end. Extensive handouts and high-quality print material supplemented face-to-face exercises. For the future we plan to expand our workshop concepts, to give students the possibility of conducting a week-long internship with our Planetary Sciences research group.

  6. National Association for Research in Science Teaching Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers (56th, Dallas, Texas, April 5-8, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arthur L., Ed.; Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.

    Abstracts of most of the papers presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) have been collected in this publication. Papers focus on such areas as student and teacher characteristics, student and teacher attitudes, science curriculum, science instruction, preservice and inservice…

  7. Observability, Anschaulichkeit and Abstraction: A Journey into Werner Heisenberg's Science and Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Werner Heisenberg was one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. He participated as a front rank actor in the shaping of a good part of XXth century physics and directly witnessed most of the intellectual struggles which led to what he called “Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der exakten Naturwissenschaft”. This expression is borrowed from one of the many talks and writings he devoted to the analysis of the scientific and philosophical implications of his, and his fellows physicists, findings. Indeed, Heisenberg's scientific activity increasingly reflected his more general intellectual views. This makes him another magnificent representative of a glorious linage going from the remote times of modern science to Einstein, Bohr and the like. This “philosophical” vein started early in his scientific life, and got stronger with time, prompted by the highly demanding scientific, but also social and political context of his mature years.

  8. Infusion of Climate Change and Geospatial Science Concepts into Environmental and Biological Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Shishodia, S.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our activity is to improve the students understanding and interpretation of geospatial science and climate change concepts and its applications in the field of Environmental and Biological Sciences in the College of Science Engineering and Technology (COEST) at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, TX. The courses of GIS for Environment, Ecology and Microbiology were selected for the curriculum infusion. A total of ten GIS hands-on lab modules, along with two NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) lab modules on climate change were implemented in the "GIS for Environment" course. GIS and Google Earth Labs along with climate change lectures were infused into Microbiology and Ecology courses. Critical thinking and empirical skills of the students were assessed in all the courses. The student learning outcomes of these courses includes the ability of students to interpret the geospatial maps and the student demonstration of knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and climate change. At the end of the courses, students developed a comprehensive understanding of the geospatial data, its applications in understanding climate change and its interpretation at the local and regional scales during multiple years.

  9. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  10. The Concepts of Science in Japanese and Western Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Uses structural linguistics to offer an impartial frame of reference to analyze science education in the non-Western world. Outlines the associative relation proposed by Saussure and investigates how it works in science education. Examines the problems peculiar to science education in Japan and argues that science education should be identified…

  11. Relationships between Prospective Elementary Teachers' Classroom Practice and Their Conceptions of Biology and of Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Helen; Tabachnick, B. Robert; Hewson, Peter W.; Lemberger, John; Park, Hyun-Ju

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of teaching science and selected portions of their knowledge base in life science. Explores how these teachers' conceptions, along with their teaching actions, developed during the course of a teacher-education program. Contains 21 references. (Author/WRM)

  12. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  13. Different Conceptions of the Nature of Science among Preservice Elementary Teachers of Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Do-Yong; Lee, Yong Bok

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the differences of the nature of science (NOS) conceptions portrayed by preservice teachers in Korea (N = 42) and the United States (N = 50). We conducted a survey of preservice elementary science teachers' NOS conceptions followed by interviews in both countries to further investigate their viewpoints. The NOS domains of this…

  14. A Comparison of Key Concepts in Data Analytics and Data Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kirby; Rague, Brian; Wolthuis, Stuart L.; Sambasivam, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    This research study provides an examination of the relatively new fields of Data Analytics and Data Science. We compare word rates in Data Analytics and Data Science documents to determine which concepts are mentioned most often. The most frequent concept in both fields is "data." The word rate for "data" is more than twice the…

  15. Attainment of Selected Earth Science Concepts by Texas High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Mavis M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school seniors (N=492) had attained each of five selected earth science concepts and if said attainment was influenced by the number of science courses completed. A 72-item, multiple-choice format test (12 items for each concept) was developed and piloted previous to this study to measure…

  16. The Conservation of Energy Concept in Ninth Grade General Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, William; And Others

    Discussed is an instructional approach, "concept-distillation," which involves experiences, games, and puzzles that have the "distilled essence" of the basic concepts of the physical sciences. This approach is designed to impart a vivid and dramatic meaning and structure of the sciences for transfer in scientific thinking. The…

  17. Are Teachers Ready to Integrate Science Concepts into Secondary Agriculture Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Jason; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Torres, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    For the past two decades, the idea of integrating more science concepts into the secondary agriculture curriculum has gained support. The purpose of this study was to assess the confidence and competence of agriculture instructors to teach concepts related to science. The sample was derived from the population of agriculture instructors teaching…

  18. Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…

  19. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  20. Investigating the Interrelationships among Conceptions of, Approaches to, and Self-Efficacy in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…

  1. As an Infused or a Separated Theme? Chinese Science Teacher Educators' Conceptions of Incorporating Nature of Science Instruction in the Courses of Training Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling

    2013-01-01

    Teaching nature of science (NOS) is beginning to find its place in science education in China. This exploratory study interviewed twenty-four Chinese science teacher educators about their conceptions of teaching NOS to pre-service science teachers. Although five dimensions emerged, this paper mainly focuses on reporting the findings relevant to…

  2. Speaking two "Languages" in America: A semantic space analysis of how presidential candidates and their supporters represent abstract political concepts differently.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Schloss, Benjamin; Follmer, D Jake

    2017-10-01

    In this article we report a computational semantic analysis of the presidential candidates' speeches in the two major political parties in the USA. In Study One, we modeled the political semantic spaces as a function of party, candidate, and time of election, and findings revealed patterns of differences in the semantic representation of key political concepts and the changing landscapes in which the presidential candidates align or misalign with their parties in terms of the representation and organization of politically central concepts. Our models further showed that the 2016 US presidential nominees had distinct conceptual representations from those of previous election years, and these patterns did not necessarily align with their respective political parties' average representation of the key political concepts. In Study Two, structural equation modeling demonstrated that reported political engagement among voters differentially predicted reported likelihoods of voting for Clinton versus Trump in the 2016 presidential election. Study Three indicated that Republicans and Democrats showed distinct, systematic word association patterns for the same concepts/terms, which could be reliably distinguished using machine learning methods. These studies suggest that given an individual's political beliefs, we can make reliable predictions about how they understand words, and given how an individual understands those same words, we can also predict an individual's political beliefs. Our study provides a bridge between semantic space models and abstract representations of political concepts on the one hand, and the representations of political concepts and citizens' voting behavior on the other.

  3. Concept Map Structure, Gender and Teaching Methods: An Investigation of Students' Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the application of concept mapping to the teaching and learning of a science topic with secondary school students in Germany. Purpose: The main research questions were: (1) Do different teaching approaches affect concept map structure or students' learning success? (2) Is the structure of concept maps influenced…

  4. Investigating the interrelationships among conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science, approaches to learning science, and self-efficacy. The exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted to validate three instruments. The path analysis was employed to understand the relationships between conceptions of learning science, approaches to learning science, and self-efficacy. The findings indicated that students' lower level conceptions of learning science positively influenced their surface approaches in learning science. Higher level conceptions of learning science had a positive influence on deep approaches and a negative influence on surface approaches to learning science. Furthermore, self-efficacy was also a hierarchical construct and can be divided into the lower level and higher level. Only students' deep approaches to learning science had a positive influence on their lower and higher level of self-efficacy in learning science. The results were discussed in the context of the implications for teachers and future studies.

  5. Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness. Part 2. Ecological Sciences. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, B.E.

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 38 reports for this Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1981 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. This part dealt with research conducted in the ecological sciences.

  6. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  7. Conceptions of Environment in a Continuing Education Course for Science Teachers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos Matos, Mauricio; Barbosa, Paulo; Coelho-Matos, Myrna Elisa Chagas

    2012-01-01

    Studies focusing on environmental education and continuing education of science teachers play an important role in the science education area. This research analyzed conceptions of environment in a continuing education course for science teachers developed at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The analysis of the material was made using a…

  8. Undergraduate Students' Earth Science Learning: Relationships among Conceptions, Approaches, and Learning Self-Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to…

  9. [Conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski].

    PubMed

    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of

  10. Science supervisors' conceptions of biology and the field of science: A qualitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jean Radcliff

    1999-12-01

    This study examined the nature, source and formation of science supervisors' cognitive frameworks for biology and for the field of science and the impact of these frameworks on their work in school divisions. The design for this qualitative study was an emergent case study using ethnographic methods. The purposeful sample consisted of five science supervisors selected from different school divisions in three geographic regions of a middle-Atlantic state. Each participant had a background in biology, classroom teaching and full-time supervisory experience. To collect data for this study, an open-ended questionnaire was used to gain an understanding of the nature of the supervisors' conceptions of biology and for the field of science. Two semi-structured interviews, each lasting 1--2 hours in length, were designed to explore the source and formation of the supervisors' conceptual frameworks, and the impact of these frameworks on their work in school divisions. Data were inductively analyzed using a constant comparative approach. The major findings of this study were: (1) All of the supervisors in this study were remarkably cognizant of possessing a framework for biology and for the field of science. (2) The supervisors' frameworks were well-formed, relatively highly complex and showed a variety of organizational patterns. (3) All of the supervisors' diagrams showed evidence of coherent, integrated themes with emphasis on the importance of connections and interrelationships. (4) The supervisors were able to readily articulate sound rationales for construction of their diagrams. (5) Instead of seeing biology as an isolated discipline, the supervisors view biology in the context of science. Overall, the supervisors no longer see their frameworks as biology-content related, but as science-related. (6) Major influences on the source and formation of the supervisors' conceptual frameworks were a result of selected work-related experiences. (7) The supervisors' conceptual

  11. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  12. Can Good Concept Mappers Be Good Problem Solvers in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study of concept mapping as a means of learning problem-solving skills. Concludes that the concept mapping subjects were significantly more successful at solving biological test questions than were the controls. Reports no significant differences between cooperative and individual mapping and mixed results for gender. (DK)

  13. Computer Graphics and Metaphorical Elaboration for Learning Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Chan, Kung-Chi

    This study explores the instructional impact of using computer multimedia to integrate metaphorical verbal information into graphical representations of biotechnology concepts. The combination of text and graphics into a single metaphor makes concepts dual-coded, and therefore more comprehensible and memorable for the student. Visual stimuli help…

  14. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  15. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  16. The Relationship between Science Achievement and Self-Concept among Gifted Students from the Third International Earth Science Olympiad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Pei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between gifted students' academic self-concept (ASC) and academic achievement (AC) in earth science with internationally representative high-school students from the third International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO) held in Taiwan in 2009. The results of regression analysis indicated that IESO students' ASC…

  17. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May Be More Easily Altered than Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee' S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and…

  18. Informatics with Systems Science and Cybernetics--Concepts and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell

    This dictionary defines information science, computer science, systems theory, and cybernetic terms in English and provides the Swedish translation of each term. An index of Swedish terms refers the user to the page where the English equivalent and definition appear. Most of the 38 references listed are in English. (RAA)

  19. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…

  20. The concepts of science in Japanese and Western education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Using structural linguistics, the present article offers an impartial frame of reference to analyze science education in the non-Western world. In Japan, science education has been free from epistemological reflection because Japan regards science only as effective technology for modernization. By not taking account of the world-view aspect of science, Japan can treat science as not self-referential. Issues of science education are then rather simple; they are only concerned with the question of ‘how to’, and answers to this question are judged according to the efficiency achieved for modernization. Science, however, is a way of seeing ‘nature’. This word is generally translated into Japanese as ‘shizen’ which has a totally different connotation and therefore does not lead to an understanding of the Western scientific spirit. Saussure's approach to language is used to expose the consequences of the misinterpretations that spring from this situation. In order to minimize or prevent these misinterpretations, it is emphasized that science education should be identified with foreign language education in the non-Western world.

  1. Interdisciplinary Teaching in a Water Educational Training Science Program: Its Impact on Science Concept Knowledge, Writing Performance, and Interest in Science and Writing of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Hart, Margaret A.; Liggit, Peggy; Daisey, Peggy

    This paper presents a study investigating the effects of the Water Education Training (WET) program on students' performance in science. The WET Program is an after school program using an interdisciplinary approach which has three main objectives: improving science concept knowledge, writing performance, and attitudes toward science and writing.…

  2. Undergraduate students' earth science learning: relationships among conceptions, approaches, and learning self-efficacy in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kuan-Ming; Lee, Min-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-06-01

    In the area of science education research, studies have attempted to investigate conceptions of learning, approaches to learning, and self-efficacy, mainly focusing on science in general or on specific subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry. However, few empirical studies have probed students' earth science learning. This study aimed to explore the relationships among undergraduates' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science by adopting the structural equation modeling technique. A total of 268 Taiwanese undergraduates (144 females) participated in this study. Three instruments were modified to assess the students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy for learning earth science. The results indicated that students' conceptions of learning made a significant contribution to their approaches to learning, which were consequently correlated with their learning self-efficacy. More specifically, students with stronger agreement that learning earth science involves applying the knowledge and skills learned to unknown problems were prone to possess higher confidence in learning earth science. Moreover, students viewing earth science learning as understanding earth science knowledge were more likely to adopt meaningful strategies to learn earth science, and hence expressed a higher sense of self-efficacy. Based on the results, practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Engineering Concepts: The Interplay between Concept Formation and Modeling Practices in Bioengineering Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nersessian, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    As much research has demonstrated, novel scientific concepts do not arise fully formed in the head of a scientist but are created in problem-solving processes, which can extend for considerable periods and even span generations of scientists. To understand concept formation and conceptual change it is important to investigate these processes in…

  4. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  5. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  6. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  7. From isosuperatoms to isosupermolecules: new concepts in cluster science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren; Li, Pai; Yuan, Lan-Feng; Cheng, Longjiu; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    As an extension of the superatom concept, a new concept ``isosuperatom'' is proposed, reflecting the physical phenomenon that a superatom cluster can take multiple geometrical structures with their electronic structures topologically invariant. The icosahedral and cuboctahedral Au135+ units in the Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18-, Au23(SC6H11)16- and Au24(SAdm)16 nanoclusters are found to be examples of this concept. Furthermore, two isosuperatoms can combine to form a supermolecule. For example, the structure of the {Ag32(DPPE)5(SC6H4CF3)24}2- nanocluster can be understood well in terms of a Ag2212+ supermolecule formed by two Ag138+ isosuperatoms. On the next level of complexity, various combinations of isosuperatoms can lead to supermolecules with different geometrical structures but similar electronic structures, i.e., ``isosupermolecules''. We take two synthesized nanoclusters Au20(PPhpy2)10Cl42+ and Au30S(StBu)18 to illustrate two Au206+ isosupermolecules. The proposed concepts of isosuperatom and isosupermolecule significantly enrich the superatom concept, give a new framework for understanding a wide range of nanoclusters, and open a new door for designing assembled materials.As an extension of the superatom concept, a new concept ``isosuperatom'' is proposed, reflecting the physical phenomenon that a superatom cluster can take multiple geometrical structures with their electronic structures topologically invariant. The icosahedral and cuboctahedral Au135+ units in the Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18-, Au23(SC6H11)16- and Au24(SAdm)16 nanoclusters are found to be examples of this concept. Furthermore, two isosuperatoms can combine to form a supermolecule. For example, the structure of the {Ag32(DPPE)5(SC6H4CF3)24}2- nanocluster can be understood well in terms of a Ag2212+ supermolecule formed by two Ag138+ isosuperatoms. On the next level of complexity, various combinations of isosuperatoms can lead to supermolecules with different geometrical structures but similar electronic

  8. Adapting Concepts from Systems Biology to Develop Systems Exposure Event Networks for Exposure Science Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systems exposure science has emerged from the traditional environmental exposure assessment framework and incorporates new concepts that link sources of human exposure to internal dose and metabolic processes. Because many human environmental studies are designed for retrospectiv...

  9. Using Children's Literature to Clarify Science Concepts in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardo, Frances A.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that children's books that deal with science concepts can help young children make a distinction between what is real and what is imaginary. Annotates a number of fiction books that can be used for this purpose. (FL)

  10. Conceptions of Good Science in Our Data-Rich World.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kevin C; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Montgomery, Georgina M; Soranno, Patricia A

    2016-10-01

    Scientists have been debating for centuries the nature of proper scientific methods. Currently, criticisms being thrown at data-intensive science are reinvigorating these debates. However, many of these criticisms represent long-standing conflicts over the role of hypothesis testing in science and not just a dispute about the amount of data used. Here, we show that an iterative account of scientific methods developed by historians and philosophers of science can help make sense of data-intensive scientific practices and suggest more effective ways to evaluate this research. We use case studies of Darwin's research on evolution by natural selection and modern-day research on macrosystems ecology to illustrate this account of scientific methods and the innovative approaches to scientific evaluation that it encourages. We point out recent changes in the spheres of science funding, publishing, and education that reflect this richer account of scientific practice, and we propose additional reforms.

  11. NASA GRAIL Spacecraft in Science Collection Phase Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-27

    An artist depiction of the twin spacecraft that comprise NASA GRAIL mission. During the GRAIL mission science phase, spacecraft Ebb and Flow transmit radio signals precisely defining the distance between them as they orbit the moon in formation.

  12. How Role Play Addresses the Difficulties Students Perceive when Writing Reflectively about the Concepts They are Learning in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Susan

    , remember and think about a concept and to plan the sequence of their reflective writing. This study was undertaken in four different classes at junior to senior levels. The difficulties identified by students were successfully addressed by role play and the activities that are integral to it. These include physical or kinaesthetic activity, social construction, the use of drawing, diagrams and text, and the provision of a concrete model of the concept. Through the enactment effect, kinaesthetic activity enables students to automatically remember and visualise concepts, whilst visual stimuli and social construction provide opportunities for students to both visualise and verbalise concepts. In addition, the provision of a concrete model enables most students to visualise and understand abstract concepts to some extent. These activities, embedded in role play, enable students to understand, remember, sequence and think about a concept as they engage in reflective writing. This, in turn, enhances understanding and memory. Role play has hitherto been regarded as a useful teaching technique when dealing with very young students. This study demonstrates that role play can be highly effective when teaching Science at the secondary level. This investigation looks at the activities embedded in role play, and demonstrates how they can be effectively translated from theoretical constructs into classroom practice. Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967; Glaser, 1978; 1998; 2002) was selected as the most appropriate methodology for this investigation. The problems of identifying and controlling variables in an educational setting were essentially resolved using this qualitative, interpretative approach. Students from four classes in Years 8, 10 and 11 were investigated. Data were gathered using classroom observations, informal interviews, and formal written interviews, focus group conversations and samples of student writing.

  13. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  14. Use of Concept Profile Analysis to Identify Difficulties in Solving Science Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Hoz, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Proposed is a new method for analyzing how concepts are used in the process of problem solving in science. Through the use of a "thinking aloud" interview technique, 21 tenth-grade students worked with a problem concerning the boiling point of water at the Dead Sea. Interview protocols were analyzed to develop students' concept profiles.…

  15. Introduction of the Concepts of Plate Tectonics into Secondary-School Earth Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William Harold

    1992-01-01

    Secondary school earth-science textbooks in print from 1960 through 1979 were examined to determine how rapidly concepts of plate tectonics were incorporated into those texts during the period when scientists' views about these concepts were evolving most rapidly. Suggests that delays were probably due to an unwillingness to engage in speculation…

  16. The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test,…

  17. Students' Conceptions of Selected Science, Technology and Society Issues: An Exploratory Multidimensional Scaling Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirunarayanan, M. O.

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' conceptions of 31 selected science, technology, and society issues. Differences in such conceptions across different grade-levels and among males and females also were examined. A total of 138 males and females enrolled in grades five through eleven in a unified school district, and in…

  18. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  19. Does Constructivist Approach Applicable through Concept Maps to Achieve Meaningful Learning in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the application of constructivist approach through individual and cooperative modes of spider and hierarchical concept maps to achieve meaningful learning on science concepts (e.g. acids, bases & salts, physical and chemical changes). The main research questions were: Q (1): is there any difference in individual and…

  20. The Babushka Concept--An Instructional Sequence to Enhance Laboratory Learning in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gårdebjer, Sofie; Larsson, Anette; Adawi, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with a novel method for improving the traditional "verification" laboratory in science education. Drawing on the idea of integrated instructional units, we describe an instructional sequence which we call the Babushka concept. This concept consists of three integrated instructional units: a start-up lecture, a laboratory…

  1. The Role of Cognitive Organizers in the Facilitation of Concept Learning in Elementary School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard William

    Studied was the effect of advance organizers, as defined by Ausubel, on the learning of concepts in science. Sixth grade classes studied two sequences of major concept-centered learning tasks developed by the investigator. The first had 12 lessons about energy forms and transformations; the second had five about photosynthesis and respiration as…

  2. Technology Knowledge: High School Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    In-depth interviews guided by video elicitations examined 30 high school science teachers' conceptions of technology and by extension how these conceptions reflected dimensions of nature of technology. Altogether, 64% of the teachers characterized their schools and departments as aggressive-moderate adopters with generous access and support…

  3. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  4. An Investigation of the Hierarchical and Developmental Structure of Selected Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith

    This report describes the results of an attempt to identify a learning hierarchy for each of a number of science concepts mainly encountered first in the high school grades. The concepts studied relate to stoichiometric calculations and molarity, both from chemistry; to food web relationships and problems involving Mendel's laws from biology; to…

  5. An Investigation of Concept Mapping to Improve the Reading Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how well 74 6th-grade science students represented text structures from a 900-word textbook chapter on soil conservation, given a concept map template with four superordinate terms and 24 unsorted concepts. Findings suggest students were more successful at classifying pre-selected terms under given superordinate categories…

  6. The "Why" and "What For" of Research in Social Sciences: Early Career Researchers' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Manuela Alvarez; Elexpuru, Iciar; Castelló, Montserrat; Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the Spanish context, very little is known about what research means for researchers in training. The goal of this study is twofold: to analyze the research conceptions held by doctoral students in the Social Sciences, and to evaluate how those conceptions relate to several relevant variables in the process of researcher training.…

  7. Clusters of Concepts in Molecular Genetics: A Study of Swedish Upper Secondary Science Students' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gericke, Niklas; Wahlberg, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept…

  8. A concept for performance management for Federal science programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whalen, Kevin G.

    2017-11-06

    The demonstration of clear linkages between planning, funding, outcomes, and performance management has created unique challenges for U.S. Federal science programs. An approach is presented here that characterizes science program strategic objectives by one of five “activity types”: (1) knowledge discovery, (2) knowledge development and delivery, (3) science support, (4) inventory and monitoring, and (5) knowledge synthesis and assessment. The activity types relate to performance measurement tools for tracking outcomes of research funded under the objective. The result is a multi-time scale, integrated performance measure that tracks individual performance metrics synthetically while also measuring progress toward long-term outcomes. Tracking performance on individual metrics provides explicit linkages to root causes of potentially suboptimal performance and captures both internal and external program drivers, such as customer relations and science support for managers. Functionally connecting strategic planning objectives with performance measurement tools is a practical approach for publicly funded science agencies that links planning, outcomes, and performance management—an enterprise that has created unique challenges for public-sector research and development programs.

  9. Turkish Student Science Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development: A Phenomenography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Aydin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In creating a society whose citizens have sustainable lifestyles, education for sustainable development (ESD) plays a key role. However, the concept of sustainable development (SD) has developed independently from the input of educators; therefore, ESD presents current teachers with many challenges. At this point, understanding how stakeholders in…

  10. Teach Life Science Concepts--with Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that young children need help translating scientific theory into experiences that involve their senses. Provides age-appropriate, literature-based activities for exploring concepts and vocabulary in the areas of plant life cycles, animal life cycles, ocean ecology, and human growth development. Suggests specific works of children's…

  11. Evolution of the Concept of "Human Capital" in Economic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepelkin, Vyacheslav A.; Perepelkina, Elena V.; Morozova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is determined by transformation of the human capital into the key economic resource of development of the postindustrial society. The purpose of the article is to disclose the content of evolution of the human capital as a scientific concept and phenomenon of the economic life. The leading approach to the…

  12. Elaborated Metaphors Support Viable Inferences about Difficult Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Virginia; Reese, Debbie Denise

    2010-01-01

    Instructional metaphors scaffold learning better when accompanied by an elaboration. Applying structure mapping theory, we developed and used an elaborated instructional metaphor (text and illustrations) for introductory chemistry concepts. In two studies (N[subscript 1] = 44, N[subscript 2] = 57), college students with little chemistry background…

  13. An exploration of worldview and conceptions of nature of science among science teachers at a private Christian high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kits, Kara M.

    Both worldview and conceptions of nature of science (NOS) are important components in teaching and learning science. However, few empirical studies have examined the interplay between both of these components for teachers or students. Therefore, this study examines the possible relationship between worldview and conceptions of nature of science for secondary science teachers who currently teach at a Christian school. Qualitative methodologies developed a rich description of the worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS for teachers in this study. Eight secondary science teachers employed at a private Christian school participated in the study. A Views of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and follow-up interviews elicited participants' conceptions of NOS. A semi-structured interview and Test of Preferred Explanations (TOPE) questionnaire elicited participants' worldview beliefs regarding nature and the natural world and causality. Participants communicated understandings of NOS that ranged from uninformed to informed in various aspects. In addition, while their worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS reflected their faith beliefs, participants did not have a less informed view of NOS than other science teachers in previous studies. In fact, for several aspects of NOS, these participants articulated more informed conceptions of NOS than participants in previous studies. For these participants, faith did not appear to interfere with their ability to think scientifically in regards to their worldview beliefs regarding nature and causality. Rather, faith was incorporated into a scientifically compatible worldview regarding nature and causality that is not much different from other teachers. Other than the fact that these science teachers integrated their faith beliefs into some of their responses regarding worldview and NOS, these teachers did not appear to be much different from other science teachers. That is, there was no predictable pattern between worldview

  14. Student Competence in Understanding the Matter Concept and Its Implications for Science Curriculum Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Using the US national sample from the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), this study examined students' competence levels in understanding the matter concept at grades 3, 4, 7, 8 and high school graduation, and compared them to the expectations in the US national science education standards. It was found that…

  15. Investigation of Preservice Science Teachers' Comprehension of the Star, Sun, Comet and Constellation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Ebru Ezberci; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal preservice science teachers' perceptions related to the sun, star, comet and constellation concepts. The research was carried out by 56 preservice science teachers (4th grade) at Kastamonu University taking astronomy course in 2014-2015 academic year. For data collection open-ended questions that required…

  16. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  17. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  18. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  19. Parental influences on students' self-concept, task value beliefs, and achievement in science.

    PubMed

    Senler, Burcu; Sungur, Semra

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to investigate the grade level (elementary and middle school) and gender effect on students' motivation in science (perceived academic science self-concept and task value) and perceived family involvement, and secondly to examine the relationship among family environment variables (fathers' educational level, mothers' educational level, and perceived family involvement), motivation, gender and science achievement in elementary and middle schools. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that elementary school students have more positive science self-concept and task value beliefs compared to middle school students. Moreover, elementary school students appeared to perceive more family involvement in their schooling. Path analyses also suggested that family involvement was directly linked to elementary school students' task value and achievement. Also, in elementary school level, significant relationships were found among father educational level, science self-concept, task value and science achievement. On the other hand, in middle school level, family involvement, father educational level, and mother educational level were positively related to students' task value which is directly linked to students' science achievement. Moreover, mother educational level contributed to science achievement through its effect on self-concept.

  20. Remediation of Gender Inequity in Science in a Developing Country: An Experiment with Cooperative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osisioma, Uzoamaka Irene Ngozi

    The consistent reports on gender inequity in science achievement have led to a search for more effective strategies for correcting the imbalance. This study is part of a search which sought to investigate whether or not the cooperative-concept mapping technique improves the science achievement of girls. A non-equivalent control group…

  1. Developing an Instrument for Assessing Students' Understanding of the Energy Concept across Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa

    2013-01-01

    Energy is a core and unifying concept in all science disciplines and across all grade levels. Although energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas in all of science disciplines, students often have a great deal of difficulty understanding it. Numerous studies have been conducted on this topic finding that many students held…

  2. Diagnosing Conceptions about the Epistemology of Science: Contributions of a Quantitative Assessment Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; Manassero-Mas, María-Antonia; García-Carmona, Antonio; Montesano de Talavera, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a new quantitative methodological approach to diagnose epistemology conceptions in a large sample. The analyses use seven multiple-rating items on the epistemology of science drawn from the item pool Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS). The bases of the new methodological diagnostic approach are the empirical…

  3. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  4. Attainment of Selected Earth Science Concepts by Texas High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Mavis M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Attainment of five earth science concepts by high school seniors depended on the amount of previous science coursework by the students and on the size of their school's enrollment. Seniors in Texas high schools were subjects of the study. (Author/PP)

  5. Activities for Teaching K-6 Math/Science Concepts. Classroom Activities Series - Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Walter A.; Farrell, Margaret A.

    This book is a revised edition of one of the products of a project, "Teaching Mathematics and Science Concepts, K-6, funded by the New York State Education Department. The project was a collaborative effort by mathematics and science education faculty at the State University of New York at Albany and representatives of eight school districts in…

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 1. Biomedical sciences. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1981-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 sections in this progress report. The appendix which deals with dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles is not represented by a separate abstract. (KRM)

  7. Program on Public Conceptions of Science, Newsletter 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A., Ed.; Shelanski, Vivien, Ed.

    This newsletter is divided into six sections: an introduction; general news items and communications from readers; news items and communications more specifically in the ethical and human values areas; an annotated, selective checklist of imaginative literature concerning the relationship between science, technology and human values; and a general…

  8. Key Concepts of Environmental Sustainability in Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy E.; Harden, Amy J.; Clauss, Barbara; Fox, Wanda S.; Wild, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    It is the vision of the American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences to be "recognized as the driving force in bringing people together to improve the lives of individuals, families, and communities" (AAFCS, 2010). Because of this focus on individuals and families and its well-established presence in American schools, family and consumer…

  9. Creative Construction of Mathematics and Science Concepts in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallenstein, Nancy L.

    Noting that effective teaching models that emphasize critical thinking in mathematics and science are used less often in early childhood classrooms than in those for older students, this book provides early childhood educators with an explanation of teaching models that promote 3- to 8-year-olds critical thinking, problem solving, decision making,…

  10. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  11. Misconceptions of Selected Science Concepts Held by Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a test, administered as a motion picture, designed to measure misconceptions about the particle model of matter held by students in grades two through six. Reliability values for tests of eight misconceptions are given and the correlations of misconception scores with measures of IQ, reading, mathematics, and science ability reported.…

  12. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutonyi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  13. Computer-Based Imaginary Sciences and Research on Concept Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brockenbrough S.

    To control for interactions in learning research due to subjects' prior knowledge of the instructional material presented, an imaginary curriculum was presented with a computer assisted technique based on Carl Berieter's imaginary science of Xenograde systems. The curriculum consisted of a classification system for ten conceptual classes of…

  14. Enacting Classroom Inquiry: Theorizing Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2008-01-01

    Translating written curricular materials into rich, complex, learning environments is an undertheorized area in science education. This study examines two critical cases of teachers enacting a technology-rich curriculum focused on the development of complex reasoning around biodiversity for fifth graders. Two elements emerged that significantly…

  15. Three Conceptions of Thermodynamics: Technical Matrices in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Frederik V.; Rump, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Introductory thermodynamics is a topic which is covered in a wide variety of science and engineering educations. However, very different teaching traditions have evolved within different scientific specialties. In this study we examine three courses in introductory thermodynamics within three different scientific specialties: physics, chemical…

  16. University Student Conceptions of Learning Science through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen

    2006-01-01

    First-year undergraduate science students experienced a writing program as an important part of their assessment in a biology subject. The writing program was designed to help them develop both their scientific understanding as well as their written scientific expression. Open-ended questionnaires investigating the quality of the experience of…

  17. Program on Public Conceptions of Science, Newsletter 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelanski, Vivien, Ed.; Blanpied, William A., Ed.

    This newsletter presents a summary of important, but little publicized, issues involving the National Science Foundation. In addition, it also contains a timetable of impending actions to be taken by congressional committees, and a list of documents and articles where additional information can be found. In addition to the regular sections, News…

  18. State of the science of maternal-infant bonding: a principle-based concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E

    2013-12-01

    to provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. after a brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) Maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioural or biological components was limited. (2) The concept is clearly operationalised in the affective domain. (3) Maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STATE OF THE SCIENCE OF MATERNAL-INFANT BONDING: A PRINCIPLE-BASED CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Hupcey, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a principle-based analysis of the concept of maternal-infant bonding. Design Principle-based method of concept analysis for which the data set included 44 articles published in the last decade from Pubmed, CINAHL, and PyschINFO/PsychARTICLES. Setting Literature inclusion criteria were English language, articles published in the last decade, peer-reviewed journal articles and commentary on published work, and human populations. Measurement and Findings After brief review of the history of maternal-infant bonding, a principle-based concept analysis was completed to examine the state of the science with regard to this concept. The concept was critically examined according to the clarity of definition (epistemological principle), applicability of the concept (pragmatic principle), consistency in use and meaning (linguistic principle), and differentiation of the concept from related concepts (logical principle). Analysis of the concept revealed: (1) maternal-infant bonding describes maternal feelings and emotions towards her infant. Evidence that the concept encompasses behavioral or biological components was limited; (2) the concept is clearly operationalized in the affective domain; and (3) maternal-infant bonding is linguistically confused with attachment, although the boundaries between the concepts are clearly delineated. Key Conclusion Despite widespread use of the concept, maternal-infant bonding is at times superficially developed and subject to confusion with related concepts. Concept clarification is warranted. A theoretical definition of the concept of maternal-infant bonding was developed to aid in the clarification, but more research is necessary to further clarify and advance the concept. Implications for Practice Nurse midwives and other practitioners should use the theoretical definition of maternal-infant bonding as a preliminary guide to identification and understanding of the concept in clinical practice. PMID:23452661

  20. Detecting changes in student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, Jonathon Richard

    2000-10-01

    This research study investigated the changes that occurred in six student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners over the duration of their participation in a one-year, graduate level, science teacher education program. Cases were created for each of the student teachers based on their concept maps, writing samples, interviews, lesson plans, informal interviews with cooperating teachers, and observation notes collected on biweekly visitations. The cases were divided into three dyads each consisting of two student teachers with similar preprogram and student teaching experiences. Cross case analysis revealed the existence of seven themes related to teaching science to adolescent English language learners. Further analysis suggested that student teachers that worked with experienced cooperating teachers and who had achieved a sense of autonomy over their student teaching demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth across all seven themes. Student teachers who had not achieved a sense of autonomy, demonstrated growth in two to three themes. Student teachers who demonstrated broad and sophisticated growth were able to clearly articulate their conceptions of teaching science to English language learners where as those who demonstrated limited growth were not. This research establishes the use of concept maps as a tool for detecting changes in student teachers' conceptions of teaching science to adolescent English language learners as well as the sensitivity of concept maps to detect the types of changes historically detected by writing samples and interviews. Recommendations based on the implications from are included.

  1. Changes in Science Teachers' Conceptions and Connections of STEM Concepts and Earthquake Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavlazoglu, Baki; Stuessy, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The authors find justification for integrating science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in the complex problems that today's students will face as tomorrow's STEM professionals. Teachers with individual subject-area specialties in the STEM content areas have limited experience in integrating STEM. In this study, the authors…

  2. First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Adolescents' Multidimensional Mathematics and Science Self-Concepts and Their Achievement in Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study, drawing on data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007, examined the predictive effects of multiple dimensions of mathematics and science self-concept--positive affect toward mathematics and science and self-perceived competence in mathematics and science--on mathematics and science achievement among 1,752…

  3. Wildland fire science and management in the U.S.: Spanning the boundaries through the regional knowledge exchange network (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Susie Kocher; Eric Toman; Sarah Trainor; Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the federal Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) initiated a national network of regional fire science consortia to accelerate awareness, understanding and use of wildland fire science. This presentation synthesizes findings from initial needs assessments conducted by consortia in eight regions of the United States. The assessments evaluated how fire science is...

  4. Using the Tower of Hanoi puzzle to infuse your mathematics classroom with computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-07-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. These concepts include, but are not limited to, conditionals, iteration, and recursion. Lessons, such as the one proposed in this article, are easily implementable in mathematics classrooms and extracurricular programmes as they are good candidates for 'drop in' lessons that do not need to fit into any particular place in the typical curriculum sequence. As an example for readers, the author describes how she used the puzzle in her own Number Sense and Logic course during the federally funded Upward Bound Math/Science summer programme for college-intending low-income high school students. The article explains each computer science term with real-life and mathematical examples, applies each term to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle solution, and describes how students connected the terms to their own solutions of the puzzle. It is timely and important to expose mathematics students to computer science concepts. Given the rate at which technology is currently advancing, and our increased dependence on technology in our daily lives, it has become more important than ever for children to be exposed to computer science. Yet, despite the importance of exposing today's children to computer science, many children are not given adequate opportunity to learn computer science in schools. In the United States, for example, most students finish high school without ever taking a computing course. Mathematics lessons, such as the one described in this article, can help to make computer science more accessible to students who may have otherwise had little opportunity to be introduced to these increasingly important concepts.

  5. Focusing on the Classical or Contemporary? Chinese Science Teacher Educators' Conceptions of Nature of Science Content to Be Taught to Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling; Wei, Bing; Zhan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the phenomenographic perspective, an exploratory study investigated Chinese teacher educators' conceptions of teaching Nature of Science (NOS) to pre-service science teachers through semi-structured interviews. Five key dimensions emerged from the data. This paper focuses on the dimension, "NOS content to be taught to pre-service…

  6. Nature of Science and Science Content Learning: The Relation between Students' Nature of Science Understanding and Their Learning about the Concept of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Hanno; Neumann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Besides viewing knowledge about the nature of science (NOS) as important for its own value with respect to scientific literacy, an adequate understanding of NOS is expected to improve science content learning by fostering the ability to interrelate scientific concepts and, thus, coherently acquire scientific content knowledge. However, there is a…

  7. At the Elbows of Scientists: Shaping Science Teachers' Conceptions and Enactment of Inquiry-Based Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2014-12-01

    This study stemmed from concerns among researchers that reform efforts grounded in promoting inquiry as the basis for teaching science have not achieved the desired changes in American science classrooms. Many science teachers assume that they are employing inquiry-based strategies when they use cookbook investigations with highly structured step-by-step instructions. Additionally, most science teachers equate hands-on activities with classroom inquiry and, as such, repeatedly use prepackaged, disconnected activities to break the monotony of direct instruction. Despite participation in numerous professional development activities, many science teachers continue to hold misconceptions about inquiry that influence the way they design and enact instruction. To date, there is very limited research exploring the role of inquiry-based professional development in facilitating desired changes in science teachers' conceptions of inquiry. This qualitative study of five high school science teachers explores the ways in which authentic inquiry experiences with a team of scientists in Panama shaped their conceptions and reported enactments of inquiry-based instruction. Our findings suggest that professional development experiences engaging science teachers in authentic research with scientists have the potential to change teachers' naïve conceptions of inquiry, provided that necessary supports are provided for reflection and lesson design.

  8. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-08-01

    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  9. Re-Presenting the Social Construction of Science in Light of the Propositions of Bruno Latour: For a Renewal of the School Conception of Science in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Vincent; Bader, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Current opinion holds that school science has not been producing the expected outcomes. Highlighted by a considerable body of research, one of the concerns is that young people still mobilize a naive conception of science. Consequently, we must pursue the reflection process concerning ways of renewing the school conception of science so as to…

  10. Predicting fifth-grade students' understanding of ecological science concepts with motivational and cognitive variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alao, Solomon

    The need to identify factors that contribute to students' understanding of ecological concepts has been widely expressed in recent literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students' prior knowledge, learning strategies, interest, and learning goals and their conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. Subject were 72 students from three fifth grade classrooms located in a metropolitan area of the eastern United States. Students completed the goal commitment, interest, and strategy use questionnaire (GISQ), and a knowledge test designed to assess their prior knowledge and conceptual understanding of ecological science concepts. The learning goals scale assessed intentions to try to learn and understand ecological concepts. The interest scale assessed the feeling and value-related valences that students ascribed to science and ecological science concepts. The strategy use scale assessed the use of two cognitive strategies (monitoring and elaboration). The knowledge test assessed students' understanding of ecological concepts (the relationship between living organisms and their environment). Scores on all measures were examined for gender differences; no significant gender differences were observed. The motivational and cognitive variables contributed to students' understanding of ecological concepts. After accounting for interest, learning goals, and strategy use, prior knowledge accounted for 28% of the total variance in conceptual understanding. After accounting for prior knowledge, interest, learning goals, and strategy use explained 7%, 6%, and 4% of the total variance in conceptual understanding, respectively. More importantly, these variables were interrelated to each other and to conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, learning goals, and strategy use, interest did not predict the variance in conceptual understanding. After controlling for prior knowledge, interest, and

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  12. Scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry: Revealing a private side of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Rebecca R.

    Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged

  13. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  14. Evaluation of an S.D.I. System Based on "Nuclear Science Abstracts" and the Performance of Matching by Words in Titles Compared With Indexing Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, G.; And Others

    A selective dissemination of information service based on computer scanning of Nuclear Science Abstracts tapes has operated at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England since October, 1968. The performance of the mechanized SDI service has been compared with that of the pre-existing current awareness service which is based on…

  15. Three Conceptions of Thermodynamics: Technical Matrices in Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Frederik V.; Rump, Camilla

    2008-11-01

    Introductory thermodynamics is a topic which is covered in a wide variety of science and engineering educations. However, very different teaching traditions have evolved within different scientific specialties. In this study we examine three courses in introductory thermodynamics within three different scientific specialties: physics, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Based on a generalization of Kuhn’s theory of disciplinary matrix, and the idea of boundary objects we analyse how basic thermodynamics theory is conceived in the different scientific specialties. The study is based on interviews with teachers and analysis of the different textbook traditions. It is concluded that teachers need to take into account how subject matter is conceived in other related scientific specialties when designing courses. Two examples demonstrating how this may be done are given.

  16. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  17. Concept Analysis and the Advance of Nursing Knowledge: State of the Science.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Beth L; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2018-04-24

    Despite an overwhelming increase in the number of concept analyses published since the early 1970s, there are significant limitations to the impact of this work in promoting progress in nursing science. We conducted an extensive review of concept analyses published between 1972 and 2017 to identify patterns in analysis and followed this with exploration of an exemplar related to the concept of normalization to demonstrate the capabilities of analysis for promoting concept development and progress. Scoping review of peer-reviewed literature published in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in which the terms "concept analysis," "concept clarification," and "concept derivation" appeared in any part of the reference. The original search returned 3,489 articles. This initial pool was refined to a final sample of 958 articles published in 223 journals and addressing 604 concepts. A review of citations of the original analysis of the concept of normalization resulted in 75 articles selected for closer examination of the process of concept development. Review showed a clear pattern of repetition of analysis of the same concept, growth in number of published analyses, preponderance of first authors with master's degrees, and 43 distinct descriptions of methods. Review of the 75 citations to the normalization analysis identified multiple ways concept analysis can inform subsequent research and theory development. Conceptual work needs to move beyond the level of "concept analysis" involving clear linkage to the resolution of problems in the discipline. Conceptual work is an important component of progress in the knowledge base of a discipline, and more effective use of concept development activities are needed to maximize the potential of this important work. It is important to the discipline that we facilitate progress in nursing science on a theoretical and conceptual level as a part of cohesive and systematic development of the discipline

  18. The Assessment of Taiwanese College Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning Computer Science and Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jyh-Chong; Su, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Taiwanese college students' conceptions of and approaches to learning computer science and then explore the relationships between the two. Two surveys, Conceptions of Learning Computer Science (COLCS) and Approaches to Learning Computer Science (ALCS), were administered to 421 college students majoring in…

  19. Students' conceptions of evidence during a university introductory forensic science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeshion, Theodore Elliot

    Students' Conceptions of Science, Scientific Evidence, and Forensic Evidence during a University Introductory Forensic Science Course This study was designed to examine and understand what conceptions undergraduate students taking an introductory forensic science course had about scientific evidence. Because the relationships between the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence are not well understood in the science education literature, this study sought to understand how these concepts interact and affect students' understanding of scientific evidence. Four participants were purposefully selected for this study from among 89 students enrolled in two sections of an introductory forensic science course taught during the fall 2005 semester. Of the 89 students, 84 were criminal justice majors with minimal science background and five were chemistry majors with academic backgrounds in the natural and physical sciences. All 89 students completed a biographical data sheet and a pre-instruction Likert scale survey consisting of twenty questions relating to the nature of scientific evidence. An evaluation of these two documents resulted in a purposeful selection of four varied student participants, each of whom was interviewed three times throughout the semester about the nature of science, the nature of evidence, and the nature of forensic evidence. The same survey was administered to the participants again at the end of the semester-long course. This study examined students' assumptions, prior knowledge, their understanding of scientific inference, scientific theory, and methodology. Examination of the data found few differences with regard to how the criminal justice majors and the chemistry majors responded to interview questions about forensic evidence. There were qualitative differences, however, when the same participants answered interview questions relating to traditional scientific evidence. Furthermore, suggestions are

  20. The impact of creative tendency, academic performance, and self-concept on creative science problem-finding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Adey, Philip; Cheng, Li; Zhang, Xingli

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to address the impacts of science performance, science self-concept, and creative tendency on the creative science problem-finding (CSPF) ability of a sample of Chinese middle-school students. Structural equation modeling was used to indicate that CSPF could be directly predicted by creative tendency and academic performance, and indirectly predicted by science self-concept. The findings strongly support the idea that curiosity, imagination, and domain-specific knowledge are important for CSPF, and science self-concept could be mediated by knowledge that affects CSPF. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Exploring the Conceptions of a Science Teacher from Karachi about the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mir Zaman

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate a science teacher's beliefs and understanding of the nature of science (NOS) in order to be able to relate these beliefs about the NOS to classroom practice and therefore student experience. Teachers' beliefs about the NOS are embedded in their experiences of learning and teaching science and hence,…

  2. Central Computer Science Concepts to Research-Based Teacher Training in Computer Science: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…

  3. Engagement as a Threshold Concept for Science Education and Science Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Merryn; Vos, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Science communication and science education have the same overarching aim--to engage their audiences in science--and both disciplines face similar challenges in achieving this aim. Knowing how to effectively engage their "audiences" is fundamental to the success of both. Both disciplines have well-developed research fields identifying…

  4. Conceptions of learning factors in postgraduate health sciences master students: a comparative study with non-health science students and between genders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando; Sola, Miguel; Santisteban-Espejo, Antonio; Ruyffelaert, Ariane; Campos-Sánchez, Antonio; Garzón, Ingrid; Carriel, Víctor; de Dios Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan; Martin-Piedra, Miguel Ángel; Alaminos, Miguel

    2018-06-07

    The students' conceptions of learning in postgraduate health science master studies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare the factors influencing conceptions of learning in health sciences and non-health sciences students enrolled in postgraduate master programs in order to obtain information that may be useful for students and for future postgraduate programs. A modified version of the Learning Inventory Conception Questionnaire (COLI) was used to compare students' conception learning factors in 131 students at the beginning of their postgraduate studies in health sciences, experimental sciences, arts and humanities and social sciences. The present study demonstrates that a set of factors may influence conception of learning of health sciences postgraduate students, with learning as gaining information, remembering, using, and understanding information, awareness of duty and social commitment being the most relevant. For these students, learning as a personal change, a process not bound by time or place or even as acquisition of professional competences, are less relevant. According to our results, this profile is not affected by gender differences. Our results show that the overall conceptions of learning differ among students of health sciences and non-health sciences (experimental sciences, arts and humanities and social sciences) master postgraduate programs. These finding are potentially useful to foster the learning process of HS students, because if they are metacognitively aware of their own conception or learning, they will be much better equipped to self-regulate their learning behavior in a postgraduate master program in health sciences.

  5. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  6. The effect of concept mapping on preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of science inquiry teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Diann Carol

    This study examined the effect of concept mapping as a method of stimulating reflection on preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of science inquiry instruction methods. Three intact classes of science education preservice teachers participated in a non-randomized comparison group with a pretest and posttest design to measure the influence of mapping on participants' knowledge of inquiry science instruction. All groups followed the same course syllabus, in class activities, readings, assignments and assessment tasks. The manner in which they presented their ideas about inquiry science teaching varied. Groups constructed pre-lesson, post-lesson, and homework lists or maps across three inquiry based instruction modules (ecosystems, food chains, and electricity). Equivalent forms of the Teaching Science Inventory (TSI) were used to investigate changes in preservice teachers' propositional knowledge about how to teach using inquiry science instruction methods. Equivalent forms of the Science Lesson Planning (SLP) test were used to investigate changes in preservice teachers' application knowledge about how to teach using inquiry science instruction methods. Data analysis included intrarater reliability, ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, and correlations between lists and maps and examination responses. SLP and TSI scores improved from the pretest to the posttest in each of the three study groups. The results indicate that, in general, there were basically no relationships between the treatment and outcome measures. In addition, there were no significant differences between the three groups in their knowledge about how to teach science. Conclusions drawn from this study include, first, the learners did learn how to teach science using inquiry. Second, in this study there is little evidence to support that concept mapping was more successful than the listing strategy in improving preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of teaching science using inquiry science instruction methods.

  7. What concept analysis in philosophy of science should be (and why competing philosophical analyses of gene concepts cannot be tested by polling scientists).

    PubMed

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    What should philosophers of science accomplish when they analyze scientific concepts and interpret scientific knowledge? What is concept analysis if it is not a description of the way scientists actually think? I investigate these questions by using Hans Reichenbach's account of the descriptive, critical, and advisory tasks of philosophy of science to examine Karola Stotz and Paul Griffiths' idea that poll-based methodologies can test philosophical analyses of scientific concepts. Using Reichenbach's account as a point of departure, I argue that philosophy of science should identify and clarify epistemic virtues and describe scientific knowledge in relation to these virtues. The role of concept analysis is to articulate scientific concepts in ways that help reveal epistemic virtues and limitations of particular sciences. This means an analysis of the gene concept(s) should help clarify the explanatory power and limitations of gene-based explanations, and should help account for the investigative utility and biases of gene-centered sciences. I argue that a philosophical analysis of gene concept(s) that helps achieve these critical aims should not be rejected on the basis of poll-based studies even if such studies could show that professional biologists don't actually use gene terminology in precise ways corresponding to the philosophical analysis.

  8. Building, using, and maximizing the impact of concept inventories in the biological sciences: report on a National Science Foundation sponsored conference on the construction of concept inventories in the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Garvin-Doxas, Kathy; Klymkowsky, Michael; Elrod, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The meeting "Conceptual Assessment in the Biological Sciences" was held March 3-4, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and hosted by University of Colorado, Boulder's Biology Concept Inventory Team, the meeting drew together 21 participants from 13 institutions, all of whom had received National Science Foundation funding for biology education. Topics of interest included Introductory Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Ecology, and the Nature of Science. The goal of the meeting was to organize and leverage current efforts to develop concept inventories for each of these topics. These diagnostic tools are inspired by the success of the Force Concept Inventory, developed by the community of physics educators to identify student misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics. By working together, participants hope to lessen the risk that groups might develop competing rather than complementary inventories.

  9. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends criticallymore » on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high

  10. Diagramming the Never Ending Story: Student-generated diagrammatic stories integrate and retain science concepts improving science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillsbury, Ralph T.

    This research examined an instructional strategy called Diagramming the Never Ending Story: A method called diagramming was taught to sixth grade students via an outdoor science inquiry ecology unit. Students generated diagrams of the new ecology concepts they encountered, creating explanatory 'captions' for their newly drawn diagrams while connecting them in a memorable story. The diagramming process culminates in 20-30 meter-long murals called the Never Ending Story: Months of science instruction are constructed as pictorial scrolls, making sense of all new science concepts they encounter. This method was taught at a North Carolina "Public" Charter School, Children's Community School, to measure its efficacy in helping students comprehend scientific concepts and retain them thereby increasing science literacy. There were four demographically similar classes of 20 students each. Two 'treatment' classes, randomly chosen from the four classes, generated their own Never Ending Stories after being taught the diagramming method. A Solomon Four-Group Design was employed: Two Classes (one control, one treatment) were administered pre- and post; two classes received post tests only. The tests were comprised of multiple choice, fill-in and extended response (open-ended) sections. Multiple choice and fill-in test data were not statistically significant whereas extended response test data confirm that treatment classes made statistically significant gains.

  11. The efficacy of planetarium experiences to teach specific science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Joel C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of planetarium experiences on students' understanding of phases of the moon and eclipses. This research employed a quasi-experimental design. Students from 12 classes in four different schools all in the same school district participated in the study. A total of 178 students from four teachers participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher developed pretest and posttest. All students received classroom instruction based on the school district's curriculum. The experimental groups took the posttest after attending a 45-minute planetarium experience titled Moon Witch. The control groups took the posttest before attending the planetarium experience but after receiving an additional 45-minute lesson on phases of the moon and eclipses. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run to determine if there was variance among teachers' instructional practices. Since the results indicated there was no significant variance among teachers, the study sample was analyzed as a single group. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run in SPSS for the study sample and each subgroup. Subgroups were African American, Hispanic, White, Male, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged. The results indicated that there was an improvement on mean gain scores for the experimental group over the control group for all students and each subgroup. The differences in mean gain scores were significantly higher for all students and for the African American, Female, and Economically Disadvantaged subgroups. An Independent Samples t Test for Means was run using SPSS for each of the three different sections of the pretest and posttest. The results indicated that most of the improvement was in Section 3. This section required students to manipulate photos of the phases of moon into correct order. This section required more spatial reasoning than Section 1

  12. Secondary Physical Science Teachers' Conceptions of Science Teaching in a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dale L.; Booth, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers enter initial teacher education programmes with conceptions of teaching gleaned from their own schooling. These conceptions, which include teachers' beliefs, may be resistant to change, which is a challenge in contexts where teacher educators hope that teachers will teach in ways different from their own schooling. Conceptions…

  13. Teaching and learning grade 7 science concepts by elaborate analogies: Mainstream and East and South Asian ESL students' experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Judy Joo-Hyun

    This study explored the effectiveness of an instructional tool, elaborate analogy, in teaching the particle theory to both Grade 7 mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students. Ten Grade 7 science classes from five different schools in a large school district in the Greater Toronto area participated. Each of the ten classes were designated as either Group X or Y. Using a quasi-experimental counterbalanced design, Group X students were taught one science unit using the elaborate analogies, while Group Y students were taught by their teachers' usual methods of teaching. The instructional methods used for Group X and Y were interchanged for the subsequent science unit. Quantitative data were collected from 95 students (50 mainstream and 45 ESL) by means of a posttest and a follow-up test for each of the units. When the differences between mainstream and East or South Asian ESL students were analyzed, the results indicate that both groups scored higher on the posttests when they were instructed with elaborate analogies, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant. That is, the ESL students, as well as the mainstream students, benefited academically when they were instructed with the elaborate analogies. The students obtained higher inferential scores on the posttest when their teacher connected the features of less familiar and more abstract scientific concepts to the features of the familiar and easy-to-visualize concept of school dances. However, after two months, the students were unable to recall inferential content knowledge. This is perhaps due to the lack of opportunity for the students to represent and test their initial mental models. Rather than merely employing elaborate analogies, perhaps, science teachers can supplement the use of elaborate analogies with explicit guidance in helping students to represent and test the coherence of their mental models.

  14. A comparison of journal coverage in Psychological Abstracts and the primary health sciences indexes: implications for cooperative serials acquisition and retention.

    PubMed Central

    Sekerak, R J

    1986-01-01

    An overlap study was performed to identify important psychology journals that are also of interest to biomedical scientists and health care practitioners. The journal lists of Index Medicus, Hospital Literature Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Nursing Index were compared with the journal list of Psychological Abstracts. A total of 357 Psychological Abstracts titles were also in one or more of the health sciences indexes. A core list of forty-five titles covered by all of the indexes is presented in the Appendix. Results of the study are discussed vis-à-vis cooperative serials acquisition and retention efforts. PMID:3742117

  15. Teaching science for conceptual change: Toward a proposed taxonomy of diagnostic teaching strategies to gauge students' personal science conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, Richard Edwin, III

    Science instruction aims to ensure that students properly construct scientific knowledge so that each individual may play a role as a science literate citizen or as part of the science workforce (National Research Council, 1996, 2000). Students enter the classroom with a wide range of personal conceptions regarding science phenomena, often at variance with prevailing scientific views (Duschl, Hamilton, & Grandy, 1992; Hewson, 1992). The extensive misconceptions research literature emphasizes the importance of diagnosing students' initial understandings in order to gauge the accuracy and depth of what each student knows prior to instruction and then to use that information to adapt the teaching to address student needs. (Ausubel, 1968; Carey, 2000; Driver et al., 1985; Karplus & Thier, 1967; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Osborne & Freyberg, 1985; Project 2061, 1993; Strike & Posner, 1982, 1992; Vygotsky, 1934/1987). To gain such insight, teachers diagnose not only the content of the students' personal conceptions but also the thinking processes that produced them (Strike and Posner, 1992). Indeed, when teachers design opportunities for students to express their understanding, there is strong evidence that such diagnostic assessment also enhances science teaching and learning (Black & William, 1998). The functional knowledge of effective science teaching practice resides in the professional practitioners at the front lines---the science teachers in the classroom. Nevertheless, how teachers actually engage in the practice of diagnosis is not well documented. To help fill this gap, the researcher conducted a study of 16 sixth grade science classrooms in four Los Angeles area middle schools. Diagnostic teaching strategies were observed in action and then followed up by interviews with each teacher. Results showed that teachers use strategies that vary by the complexity of active student involvement, including pretests, strategic questions, interactive discussion

  16. Supporting Abstraction Processes in Problem Solving through Pattern-Oriented Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Orna; Haberman, Bruria

    2008-01-01

    Abstraction is a major concept in computer science and serves as a powerful tool in software development. Pattern-oriented instruction (POI) is a pedagogical approach that incorporates patterns in an introductory computer science course in order to structure the learning of algorithmic problem solving. This paper examines abstraction processes in…

  17. Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2010-01-01

    The author explores the history of nature of science beliefs among pre-service and in-service teachers primarily in the United States and Thailand and compares this history to findings in a current study being conducted in Thailand. Two research questions were used to guide this current study: What are pre-service and in-service science teachers'…

  18. Exploring students' conceptions of science learning via drawing: a cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence of specified attributes. Data analysis showed that the majority of students pictured science learning as school-based, involving certain types of experiment or teacher lecturing. In addition, notable cross-sectional differences were found in the 'Activity' and 'Emotions and attitudes' categories in students' drawings. Three major findings were made: (1) lower grade level students conceptualised science learning with a didactic approach, while higher graders might possess a quantitative view of science learning (i.e. how much is learned, not how well it is learned), (2) students' positive and negative emotions and attitudes toward science learning reversed around middle school, and (3) female students expressed significantly more positive emotions and attitudes than their male counterparts. In conclusion, higher graders' unfruitful conceptions of science learning warrant educators' attention. Moreover, further investigation of girls' more positive emotions and attitudes found in this study is needed.

  19. Concept Mapping in Science Class: A Case Study of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asan, Askin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of incorporating concept mapping on the achievement of fifth grade students in science class. The study was conducted with twenty-three students at Ata Elementary School, Trabzon, Turkey. The students were tested with teacher-constructed pre- and post tests containing 20…

  20. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-01-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the…

  1. Application of Core Science Concepts Using Digital Video: A "Hands-On" Laptop Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Michael Keith; Jarvinen, Lamis Zaher; Sheehan, Danielle N.

    2012-01-01

    Today's undergraduates are highly engaged in a variety of social media outlets. Given their comfort with technology, we wondered if we could use this phenomenon to teach science-related material. We asked students to use freeware to make a short video with text, images, and music as a way to explain scientific concepts that are traditionally…

  2. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  3. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  4. Improving Students’ Science Process Skills through Simple Computer Simulations on Linear Motion Conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, P.; Suryani, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Suhendi, E.; Samsudin, A.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the development of students’ science process skills (SPS) on linear motion concept by utilizing simple computer simulation. In order to simplify the learning process, the concept is able to be divided into three sub-concepts: 1) the definition of motion, 2) the uniform linear motion and 3) the uniformly accelerated motion. This research was administered via pre-experimental method with one group pretest-posttest design. The respondents which were involved in this research were 23 students of seventh grade in one of junior high schools in Bandung City. The improving process of students’ science process skill is examined based on normalized gain analysis from pretest and posttest scores for all sub-concepts. The result of this research shows that students’ science process skills are dramatically improved by 47% (moderate) on observation skill; 43% (moderate) on summarizing skill, 70% (high) on prediction skill, 44% (moderate) on communication skill and 49% (moderate) on classification skill. These results clarify that the utilizing simple computer simulations in physics learning is be able to improve overall science skills at moderate level.

  5. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  6. An Empirical Study of Relationships between Student Self-Concept and Science Achievement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Oliver, Steve; Garcia, Augustine

    2004-01-01

    Positive self-concept and good understanding of science are important indicators of scientific literacy endorsed by professional organizations. The existing research literature suggests that these two indicators are reciprocally related and mutually reinforcing. Generalization of the reciprocal model demands empirical studies in different…

  7. Concept-Focused Teaching: Using Big Ideas to Guide Instruction in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems we face in science teaching is that students are learning isolated facts and missing central concepts. For instance, consider what you know about life cycles. Chances are that you remember something about butterflies and stages, such as egg, larva, pupa, adult. But what's the take-home idea that we should have learned…

  8. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  9. Student-Generated Visualization as a Study Strategy for Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan Jane; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    Mixed methods were adopted to explore the effects of student-generated visualization on paper and on computers as a study strategy for middle school science concept learning. In a post-test-only-control-group design, scores were compared among a control-group (n=28), a group that was trained to visualize on paper (n=30), and a group that was…

  10. The Effects of the Science Curriculum Improvement Study on a Child's Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

    1977-01-01

    Describes research undertaken to determine if Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) can be instrumental in helping children either maintain or develop a positive self-concept. A total of 189 students in grades 3-6 were assigned to treatment and control groups for a period of four and one-half months. Findings did not reveal overall…

  11. Concept Maps and Informational Read-Alouds: Strengthening Both Science and Reading for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effects of concept mapping and teacher generated questioning on students' organization and retention of science knowledge when used along with interactive informational read-alouds. Fifty-eight third grade students completed an eight-day unit regarding "soil formation." Students who participated…

  12. How Relevant Is R. S. Peters' Conception of Education to Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Stamatis, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses R. S. Peters' concept of education, particularly his notion of cognitive perspective and its relevance to school science education. In light of the problems inherent in any attempt to define the notion of scientific literacy, it is argued that the development of cognitive perspective can be considered an important, if not the…

  13. Using "Slowmation" to Enable Preservice Primary Teachers to Create Multimodal Representations of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified the value of students constructing their own representations of science concepts using modes such as writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech to communicate meaning. "Slowmation" (abbreviated from "Slow Animation") is a simplified way for students, such as preservice teachers, to make a narrated animation…

  14. Analyzing the Use of Concept Maps in Computer Science: A Systematic Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Vinicius; de Souza, Érica F.; Felizardo, Katia R; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: concept Maps (CMs) enable the creation of a schematic representation of a domain knowledge. For this reason, CMs have been applied in different research areas, including Computer Science. Objective: the objective of this paper is to present the results of a systematic mapping study conducted to collect and evaluate existing research on…

  15. The Role of Drawing in Young Children's Construction of Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    It has been observed that many young children like making marks on paper and that they enjoy the activity. It is also known that children's drawings are vehicles for expression and communication. Therefore, it would be logical and reasonable for teachers to incorporate children's drawings into building science concepts. To demonstrate how drawings…

  16. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  17. Determining Science Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Food Chain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to determine science student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of food chain. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. Fallacies detected in the pre-service teachers' conceptual structures are believed to result in students' developing misconceptions in their future classes and will adversely affect…

  18. Improving the Usefulness of Concept Maps as a Research Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Lenaerts, Josephina; Wieme, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The search for authentic science research tools to evaluate student understanding in a hybrid learning environment with a large multimedia component has resulted in the use of concept maps as a representation of student's knowledge organization. One hundred and seventy third-semester introductory university-level engineering students represented…

  19. The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Jasmine; Abdullah, Nabilah; Lim, Beh Kian

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed…

  20. Spatial Foundations of Science Education: The Illustrative Case of Instruction on Introductory Geological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Kastens, Kim A.; Christensen, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of spatial concepts in science learning, 125 college students with high, medium, or low scores on a horizontality (water-level) spatial task were given information about geological strike and dip using existing educational materials. Participants mapped an outcrop's strike and dip, a rod's orientation, pointed to a distant…

  1. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  2. Anthropomorphizing Science: How Does It Affect the Development of Evolutionary Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of anthropomorphic language to describe biological change in both educational settings and popular science, little is known about how anthropomorphic language influences children's understanding of evolutionary concepts. In an experimental study, we assessed whether the language used to convey evolutionary concepts…

  3. Shifting Social Science Conceptions of Research: The Possibility of the Practical Argument in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Jana

    New research programs on teaching have examined teacher thinking, reflective teaching, and the possibility of teachers using practical arguments in their teaching. The changes in educational research have their basis in social science conceptions of research, which have shifted through the years. The shift from logical positivism to a more…

  4. Science Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Food Pyramid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to determine science student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of food pyramid. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. Fallacies detected in the pre-service teachers' conceptual structures are believed to result in students' developing misconceptions in their future classes and will adversely…

  5. The life of concepts: Georges Canguilhem and the history of science.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Twelve years after his famous Essay on Some Problems Concerning the Normal and the Pathological (1943), the philosopher Georges Canguilhem (1904-1995) published a book-length study on the history of a single biological concept. Within France, his Formation of the Reflex Concept in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1955) contributed significantly to defining the "French style" of writing on the history of science. Outside of France, the book passed largely unnoticed. This paper re-reads Canguilhem's study of the reflex concept with respect to its historiographical and epistemological implications. Canguilhem defines concepts as complex and dynamic entities combining terms, definitions, and phenomena. As a consequence, the historiography of science becomes a rather complex task. It has to take into account textual and contextual aspects that develop independently of individual authors. In addition, Canguilhem stresses the connection between conceptual activities and other functions of organic individuals in their respective environments. As a result, biological concepts become tied to a biology of conceptual thinking, analogical reasoning, and technological practice. The paper argues that this seemingly circular structure is a major feature in Canguilhem's philosophical approach to the history of the biological sciences.

  6. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  7. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    PubMed

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  8. Concept of Science Data Management for the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    South Korea has a plan to explore the Moon in 2018 or 2019. For the plan, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute which is a government funded research institute kicked off the Korea Lunar Exploration Development Program in January, 2016 in support of Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, South Korea.As the 1st stage mission of the program, named as the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter(KPLO), will perform acquisition of high resolution images and science data for investigation of lunar environment as well as the core technology demonstration and validation for space explorations. The scientific instruments consists of three Korean domestic developed science instruments except an imaging instrument and several foreign provided instruments. We are developing a science data management plan to encourage scientific activities using science data acquired by the science instruments.I introduce the Korean domestic developed science instruments and present concept of the science data management plan for data delivery, processing, and distribution for the science instruments.

  9. Amplification of the concept of erroneous meaning in psychodynamic science and in the consulting room.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Crittenden E

    2007-01-01

    Previous papers dealt with the concept of psyche as that dynamic field which underlies the subjective experience of mind. A new paradigm, psychodynamic science, was suggested for dealing with subjective data. The venue of the psychotherapeutic consulting room is now brought directly into science, expanding the definition of psychotherapy to include both humanistic and scientific elements. Certain concepts were introduced to amplify this new scientific model, including psyche as hypothetical construct, the concept of meaning as replacement for operational validation in scientific investigation, the synonymity of meaning and insight, and the concept of synchronicity, together with the meaning-connected affect of numinosity. The presence of unhealthy anxiety as the conservative ego attempts to preserve its integrity requires a deeper look at the concept of meaning. This leads to a distinction between meaning and erroneous meaning. The main body of this paper amplifies that distinction, and introduces the concept of intolerance of ambiguity in the understanding of erroneous meanings and their connection with human neurosis.

  10. The effects of three concept mapping strategies on seventh-grade students' science achievement at an urban middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosanjh, Navdeep Kaur

    2011-12-01

    There is great concern over students' poor science achievement in the United States. Due to the lack of science achievement, students are not pursing science related careers resulting in an increase in outsourcing to other countries. Learning strategies such as concept mapping may ameliorate this situation by providing students with tools that encourage meaningful learning. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the effects of three concept mapping learning strategies (concept identifying, proposition identifying, student generated) on urban middle school students' understanding of the circulatory system. Three intact classes of seventh-grade students were assigned to one of the three concept mapping strategies. The students were given a pretest on the circulatory system then learned and used their respective concept mapping strategies while learning about the circulatory system. At the conclusion of the study, students' science achievement was measured by performance on an achievement test and rubric scores of their respective concept identifying, proposition identifying, and student generated concept maps. The results of the study suggest that all three of the concept mapping strategies are effective in increasing students' science achievement. Additionally, the moderate significant correlations between the posttest and concept map scores of the current study established that concept maps are a useful measure of student knowledge. Lastly, the results of the current study also suggest that the concept identifying mapping strategy may be a useful scaffold in instructing students how to develop student generated concept maps.

  11. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  12. Abstracts for the 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, May 30, 2017, Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    The 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held on May 30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado. While prior meetings have been multiple-day events, the 2017 Congress will be an intense 1-day preconference to the American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be found at the Ultra Sports Science Foundation Web site: http://ultrasportsscience.us.

  13. What can autism teach us about the role of sensorimotor systems in higher cognition? New clues from studies on language, action semantics, and abstract emotional concept processing.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-03-01

    Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions. We review a literature of functional motor abnormalities in ASC, following this with discussion of their neural correlates and aberrancies in language development, explaining how these might arise with reference to the typical formation of cell assemblies linking action and perceptual brain regions. This model gives rise to clear hypotheses regarding language comprehension, and we highlight a recent set of studies reporting differences in brain activation and behaviour in the processing of action-related and abstract-emotional concepts in individuals with ASC. At the neuroanatomical level, we discuss structural differences in long-distance frontotemporal and frontoparietal connections in ASC, such as would compromise information transfer between sensory and motor regions. This neurobiological model of action perception integration may shed light on the cognitive and social-interactive symptoms of ASC, building on and extending earlier proposals linking autistic symptomatology to motor disorder and dysfunction in action perception integration. Further investigating the contribution of motor dysfunction to higher cognitive and social impairment, we suggest, is timely and promising as it may advance both neurocognitive theory and the development of new clinical interventions for this population and others characterised by early and pervasive motor disruption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  14. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  15. The Impact of a Summer Institute on Inservice Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Krissek, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated inservice PreK to Grade two teachers' knowledge of some earth and space science concepts before and after a short-term teacher institute. A one-group pre-test-post-test design was used in the current study. Earth science concepts targeted during the professional development included properties of rocks and soils, and the…

  16. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  17. How Far a Star. A Supplement in Space Oriented Concepts for Science and Mathematics Curricula for Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maben, Jerrold William

    Space science-oriented concepts and suggested activities are presented for intermediate grade teachers of science and mathematics in a book designed to help bring applications of space-oriented mathematics into the classroom. Concepts and activities are considered in these areas: methods of keeping time (historically); measurement as related to…

  18. Making Learning Last: Teachers' Long-Term Retention of Improved Nature of Science Conceptions and Instructional Rationales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget K.; Bell, Randy L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite successful attempts to improve learners' nature of science (NOS) conceptions through explicit, reflective approaches, retention of improved conceptions is rarely addressed in research. The issue of context for NOS instruction has implications for this retention. Whether to contextualise has been the question occupying science educators'…

  19. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  20. Spherical versus flat displays for communicating climate science concepts through stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollaert Uz, S.; Storksdieck, M.; Duncan, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most compelling ways to display global Earth science data is through spherical displays. Museums around the world use Science On a Sphere for informal education of the general public, commonly for Earth science. An increasing number of universities and K-12 school systems are acquiring spheres to support formal education curriculum, but the use of spheres in education is relatively new and understanding of their advantages and best practices is still evolving. Many museums do not have the resources to staff their sphere with a facilitator or they have high turn-over of volunteer facilitators without a science background. Many K-12 teachers lack resources or training needed to utilize sphere technology to address global phenomena or Earth system science. One solution to this "facilitator-problem" has been the creation of "canned shows" for spheres, like ClimateBits. These are short videos that help people visualize Earth science concepts through global data sets and simple story-telling. To understand whether and when data driven story-telling works best on a sphere, we surveyed groups that saw identical Earth system science stories presented on a spherical display versus a flat screen. We also surveyed identical groups using live Earth science data story-telling compared to the ClimateBits videos. Some of the advantages of each format were most apparent in the qualitative comments at the end of the surveys

  1. Conceptual Blending Monitoring Students' Use of Metaphorical Concepts to Further the Learning of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.

  2. New concepts of science and medicine in science and technology studies and their relevance to science education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel F; Fu, Daiwie

    2012-02-01

    Science education often adopts a narrow view of science that assumes the lay public is ignorant, which seemingly justifies a science education limited to a promotional narrative of progress in the form of scientific knowledge void of meaningful social context. We propose that to prepare students as future concerned citizens of a technoscientific society, science education should be informed by science, technology, and society (STS) perspectives. An STS-informed science education, in our view, will include the following curricular elements: science controversy education, gender issues, historical perspective, and a move away from a Eurocentric view by looking into the distinctive patterns of other regional (in this case of Taiwan, East Asian) approaches to science, technology, and medicine. This article outlines the significance of some major STS studies as a means of illustrating the ways in which STS perspectives can, if incorporated into science education, enhance our understanding of science and technology and their relationships with society. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Exploring spiritual value in earth science concept through learning using chain till unanswered questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johan, Henny; Suhandi, Andi; Samsudin, Ahmad; Ratna Wulan, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Now days, the youth's moral decline is an urgent problem in our country. Natural science especially earth and space science learning is potential to insert spirituality value in its learning activities. The aim of this study is to explore concept of planet earth to embed spirituality attitude through earth science learning. Interactive conceptual learning model using chain till unanswered questions (CTUQ) with help visualizations was implemented in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A sixth indicator of spiritual aspect about awareness of divinity were used to identify the shifted of students' spirituality. Quasi experimental research design had been utilized to implement the learning model. The data were collected using a questionnaire in pretest and posttest. Open ended question was given at post-test only. Questionnaire was analyzed quantitative while open ended question was analyzed qualitatively. The results show that after implementation student's spiritual shifted to be more awareness of divinity. Students' response at scale 10 increased been 97.8% from 87.5% of total responses. Based on analysis of open ended question known that the shifted was influenced by spiritual value inserted in concepts, CTUQ, and media visualization used to show unobservable earth phenomenon during learning activities. It can be concluded that earth science concepts can be explored to embed spiritual aspect.

  4. Engaging Teenagers in Astronomy Using the Lens of Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, S.; Wolf, D.; Harrison, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Vanguard Double Star Workshop has been developed to teach eighth graders the technique of measuring position angle and separation of double stars. Through this program, the students follow in the footsteps of a professional scientist by researching the topic, performing the experiment, writing a scientific article, publishing a scientific article, and finally presenting the material to peers. An examination of current educational standards grounds this program in educational practice and philosophy.

  5. Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marée, Ton J.; van Bruggen, Jan M.; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2013-04-01

    Background: This study combines work on concept mapping with scripted collaborative learning. Purpose: The objective was to examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students' argumentative interactions during collaborative 'multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping' on meaningful science learning and retention. Programme description: Each concept in the enriched skeleton concept map (ESCoM) contained annotated multimedia-rich content (pictures, text, animations or video clips) that elaborated the concept, and an embedded collaboration script to guide students' interactions. Sample: The study was performed in a Biomolecules course on the Bachelor of Applied Science program in the Netherlands. All first-year students (N=93, 31 women, 62 men, aged 17-33 years) took part in this study. Design and methods: The design used a control group who received the regular course and an experimental group working together in dyads on an ESCoM under the guidance of collaboration scripts. In order to investigate meaningful understanding and retention, a retention test was administered a month after the final exam. Results: Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant experimental effect on the Biomolecules exam scores between the experimental group and the control, and the difference between the groups on the retention test also reached statistical significance. Conclusions: Scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping resulted in meaningful understanding and retention of the conceptual structure of the domain, the concepts, and their relations. Not only was scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping more effective than the traditional teaching approach, it was also more efficient in requiring far less teacher guidance.

  6. An examination of conceptual change in undergraduate biology majors while learning science concepts including biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaide, Glenn G.

    2006-12-01

    Without adequate understanding of science, we cannot make responsible personal, regional, national, or global decisions about any aspect of life dealing with science. Better understanding how we learn about science can contribute to improving the quality of our educational experiences. Promoting pathways leading to life-long learning and deep understanding in our world should be a goal for all educators. This dissertation project was a phenomenological investigation into undergraduate understanding and acceptance of scientific theories, including biological evolution. Specifically, student descriptions of conceptual change while learning science theory were recorded and analyzed. These qualitative investigations were preceded by a survey that provided a means of selecting students who had a firmer understanding of science theory. Background information and survey data were collected in an undergraduate biology class at a small, Southern Baptist-affiliated liberal arts school located in south central Kentucky. Responses to questions on the MATE (Rutledge and Warden, 1999) instrument were used to screen students for interviews, which investigated the way by which students came to understand and accept scientific theories. This study identifies some ways by which individuals learn complex science theories, including biological evolution. Initial understanding and acceptance often occurs by the conceptual change method described by Posner et al. (1982). Three principle ways by which an individual may reach a level of understanding and acceptance of science theory were documented in this study. They were conceptual change through application of logic and reasoning; conceptual change through modification of religious views; and conceptual change through acceptance of authoritative knowledge. Development of a deeper, richer understanding and acceptance of complex, multi-faceted concepts such as biological evolution occurs in some individuals by means of conceptual

  7. The influence of the history of science course on pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Behiye

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a history of science course on pre-service science teachers' understanding of the nature of science concepts. Subjects in the study were divided in two groups: (1) students who enrolled in only in the history of science course, (2) students who enrolled both the meaning of science and the history of science courses. An interpretative-descriptive approach and constant comparative analysis were used to identify similarities and differences among pre-service teachers' views about nature of scientific knowledge prior to and after the history of science course. The results of this study indicate that explicitly addressing certain aspects of the nature of science is effective in promoting adequate understanding of the nature of science for pre-service science teachers. Moreover, the results indicate that a student's prior experience with the history of science helps to improve their understanding of the history and nature of science. The history of science course helped pre-service teachers to develop the following views which are parallel with these advocated in both the Benchmarks (AAAS, 1993) and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) concerning the nature of scientific knowledge: (1) Scientific knowledge is empirically based and an ongoing process of experimentation, investigation, and observation. (2) Science is a human endeavor. (3) People from different cultures, races, genders, and nationality contribute to science. (4) Scientific knowledge is not based on myths, personal beliefs, and religious values. (5) Science background and prior knowledge have important roles for scientific investigations. (6) Scientific theories and laws represent different kinds of knowledge. (7) Science is affected by political, social, and cultural values. (8) Creativity and imagination are used during all stages of scientific investigations. (9) Theories change because of new evidence and new views of existing

  8. Contexts, concepts and cognition: principles for the transfer of basic science knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Chaudhary, Zarah; Woods, Nicole; Dore, Kelly; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Transfer of basic science aids novices in the development of clinical reasoning. The literature suggests that although transfer is often difficult for novices, it can be optimised by two complementary strategies: (i) focusing learners on conceptual knowledge of basic science or (ii) exposing learners to multiple contexts in which the basic science concepts may apply. The relative efficacy of each strategy as well as the mechanisms that facilitate transfer are unknown. In two sequential experiments, we compared both strategies and explored mechanistic changes in how learners address new transfer problems. Experiment 1 was a 2 × 3 design in which participants were randomised to learn three physiology concepts with or without emphasis on the conceptual structure of basic science via illustrative analogies and by means of one, two or three contexts during practice (operationalised as organ systems). Transfer of these concepts to explain pathologies in familiar organ systems (near transfer) and unfamiliar organ systems (far transfer) was evaluated during immediate and delayed testing. Experiment 2 examined whether exposure to conceptual analogies and multiple contexts changed how learners classified new problems. Experiment 1 showed that increasing context variation significantly improved far transfer performance but there was no difference between two and three contexts during practice. Similarly, the increased conceptual analogies led to higher performance for far transfer. Both interventions had independent but additive effects on overall performance. Experiment 2 showed that such analogies and context variation caused learners to shift to using structural characteristics to classify new problems even when there was superficial similarity to previous examples. Understanding problems based on conceptual structural characteristics is necessary for successful transfer. Transfer of basic science can be optimised by using multiple strategies that collectively emphasise

  9. An analysis of the concept of teaching in elementary school science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seatter, Carol Eunice Scarff

    The problem for this thesis arises directly from several years of observation of science classrooms in British Columbia. The troubling phenomenon seen within numerous classrooms, taught by teachers claiming to be constructivist teachers, involved teachers fostering the idea that children can think about science in terms of their own ideas, that is, that children can think about science in common-sense terms. In the many cases I have observed, teachers justify this practice on the grounds of constructivist theory. However, this kind of "constructivist teaching" does not, in my opinion, lead to scientific reasoning. My argument begins with the premise that the development of scientific reasoning in children is necessary for science education. I will argue that the currently popular "constructivist" movement has significant potential to fail in producing scientific reasoning in children, as did its predecessor, the "discovery learning" movement of the 1960s. The incommensurable differences between scientific and common-sense reasoning are presented and discussed. This thesis examines constructivist theory in terms of its potential to hinder the development of scientific reasoning in children. Two features of the constructivist writings are examined: those which pertain to the nature of science, and those relating to the concept of teaching. A chapter on the logic of scientific inquiry is central to the thesis, as it describes and explains the concepts, forms of explanation and truth criteria unique to the discipline of science. The epistemological foundations of science education are discussed in terms of the realist/instrumentalist debate. The thesis argues in favor of a sophisticated realist view of knowledge, such as those offered by Hacking and Matthews who take into account Hanson's "theory-laden" observation without falling prey to a naive realist view. Reasoning in science is compared with children's common-sense reasoning in an attempt to further understand

  10. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May be More Easily Altered than Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee'S.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and Science Inquiry course participated in this study. Data were collected by using a pre/post format with the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire (VNOS-270), the Views of Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (VOSI-270), follow-up interviews, and classroom artifacts. The results indicated that most students initially held naïve views about certain aspects of NOS like tentativeness and subjectivity. By the end of the semester, almost all students dramatically improved their understanding about almost all aspects of NOS. However, several students still struggled with certain aspects like the differences between scientific theory and law, tentativeness, and socio-cultural embeddedness. Results suggested that instructional, motivational, and socio-cultural factors may influence if and how students changed their views about targeted NOS aspects. Students thought that classroom activities, discussions, and readings were most helpful to improve their views about NOS. The findings from the research have the potential to translate as practical advice for teachers, science educators, and future researchers.

  11. Abstracts of the Finalists of the International Science and Engineering Fair (35th, Columbus, Ohio, May 8-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A science and engineering fair is a competition based on the quality of projects done by students, the results of which are reported through exhibits and oral presentations at the fair. Fairs operate on a step basis. Students who win in small fairs such as a local fair, move to a city fair, then to a regional fair, and may be chosen to represent…

  12. Abstracts of the Finalists of the International Science and Engineering Fair (39th, Knoxville, Tennessee, May 8-14, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A science and engineering fair is a competition based on the quality of projects done by students, the results of which are reported through exhibits and oral presentations at the fair. Fairs operate on a step basis. Students who win in small, local fairs, move to a city fair, then to a regional fair, and may be chosen to represent that fair in…

  13. (abstract) The Evolving Spaceborne Radar Data Support to Earth Science and Operations at the Alaska SAR Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) has been receiving, processing, archiving, and distributing data for Earth scientists and operations since it began receiving data in 1991. Four radar satellites are now being handled. Recent developments have served to increase the level of services of ASF to the Earth science community considerably. These developments are discussed.

  14. Adolescents' Motivation to Select an Academic Science-Related Career: The Role of School Factors, Individual Interest, and Science Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskinen, Päivi H.; Schütte, Kerstin; Prenzel, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers consider a lacking interest in science and the students' belief that science is too demanding as major reasons why young people do not strive for science-related careers. In this article, we first delineated a theoretical framework to investigate the importance of interest, self-concept, and school factors regarding students'…

  15. The Effects of Student Multiple Intelligence Preference on Integration of Earth Science Concepts and Knowledge within a Middle Grades Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Lisa Christine

    This research was conducted in an eastern Tennessee 8th grade science classroom with 99 students participating. The action research project attempted to examine an adolescent science student's integration of science concepts within a project-based setting using the multiple intelligence theory. In an effort to address the national science…

  16. PBS Plus Facebook: The Old And New Communication Of Climate Science (Please "Like" And "Share" This Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional and innovative communications strategies were combined in "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM; writer & director Geoff Haines-Stiles, producer Erna Akuginow, presenter Richard Alley). We attempted both a clear and accessible presentation of some key essentials of current climate science and an experiment in new messaging and new media for outreach and education. ETOM is a 3-part TV series broadcast by PBS ("…one of the more interesting documentary series to come along in years", said the New York Times) and a 320 plus page tradebook, with 110 pages of footnotes referencing peer-reviewed science, published by Norton. But it's also a lively and growing Facebook page with a clear voice sharing positive examples of how renewable energy can reduce polluting emissions here in the US and worldwide, alongside headlines of climate science, and a website—relaunched for the 2012 Earth Day PBS broadcasts—where all three programs can be streamed, and teachers can register to download HD segments for classroom use. The TV programs were designed to offer a highly accessible statement of core climate science, literally explaining how ice cores show us today's climate is changing in ways not seen in the last 800,000 thousand years and why physics and chemistry let us know "It's Us" who are changing CO2 levels in the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels. But the project's outreach components also includes a "Science Pub" in a converted theater in Portland, where the audience consumes food, drink and climate science, and "Adventures of a Climate Scientist in the Age of Politics and Punditry," a dynamic live performance recorded for TV and the web. Messaging includes a Navy Rear Admiral in dress whites explaining why the Pentagon believes climate change is real, and scenes showing Marines and Army implementing solar technologies to enhance mission security and reduce their carbon bootprint. Similarly, outreach events at the North Carolina Museum of Natural

  17. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  18. Activities of the Japan Society of Applied Physics Committee for Diversity Promotion in Science and Technology (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) Committee for Diversity Promotion in Science and Technology has worked to promote gender equality, both within and between academic societies, and in society as a whole. Main activities of the Committee are: (1) organizing symposia and informal meetings during domestic JSAP conferences to stimulate discussion and raise awareness; (2) encouraging young researchers in pursuit of their careers through the newly designed "career-explorer mark;" (3) offering childcare at biannual JSAP conferences; and (4) helping future scientists and engineers prepare to lead the fields of science and technology on a global level with the creation of an educational roadmap. In this presentation, recent activities of the JSAP Committee are introduced and reviewed.

  19. The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jerry Marvin

    The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better

  20. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  1. Concept Mapping Assessment of Media Assisted Learning in Interdisciplinary Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Steffen; Bogner, Franz X.; Girwidz, Raimund

    2010-05-01

    Acquisition of conceptual knowledge is a central aim in science education. In this study we monitored an interdisciplinary hypermedia assisted learning unit on hibernation and thermodynamics based on cooperative learning. We used concept mapping for the assessment, applying a pre-test/post-test design. In our study, 106 9th graders cooperated by working in pairs ( n = 53) for six lessons. As an interdisciplinary learning activity in such complex knowledge domains has to combine many different aspects, we focused on long-term knowledge. Learners working cooperatively in dyads constructed computer-supported concept maps which were analysed by specific software. The data analysis encompassed structural aspects of the knowledge corresponding to a target reference map. After the learning unit, the results showed the acquisition of higher-order domain-specific knowledge structures which indicates successful interdisciplinary learning through the hypermedia learning environment. The benefit of using a computer-assisted concept mapping assessment for research in science education, and in science classrooms is considered.

  2. Nature of Science and Science Content Learning. The Relation Between Students' Nature of Science Understanding and Their Learning About the Concept of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Hanno; Neumann, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Besides viewing knowledge about the nature of science (NOS) as important for its own value with respect to scientific literacy, an adequate understanding of NOS is expected to improve science content learning by fostering the ability to interrelate scientific concepts and, thus, coherently acquire scientific content knowledge. However, there is a lack of systematic investigations, which clarify the relations between NOS and science content learning. In this paper, we present the results of a study, conducted to investigate how NOS understanding relates to students' acquisition of a proper understanding of the concept of energy. A total of 82 sixth and seventh grade students received an instructional unit on energy, with 41 of them receiving generic NOS instruction beforehand. This NOS instruction, however, did not result in students having higher scores on the NOS instrument. Thus, correlational analyses were performed to investigate how students' NOS understanding prior to the energy unit related to their learning about science content. Results show that a more adequate understanding of NOS might relate to students' perspective on the concept of energy and might support them in understanding the nature of energy as a theoretical concept. Students with higher NOS understanding, for example, seemed to be more capable of learning how to relate the different energy forms to each other and to justify why they can be subsumed under the term of energy. Further, we found that NOS understanding may also be related to students' approach toward energy degradation—a concept that can be difficult for students to master—while it does not seem to have a substantive impact on students' learning gain regarding energy forms, transformation, or conservation.

  3. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  4. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  5. Argument Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) Learning Model in Voltaic Cell Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subarkah, C. Z.; Fadilah, A.; Aisyah, R.

    2017-09-01

    Voltaic Cell is a sub-concept of electrochemistry that is considered difficult to be comprehended by learners Voltaic Cell is a sub concept of electrochemistry that is considered difficult to be understood by learners so that impacts on student activity in learning process. Therefore the learning model Argument Based Science Inquiry (ABSI) will be applied to the concept of Voltaic cell. This research aims to describe students’ activities during learning process using ABSI model and to analyze students’ competency to solve ABSI-based worksheets (LK) of Voltaic Cell concept. The method used in this research was the “mix-method-quantitative-embedded” method with subjects of the study: 39 second-semester students of Chemistry Education study program. The student activity is quite good during ABSI learning. The students’ ability to complete worksheet (LK) for every average phase is good. In the phase of exploration of post instruction understanding, it is categorized very good, and in the phase of negotiation shape III: comparing science ideas to textbooks or other printed resources merely reach enough category. Thus, the ABSI learning has improved the student levels of activity and students’ competency to solve the ABSI-based worksheet (LK).

  6. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  7. Outreach as a Unifying Concept in Science Education and Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, K.; Balgopal, M.; Birner, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been many calls for enhanced communication between scientists and the public in order to increase scientific literacy and improve attitudes toward science. However, these educational outreach (E/O) efforts often encounter structural barriers and the processes that support attainment of the goals of E/O are not well documented. This project provides a look at the current state of the literature on E/O done by scientists. It shows that E/O endeavors are diverse and not well-studied. Research efforts have concentrated on evaluation of specific programs, rather than the underlying principles and processes that influence how scientists interact and communicate with the public. The outcomes that have been examined focus on participants and there is little discussion of influences on facilitators. The research findings are also varied and exist in different disciplines with little overlap, making it difficult to synthesize our understanding of E/O. In this study, we contend that increasing dialogue between the fields of science education and science communication as well as building and utilizing theoretical foundations will help to scaffold the research on E/O. Studies of scientists' discourse and impacts on scientists of participating in E/O are areas that need further investigation. Preliminary results of one such study focusing on a geoscientist will also be presented. The results of this literature review project will help to expand our understanding of the research around E/O and how to extend E/O research to improve the impact of geoscience E/O.

  8. Origins Space Telescope: Science Case and Design Reference Mission for Concept 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Cooray, Asantha; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Melnick, Gary; Leisawitz, David; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Bergin, Edwin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The science case for OST covers four themes: Tracing the Signature of Life and the Ingredients of Habitable Worlds; Charting the Rise of Metals, Dust and the First Galaxies, Unraveling the Co-evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies and Understanding Our Solar System in the Context of Planetary System Formation. Using a set of proposed observing programs from the community, we estimate a design reference mission for OST mission concept 1. The mission will complete significant programs in these four themes and have time for other programs from the community. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  9. Validating concepts of mental disorder: precedents from the history of science.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert

    2014-10-01

    A fundamental issue in any branch of the natural sciences is validating the basic concepts for use in that branch. In psychiatry, this issue has not yet been resolved, and indeed, the proper nature of the problem has scarcely been recognised. As a result, psychiatry (or at least those parts of the discipline which aspire to scientific status) still cannot claim to be a part of scientific medicine, or to be incorporated within the common language of the natural sciences. While this creates difficulties within the discipline, and its standing in relation to other branches of medicine, it makes it an exciting place for "frontiersmen" (and women). This is one of the key growing points in the natural science tradition. In this essay, which moves from the early history of that tradition to today's debates in scientific psychiatry, I give my views about how these fundamental issues can move towards resolution.

  10. Expected SOFIA sensitivity, characteristics, US science instrument complement and operations concept.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Davidson, J. A.

    The joint US and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5 meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP began earlier this year. Universities Space Research Association (USRA), teamed with Raytheon E-Systems and United Airlines, was selected by NASA to develop and operate SOFIA. The 2.5 meter telescope will be designed and built by a consortium of German companies lead by MAN-GHH. Work on the aircraft and the primary mirror has started. First science flights will begin in 2001 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics, US science instrument complement, and operations concept for the SOFIA observatory, with an emphasis on the science community's participation, are discussed.

  11. Goethe's Conception of "Experiment as Mediator" and Implications for Practical Work in School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong

    2018-03-01

    There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.

  12. Essential Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology for High School Students Based on a Delphi Study by the Expert Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2015-07-01

    Nanoscale science and technology (NST) is an important new field in modern science. In the current study, we seek to answer the question: 'What are the essential concepts of NST that should be taught in high school'? A 3-round Delphi study methodology was applied based on 2 communities of experts in nanotechnology research and science education. Eight essential concepts in NST were identified. Each concept is accompanied by its explanation, definition, importance and includes subcategories that compose it. Three concepts emerged in the Delphi study, which were not identified before: functionality, classification of nanomaterials, and the making of nanotechnology. Differences between the concepts suggested by the 2 communities of experts were found. The results of this study serve as a tool to examine different nanotechnology programs that were reported thus far and to make recommendations for designing a NST program for high school students that includes the essential concepts.

  13. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  14. The Positive and Negative Effects of Science Concept Tests on Student Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Barufaldi, James P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of testing effect during science concept assessments, including the mechanism behind it and its impact upon a learner's conceptual understanding. The participants consisted of 208 high school students, in either the 11th or 12th grade. Three types of tests (traditional multiple-choice test, correct concept test, and incorrect concept test) related to the greenhouse effect and global warming were developed to explore the mechanisms underlining the test effect. Interview data analyzed by means of the flow-map method were used to examine the two-week post-test consequences of taking one of these three tests. The results indicated: (1) Traditional tests can affect participants' long-term memory, both positively and negatively; in addition, when students ponder repeatedly and think harder about highly distracting choices during a test, they may gradually develop new conceptions; (2) Students develop more correct conceptions when more true descriptions are provided on the tests; on the other hand, students develop more misconceptions while completing tests in which more false descriptions of choices are provided. Finally, the results of this study revealed a noteworthy phenomenon that tests, if employed appropriately, may be also an effective instrument for assisting students' conceptual understanding.

  15. Concept Maps for Improved Science Reasoning and Writing: Complexity Isn't Everything.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Jason E; Duncan, Tanya; Reynolds, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    A pervasive notion in the literature is that complex concept maps reflect greater knowledge and/or more expert-like thinking than less complex concept maps. We show that concept maps used to structure scientific writing and clarify scientific reasoning do not adhere to this notion. In an undergraduate course for thesis writers, students use concept maps instead of traditional outlines to define the boundaries and scope of their research and to construct an argument for the significance of their research. Students generate maps at the beginning of the semester, revise after peer review, and revise once more at the end of the semester. Although some students revised their maps to make them more complex, a significant proportion of students simplified their maps. We found no correlation between increased complexity and improved scientific reasoning and writing skills, suggesting that sometimes students simplify their understanding as they develop more expert-like thinking. These results suggest that concept maps, when used as an intervention, can meet the varying needs of a diverse population of student writers. © 2015 J. E. Dowd et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  17. Computer-science guest-lecture series at Langston University sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey; abstracts, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, K. S.

    1994-01-01

    Langston University, a Historically Black University located at Langston, Oklahoma, has a computing and information science program within the Langston University Division of Business. Since 1984, Langston University has participated in the Historically Black College and University program of the U.S. Department of Interior, which provided education, training, and funding through a combined earth-science and computer-technology cooperative program with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). USGS personnel have presented guest lectures at Langston University since 1984. Students have been enthusiastic about the lectures, and as a result of this program, 13 Langston University students have been hired by the USGS on a part-time basis while they continued their education at the University. The USGS expanded the offering of guest lectures in 1992 by increasing the number of visits to Langston University, and by inviting participation of speakers from throughout the country. The objectives of the guest-lecture series are to assist Langston University in offering state-of-the-art education in the computer sciences, to provide students with an opportunity to learn from and interact with skilled computer-science professionals, and to develop a pool of potential future employees for part-time and full-time employment. This report includes abstracts for guest-lecture presentations during 1992-93 school year.

  18. Advancing One Health Policy and Implementation Through the Concept of One Medicine One Science.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carol; Travis, Dominic A; Berger, Kavita; Coat, Gwenaële; Kennedy, Shaun; Steer, Clifford J; Murtaugh, Michael P; Sriramarao, P

    2015-09-01

    Numerous interspecies disease transmission events, Ebola virus being a recent and cogent example, highlight the complex interactions between human, animal, and environmental health and the importance of addressing medicine and health in a comprehensive scientific manner. The diversity of information gained from the natural, social, behavioral, and systems sciences is critical to developing and sustainably promoting integrated health approaches that can be implemented at the local, national, and international levels to meet grand challenges. The Concept of One Medicine One Science (COMOS) as outlined herein describes the interplay between scientific knowledge that underpins health and medicine and efforts toward stabilizing local systems using 2 linked case studies: the food system and emerging infectious disease. Forums such as the International Conference of One Medicine One Science (iCOMOS), where science and policy can be debated together, missing pieces identified, and science-based collaborations formed among industry, governmental, and nongovernmental policy makers and funders, is an essential step in addressing global health. The expertise of multiple disciplines and research foci to support policy development is critical to the implementation of one health and the successful achievement of global health security goals.

  19. FIR/THz Space Interferometry: Science Opportunities, Mission Concepts, and Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive far-IR imaging and spectroscopic measurements of astronomical objects on sub-arcsecond angular scales are essential to our understanding of star and planet formation, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and to the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. Cold single-aperture telescopes in space, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory, are very sensitive, but they lack the necessary angular resolution by two or more orders of magnitude. Far-IR space interferometers will address this need in the coming decades. Several mission concepts have already been studied, including in the US the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the more ambitious Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). This talk will describe science goals and summarize alternative concepts for future FIR/THz space interferometry missions. Small arrays of sensitive, fast, direct detectors are a key enabling technology for SPIRIT and SPECS. I will describe the technology requirements for far-IR interferometry, including the detector requirements, and their derivation from the mission science goals and instrument concepts.

  20. The Concept of Ideology in Analysis of Fundamental Questions in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säther, Jostein

    The use of the concept of `ideology' in interpretation of science education curricula, textbooks and various practises is reviewed, and examples are given by referring to Norwegian curricula and textbooks. The term is proposed to be used in a broad sense about any kind of action-oriented theory based on a system of ideas, or any attempt to approach politics in the light of a system of ideas. Politics in this context is about shaping of education, and is related to forces (i.e., hypothetical impacts of idea systems) which may legitimise, change, or criticise social practices. The focus is (although not in every case) on the hidden, unconscious and critical aspects. The notion ideological aspects is proposed to be related to metaphysical-ontological, epistemological and axiological claims and connotations. Examples of educational issues concerning e.g., aims, compartmentalisation, integration, and fundamentally different ideas about truth, learning and man are mentioned. Searching for a single and unifying concept for the discussing of all of science education's fundamental questions seems however in vain. Therefore a wide range of concepts seems necessary to deepen our understanding of ``the fundamental questions''.

  1. Collaborative science activities and the social construction of understanding of physical science concepts by pre-service teachears in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Neil; Lucas, Keith B.; Watters, James J.

    1999-12-01

    The research reported was part of a larger study that was founded on the belief that the introduction of a teaching style informed by a constructivist view of teaching and learning and utilising collaborative group work would improve the understanding of science concepts held by pre-service primary teacher education studients in Fuji. It sought to test this belief, and to explore whether such an approach would be effective for students from different ethnic groups. Two intact classes in a teachers' college studied a physical science unit, one class being involved in extensive collaborative group activities and the other, the comparison group, being taught in the usual transmissive fashion. An interpretive methodology was adopted, involving a range of data sources and analytical techniques. Data presented here support the claim that the collaborative group work stimulated increased levels of discussion and fostered deeper conceptual understanding. There were, however, some unexpected learning outcomes for some students. Implications for science education in Fiji and similar locations are discussed.

  2. Metaphoric Perceptions of the Students of the Sports Sciences Faculty Regarding the Concept of Fair-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Gül, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the perceptions of the students of the sports sciences faculty regarding the concept of "Fair-Play" by means of metaphors. 275 students [male[subscript (n = 173)], female [subscript (n = 102)

  3. Perspectives on variable-period/polarizing insertion devices in synchrotron radiation science and technology: Recent developments at SSRL (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    1992-01-01

    Insertion devices that are tuned by electrical period variation, in contrast to the conventional method of mechanically varying the field strength, offer a number of advantages for the successful development of the next generation of higher-brightness storage rings and associated experimental techniques [R. Tatchyn, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 275, 430 (1989); J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4107 (1989); R. Tatchyn and T. Cremer, IEEE Trans. Mag. 26, 3102 (1990)]. for example, due to the inherently low total output power levels of variable-period devices, their use can do more to relax power loading constraints on beamline optics at existing and future facilities than many of the alternative approaches explored in recent years, such as, e.g., gallium-cooled optics, multilayer premonochromator structures, or adaptive/deformable optics. With regard to machine optics, variable-period structures can be operated without varying the tune of the host machine lattice, enabling the design and flexible operation of ultralarge, yet reliable and versatile multiuser facilities. In the area of synchrotron radiation (SR) science, variable-period fields can be naturally configure in a literally infinite number of ways, permitting, e.g., fully flexible polarizing field profiles, dynamical field profiles, and multicolor field configurations, all of which serve to expand the possible modes and means of SR experimentation. In this paper we report on recent results obtained at SSRL in the development of variable-period insertion devices that indicate the possibility of extending this technology into short-period (<10 cm), high-field (≳0.05 T) regimes, i.e., into parameter ranges presently occupied by conventional variable-gap, permanent magnet structures. General theoretical arguments, specific designs and their projected performance, as well as an outline of current activities related to the implementation of polarizing and nonpolarizing prototypes on Beam Line V at SSRL, are summarized.

  4. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  5. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.

  6. Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

  7. Distributing learning over time: the spacing effect in children's acquisition and generalization of science concepts.

    PubMed

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5- to 7-year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on 1 of 3 schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. From commonsense to science, and back: the use of cognitive concepts in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Francken, Jolien C; Slors, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Commonsense cognitive concepts (CCCs) are the concepts used in daily life to explain, predict and interpret behaviour. CCCs are also used to convey neuroscientific results, not only to wider audiences but also to the scientific inner circle. We show that translations from CCCs to brain activity, and from brain data to CCCs are made in implicit, loose and unsystematic ways. This results in hard to connect data as well as possibly unwarranted extrapolations. We argue that the cause of these problems is a covert adherence to a position known in philosophy of mind as 'mental realism'. The most fruitful way forward to a clearer and more systematic employment of CCCs in cognitive neuroscience, we argue, is to explicitly adopt interpretivism as an alternative for mental realism. An interpretative stance will help to avoid conceptual confusion in cognitive science and implies caution when it comes to big conclusions about CCCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Framing the ecosystem concept through a longitudinal study of developments in science and policy.

    PubMed

    Aggestam, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how scientific literature and policy documents frame the ecosystem concept and how these frames have shaped scientific dialogue and policy making over time. This was achieved by developing a frame typology, as a basis for organizing relevant value expressions, to assess how different frames have altered perspectives of the ecosystem concept. The frame typology and analysis is based on a semi-grounded and longitudinal document analysis of scientific literature and policy documents using the ecosystem concept. Despite changing discourses and public priorities (e.g., cultural constructs of biodiversity) both science and policy documents are characterized by stable value systems that have not changed substantially since the 1930s. These value systems were defined based on ethical principles that delineate 6 core frames: humans first, dual systems, eco-science, eco-holism, animals first, and multicentrism. Specific crises (e.g., climate change) and cross-disciplinary uptake and re-uptake of, for example, the ecosystem services concept, have brought new perspectives to the forefront of public discourse. These developments triggered changes in the core frames that, rather than being value based, are based on how the ecosystem is conceptualized under fixed value systems and over time. Fourteen subframes were developed to reflect these longitudinal changes. There are as such clear framing effects in both scientific literature and in policy. Ecosystem research is for instance often characterized by unstated value judgments even though the scientific community does not make these explicit. In contrast, policy documents are characterized by clear value expressions but are principally management driven and human centered. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  11. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    PubMed

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  12. The Relationships among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A Study of Taiwan High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…

  13. The Impact of a Cryogenics-Based Enrichment Programme on Attitude Towards Science and the Learning of Science Concepts. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda; Subramaniam, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a cryogenics-based enrichment programme, which involves demonstrations that use liquid nitrogen, on attitudes towards science and the learning of science concepts. The findings presented in this paper are based on a sample of 214 fifth-grade students from two schools in Singapore who had their enrichment lesson in…

  14. Exploring Elementary Science Methods Course Contexts to Improve Preservice Teachers' NOS of Science Conceptions and Understandings of NOS Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Weiland, Ingrid; Rogers, Meredith Park; Pongsanon, Khemmawaddee; Bilican, Kader

    2014-01-01

    We explored adaptations to an elementary science methods course to determine how varied contexts could improve elementary preservice teachers' conceptions of NOS as well as their ideas for teaching NOS to elementary students. The contexts were (a) NOS Theme in which the course focused on the teaching of science through the consistent teaching…

  15. Do Science and Technology Teachers and Pre-Service Primary Teachers Have Different Thoughts about Concept Maps in Science and Technology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakuyu, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the thoughts of primary science and technology teachers, primary class teachers, pre-service primary class teachers and pre-service primary science and technology teachers' about concept maps. This scale applied the use of basic and random method on the chosen 125 4th and 5th grade primary class teachers…

  16. Front end evaluation research results. Communications and concept planning: Hatfield Marine Science Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, John H.; Holland, Dana

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation for the renovation of the existing visitor center at the Hatfield Marine Sciences Center (HMSC) was undertaken, in conjunction with the communications planning phase of the project. The outcome is expected to be the development of a communications plan and selection of concepts for visitors' interpretive experience. In the course of the evaluation, data were collected from 140 visitors to HMSC using both a questionnaire and face to face semi-structured interviews. Major results of the evaluation covered: 1, reasons for attending the HMSC; 2, visitor expectations; 3, visitors's knowledge of general science and of marine life and environments; 4, visitors' level of interest and attitudes toward exhibit themes; 5, issue areas of greatest interest; and 6, research areas of greatest interest.Visitors to t he HMSC had a strong orientation toward seeing and closely interacting with marine life and environments.

  17. How Do High School Science Textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Explain Bioaccumulation-Related Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2013-01-01

    Although bioaccumulation-related concepts are important scientific knowledge, a study on whether high school textbooks include appropriate explanations has not been conducted. The present study investigated science and biology textbooks from Korea, Japan, and the U.S., focusing on how bioaccumulation-related concepts were defined, what types of…

  18. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  19. Medical and Nursing Students' Development of Conceptions of Science during Three Years of Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    This study describes how medical and nursing students develop their conceptions and understanding of science during 3 years of study at the academic level. The point of departure is the students' commonsense conceptions at the start of the undergraduate programme, which are seen as alternative ways of thinking to the more theoretical explanatory…

  20. A New Approach for Teaching the History and Development of Scientific Concepts in Junior High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles Fenton

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate curricular material concepts for junior high school science teachers. The vehicle chosen was the evolutionary development of physiological concepts relating to blood circulation and kidney function in man from the prehistoric period to the present. This material was produced as a teacher…