Science.gov

Sample records for abstract scientific concepts

  1. Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

  2. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  3. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  4. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  5. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  6. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  7. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  8. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  9. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  10. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  11. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  12. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  13. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  14. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  15. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  16. Abstract concepts: data from a Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2013-02-01

    Do humans and nonhumans share the ability to form abstract concepts? Until the 1960s, many researchers questioned whether avian subjects could form categorical constructs, much less more abstract formulations, including concepts such as same-different or exact understanding of number. Although ethologists argued that nonhumans, including birds, had to have some understanding of divisions such as prey versus predator, mate versus nonmate, food versus nonfood, or basic relational concepts such as more versus less, simply in order to survive, no claims were made that these abilities reflected cognitive processes, and little formal data from psychology laboratories could initially support such claims. Researchers like Anthony Wright, however, succeeded in obtaining such data and inspired many others to pursue these topics, with the eventual result that several avian species are now considered "feathered primates" in terms of cognitive processes. Here I review research on numerical concepts in the Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), demonstrating that at least one subject, Alex, understood number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, in ways comparing favorably to those of apes and young human children. He not only understood such concepts, but also appeared to learn them in ways more similar to humans than to apes. PMID:23089384

  17. Learning to use scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Gordon

    2008-07-01

    In responding to the research on conceptual change, this article attempts to make two points. First, scientific concepts are not possessed by individuals; rather, they are part of a culture's resources, which individuals learn to use for their own or for group purposes. Second, particular concepts are most effectively mastered when the learner is deeply engaged in solving a problem for which they function as effective semiotic tools in achieving a solution. On these grounds, it is argued that the mastering of scientific concepts is best achieved through learning to use them in motivated inquiry.

  18. Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2006-02-01

    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy."By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action."Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

  19. Openness versus Secrecy in Scientific Research Abstract

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientific inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for resolving conflicts between openness and secrecy. “By academic freedom I understand the right to search for the truth and to publish and teach what one holds to be true. This right also implies a duty; one must not conceal any part of what one has recognized to be true. It is evident that any restriction of academic freedom serves to restrain the dissemination of knowledge, thereby impeding rational judgment and action.” Albert Einstein, quotation inscribed on his statute in front of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. PMID:21113394

  20. How to prepare and submit abstracts for scientific meetings.

    PubMed

    Japiassú, Andre Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of study results is a key step in scientific research, and submitting an abstract to a meeting is often the first form of public communication. Meeting abstracts have a defined structure that is similar to abstracts for scientific articles, with an introduction, the objective, methods, results and conclusions. However, abstracts for meetings are not presented as part of a full article and, therefore, must contain the necessary and most relevant data. In this article, we detail their structure and include tips to make them technically correct. PMID:23917970

  1. Abstraction in Expertise: A Study of Nurses' Conceptions of Concentration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard; Hoyles, Celia; Pozzi, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Uses situated abstraction to understand nurses' conceptions of intensive quantity of drug concentration. Explores nurses' conceptions to undertake a pointed examination of the degree of situatedness of nurses' knowledge and reasoning. Demonstrates that nurses' conceptions were abstracted within their practice when they coordinated mathematical…

  2. Learning Abstract Statistics Concepts Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching and learning of statistics has impacted the curriculum in elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education. Because of this growing movement to expand and include statistics into all levels of education, there is also a considerable interest in how to teach statistics. For statistics concepts that tend to be very difficult or…

  3. Concept Abstractness and the Representation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu; Paulson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research on noun-noun combinations has been largely focusing on concrete concepts. Three experiments examined the role of concept abstractness in the representation of noun-noun combinations. In Experiment 1, participants provided written interpretations for phrases constituted by nouns of varying degrees of abstractness. Interpretive focus (the…

  4. Comparing Strategies for Teaching Abstract Concepts in an Online Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Eric J.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare traditional classification training for a set of abstract concepts with multiple-relations training consisting of inference practice and the use of a content diagram. To examine this, 200 undergraduate and graduate psychology students completed a Web-based tutorial covering the abstract concepts of a…

  5. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  6. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  7. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  8. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  9. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  10. [Scientific concepts in clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G

    2003-11-28

    The understanding of the scientific basis and the theory of knowledge are surprisingly heterogeneous in practical and clinical medicine. It is frequently influenced or based on the philosophical theory of critical rationalism founded by Sir Karl Popper. Because the theory of knowledge and the understanding of scientific truth is the central basis for cautious and good clinical practise it is necessary to discuss both points to avoid unscientific auto-immunisation against critique in a type of medicine that regards herself as science-based. Evidence-based medicine would not be possible without interpretation and explanation of existing data into the individual treatment context. Besides an inductive or deductive logic the historical and situative side-conditions of the gathering of knowledge and of experiments are of central importance for their interpretation and their relevance in clinical practice. This historical and situative context warrants reflection but must also be paid attention to in the reflections on medical ethics. PMID:14648440

  11. Visualization for constructing and sharing geo-scientific concepts

    PubMed Central

    MacEachren, Alan M.; Gahegan, Mark; Pike, William

    2004-01-01

    Representations of scientific knowledge must reflect the dynamic nature of knowledge construction and the evolving networks of relations between scientific concepts. In this article, we describe initial work toward dynamic, visual methods and tools that support the construction, communication, revision, and application of scientific knowledge. Specifically, we focus on tools to capture and explore the concepts that underlie collaborative science activities, with examples drawn from the domain of human-environment interaction. These tools help individual researchers describe the process of knowledge construction while enabling teams of collaborators to synthesize common concepts. Our visualization approach links geographic visualization techniques with concept-mapping tools and allows the knowledge structures that result to be shared through a Web portal that helps scientists work collectively to advance their understanding. Our integration of geovisualization and knowledge representation methods emphasizes the process through which abstract concepts can be contextualized by the data, methods, people, and perspectives that produced them. This contextualization is a critical component of a knowledge structure, without which much of the meaning that guides the sharing of concepts is lost. By using the tools we describe here, human-environment scientists are given a visual means to build concepts from data (individually and collectively) and to connect these concepts to each other at appropriate levels of abstraction. PMID:15034180

  12. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Sherman R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a computer-based concept mapping tool that provides rich representational capabilities, including dynamic imagery (video, animated images, sound) and multiple levels of abstraction. The tool can automatically translate a concept map into an alternative representation-an outline-that contains all of the knowledge contained in a…

  13. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  14. The coexistence of alternative and scientific conceptions in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Omer F.

    take their place among the components of scientific reasoning. In spite of the fact that the coexistence of multiple conceptions might obstruct the transfer of scientific conceptions in problem-solving situations, several factors stimulating the use of scientific conceptions were noticed explicitly. These factors were categorized as follows: (a) the level of individuals' domain specific knowledge in the corresponding field, (b) the level of individuals' knowledge about the process of science (how science generates its knowledge claims), (c) the level of individuals' awareness of different types of reasoning and conceptions, and (d) the context in which the problem is situated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Influence of Audio-Visual Presentations on Learning Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Ling

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that investigated whether various types of visual illustrations influenced abstract concept learning when combined with audio instruction. Discusses results of analysis of variance and pretest posttest scores in relation to learning performance, attitudes toward the computer-based program, and differences in…

  16. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  17. How Pupils Use a Model for Abstract Concepts in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Donovan, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the way pupils of different age groups use a model to understand abstract concepts in genetics. Pupils from early childhood to late adolescence were taught about genes and DNA using an analogical model (the wool model) during their regular biology classes. Changing conceptual understandings of the…

  18. Situation models, mental simulations, and abstract concepts in discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-08-01

    This article sets out to examine the role of symbolic and sensorimotor representations in discourse comprehension. It starts out with a review of the literature on situation models, showing how mental representations are constrained by linguistic and situational factors. These ideas are then extended to more explicitly include sensorimotor representations. Following Zwaan and Madden (2005), the author argues that sensorimotor and symbolic representations mutually constrain each other in discourse comprehension. These ideas are then developed further to propose two roles for abstract concepts in discourse comprehension. It is argued that they serve as pointers in memory, used (1) cataphorically to integrate upcoming information into a sensorimotor simulation, or (2) anaphorically integrate previously presented information into a sensorimotor simulation. In either case, the sensorimotor representation is a specific instantiation of the abstract concept. PMID:26088667

  19. Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a “balancing and weighing” strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a “fight-and-flight” strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses. PMID:21483767

  20. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test. PMID:26599071

  1. Contextualizing Action for the Abstraction of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, abstraction is associated with an activity in the sense of activity theory by Vygotsky. To him, participation in social activities is a fundamental act for the child in order to achieve higher mental functions. The present paper aimed to experimentally investigate the abstraction process and illustrate how meaning emerges on social…

  2. How scientific concepts come to matter in early childhood curriculum: rethinking the concept of force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Palmer, Anna

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how new materialist philosophies of matter can help us study the emergence of scientific thought in young children's activities. We draw extensively on the work of Gilles Deleuze to help us understand scientific concepts as concrete universals. In particular, we show how the concept of force is re-animated through this approach, becoming less deterministic, and more inflected with chance and indeterminism. We show how this approach to concepts moves beyond constructivist socio-cultural theories of learning, and reveals how concepts are `material articulations of the world' intra-acting with all other matter and meaning. Finally, we discuss video data and artifacts from an ongoing ethnographic project in Stockholm entitled `Children's relations to the city'. Our analysis of the classroom video data from this project shows how concepts are not timeless transcendent abstractions, but part of an unfolding event and learning assemblage. Thus the article contributes to research on conceptual change in children, with particular focus on scientific concepts.

  3. Dissertation Abstracts: Scientific Evidence Related to Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicmanec, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    This categorical analysis explores the mathematics education doctoral dissertations archived in UMI "Digital Dissertations" (1991-2005) and 115 abstracts of doctoral dissertations from 46 institutions offering doctoral degrees in 2004. The goal of this study is to a) index changes in the numbers of mathematics education doctoral candidates and b)…

  4. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes--color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation--for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes. PMID:25750259

  5. Influence of biological kinematics on abstract concept processing.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Pesenti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During a random number generation task, human beings tend to produce more small numbers than large numbers. However, this small number bias is modulated when motor behaviour, such as a turn of the head, is performed during the random number generation task. This result fits with the finding that number representation is linked to laterally oriented actions, with small- and large-magnitude numbers generally linked to movement towards the left or the right side of space, respectively. To test whether this number-space association is specific to human motor behaviours or extends to any type of laterally oriented movements, we assessed whether the presentation of biological or nonbiological leftward or rightward movement affected a subsequent random number generation task. Biological and nonbiological movements were obtained by varying the kinematic parameters of the movements. Biological kinematics represented the tangential velocity actually observed in a human pointing movement; nonbiological kinematics represented equivalent movements but with an inverse tangential velocity along the path. The results show that only the observation of biological movements induces a space-number bias whereas observing nonbiological movements does not. This finding is the first evidence of a link between a biological marker and the semantic representation of a concept as abstract as number. PMID:25219421

  6. Concepts, measurements and scientific problems of biocomplexity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibin

    2007-06-01

    There is increasing awareness of biocomplexity as a field of study, although there are some disagreements about its definition among biologists. The science of biocomplexity has been influenced greatly by the emergence of the science of complexity, which aims to solve complicated problems in complex systems. In this paper, I review the basic concepts and scientific problems of biocomplexity. I argue that biological systems are adaptive complex systems that tend to become more complicated over time. I hypothesize that complexity is favored by natural selection. There are two relatively independent evolutionary templates for complexity in biological systems: gene-guided and neural-guided systems. In general, biology has been overly influenced by gene-dominant evolution theory, which cannot account for the complex behaviors, social structures, and ecosystems that exist. Sustained energy intake, non-polynomial (NP)-hard problems and stability (e.g. thermodynamic, non-linear and evolutionary stability) are probably the three most important properties of biological systems. Total work is not equivalent to the energy input (non-equivalence rule) in biological systems because the input energy is re-used. The total work can be measured using the order energy (ordergy), a function of energy input and the efficiency of energy transformation. Hierarchy may be essential in solving NP-hard problems and in reducing the instability of non-linearity in biological systems. PMID:21396024

  7. Mediating between Scientific and Spontaneous Concepts through Languaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon; Knouzi, Ibtissem

    2010-01-01

    In this study, framed within a sociocultural theory of mind, we explore the role of languaging in mediating between students' understanding of a grammatical concept and their written production of the forms related to that concept. The development of scientific concepts, in this case of the concept of voice in French, involves the use of language…

  8. The Neural Development of an Abstract Concept of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    As literate adults, we appreciate numerical values as abstract entities that can be represented by a numeral, a word, a number of lines on a scorecard, or a sequence of chimes from a clock. This abstract, notation-independent appreciation of numbers develops gradually over the first several years of life. Here, using functional magnetic resonance…

  9. Schematic Structure of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloun, Ibrahim

    Schematism is proposed as part of an epistemological framework for constructing and employing scientific knowledge. Within this framework, it is proposed that a concept of physics can be explicitly defined in a scientific theory by a schema that includes: (1) the domain of the concept; (2) its organization, i.e., the relationships between this…

  10. Using Real Life Examples to Teach Abstract Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mvududu, Nyaradzo; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides real life examples that can be used to explain statistical concepts. It does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather, provide a few examples for selected concepts based on what students should know after taking a statistics course. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Highlights from the scientific and educational abstracts presented at the ASER 2015 annual scientific meeting and postgraduate course.

    PubMed

    Myers, Lee A; Herr, Keith D

    2016-06-01

    The American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) 2015 Annual Scientific Meeting and Postgraduate Course offered dedicated learning sessions, oral presentations, and digital exhibits on a broad spectrum of topics in emergency radiology, including traumatic and non-traumatic emergencies, quality, communication, education, technological innovations, and the evolving identity of the emergency radiology subspecialty. This article highlights the scientific and educational abstracts presented at the meeting. PMID:26884403

  12. Joseph Henry's Conception of Scientific Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theerman, Paul

    1997-04-01

    Joseph Henry, America's premier physicist and physics teacher in the mid-nineteenth century, had decided views of scientific knowledge. These were expressed in two ways. First of all, scientific knowledge led to moral betterment. Thus the study of science was a morally good thing. This was not only because it led to the contemplation of God's creation, which was a standard reason justifying the study of science dating from the Scientific Revolution and even earlier. More importantly, the study of science itself was a moral discipline, imparting to scientists the habits and virtues of truthfulness, respect for others, care and diligence, and the discernment of meaningful patterns from experience. The moral ideals of science were expressed most strongly in Henry's upholding the international "Republic of Science"; conversely, cheapening science was a sign of moral failure. Second, for Henry and his generation, science provided a path to sure truth, separate from falsehood of both the politics and the quackery that characterized mid-century public life. Henry promoted this in his championing of the Smithsonian Institution a scientific establishment, against the ideas of others who wanted to make it a literary establishment or a training school for teachers. For Henry, the Smithsonian's scientific reputation would be established by relying on careful peer review in its publications, and supporting established scientists to write authoritative popular works. The purpose of both these activities was to raise the profile of science in the United States and further establish science and the scientific method as a guide to public life.

  13. Are Scientific Abstracts Written in Poetic Verse an Effective Representation of the Underlying Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday and Martin, 2003). Research concerning climate change in particular demands to be communicated, because of its global relevance and the potential societal consequences of its findings. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a general audience. References: HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & MARTIN, J. R. 2003. Writing science: Literacy and discursive power, Taylor & Francis. PURTILL, R. 1970. The purpose of science. Philosophy of Science, 301-306.

  14. Going Abstract: Teaching Research Concepts in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Evan L.

    Examination of 21 recently published introductory psychology textbooks indicated that different topics were used in the examples illustrating experimental and correlational approaches to research. There are two problems inherent in this organization and presentation. First, students are exposed to research concepts before having any familiarity…

  15. Exploring Concepts from Abstract Algebra Using Variations of Generalized Woven Figure Eights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tara; Knoll, Eva; Landry, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Students often struggle with concepts from abstract algebra. Typical classes incorporate few ways to make the concepts concrete. Using a set of woven paper artifacts, this paper proposes a way to visualize and explore concepts (symmetries, groups, permutations, subgroups, etc.). The set of artifacts used to illustrate these concepts is derived…

  16. Narrative and epistemology: Georges Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology.

    PubMed

    Chimisso, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    In the late 1960s, Georges Canguilhem introduced the concept of 'scientific ideology'. This concept had not played any role in his previous work, so why introduce it at all? This is the central question of my paper. Although it may seem a rather modest question, its answer in fact uncovers hidden tensions in the tradition of historical epistemology, in particular between its normative and descriptive aspects. The term ideology suggests the influence of Althusser's and Foucault's philosophies. However, I show the differences between Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology and Althusser's and Foucault's respective concepts of ideology. I argue that Canguilhem was in fact attempting to solve long-standing problems in the tradition of historical epistemology, rather than following the lead of his younger colleagues. I argue that Canguilhem's 'refurbishment without rejection' of Bachelard's epistemology, which the concept of scientific ideology was aimed to implement, was necessary to justify the historical narratives that Canguilhem had constructed in his own work as a historian of concepts. A strict acceptance of Bachelard's epistemology would have made it impossible to justify them. Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology therefore served as a theoretical justification of his practice as a historian. I maintain that the concept of scientific ideology was needed to reconcile Bachelard's normative epistemology with Canguilhem's view of the history of science and its aims, which differed from Bachelard's more than it is generally acknowledged. PMID:26568088

  17. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as “freedom.” Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  18. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as "freedom." Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  19. Are scientific abstracts written in poetic verse an effective representation of the underlying research?

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, Sam

    2016-01-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003). This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a non-expert audience. Alternative version: Are scientific papers understood, By anyone from outside of the field; And is an abstract really any good, If jargon means its secrets aren’t revealed? Could poetry present a different way, Of summing up research in a nutshell;  Presented in a language for the lay, Yet still useful for scientists as well? This study aimed to find if it was

  20. Are Abstract and Concrete Concepts Organized Differently? Evidence from the Blocked Translation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2013-01-01

    Using the blocked-translation paradigm with healthy participants, we examined Crutch and Warrington's hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are organized by distinct principles: concrete concepts by semantic similarities and abstract ones by associations. In three experiments we constructed two types of experimental blocking (similar…

  1. Environmental risks: scientific concepts and social perception.

    PubMed

    Vineis, P

    1995-06-01

    Using the example of air pollution, I criticize a restricted utilitarian view of environmental risks. It is likely that damage to health due to environmental pollution in Western countries is relatively modest in quantitative terms (especially when considering cancer and comparing such damage to the effects of some life-style exposures). However, a strictly quantitative approach, which ranks priorities according to the burden of disease attributable to single causes, is questionable because it does not consider such aspects as inequalities in the distribution of risks. Secondly, the ability of epidemiological research to identify some health effects is limited. Third, the environment has symbolic and aesthetic components that overcome a strict evaluation of damage based on the impairment of human health. It is not acceptable that priorities be set just balancing the burden of disease caused by pollution in the environment against economic constraints. As an example of a computation that inherently includes economic analysis, I refer to the proposal of an estimator of mortality in coal mining, i.e., a rate which puts deaths in the numerator and tons of coal extracted in the denominator. According to this estimator, mortality due to accidents decreased from 1.15 to 0.42 in the period 1950-1970 in the United States, for each million tons of coal extracted. However, considering the steep decline in the workforce in the same period, the traditional mortality rate (deaths over persons-time) actually increased. The proposal of a measure of mortality based on the amount of coal extracted is just one example of the attempts to influence decisions by including an economic element (productivity) in risk assessment. This paper has three purposes: One, to describe empirical research concerning the health effects of environmental pollutants; two, to discuss the scientific principles and methods used in the identification of environmental hazards; and three, to critically discuss

  2. A matter of font type: The effect of serifs on the evaluation of scientific abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Wehlitz, Thea; von Knobelsdorff, Sara; Wulf, Tim; von Saldern, Marie Antoinette Oktavie

    2015-10-01

    Text-based communication is one of the substantial ways of spreading scientific information. While the content and contextual aspects of written words have been widely researched, the impact of font characteristics on text perception is an almost blank page. The following study deals with the influence of serifs on the evaluation of online-presented scientific abstracts. Yet there is only evidence for faster reading times when texts are presented in sans-serif fonts, although the opposite is stated in parts of the literature. The present work examines if the presence or absence of serifs also have an impact on the appraisal of scientific texts when all other important font characteristics do not change. For this purpose, 188 university students participated in an online experiment and rated different aspects of scientific abstracts as well as of the research outlined in the abstracts. The results show that missing serifs led to increased reading speed. However, and in contrast to the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the presence of serifs had a positive effect on all evaluation dimensions. The results of a second study with 187 participants also indicated that reading fluency counteracted the liking of texts. Implications for future studies and media production are discussed. PMID:25704872

  3. Naming a Lego World. The Role of Language in the Acquisition of Abstract Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  4. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  5. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  6. Kindergarten and Primary School Children's Everyday, Synthetic, and Scientific Concepts of Clouds and Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malleus, Elina; Kikas, Eve; Marken, Tiivi

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore children's understandings of everyday, synthetic and scientific concepts to enable a description of how abstract, verbally taught material relates to previous experience-based knowledge and the consistency of understanding about cloud formation. This study examined the conceptual understandings of cloud formation and rain in kindergarten (age 5-7), second (age 8-9) and fourth (age 10-11) grade children, who were questioned on the basis of structured interview technique. In order to represent consistency in children's answers, three different types of clouds were introduced (a cirrus cloud, a cumulus cloud, and a rain cloud). Our results indicate that children in different age groups gave a similarly high amount of synthetic answers, which suggests the need for teachers to understand the formation process of different misconceptions to better support the learning process. Even children in kindergarten may have conceptions that represent different elements of scientific understanding and misconceptions cannot be considered age-specific. Synthetic understanding was also shown to be more consistent (not depending on cloud type) suggesting that gaining scientific understanding requires the reorganisation of existing concepts, that is time-consuming. Our results also show that the appearance of the cloud influences children's answers more in kindergarten where they mostly related rain cloud formation with water. An ability to create abstract connections between different concepts should also be supported at school as a part of learning new scientific information in order to better understand weather-related processes.

  7. New Light on Old Horizon: Constructing Mathematical Concepts, Underlying Abstraction Processes, and Sense Making Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The initial assumption of this article is that there is an overemphasis on abstraction-from-actions theoretical approaches in research on knowing and learning mathematics. This article uses a critical reflection on research on students' ways of constructing mathematical concepts to distinguish between abstraction-from-actions theoretical…

  8. Socio-Scientific Controversies and Students' Conceptions about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a mainly qualitative study into possible impacts of recent controversial socio-scientific issues on a group of Portuguese secondary school students regarding their conceptions about scientists. The 86 participants: (1) answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions; and (2) wrote a science fiction story…

  9. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-12-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more diverse and complex. For revealing how the multi-facets of scientific inquiry are inherently correlated, this study identified descriptors representing features of scientific inquiry and automatically reviewed the research abstracts where these descriptors were used. A cluster analysis was used to analyze 171 relevant article abstracts published in Web of Science from 1986 to 2010, by using the data mining software WordStat v6.1. Networks of descriptors and of research strands showed the inter-relationships among descriptors and the research strands. Through triangulating the categorization results from automatic data-mining and expert researchers' qualitative reviewing, this study identified seven clusters of high-frequency descriptors and nine major strands of current research studies. The nine strands can further be grouped into five research themes: NOS, Knowledge Construction, Inquiry Ability, Explanatory-driven Inquiry, and Professional Development. With different levels of cohesiveness in network, these themes demonstrated that scientific inquiry was composed of different levels of abilities students need to achieve as well as the endeavors of teachers. Through exploring the network shared among most researchers, this study is expected to provide novice researchers information about elements that expert researchers usually consider and further, it is expected to give expert researchers some new directions to explore in research designs.

  10. Neural reuse leads to associative connections between concrete (physical) and abstract (social) concepts and motives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Bargh, John A

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with neural reuse theory, empirical tests of the related "scaffolding" principle of abstract concept development show that higher-level concepts "reuse" and are built upon fundamental motives such as survival, safety, and consumption. This produces mutual influence between the two levels, with far-ranging impacts from consumer behavior to political attitudes. PMID:27561234

  11. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  12. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  13. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and the benefits of new technology for implicit body manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Eerland, Anita; Zijlmans, Josjan; Post, Lysanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as “power is up” and “more is up” representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations. PMID:25191282

  14. The ChemViz Project: Using a Supercomputer To Illustrate Abstract Concepts in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, E. Kenneth; Nelson, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Chemistry Visualization (ChemViz) Project, a Web venture maintained by the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) that enables high school students to use computational chemistry as a technique for understanding abstract concepts. Discusses the evolution of computational chemistry and provides a…

  15. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  16. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called “first-person” knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer’s first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  17. Auditing Complex Concepts of SNOMED using a Refined Hierarchical Abstraction Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Case, James T.; Hripcsak, George

    2012-01-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. “Complex” concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. PMID:21907827

  18. Auditing complex concepts of SNOMED using a refined hierarchical abstraction network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A; Case, James T; Hripcsak, George

    2012-02-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. "Complex" concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED's Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. PMID:21907827

  19. 'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-28

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-a-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features - 1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  20. The representation of concrete and abstract concepts: categorical versus associative relationships.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word and 3 or 4 written English words simultaneously and asked to select the English word that corresponded to the auditory word. For both abstract and concrete words, higher error rates and longer response times were observed when the English words were categorically or associatively related compared to the unrelated conditions and the magnitude of the categorical effect was bigger than the associative effect. These results challenge the different representational frameworks theory and suggest that although category and association are important for representing abstract and concrete concepts, category plays a greater role for both types of words. PMID:25068854

  1. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered. PMID:26388825

  2. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Thomas A.; Cook, Robert G.; Katz, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered. PMID:26388825

  3. Semantic Size of Abstract Concepts: It Gets Emotional When You Can’t See It

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Vasiljevic, Milica; Weick, Mario; Sereno, Margaret E.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Size is an important visuo-spatial characteristic of the physical world. In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically “big” (e.g., jungle) versus “small” (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically “big” and “small” concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to “big” words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to “small” words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word’s semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words. Our findings provide novel insights into the semantic representations of size in abstract concepts and highlight that affective attributes of words may not always index lexical access. PMID:24086421

  4. MindWorks: Making Scientific Concepts Come Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Barbara J.

    The Southwest Regional Laboratory, through major funding from the National Science Foundation (ESI-9450235), has developed a series of eight instructional modules for use in common secondary school physical science that address three central goals of U.S. science literacy education: (1) to motivate students who have previously shown little interest in science; (2) to accomplish deep change in students' internalized conceptions of the structure and workings of the physical world; and (3) to build greater understanding, in both teachers and students, of the process and culture of scientific activity.Beginning with a discussion of the conceptual scaffolding that undergirds the project's pedagogical approach, the paper presents an overview of MindWorks' goals, the materials that have been developed to achieve these goals, and the progress of the pilot implementation and project evaluation.

  5. The Relationship between Abstract Concept Achievement and Prior Knowledge, Formal Reasoning Ability, and Sex among Some Egyptian Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Hassan Hussein

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the achievement of some abstract concepts in "molecular genetics" and prior knowledge, formal reasoning ability, and sex. The major findings of the study were: (1) prior knowledge had a high significant correlation with the achievement of abstract concepts; (2) the correlation…

  6. Abstracts for the 59th Annual Scientific Meeting (November 2011) by American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) at Baltimore, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    These are peer-reviewed poster-platform submissions finalized by the Scientific Program Committee. A total of 153 abstracts (14 Platforms [PP1 through PP14] & 139 Posters [1 through 139]) were selected from 161 submissions to be considered for presentation during November 4 – 8, 2011, at the Hilton Baltimore Hotel, to pathologists, cytopathologists, cytotechnologists, residents, fellows, students, and other members of cytopathology-related medical and scientific fields.

  7. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…

  8. [Earth rays--a concept with no scientific basis].

    PubMed

    Baerheim, Anders; Hunskår, Steinar; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2006-12-14

    Earth rays are claimed to cause several types of illness and shielding against earth rays to have a therapeutic effect. There have been many reports in the media of the dangers of earth rays and the usefulness of protective shielding. As with several other alternative therapies, the theory of earth rays and its effects is incompatible with modern medicine, chemistry and physical science. We have earlier shown that earth rays can not be consistently detected, and that children sleeping on earth rays are no more ill than other children are. Recently, a randomised, controlled trial has convincingly though hardly surprisingly shown no effect of TX-disc shielding against earth rays. TX-discs are of plastic with rings of copper. Eighty patients with longstanding muscular-skeletal complaints were enrolled. Patients were, after a few weeks, substantially better (20-40%) whether they had received real TX-discs or not. The concept of earth rays lacks any scientific verification. We advocate prudence in taking success stories, whether published or from one's own clinical experience, as proof of any treatment's effectiveness before having it confirmed by research. PMID:17170773

  9. On problems in defining abstract and metaphysical concepts--emergence of a new model.

    PubMed

    Nahod, Bruno; Nahod, Perina Vukša

    2014-12-01

    Basic anthropological terminology is the first project covering terms from the domain of the social sciences under the Croatian Special Field Terminology program (Struna). Problems that have been sporadically noticed or whose existence could have been presumed during the processing of terms mainly from technical fields and sciences have finally emerged in "anthropology". The principles of the General Theory of Terminology (GTT), which are followed in Struna, were put to a truly exacting test, and sometimes stretched beyond their limits when applied to concepts that do not necessarily have references in the physical world; namely, abstract and metaphysical concepts. We are currently developing a new terminographical model based on Idealized Cognitive Models (ICM), which will hopefully ensure a better cross-filed implementation of various types of concepts and their relations. The goal of this paper is to introduce the theoretical bases of our model. Additionally, we will present a pilot study of the series of experiments in which we are trying to investigate the nature of conceptual categorization in special languages and its proposed difference form categorization in general language. PMID:25643547

  10. Discovering Abstract Concepts to Aid Cross-Map Transfer for a Learning Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpson, Cédric; Corruble, Vincent

    The capacity to apply knowledge in a context different than the one in which it was learned has become crucial within the area of autonomous agents. This paper specifically addresses the issue of transfer of knowledge acquired through online learning in partially observable environments. We investigate the discovery of relevant abstract concepts which help the transfer of knowledge in the context of an environment characterized by its 2D geographical configuration. The architecture proposed is tested in a simple grid-world environment where two agents duel each other. Results show that an agent’s performances are improved through learning, including when it is tested on a map it has not yet seen.

  11. Scientists' Conceptions of Scientific Inquiry: Voices from the Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, William S.; Reiff, Rebecca; Phillipson, Teddie

    The National Research Council (NRC) (1996) refers to scientific inquiry as "the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work." This could be paraphrased, as 'scientific inquiry is what scientists say it is.' Accepting this rephrasing at face value, a study has been…

  12. Improving Active Learning by Integrating Scientific Abstracts into Biological Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Jeffry Lyle

    2012-01-01

    Introducing students to the newest research in a field is a challenging task for an instructor. Commercially available course material is at least two to three years old, is not citable, and is not a realistic training aid for students planning to enter a scientific field. In addition, engaging students in discussions about current research topics…

  13. Scientific Affairs Division of NATO Advanced Study Institute: abstracts for nonequilibrium superconductivity, phonons and Kapitza boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are given. Topics covered include: Kapitza resistance; superconducting tunneling; energy gap enhancement in superconductors; instabilities in nonequilibrium superconducting states; exchange of charge between superconducting pairs and quasiparticles; motion of magnetic flux (flux flow); and other new phenomena. (GHT)

  14. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  15. The Nature of Scientific Conceptions: A Discursive Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the literature in science education has accumulated a tremendous amount of research on students' conceptions--one bibliography currently lists 7000 entries concerning students' and teachers' conceptions and science education. Yet despite all of this research and all the advances in the associated conceptual change…

  16. Abstract-concept learning carryover effects from the initial training set in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tamo; Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Bodily, Kent D; Sturz, Bradley R

    2009-02-01

    Three groups of pigeons were trained in a same/different task with 32, 64, or 1,024 color-picture stimuli. They were tested with novel transfer pictures. The training-testing cycle was repeated with training-set doublings. The 32-item group learned the same/different task as rapidly as a previous 8-item group and transferred better than the 8-item group at the 32-item training set. The 64- and 1,024-item groups learned the task only somewhat slower than other groups, but their transfer was better and equivalent to baseline performances. These results show that pigeons trained with small sets (e.g., 8 items) have carryover effects that hamper transfer when the training set is expanded. Without carryover effects (i.e., initial transfer from the 32- and 64-item groups), pigeons show the same degree of transfer as rhesus and capuchin monkeys at these same set sizes. This finding has implications for the general ability of abstract-concept learning across species with different neural architectures. PMID:19236147

  17. Balloon concepts for scientific investigation of Mars and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Opportunities for scientific investigation of the atmospheric planets using buoyant balloons have been explored. Mars and Jupiter were considered in this study because design requirements at those planets bracket nominally the requirements at Venus, and plans are already underway for a joint Russian-French balloon system at Venus. Viking data has provided quantitative information for definition of specific balloon systems at Mars. Free flying balloons appear capable of providing valuable scientific support for more sophisticated Martian surface probes, but tethered and powered aerostats are not attractive. The Jovian environment is so extreme, hot atmosphere balloons may be the only scientific platforms capable of extended operations there. However, the estimated system mass and thermal energy required are very large.

  18. Abstracts for the ninth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) association

    SciTech Connect

    Fernhoff, P.M.

    1996-03-29

    The Ninth Annual Scientific Conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) Association (USA) met in Atlanta on July 20, 1994. The 17 papers which were presented ranged from those which explored the molecular origins of PWS to those that studied the most effective medical, behavioral, and nutritional management of affected children and adults. Several important messages emerged. The first was that although most patients with PWS have an interstitial deletion of 15q11q13 of paternal origin, and a smaller percentage of patients have maternal disomy, there can be several other morphologic alterations of chromosome 15 which cause PWS. As our understanding of these changes at the molecular level improves, we will better understand the nature of these unusual rearrangements. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Cross-Brain Neurofeedback: Scientific Concept and Experimental Platform

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Wei-Jie; Dai, Rui-Na; Li, Rui; Lu, Chun-Ming; Huang, Yu-Xia; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The present study described a new type of multi-person neurofeedback with the neural synchronization between two participants as the direct regulating target, termed as “cross-brain neurofeedback.” As a first step to implement this concept, an experimental platform was built on the basis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and was validated with a two-person neurofeedback experiment. This novel concept as well as the experimental platform established a framework for investigation of the relationship between multiple participants' cross-brain neural synchronization and their social behaviors, which could provide new insight into the neural substrate of human social interactions. PMID:23691253

  20. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. Design Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. Methods The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual words, specificity for selected high impact journals, and comparison between author affiliations within or outside countries with English as the official majority language. Frequency patterns were compared with 4% of all books ever printed and digitised by use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. Main outcome measures Frequencies of positive and negative words in abstracts compared with frequencies of words with a neutral and random connotation, expressed as relative change since 1980. Results The absolute frequency of positive words increased from 2.0% (1974-80) to 17.5% (2014), a relative increase of 880% over four decades. All 25 individual positive words contributed to the increase, particularly the words “robust,” “novel,” “innovative,” and “unprecedented,” which increased in relative frequency up to 15 000%. Comparable but less pronounced results were obtained when restricting the analysis to selected journals with high impact factors. Authors affiliated to an institute in a non-English speaking country used significantly more positive words. Negative word frequencies increased from 1.3% (1974-80) to 3.2% (2014), a relative increase of 257%. Over the same time period, no apparent increase was found in neutral or random word use, or in the frequency of positive word use in published books. Conclusions Our lexicographic analysis indicates that scientific abstracts are currently written with more positive and negative words, and provides an insight into the

  1. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  2. (abstract) Scientific Objectivity and the Impact Hazard: Responsible Reporting Versus Crying Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    f comets and asteroids on the Earth pose a real hazard, comparable in probability to other hazards which society deems worthy of concern. As such, it is prudent and reasonable to investigate and institute means for evaluation of the exact nature of the hazard and possible means of mitigating the effects of impacts, primarily by preventing their occurrence through orbital deflection. Decisions as to the hazard and possible detection and deflection programs must be made through a rational public discussion of the issues, provided with the best possible information. Unfortunately, some individuals have tended to overstate the problem either in terms of the probability of impact or the expected effects of impacts. The net result of such actions is often to undermine public confidence in those attempting to promote an informal discussion of the impact hazard. This is particularily true in a time of declining budgets for both science and defense, and increased competition for federal R&D dollars. It is thus important that the community find means of promoting responsible actions by the members of the community, and for dealing with public release of information, within the bounds of academic and individual freedom. The purpose of this abstract is to promote a discussion of these issues within the community and to invite additional suggestions for methods to improve the providing of accurate information to the public, the media, and most importantly, to decision makers.

  3. Scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry: Revealing a private side of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Rebecca R.

    Science educators, philosophers, and pre-service teachers have contributed to conceptualizing inquiry but missing from the inquiry forum is an in-depth research study concerning science faculty conceptions of scientific inquiry. The science education literature has tended to focus on certain aspects of doing, teaching, and understanding scientific inquiry without linking these concepts. As a result, conceptions of scientific inquiry have been disjointed and are seemingly unrelated. Furthermore, confusion surrounding the meaning of inquiry has been identified as a reason teachers are not using inquiry in instruction (Welch et al., 1981). Part of the confusion surrounding scientific inquiry is it has been defined differently depending on the context (Colburn, 2000; Lederman, 1998; Shymansky & Yore, 1980; Wilson & Koran, 1976). This lack of a common conception of scientific inquiry is the reason for the timely nature of this research. The result of scientific journeys is not to arrive at a stopping point or the final destination, but to refuel with questions to drive the pursuit of knowledge. A three-member research team conducted Interviews with science faculty members using a semi-structured interview protocol designed to probe the subject's conceptions of scientific inquiry. The participants represented a total of 52 science faculty members from nine science departments (anthropology, biology, chemistry, geology, geography, school of health, physical education and recreation (HPER), medical sciences, physics, and school of environmental science) at a large mid-western research university. The method of analysis used by the team was grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Glaser & Strauss, 1967), in which case the frequency of concepts, patterns, and themes were coded to categorize scientists' conceptions of scientific inquiry. The results from this study address the following components: understanding and doing scientific inquiry, attributes of scientists engaged

  4. The Mental Representation of Integers: An Abstract-to-Concrete Shift in the Understanding of Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics has a level of structure that transcends untutored intuition. What is the cognitive representation of abstract mathematical concepts that makes them meaningful? We consider this question in the context of the integers, which extend the natural numbers with zero and negative numbers. Participants made greater and lesser judgments of…

  5. Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Jugnu; Morin, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy…

  6. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  7. "Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!"--Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Christine Johanna; Bissinger, Kerstin; Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner's characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on "soil and sunshine", representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile. PMID

  8. Semantic Domain-Specific Functional Integration for Action-Related vs. Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available…

  9. Undergraduate Conceptions About What it Means to Study Something Scientifically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieberding, Megan; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Romine, James

    2014-11-01

    Non-science major students represent individuals who will become productive members of society in non-science fields including our business leaders, policy makers, and teachers. Their college non-major science courses are often the last formal instruction they will receive in science. As such, it important to understand what students already know about science and provide instruction that is engaging and helps them gain a greater appreciation for doing science. We report on a study of almost 12,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introduction astronomy courses from 1989 - 2014, most of who were freshman or sophomore students. Almost every year during the 25 year period, students were asked to complete an in-class survey that included basic science content questions and attitude towards science questions. They were also asked to write a response to the question, “What does it mean to study something scientifically?”Sixty-five percent of responses were meaningful and considered to be on target. In their responses 16% of students described science as a way of gaining knowledge or learning about something. Twenty three percent of respondents described science as using observations or experimentation and 10% described it as involving a hypothesis. Only 8% of respondents mentioned data analysis while 6% described using data or evidence. Four percent of respondents mentioned science was a way to solve problems and 4% described science as being systematic. Students who were self-reported STEM majors (Pre-med, engineering, math, and science majors) more often mentioned that science is an empirical technique as well as the use of hypotheses in science STEM majors also mentioned data twice as often as non-STEM majors in their responses. Education majors, who made up 6% of the sample, had the least descriptive answers overall, and were the group who most often not include aspects that were essential to studying science.Gathering this information has helped characterize

  10. Scientific program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams is organized jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Physics International Company. As in the previous conferences in this series, the program includes the following topics: high-power, electron- and ion-beam acceleration and transport; diode physics; high-power particle beam interaction with plasmas and dense targets; particle beam fusion (inertial confinement); collective ion acceleration; particle beam heating of magnetically confined plasmas; and generation of microwave/free-electron lasers.

  11. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebel, Thomase.

    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also the voluntarist point of its ethical`non-cognitivism'. That is to say, the scientific world-conception is properly understood as the opposite of village positivism only if it is recognized that it has an `other' and that the scientific world-conception was meant by its proponents to perform its enlightenment work only in conjunction with that other of scientific reason - ethical will and willing. Scientific reason cannot determine all there is to determine, it cannot determine the will. In this sense, there was, pace village positivism, more than scientific reason dreamt of. Scientific reason was not made absolute: rather, its (self-) clarification was required if a satisfactory view of its place in `life' was to be attained.

  12. Secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence: A collective case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph A.

    Engaging secondary school students in inquiry-oriented tasks that more closely simulate the scholarly activities of scientists has been recommended as a way to improve scientific literacy. Two tasks that are frequently recommended include students' design of original experiments, and students' evaluation of scientific evidence and conclusions. Yet, little is known about teachers' conceptions of experimentation. The principal aim of this study, therefore, was to describe the nature of prospective and practicing physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence. More specifically, the following research questions guided this study: (1) What types of issues related to the measurement reliability and experimental validity of scientific evidence do practicing and prospective physics teachers think about when designing experiments? (2) When presented with hypothetical scenarios that describe unsound experimental procedures or poorly supported conclusions (or both), what concerns will prospective and practicing physics teachers raise? And (3) When the participants' responses to parallel research prompts are compared across protocols, what similarities and differences exist? The nature of the teacher-participants' conceptions was described from an analysis of data collected from research prompts such as interviews and hand written artifacts. In these research prompts, the teachers "thought aloud" while designing experiments and critically evaluated student-collected evidence presented in hypothetical classroom scenarios. The data from this study suggested that the three teachers, while contemplating the reliability and validity of scientific evidence, frequently used their conceptions of evidence in conjunction with specific subject matter conceptions. The data also indicated that the relationship between subject matter knowledge and conceptions of evidence was more pronounced for some conceptions of evidence than for others. Suggestions for future research included

  13. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  14. Secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence: An exploratory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph A.; Dana, Thomas M.

    2003-10-01

    This article describes an exploratory case study of secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence. The nature of teachers' conceptions of evidence was derived from an analysis of data collected from 1 preservice and 2 in-service teachers. Each teacher responded to a series of research prompts in multiple interviews and handwritten tasks. In these research prompts, the teachers thought aloud while designing experiments and critically evaluating student-collected data as presented in hypothetical classroom scenarios. Spoken and written data were recorded. The data set was coded and analyzed using standard qualitative analysis techniques. Data from this study suggest that, while contemplating the reliability and validity of hypothetical student-generated scientific evidence, the teachers frequently intertwined conceptions of evidence with subject matter concepts centrally relevant to the hypothetical investigation. Data also indicate that the relationship between subject matter knowledge and conceptions of evidence was more pronounced for some conceptions of evidence than for others. Results suggest that a fuller study is warranted. Suggestions for future research include exploring such relationships in other physics content areas as well as other scientific disciplines. Implications for science teacher education suggest that science and science methods courses should encourage preservice teachers to engage in original scientific research, as well as participate in peer review and critique.

  15. Fostering Third-Grade Students' Use of Scientific Models with the Water Cycle: Elementary teachers' conceptions and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2015-10-01

    Elementary teachers play a crucial role in supporting and scaffolding students' model-based reasoning about natural phenomena, particularly complex systems such as the water cycle. However, little research exists to inform efforts in supporting elementary teachers' learning to foster model-centered, science learning environments. To address this need, we conducted an exploratory multiple-case study using qualitative research methods to investigate six 3rd-grade teachers' pedagogical reasoning and classroom instruction around modeling practices (construct, use, evaluate, and revise) and epistemic considerations of scientific modeling (generality/abstraction, evidence, mechanism, and audience). Study findings show that all teachers emphasized a subset of modeling practices-construction and use-and the epistemic consideration of generality/abstraction. There was observable consistency between teachers' articulated conceptions of scientific modeling and their classroom practices. Results also show a subset of the teachers more strongly emphasized additional epistemic considerations and, as a result, better supported students to use models as sense-making tools as well as representations. These findings provide important evidence for developing elementary teacher supports to scaffold students' engagement in scientific modeling.

  16. Novice Explanations of Hurricane Formation Offer Insights into Scientific Literacy and the Development of Expert-Like Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to explain scientific phenomena is a key feature of scientific literacy, and engaging students' prior knowledge, especially their alternate conceptions, is an effective strategy for enhancing scientific literacy and developing expertise. The gap in knowledge about the alternate conceptions that novices have about many of Earth's…

  17. Beyond the Clock--Using the Computer to Teach the Abstract Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Julie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses several projects to help teach and reinforce the concept of time, using the books "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" (by Eric Carle) and "Charlotte's Web (by E. B. White) as well as the computer software program "Timeliner" (by Tom Snyder). (SR)

  18. Using Technology To Bring Abstract Concepts into Focus: A Programming Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Thad; Butterfield, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the three-step implementation of an instructional technology tool and associated pedagogy to support teaching and learning computer programming concepts. The Flowchart Interpreter (FLINT) was proven through experiments to support novice programmers better than the traditional textbook approach. (EV)

  19. Student Engagement with Artefacts and Scientific Ideas in a Laboratory and a Concept-Mapping Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikael Hamza, Karim; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a comparative approach to scrutinize the common assumption that certain school science activities are theoretical and therefore particularly suited for engaging students with scientific ideas, whereas others are practical and, thus, not equally conducive to engagement with scientific ideas. We compared two school science activities, one (laboratory work) that is commonly regarded as focusing attention on artefacts that may distract students from central science concepts and the other (concept mapping) that is thought to make students focus directly on these concepts. We observed students in either a laboratory activity about real galvanic cells or a concept-mapping activity about idealized galvanic cells. We used a practical epistemology analysis to compare the two activities regarding students' actions towards scientific ideas and artefacts. The comparison revealed that the two activities, despite their alleged differences along the theory-practice scale, primarily resulted in similar student actions. For instance, in both activities, students interacted extensively with artefacts and, to a lesser extent, with scientific ideas. However, only occasionally did students establish any explicit continuity between artefacts and scientific ideas. The findings indicate that some of the problems commonly considered to be unique for school science practical work may indeed be a feature of school science activities more generally.

  20. Imagine that! ERPs provide evidence for distinct hemispheric contributions to the processing of concrete and abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Although abstract and concrete concepts are processed and remembered differently, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. The current study used visual half-field (VF) presentation methods and event-related potential (ERP) measures to examine how the left (LH) and right (RH) cerebral hemispheres process concrete and abstract meanings of polysemous nouns (e.g., “green book,” referring to the concrete, physical object that is a book, versus “engaging book,” referring to the abstract information that a book conveys). With presentation to the right VF, nouns preceded by concrete modifiers were associated with more positivity on the P2 and N400, suggesting that concrete concepts were easier for the LH to process perceptually and semantically. In contrast, with presentation to the left VF (RH), nouns used in a concrete sense elicited a sustained frontal negativity (500-900 ms) that has been previously linked to imagery. The results thus reveal multiple, distinct neural and cognitive sources for concreteness effects and point to a critical role for the RH in linking language input to sensory imagery. PMID:19631274

  1. Imagine that! ERPs provide evidence for distinct hemispheric contributions to the processing of concrete and abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

    2010-01-01

    Although abstract and concrete concepts are processed and remembered differently, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. The current study used visual half-field (VF) presentation methods and event-related potential (ERP) measures to examine how the left (LH) and right (RH) cerebral hemispheres process concrete and abstract meanings of polysemous nouns (e.g., "green book," referring to the concrete, physical object that is a book, versus "engaging book," referring to the abstract information that a book conveys). With presentation to the right VF, nouns preceded by concrete modifiers were associated with more positivity on the P2 and N400, suggesting that concrete concepts were easier for the LH to process perceptually and semantically. In contrast, with presentation to the left VF (RH), nouns used in a concrete sense elicited a sustained frontal negativity (500-900 ms) that has been previously linked to imagery. The results thus reveal multiple, distinct neural and cognitive sources for concreteness effects and point to a critical role for the RH in linking language input to sensory imagery. PMID:19631274

  2. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebel, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also…

  3. The Impact of Socio-Scientific Controversies in Portuguese Natural Science Teachers' Conceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a qualitative study, based on case studies, aimed at: (a) assessing a group of Portuguese secondary school natural science teachers regarding their conceptions of the nature, teaching and learning of science; (b) studying possible impacts of recent controversies surrounding scientific and technological issues…

  4. Comparison of Pre-Service Teachers' Metaphors Regarding the Concept of "Scientific Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan; Eren, Canan Dilek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze pre-service teachers' perceptions of the concept "scientific knowledge" through metaphors. Phenomenology, one of qualitative research designs, was used in the study. A total of 189 pre-service teachers, including 158 females and 31 males, studying at different departments in the education faculty…

  5. What's Natural about Nature? Deceptive Concepts in Socio-Scientific Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Linder, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between nature and nurture are brought to the fore and challenges socio-scientific decision-making in science education. The multitude of meanings of these concepts and their roles in societal discourses can impede students' development of understanding for different perspectives, e.g. on gene technology. This study problematizes…

  6. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry: Conceptions and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these conceptions necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of considerable research that has examined…

  7. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  8. The Effectiveness of Educational Games on Scientific Concepts Acquisition in First Grade Students in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of educational games on scientific concepts acquisition by the first grade students. The sample of the study consisted of (53) male and female students distributed into two groups: experimental group (n = 26) which taught by educational games, and control group (n = 27) which taught by…

  9. Two Approaches to Teaching Young Children Science Concepts, Vocabulary, and Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Soo-Young; Diamond, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of two different approaches to teaching designed to facilitate children's learning about science concepts and vocabulary related to objects' floating and sinking and scientific problem-solving skills: responsive teaching (RT) and the combination of responsive teaching and explicit instruction (RT + EI).…

  10. Learning Gains for Core Concepts in a Serious Game on Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Carol; Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Cai, Zhiqiang; Germany, Mae-lynn; Millis, Keith; Dolan, Robert P.; Butler, Heather; Halpern, Diane

    2012-01-01

    "OperationARIES!" is an Intelligent Tutoring System that teaches scientific inquiry skills in a game-like atmosphere. Students complete three different training modules, each with natural language conversations, in order to acquire deep-level knowledge of 21 core concepts of research methodology (e.g., correlation does not mean causation). The…

  11. Using Animations and Visual Cueing to Support Learning of Scientific Concepts and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential benefits of using animation, visual cueing, and their combination in a multimedia environment designed to support learners' acquisition and retention of scientific concepts and processes. Undergraduate participants (N = 119) were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions…

  12. The Student as Philosopher-Scientist: Dewey's Conception of Scientific Explanation in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschaepe, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Dewey's conception of scientific explanation, which has been neglected by both philosophers of science and philosophers of education, facilitates overcoming the seeming divide between teaching a highly technical and specialized subject matter and encouraging students to successfully engage in the experience of being philosopher-scientists. By…

  13. Developing Key Concepts in Physics: Is It More Effective to Teach Using Scientific Visualizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geelan, David; Mukherjee, Michelle; Martin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative, quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of computer-based scientific visualizations for concept learning on the part of Year 11 physics students (n = 80) was conducted in six Queensland high school classrooms. Students' gender and academic ability were also considered as factors in relation to the effectiveness of teaching…

  14. Mining Concept Maps from News Stories for Measuring Civic Scientific Literacy in Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien; Chang, Chun-Yen; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by a long-term goal in education for measuring Taiwanese civic scientific literacy in media (SLiM), this work reports the detailed techniques to efficiently mine a concept map from 2 years of Chinese news articles (901,446 in total) for SLiM instrument development. From the Chinese news stories, key terms (important words or phrases),…

  15. The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Jasmine; Abdullah, Nabilah; Lim, Beh Kian

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed…

  16. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  17. Publication rates of abstracts presented at annual scientific meetings: how does the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists compare?

    PubMed

    Bydder, Sean A; Joseph, David J; Spry, Nigel A

    2004-03-01

    The abstract to publication ratio (APR) is a measure of the quality of scientific meetings. The aim of the present study was to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at annual Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) conferences, and to identify the publishing journals. All free paper research abstracts (oral or poster) presented by RANZCR radiologists, radiation oncologists and trainees at the four consecutive meetings between 1996 and 1999 were identified retrospectively from conference programmes. The PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) was searched to determine whether or not the abstract had been published as a full paper. Of the 480 free paper research abstracts, 168 (35%) had been published as full articles. The overall abstract to publication ratio for radiology was 29% and for radiation oncology was 41%. Papers were published in a variety of journals but Australasian Radiology accounted for 27%. The mean time between presentation and publication was 16.5 months (median 17 months). These overall abstract to publication ratios are lower than those reported for overseas-based meetings in each respective area. Guidelines to scientific committees could increase the APR by more rigorous selection of abstracts. Future research should look at barriers to the publication of research findings, and identify ways to assist the publication process. PMID:15027917

  18. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  19. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the scientific concept of racial nervous resistance.

    PubMed

    Crenner, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    In 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service began a study of untreated syphilis among black men in Macon County, Alabama. This project, later known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, became one of the most notorious ventures of twentieth-century medicine. Much has been written on it. Historians have suggested that scientific racism strongly influenced the study. But specific links between earlier racial science and the scientific conduct of the study have remained unexplored. The examination in this paper of the concept of a racially determined resistance to syphilis in the nervous system establishes such a link. Discussion of nervous resistance to syphilis appeared in the medical literature in the early twentieth century as a conjecture about the natural inferiority of blacks. White physicians used the concept to interpret racial differences in neurosyphilis as evidence of the rudimentary development of the brain. A small community of African American physicians joined other national experts in syphilis who chose to explain apparent racial differences through alternate mechanisms. But the scientific advisors to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study favored the concept of a racial resistance to neurosyphilis and steered the early design of the study to help to elucidate it. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was an examination of untreated syphilis, but it also became a demonstration of a putative racial characteristic of syphilis long considered evidence of the natural inferiority of blacks. An examination of the concept of racial nervous resistance and its influence on the research in Macon County helps to define the influence of scientific racism on this notorious medical study. PMID:21317423

  20. Concepts of Scientific Integrative Medicine Applied to the Physiology and Pathophysiology of Catecholamine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2016-01-01

    This review presents concepts of scientific integrative medicine and relates them to the physiology of catecholamine systems and to the pathophysiology of catecholamine-related disorders. The applications to catecholamine systems exemplify how scientific integrative medicine links systems biology with integrative physiology. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine include (i) negative feedback regulation, maintaining stability of the body’s monitored variables; (ii) homeostats, which compare information about monitored variables with algorithms for responding; (iii) multiple effectors, enabling compensatory activation of alternative effectors and primitive specificity of stress response patterns; (iv) effector sharing, accounting for interactions among homeostats and phenomena such as hyperglycemia attending gastrointestinal bleeding and hyponatremia attending congestive heart failure; (v) stress, applying a definition as a state rather than as an environmental stimulus or stereotyped response; (vi) distress, using a noncircular definition that does not presume pathology; (vii) allostasis, corresponding to adaptive plasticity of feedback-regulated systems; and (viii) allostatic load, explaining chronic degenerative diseases in terms of effects of cumulative wear and tear. From computer models one can predict mathematically the effects of stress and allostatic load on the transition from wellness to symptomatic disease. The review describes acute and chronic clinical disorders involving catecholamine systems—especially Parkinson disease—and how these concepts relate to pathophysiology, early detection, and treatment and prevention strategies in the post-genome era. PMID:24265239

  1. Relations between representational consistency, conceptual understanding of the force concept, and scientific reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2012-06-01

    Previous physics education research has raised the question of “hidden variables” behind students’ success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students’ reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students’ preinstruction scores for reasoning ability (measured by Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning) and their learning of forces [measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI)] have been reported in high school and university introductory courses. However, there is no published research concerning the relation between students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) and their learning of forces. To investigate this, we collected 131 high school students’ pre- and post-test data of the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (for representational consistency) and the FCI. The students’ Lawson pretest data were also collected. We found that the preinstruction level of students’ representational consistency correlated strongly with student learning gain of forces. The correlation (0.51) was almost equal to the correlation between Lawson prescore and learning gain of forces (0.52). Our results support earlier findings which suggest that scientific reasoning ability is a hidden variable behind the learning of forces. In addition, we suggest that students’ representational consistency may also be such a factor, and that this should be recognized in physics teaching.

  2. A Systemic View of the Learning and Differentiation of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Electric Current and Voltage Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…

  3. Scientific drilling to study the roots of active hydrothermal systems related to young magmatic intrusions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.

    1983-03-01

    At present, hydrothermal-magma processes can be studied only inferentially, using observations on hot springs and volcanic rocks, data from shallow- and intermediate-depth drill holes, analogies with exhumed fossil systems, and extrapolation of laboratory investigations. The Thermal Regimes Panel of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee in a draft report concludes that an understanding of active hydrothermal-magma systems requires drill-hole investigations of deeper and hotter levels than have been drilled and studied to date. The Panel groups hydrothermal-magma systems in the United States into five classes: (1) dominantly andesitic centers, (2) spreading ridges, (3) basaltic fields, (4) evolved basaltic centers, and (5) silicic caldera complexes. Application of eight scientific criteria and three social criteria leads to the conclusion that silicic caldera complexes should be the first target of a focused drilling program to investigate the hydrothermal-magma interface at depths of 5 to 7 km. Primary targets are the three young, silicic caldera systems in the western conterminous United States: Yellowstone (Wyoming), Valles (New Mexico), and Long Valley (California). Scientific drilling of these active hydrothermal-magma systems complements scientific drilling proposed for fossil systems such as Creede (Colorado). In addition, the roots of the Salton Sea geothermal system (California) present an opportunity for add-on deep drilling and scientific experiments to supplement geothermal drilling by industry in this active spreading-ridge environment.

  4. COMPUTER-AIDED INDEXING OF A SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS JOURNAL BY THE UDC WITH UNIDEK--A CASE STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ROBERT R.; RUSSELL, MARTIN

    THIS PAPER IS A CASE STUDY OF THE ADOPTION BY GEOSCIENCE ABSTRACTS OF UNIDEK, A COMPUTER-COMPILED SYSTEMATIC SUBJECT INDEX BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION (UDC). EVENTS LEADING TO A DECISION TO ADOPT THE SYSTEM, SOME THEORY OF INDEXES, PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION, AND SOME OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED ARE REVIEWED. UNIDEK MAKES…

  5. Scientific Investigation of the Jovian System: the Jupiter System Observer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.; Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L.; Kwok, J. H.; Tan-Wang, G. H.; SDT, JSO

    2007-10-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), in efforts to start an outer solar system flagship mission in the near future, commissioned studies of mission concepts for four high-priority outer solar system destinations: Europa, the Jovian system, Titan, and Enceladus. Our team has identified and evaluated science and mission architectures to investigate major elements of the Jovian system: Jupiter, the Galilean moons, rings, and magnetosphere, and their interactions. SMD dubbed the mission concept the "Jupiter System Observer (JSO)." At abstract submission this JPL-led study is nearly complete, with final report submission in August 2007. SMD intends to select a subset of these four concepts for additional detailed study, leading to a potential flagship mission new start. A rich set of science objectives that JSO can address quite well have been identified. The highly capable science payload (including 50-cm optic), an extensive tour with multiple close flybys of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, and a significant time in orbit at Ganymede, addresses a large set of Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (2003) and NASA Solar System Exploration Roadmap (2006) high-priority objectives. With the engineering team, the Science Definition Team evaluated a suite of mission architectures and the science they enable to arrive at two architectures that provide the best science for their estimated mission costs. This paper discusses the science objectives and operational capabilities and considerations for these mission concepts. This work was performed at JPL, APL, and other institutions under contract to NASA.

  6. The Influence of Scientific Concepts on the Music and thought of Edgard Varese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John Davis

    The work of Edgard Varese is generally acknowledged to have played a significant role in the development of electronic media in contemporary composition, and it has been widely suspected that Varese approached music from a fundamentally scientific perspective. It was found that the literature in this area was not extensive, and hence the purpose of this study was to determine the extent and significance of influences from the physical sciences on the aesthetic philosophy and music of Edgard Varese. The method of the study was first to examine writings by and about Varese in an effort to define and clarify his unique aesthetic conceptions. Second, Octandre, one of Varese's compositions, was analyzed. Both standard analytical procedures and Varese's own unique conceptions and terminology were applied to Octandre in order to discover and illustrate the compositional techniques which he created. Finally, Varese's attitudes about and references to the relationship of science and art were examined, and various discoveries and lines of conceptual inquiry from the "new physics," at the beginning of this century, were investigated in order to discover areas of philosophical and practical similarity with Varese's aesthetics and music. This study yielded three areas of conclusions. First, it was shown that Varese regarded all sound, music included, as a primarily physical, acoustic phenomenon. He desired, in his own compositions, to create the illusion of sound operating in an inherently intelligent manner within a three-dimensional, spacial context. Analysis of Octandre disclosed that the underlying compositional procedure was continuous variation on a basic cell of pitch and rhythmic materials and that Varese's unique compositional devices were superimposed on the structure thus derived. In the last section of the study it was shown that Varese possessed a scientific background and that he believed that art should reflect cultural, particularly scientific change. Several of

  7. “Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!”- Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner’s characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on “soil and sunshine”, representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile

  8. Effectiveness of 5E Learning Cycle Instruction on Students' Achievement in Cell Concept and Scientific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynar, Devrim; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle on 6th-grade students' achievement of cell concepts, and their scientific epistemological beliefs. Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Cell Concept Test were administered as pre-test and post-test to a total of 153 sixth grade students in four intact classes of an elementary…

  9. Inferring semantic organization from refractory access dysphasia: further replication in the domains of geography and proper nouns but not concrete and abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A Cris; Martin, Randi C

    2010-12-01

    Patients with "refractory access dysphasia" have been a source of unique insight into the organization of previously unexplored domains of semantic knowledge (i.e., proper nouns, geography, concrete and abstract concepts). However, much of the relevant data have been based on the performance of a small number of patients. Here, we present 2 patients who both display a "refractory access" pattern of performance on spoken-word-written-word matching tasks and test their performance in the domains of famous people, geography, and abstract and concrete words. While these patients show performance similar to that for the previously reported patients in the domains of famous people and geography, they show a very different pattern of performance with abstract and concrete nouns. We discuss possible reasons why patients may differ in performance and evidence for and against the "differential frameworks" hypothesis for the organization of concrete and abstract concepts. PMID:22074471

  10. A Study on Development of an Instrument to Determine Turkish Kindergarten Students' Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal; Samarapungavan, Ala; Aksoy, Pinar; Tosun, Cemal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure Turkish kindergarten students' understandings of some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes which are grounded in the Turkish Preschool Curriculum. The sample of the study was 371 kindergarten students, 12 Subject Area Experts (SAE), and 7 Turkish…

  11. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  12. More Than Pretty Pictures: How Translating Science Concepts into Pictures Advances Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Felice

    2010-02-01

    The judgment and decision-making required to render science visual clarifies thinking. One must decide on a hierarchy of information--what must be included and what might be left out? What is the main point of the visual? Just as in writing an article or responding to an essay question, we must understand and then plan what we want to ``say'' in a drawing or other forms of representation. And since a visual representation of a scientific concept (or data) is a re-presentation, and not the thing itself, interpretation or translation is involved. The process tends to transcend barriers of linguistic facility and educational background; it attracts and communicates students and teachers of all backgrounds, where other methods intimidate. The rendered images are, in essence More Than Pretty Pictures. )

  13. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  14. Clinical, developmental and molecular update on Cornelia de Lange syndrome and the cohesin complex: abstracts from the 2014 Scientific and Educational Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Lander, Arthur D; Gerton, Jennifer L; Krantz, Ian D; Dorsett, Dale; Deardorff, Matthew A; Blagowidow, Natalie; Yokomori, Kyoko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Santos, Rosaysela; Woodman, Julie; Megee, Paul C; O'Connor, Julia T; Egense, Alena; Noon, Sarah; Belote, Maurice; Goodban, Marjorie T; Hansen, Blake D; Timmons, Jenni Glad; Musio, Antonio; Ishman, Stacey L; Bryan, Yvon; Wu, Yaning; Bettini, Laura R; Mehta, Devanshi; Zakari, Musinu; Mills, Jason A; Srivastava, Siddharth; Haaland, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is the most common example of disorders of the cohesin complex, or cohesinopathies. There are a myriad of clinical issues facing individuals with CdLS, particularly in the neurodevelopmental system, which also have implications for the parents and caretakers, involved professionals, therapists, and schools. Basic research in developmental and cell biology on cohesin is showing significant progress, with improved understanding of the mechanisms and the possibility of potential therapeutics. The following abstracts are presentations from the 6th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium, which took place on June 25-26, 2014, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting in Costa Mesa, CA. The Research Committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts, and subsequently disseminates the information to the families through members of the Clinical Advisory Board. In addition to the scientific and clinical discussions, there were educationally focused talks related to practical aspects of behavior and development. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. PMID:25899772

  15. A Phenomenological Examination of Perceived Skills and Concepts Necessary for Teaching Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapetanis, Ana Cristina

    The use of high stakes testing to improve educational outcomes falls short in many settings. Proposals for improvement include providing more opportunities for students to extend their thinking, gaining experience in the social nature of science, and learning how to interpret, explain, and justify results. This phenomenological qualitative project study took place in a small independent school in the southeastern United States that lacked a cohesive elementary science program and was looking to create a vertically aligned science curriculum based on constructivism. The research question asked what skills and concepts teachers believed should be included in an elementary science program in order for students to learn scientific inquiry to be better prepared for middle and upper school science subjects. Using focus groups, observations, and interviews of a small sample of 4 teachers, data were collected, transcribed, and categorized through open coding. Inductive analysis was employed to look for patterns and emerging themes that painted a picture of how teachers viewed the current science program and what attributes they felt were important in the creation of a new curriculum. The findings revealed that teachers felt there was lack of a vertically aligned science curriculum, availability of resources throughout the school, and consistent support to provide an effective science program. The recommendations called for developing an elementary science program that includes all strands proposed by the National Science Education Standards and would provide students with opportunities to engage in scientific inquiry, conduct detailed observations, and learn to support conclusions using data. The implications for positive social change include development of programs that result in integrated science learning.

  16. Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science and Self-Efficacy of Learning Science among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Ho, Hsin Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Hung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs, conceptions of learning science, and self-efficacy of learning science. The questionnaire responses gathered from 377 high school students in Taiwan were utilized to elicit such relationships. The analysis of the structural equation model…

  17. The Relevance of Multi Media Skills in Teaching and Learning of Scientific Concepts in Secondary Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okedeyi, Abiodun S.; Oginni, Aderonke M.; Adegorite, Solomon O.; Saibu, Sakibu O.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of multi media skills in teaching and learning of scientific concepts in secondary schools. Self constructed questionnaire was administered to 120 students randomly selected in four secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state. Data generated were analyzed using chi-square statistical…

  18. Promoting Scientific Literacy Using a Sociocritical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching: Concept, Examples, Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the discussion about the objectives of scientific literacy-oriented chemistry teaching, its connection to the German concept of "Allgemeinbildung", and the debate of "science through education" vs. "education through science". About 10 years ago the sociocritical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching was suggested…

  19. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  20. Advance the Harmonious Development of Higher Education Institutions under the Guidance of the Scientific Concept of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jiang-qiao

    2006-01-01

    To build up and carry out the scientific concept of development will have a major and directive significance in solving the problems and conflicts of the development of higher education institutions (HEIs). This paper is based on drawing up the development strategy of a university, and brings up the idea of grasping the strategic opportunity,…

  1. The Relationship between Students' Perception of the Scientific Models and Their Alternative Conceptions of the Lunar Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Su-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal whether there were differences in the understanding of scientific models according to their conceptions of lunar phases. The participants were 252 10th grader in South Korea. They were asked to respond SUMS (Students Understanding of Models in Science) instrument and to draw and explain why the different lunar…

  2. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: further delineation of phenotype, cohesin biology and educational focus, 5th Biennial Scientific and Educational Symposium abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Schaaf, Cheri A; Krantz, Ian D; Jyonouchi, Soma; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gauze, Maria; Carrico, Cheri S; Woodman, Julie; Gerton, Jennifer L; Vega, Hugo; Levin, Alex V; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Champion, Michele; Goodban, Marjorie T; O'Connor, Julia T; Pipan, Mary; Horsfield, Julia; Deardorff, Matthew A; Ishman, Stacey L; Dorsett, Dale

    2014-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers, professionals, and schools. The following abstracts are presentations from the 5th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium on June 20-21, 2012, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting, Lincolnshire, IL. The research committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts and subsequently disseminates the information to the families. In addition to the basic science and clinical discussions, there were educationally-focused talks related to practical aspects of management at home and in school. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. PMID:24504889

  3. Data First: Building Scientific Reasoning in AP Chemistry via the Concept Development Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Carolyn A.; Szymczyk, Amber J.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the "Data First" approach and shows how the observation and analysis of scientific data can be used as a scaffold to build conceptual understanding in chemistry through inductive reasoning. The "Data First" approach emulates the scientific process by changing the order by which we introduce data. Rather…

  4. Student Engagement with Artefacts and Scientific Ideas in a Laboratory and a Concept-Mapping Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim Mikael; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a comparative approach to scrutinize the common assumption that certain school science activities are theoretical and therefore particularly suited for engaging students with scientific ideas, whereas others are practical and, thus, not equally conducive to engagement with scientific ideas. We compared two…

  5. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hydroacoustic seafloor mapping is a reliable and cost-effective method to investigate and monitor the seafloor in high spatial and temporal resolution. The results are important for the evaluation of benthic habitats and help to identify vulnerable environments that require protection. Yet, how can we overcome the problems that occur when different gear produces different results, which are evaluated by people that have different points of view and different backgrounds? These aspects form an integer part of the project WIMO ("Scientific concepts for monitoring the German Bight, SE North Sea", Subproject 1.1: "Hydroacoustic Habitat Mapping"). It aims at comparing different hydroacoustic gear, methodologies and workflows in order to work out basic routines for universal use in marine benthic habitat mapping. The project investigates a number of target areas in the German Bight (North Sea) using different sidescan sonars (SSS), acoustic seafloor-classification systems (AGDS), multibeams, and different sampling and grain-size analytical methods as well as sea-floor imaging methods. We tested different gear on different ships, on the same ship but not synchronously, and as many instruments as possible measuring at the same time on the same ship. Our results suggest that guidelines and requirements for surveys can hardly be standardized as they depend largely on the water depth, the seabed, and on the vessel and the equipment available. All of these frame conditions usually differ from survey to survey. Taking this into account, we present a reasonable workflow for time and cost-effective benthic habitat mapping and monitoring. Transect-line distances as well as monitoring frequencies, number and positioning of ground-truth samples and seabed imaging are discussed. We recommend frequency combinations and appropriate swath widths and overlaps for SSS and show a way to ground-truth lower-frequency data using high-frequency data. Acoustic ground discrimination systems are

  6. Student Knowledge of Scientific and Natural Resource Concepts Concerning Acidic Deposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed is the level of scientific and natural resource knowledge possessed by fourth-, eighth- and eleventh-grade students. Misconceptions are noted. Discussed are implications for teaching about acidic deposition. (CW)

  7. Relations between Representational Consistency, Conceptual Understanding of the Force Concept, and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Previous physics education research has raised the question of "hidden variables" behind students' success in learning certain concepts. In the context of the force concept, it has been suggested that students' reasoning ability is one such variable. Strong positive correlations between students' preinstruction scores for reasoning ability…

  8. Adults' representations of the Earth: implications for children's acquisition of scientific concepts.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2007-11-01

    When children are asked to draw the Earth they often produce intriguing pictures in which, for example, people seem to be standing on a flat disc or inside a hollow sphere. These drawings, and children's answers to questions, have been interpreted as indicating that children construct naïve, theory-like mental models of the Earth (e.g. Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992). However, recent studies using different methods have found little or no evidence of these mental models, and report that many young children have some scientific knowledge of the Earth. To examine the reasons for these contrasting findings, adults (N=350) were given the drawing task previously given to 5-year-old children. Fewer than half of the adults' pictures were scientific, and 15% were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings. Up to half of the answers to questions (e.g. 'Where do people live?') were non-scientific. Open-ended questions and follow-up interviews revealed that non-scientific responses were given because adults found the apparently simple task confusing and challenging. Since children very probably find it even more difficult, these findings indicate that children's non-scientific responses, like adults', often result from methodological problems with the task. These results therefore explain the discrepant findings of previous research, and support the studies which indicate that children do not have naïve mental models of the Earth. PMID:17535475

  9. Using a Discussion about Scientific Controversy to Teach Central Concepts in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kimberley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Students may need explicit training in informal statistical reasoning in order to design experiments or use formal statistical tests effectively. By using scientific scandals and media misinterpretation, we can explore the need for good experimental design in an informal way. This article describes the use of a paper that reviews the measles mumps…

  10. The Texture of Educational Inquiry: An Exploration of George Herbert Mead's Concept of the Scientific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Susan Douglas

    1984-01-01

    Explores the implications of Mead's philosophic social psychology for current disputes concerning the nature of the scientific in educational studies. Mead's contextualization of the knower and the known are found to be compatible with a contemporary critique of positivist paradigms and a critical reconceptualization of educational inquiry.…

  11. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: Analysis and Representation of Student Conceptions Concerning Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Problems concerning conceptual change from existing knowledge (accumulated from everyday experiences or earlier teaching) to new scientific knowledge concerning natural phenomena are fundamentally the same for Western and non-Western students. However, difficulties experienced by non-Western students are magnified by factors such as their cultural…

  12. The use of Pierre Bourdieu's distinction concepts in scientific articles studying food and eating: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status. PMID:26368578

  13. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  14. The history of scientific concepts of vision in relation to Ludwik Fleck's thought-styles.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the article is to assess the usefulness of Ludwik Fleck's theory of thought-styles for the history of ophthalmology. On the basis of Fleck's ideas, the authors attempt to analyse the development of concepts of vision. They enumerate three styles in the history of ophthalmology: humoral, iatromechanical and micro-tissue. In conclusion, they state that the history of evolution of the concept of vision should be considered not only from the perspective of achievements of individual scientists but also with the addition of the social 'mood' that prevailed in a given historical period. PMID:22682233

  15. Crenotherapy: a neglected resource for human health now re-emerging on sound scientific concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccarezza, Mauro; Vitale, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Recent mechanistic evidence demonstrates that spa-based therapy (or, as we propose, crenotherapy from the Greek word κρɛνη, spring fountain) is indeed based on solid scientific data. This mini-review highlights the latest insights into the mechanisms of crenotherapy derived from in vitro experiments, studies on animal models, and carefully designed clinical trials. Although more basic and clinical data are still needed, crenotherapy is coming of age as a modern, scientifically sound therapy. As the underlying mechanisms are uncovered, it is becoming possible to choose the most appropriate applications of this centuries-old practice, possibly reducing medical costs, thus explaining the current worldwide renewed interest in crenotherapy.

  16. Gender Differences in Learning of the Concept of Force, Representational Consistency, and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative case study used a pre- and posttest design for exploring the gender differences in secondary school students' (n?=?131, 45 males and 86 females) learning of the force concept when an interactive engagement type of teaching was used. In addition, students' ability to interpret multiple representations (i.e.,…

  17. The Use of a Computer Simulation to Promote Scientific Conceptions of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Randy L.; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2008-01-01

    This study described the conceptual understandings of 50 early childhood (Pre-K-3) preservice teachers about standards-based lunar concepts before and after inquiry-based instruction utilizing educational technology. The instructional intervention integrated the planetarium software "Starry Night Backyard[TM]" with instruction on moon phases from…

  18. The Jupiter System Observer Mission Concept: Scientific Investigation of the Jovian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L.; Kwok, J. H.; Tan-Wang, G. H.; Sdt, J.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), in efforts to start an outer solar system flagship mission in the near future, commissioned studies of mission concepts for four high-priority outer solar system destinations: Europa, the Jovian system, Titan, and Enceladus. Our team has identified and evaluated science and mission architectures to investigate major elements of the Jovian system: Jupiter, the Galilean moons, rings, and magnetosphere, and their interactions. SMD dubbed the mission concept the "Jupiter System Observer (JSO)." This JPL-led study's final report is now complete and was submitted in August 2007. SMD intends to select a subset of these four concepts for additional detailed study, leading to a potential flagship mission new start. The study's NASA-appointed, multi-institutional Science Definition Team (SDT) identified a rich set of science objectives that JSO can address quite well. The highly capable science payload (including ~50-cm optics), an extensive tour with multiple close flybys of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, and a significant time in orbit at Ganymede, addresses a large set of Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (2003) and NASA Solar System Exploration Roadmap (2006) high-priority objectives. With the engineering team, the SDT evaluated a suite of mission architectures and the science they enable to arrive at two architectures that provide the best science for their estimated mission costs. This paper discusses the science objectives and operational capabilities and considerations for these mission concepts, and some options available for emphasizing specific science objectives. This work was performed at JPL, APL, and other institutions under contract to NASA.

  19. Controversies in Neuroscience: A Literature-Based Course for First Year Undergraduates that Improves Scientific Confidence While Teaching Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Amanda M.; Brasier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Controversies in Neuroscience is a half-semester elective for first year science students at Carnegie Mellon University with an emphasis on discussing primary literature to highlight current research topics and to introduce students to neuroscience. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching first-year students using a literature-only approach, we took advantage of an opportunity to teach the same topics to a traditional textbook-based upper division course as to the first year seminar. Students in both courses took surveys at the beginning and end of the course, and self-reported confidence levels as well as exam scores were compared. At the conclusion of both courses, students reported increased level of comfort with scientific terminology and methodology. In addition, students enrolled in the first-year seminar performed at least as well or better than students involved in the upper division course on exam material. These results suggest that first year students are capable of making great strides in learning and understanding scientific principles strictly through exposure to primary literature, even with little or no access to a standard textbook. Furthermore, introducing students to primary literature-based courses early on in their undergraduate career can increase enthusiasm for learning science and improve confidence with neuroscience concepts and methodology. We therefore conclude that it is valuable to provide students opportunities to critically evaluate scientific literature early in their undergraduate careers. PMID:24693264

  20. Controversies in Neuroscience: A Literature-Based Course for First Year Undergraduates that Improves Scientific Confidence While Teaching Concepts.

    PubMed

    Willard, Amanda M; Brasier, D J

    2014-01-01

    Controversies in Neuroscience is a half-semester elective for first year science students at Carnegie Mellon University with an emphasis on discussing primary literature to highlight current research topics and to introduce students to neuroscience. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching first-year students using a literature-only approach, we took advantage of an opportunity to teach the same topics to a traditional textbook-based upper division course as to the first year seminar. Students in both courses took surveys at the beginning and end of the course, and self-reported confidence levels as well as exam scores were compared. At the conclusion of both courses, students reported increased level of comfort with scientific terminology and methodology. In addition, students enrolled in the first-year seminar performed at least as well or better than students involved in the upper division course on exam material. These results suggest that first year students are capable of making great strides in learning and understanding scientific principles strictly through exposure to primary literature, even with little or no access to a standard textbook. Furthermore, introducing students to primary literature-based courses early on in their undergraduate career can increase enthusiasm for learning science and improve confidence with neuroscience concepts and methodology. We therefore conclude that it is valuable to provide students opportunities to critically evaluate scientific literature early in their undergraduate careers. PMID:24693264

  1. Traditional and scientific conceptions of snakes in Kenya: Alternative perspectives for teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnowski, David

    A 3-month qualitative study was conducted mid-September through mid-December 2005 to investigate rural southeast Kenyan teachers' conceptions of snakes. Teachers from five villages near Mt. Kasigau were interviewed to obtain an overall sense of what they thought about snakes (n = 60). Of those 60 teachers, 28 attended a 6-hour seminar on reptiles and amphibians. From these 28 teachers, 8 teachers from three villages were afforded additional educational opportunities about snakes, and 2 teachers from this group of 8 were teamed with 2 herpetologists as mentors during the last 2 months of the study. In turn, seven of these eight teachers presented lessons about snakes using live specimens to their fellow teachers and students. Observations of teacher participants during workshops and field outings were documented as well as teacher classroom pedagogy involving snakes before, during, and after the institute. Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with the eight core teacher participants and field notes were used to document participant observations during serendipitous live snake encounters, of which, there were many. In addition, village elders, including medicine men, one education administrator and one minister were interviewed to obtain a historical cultural backdrop, which teachers expressed as being an important influence while formulating their own conceptions about snakes. Findings suggest that teachers' conceptions of snakes, within a culture where all snakes are feared and killed onsite, can change toward a more favorable orientation when given the opportunity to learn about snakes, witness positive modeling of snake handling through mentoring by herpetologists, and experience direct contact with live harmless nonaggressive snakes (e.g., the Brown House Snake [Lamprohis fuliginosus] and Kenyan Sand Boa [ Eryx colubrinus]).

  2. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  3. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  4. What is Proof of Concept Research and how does it Generate Epistemic and Ethical Categories for Future Scientific Practice?

    PubMed

    Kendig, Catherine Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    "Proof of concept" is a phrase frequently used in descriptions of research sought in program announcements, in experimental studies, and in the marketing of new technologies. It is often coupled with either a short definition or none at all, its meaning assumed to be fully understood. This is problematic. As a phrase with potential implications for research and technology, its assumed meaning requires some analysis to avoid it becoming a descriptive category that refers to all things scientifically exciting. I provide a short analysis of proof of concept research and offer an example of it within synthetic biology. I suggest that not only are there activities that circumscribe new epistemological categories but there are also associated normative ethical categories or principles linked to the research. I examine these and provide an outline for an alternative ethical account to describe these activities that I refer to as "extended agency ethics". This view is used to explain how the type of research described as proof of concept also provides an attendant proof of principle that is the result of decision-making that extends across practitioners, their tools, techniques, and the problem solving activities of other research groups. PMID:26009258

  5. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  6. Labview Interface Concepts Used in NASA Scientific Investigations and Virtual Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Parker, Bradford H.; Rapchun, David A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Cao, Wei

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of several software control applications developed for NASA using LabVIEW. The applications covered here include (1) an Ultrasonic Measurement System for nondestructive evaluation of advanced structural materials, an Xray Spectral Mapping System for characterizing the quality and uniformity of developing photon detector materials, (2) a Life Testing System for these same materials, (3) and the instrument panel for an aircraft mounted Cloud Absorption Radiometer that measures the light scattered by clouds in multiple spectral bands. Many of the software interface concepts employed are explained. Panel layout and block diagram (code) strategies for each application are described. In particular, some of the more unique features of the applications' interfaces and source code are highlighted. This article assumes that the reader has a beginner-to-intermediate understanding of LabVIEW methods.

  7. Scientific concepts and applications of integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture technology

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Loganathan; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Over several decades, animals have been used as models to investigate the human-specific drug toxicity, but the outcomes are not always reliably extrapolated to the humans in vivo. Appropriate in vitro human-based experimental system that includes in vivo parameters is required for the evaluation of multiple organ interaction, multiple organ/organ-specific toxicity, and metabolism of xenobiotic compounds to avoid the use of animals for toxicity testing. One such versatile in vitro technology in which human primary cells could be used is integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture (IdMOC). IdMOC system adopts wells-within-well concept that facilitates co-culture of cells from different organs in a discrete manner, separately in the respective media in the smaller inner wells which are then interconnected by an overlay of a universal medium in the large containing well. This novel in vitro approach mimics the in vivo situation to a great extent, and employs cells from multiple organs that are physically separated but interconnected by a medium that mimics the systemic circulation and provides for multiple organ interaction. Applications of IdMOC include assessment of multiple organ toxicity, drug distribution, organ-specific toxicity, screening of anticancer drugs, metabolic cytotoxicity, etc. PMID:25969651

  8. A semantic-based method for extracting concept definitions from scientific publications: evaluation in the autism phenotype domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of informatics approaches have been developed that use information retrieval, NLP and text-mining techniques to identify biomedical concepts and relations within scientific publications or their sentences. These approaches have not typically addressed the challenge of extracting more complex knowledge such as biomedical definitions. In our efforts to facilitate knowledge acquisition of rule-based definitions of autism phenotypes, we have developed a novel semantic-based text-mining approach that can automatically identify such definitions within text. Results Using an existing knowledge base of 156 autism phenotype definitions and an annotated corpus of 26 source articles containing such definitions, we evaluated and compared the average rank of correctly identified rule definition or corresponding rule template using both our semantic-based approach and a standard term-based approach. We examined three separate scenarios: (1) the snippet of text contained a definition already in the knowledge base; (2) the snippet contained an alternative definition for a concept in the knowledge base; and (3) the snippet contained a definition not in the knowledge base. Our semantic-based approach had a higher average rank than the term-based approach for each of the three scenarios (scenario 1: 3.8 vs. 5.0; scenario 2: 2.8 vs. 4.9; and scenario 3: 4.5 vs. 6.2), with each comparison significant at the p-value of 0.05 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Conclusions Our work shows that leveraging existing domain knowledge in the information extraction of biomedical definitions significantly improves the correct identification of such knowledge within sentences. Our method can thus help researchers rapidly acquire knowledge about biomedical definitions that are specified and evolving within an ever-growing corpus of scientific publications. PMID:23937724

  9. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  10. Abstracts of the Scientific Programs of the American College Health Association Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting, April 9-12, 1980, San Diego, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American College Health Association, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of the sessions include discussions of health education programs, various research models of both health and higher education concern; sessions on dental health, mental health, athletic medicine, and junior and community colleges. The topics of administration, clinical medicine, and environmental health and safety are also covered. (JN)

  11. Towards a scientific concept of free will as a biological trait: spontaneous actions and decision-making in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Until the advent of modern neuroscience, free will used to be a theological and a metaphysical concept, debated with little reference to brain function. Today, with ever increasing understanding of neurons, circuits and cognition, this concept has become outdated and any metaphysical account of free will is rightfully rejected. The consequence is not, however, that we become mindless automata responding predictably to external stimuli. On the contrary, accumulating evidence also from brains much smaller than ours points towards a general organization of brain function that incorporates flexible decision-making on the basis of complex computations negotiating internal and external processing. The adaptive value of such an organization consists of being unpredictable for competitors, prey or predators, as well as being able to explore the hidden resource deterministic automats would never find. At the same time, this organization allows all animals to respond efficiently with tried-and-tested behaviours to predictable and reliable stimuli. As has been the case so many times in the history of neuroscience, invertebrate model systems are spearheading these research efforts. This comparatively recent evidence indicates that one common ability of most if not all brains is to choose among different behavioural options even in the absence of differences in the environment and perform genuinely novel acts. Therefore, it seems a reasonable effort for any neurobiologist to join and support a rather illustrious list of scholars who are trying to wrestle the term ‘free will’ from its metaphysical ancestry. The goal is to arrive at a scientific concept of free will, starting from these recently discovered processes with a strong emphasis on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying them. PMID:21159679

  12. Soviet-French working group interpretation of the scientific information during the search for celestial sources of gamma pulses, abstract of reports, 24-30 March 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estulin, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    The progress made and techniques used by the Soviet-French group in the study of gamma and X ray pulses are described in abstracts of 16 reports. Experiments included calibration and operation of various recording instruments designed for measurements involving these pulses, specifically the location of sources of such pulses in outer space. Space vehicles are utilized in conjunction with ground equipment to accomplish these tests.

  13. The Development of Authentic Assessments to Investigate Ninth Graders' Scientific Literacy: In the Case of Scientific Cognition Concerning the Concepts of Chemistry and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2005-01-01

    Scientific literacy and authenticity have gained a lot of attention in the past few decades worldwide. The goal of the study was to develop various authentic assessments to investigate students' scientific literacy for corresponding to the new curriculum reform of Taiwan in 1997. In the process, whether ninth graders were able to apply school…

  14. Open-ended questions: An alternative mode to assess the students' performance in concept development and use of scientific vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agairre-Ortiz, Maria

    1998-10-01

    Important reform movements across the nation recognize that improved science performance, language development, and alternative assessment are national priorities. This study examined the effect of two modes of alternative assessment on students' performance in in-depth concept development (IDC) and use of scientific vocabulary (VOC). The research questions asked for significant differences in students' performance in IDC and VOC across time regarding: (1) mode of assessment, (2) science achievement level, and classes. The study also investigated what are the: (1) students' opinions and feelings about the assessment modes (2) similarities and differences between OE-W and OE-D groups regarding the quality of IDC and VOC used. The sample of convenience included one hundred and four fifth grade LEP students randomly assigned to two groups. Students in both groups were asked to answer the same open-ended question at three assessment times during the study of a chapter on electricity and magnetism. Students in group one were asked to answer the question by writing paragraphs and students in group two answered the same question by making drawings. Results from a four-way repeated measures analysis showed that students in the OE-D mode, especially above-average performed better in in-depth concept development than those in the writing mode across time. The non-significant four-way interaction suggests that the differences in assessment mode across time are not influenced by science achievement level and the classes. The results suggest that although the OE-D mode in general yielded better scores, both modes of assessment could be used to assess Spanish-dominant LEP students' conceptual development and scientific vocabulary use. In general, students expressed preference for OE-D because they felt more confident and comfortable answering questions by drawing. Most of the statistical results were supported by the qualitative analysis for both dependent variables. Small size

  15. Concept of computer-assisted clinical diagnostic documentation systems for the practice with the option of later scientific evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M O; Jaeger, D; Jakstat, H A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment data from practices and specialization centers, especially in the increasingly specialized areas which university clinics do not cover, are very important for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of dental examination and treatment methods. In the case of paper-based documentation, the evaluation of these data usually fails because of the cost it entails. With the use of electronic medical records, this expense can be markedly lower, provided the data acquisition and storage is structured accordingly. Since access to sensitive person-related data is simplified considerably by this method, such health data are protected, especially on the European level. Other than generally assumed, this protection is not restricted solely to the confidentiality principle, but also comprises the power of disposition over the data (data protection). The result is that from a legal point of view, the treatment data cannot be readily used for scientific studies, not even by dentists and physicians who have collected the data legally during the course of their therapeutic work. The technical separation of treatment data from the personal data offers a legally acceptable solution to this problem. It must ensure that a later assignment to individual persons will not be feasible at a realistic expense ("effective anonymization"). This article describes the legal and information technology principles and their practical implementation, as illustrated by the concept of a respective compliant IT architecture for the dentaConcept CMD fact diagnostic software. Here, a special export function automatically separates the anonymized treatment data and thus facilitates multicentric studies within an institution and among dental practices. PMID:20879462

  16. Scientific myth-conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  17. Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of "Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11" by William Bernet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepiton, M. Brianna; Alvis, Lindsey J.; Allen, Kenneth; Logid, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a recent book arguing how a concept known as parental alienation syndrome--now parental alienation disorder--should be included in official psychiatric/psychological and medical classification diagnostic manuals. Anecdotal cases and opinion are presented as research and scientific evidence, and stories are presented as…

  18. The Relationships among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A Study of Taiwan High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. Using writing as a vehicle to promote and develop scientific concepts and process skills in fourth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disimoni, Katherine Cecilia

    The development of conceptual knowledge, particularly at the elementary level, is one area in which researchers and educators have noted remarkable deficiencies. The purpose of this descriptive study was to observe the impact of the use of writing as a thinking tool on the promotion and development of scientific concepts and science process skills in elementary students in the discipline of science. Reports from some of the publications for science research and educational progress cited the direct links of writing effectiveness to the development of skills in critical thinking. The study consisted of 12 fourth-grade students in the control group and their 12 fourth-grade counterparts in the experimental group. The treatment for the study was the use of learning logs by the experimental group to record their written responses to predesigned prompts related to hands-on science experiences during the intervention period. Their counterparts did no writing. Statistical measures used were Student's t tests to determine if significance was present. A pretest and posttest were given that involved written responses to the same prompt. Three judges used a specially designed rubric to evaluate and score the writing. Significant differences were found when the scores of the experimental group were analyzed between pretest and posttest. Also, a standardized test to assess basic process skills was administered prior to and after the intervention. There were no statistical differences found in either group to demonstrate that writing effected the development of process skills. The researcher determined that perhaps writing is not the best way to promote process skills. Rather, engaging in science is the best way. These skills are built separately but used in tandem, particularly when learning about science and mathematics. The implications of this study impact upon several areas of education which make up paradigms leading to good practice based on sound theory. These components

  1. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  2. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  3. From Common Sense Concepts to Scientifically Conditioned Concepts of Chemical Bonding: An Historical and Textbook Approach Designed to Address Learning and Teaching Issues at the Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michael; de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects six key alternative conceptions identified in the literature on student understandings of chemical bonding and illustrates how a historical analysis and a textbook analysis can inform these conceptions and lead to recommendations for improving the teaching and learning of chemical bonding at the secondary school level. The…

  4. Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

  5. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  6. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  7. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. Multiple Motives, Conflicting Conceptions: Parsing the Contexts of Differentiated Access to Scientific Information in the Federal Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific information, used by the U.S. federal government to formulate public policy in many arenas, is frequently contested and sometimes altered, blocked from publication, deleted from reports, or restricted in some way. This dissertation examines how and why restricted access to science policy (RASP) occurs through a comparative case study.…

  9. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  10. [The Ecology Department of the Russian University of the Friendship of Peoples--a scientific, pedagogical and social concept].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Iu P

    1995-01-01

    The paper is about the foundation of the Environmental Department in the Russian University of Friendship of Peoples with a scientific-educational center of environmental biology and advanced technologies, the faculties of system and industrial environmental biology, human and radiation environmentology with the purpose to boost environmentalism and eco-culture. PMID:7550162

  11. Evidence-based neurosurgery. Basic concepts for the appraisal and application of scientific information to patient care (Part II).

    PubMed

    Esene, Ignatius N; Baeesa, Saleh S; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  12. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  13. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. PMID:25455541

  14. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  15. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  16. The Existence of Alternative Framework in Students' Scientific Imagination on the Concept of Matter at Submicroscopic Level: Macro Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Nurdiana; Surif, Johari

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted with the purpose of identifying the alternative framework contained in students' imagination on the concept of matter at submicroscopic level. Through the design of purposive sampling techniques, a total of 15 students are interviewed to obtain the data. Data from analysis document is utilized to strengthen the interview.…

  17. From scientific understanding to operational utility: New concepts and tools for monitoring space weather effects on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. C.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Denig, W. F.; Redmon, R. J.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; O'Brien, T. P.; Guild, T. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Singer, H. J.; Onsager, T. G.; Wilkinson, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA space weather sensors have monitored the near Earth space radiation environment for more than three decades providing one of the only long-term records of these energetic particles that can disable satellites and pose a threat to astronauts. These data have demonstrated their value for operations for decades, but they are also invaluable for scientific discovery. Here we describe the development of new NOAA tools for assessing radiation impacts to satellites and astronauts working in space. In particular, we discuss the new system implemented for processing and delivering near real time particle radiation data from the POES/MetOp satellites. We also describe the development of new radiation belt indices from the POES/MetOp data that capture significant global changes in the environment needed for operational decision making. Lastly, we investigate the physical processes responsible for dramatic changes of the inner proton belt region and the potential consequences these new belts may have for satellite operations.

  18. Science Teacher Candidates' Perceptions about Roles and Nature of Scientific Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenilmez Turkoglu, Ayse; Oztekin, Ceren

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scientific models have important roles in science and science education. For scientists, they provide a means for generating new knowledge or function as an accessible summary of scientific studies. In science education, on the other hand, they are accessible representations of abstract concepts, and are also organizational frameworks…

  19. Linking Research to Policy, Practice, and Education: Lessons Learned, Tasks Ahead. Program Abstracts. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (53rd, Washington, DC, November 17-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerontologist, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains abstracts from the 53rd annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. The abstracts are arranged numerically by the session number in which they appear. Several abstracts are listed under each of the 388 sessions. Although the sessions are not limited to one topic, the dominant theme is education concerning all…

  20. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    PubMed Central

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  1. Understanding Vegetation Response To Climate Variability From Space: The Scientific Objectives< The Approach and The Concept of The Spectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Rast, M.; Baret, F.; Mauser, W.; Miller, J.; Schaepman, M.; Schimel, D.; Verstraete, M.

    The response of vegetation to climate variability is a major scientific question. The monitoring of the carbon stock in terrestrial environments, as well as the improved understanding of the surface-atmosphere interactions controlling the exchange of mat- ter, energy and momentum, is of immediate interest for an improved assessment of the various components of the global carbon cycle. Studies of the Earth System processes at the global scale rely on models that require an advanced understanding and proper characterization of processes at smaller scales. The goal of the SPECTRA mission is to improve the description of those processes by means of better constraints on and parameterizations of the associated models. Many vegetation properties are related to features of reflectance spectra in the region 400 nm U 2500 nm. Detailed observa- tions of spectral reflectance reveal subtle features related to biochemical components of leaves such as chlorophyll and water. The architecture of vegetation canopies de- termines complex changes of observed reflectance spectra with view and illumination angle. Quantitative analysis of reflectance spectra requires, therefore, an accurate char- acterization of the anisotropy of reflected radiance. This can be achieved with nearly U simultaneous observations at different view angles. Exchange of energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important mechanism determining the response of vegetation to climate variability. This requires measurements of the component tem- perature of foliage and soil. The prime objective of SPECTRA is to determine the amount, assess the conditions and understand the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate variability and its role in the coupled cycles of energy, water and carbon. The amount and state of vegetation will be determined by the combination of observed vegetation properties and data assimilation. Specifically, the mission will character- ize the amount and state of vegetation

  2. Understanding vegetation response to climate variability from space: the scientific objectives, the approach and the concept of the SPECTRA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.

    2002-06-01

    The response of vegetation to climate variability is a major scientific question. The monitoring of the carbon stock in terrestrial environments, as well as the improved understanding of the surface-atmosphere interactions controlling the exchange of matter, energy and momentum, is of immediate interest for an improved assessment of the various components of the global carbon cycle. Studies of the Earth System processes at the global scale rely on models that require an advanced understanding and proper characterization of processes at smaller scales. The goal of the SPECTRA mission is to improve the description of those processes by means of better constraints on and parameterizations of the associated models. Many vegetation properties are related to features of reflectance spectra in the region 400 nm - 2500 nm. Detailed observations of spectral reflectance reveal subtle features related to biochemical components of leaves such as chlorophyll and water. The architecture of vegetation canopies determines complex changes of observed reflectance spectra with view and illumination angle. Quantitative analysis of reflectance spectra requires, therefore, an accurate characterization of the anisotropy of reflected radiance. This can be achieved with nearly simultaneous observations at different view angles. Exchange of energy between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important mechanism determining the response of vegetation to climate variability. This requires measurements of the component temperature of foliage and soil. The prime objective of SPECTRA is to determine the amount, assess the conditions and understand the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate variability and its role in the coupled cycles of energy, water and carbon. The amount and state of vegetation will be determined by the combination of observed vegetation properties and data assimilation. Specifically, the mission will characterize the amount and state of vegetation with observations

  3. The Relationships Among Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning Science, and Motivation of Learning Science: A study of Taiwan high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling technique was utilized to reveal that the students' absolutist SEBs led to reproduced COLS (i.e. learning science as memorizing, preparing for tests, calculating, and practicing) while sophisticated SEBs were related to constructive COLS (i.e. learning science as increase of knowledge, applying, and attaining understanding). The students' reproduced COLS were also negatively associated with surface motive of learning science, whereas the constructive COLS were positively correlated with students' deep motive of learning science. Finally, this study found that students who viewed scientific knowledge as uncertain (advanced epistemic belief) tended to possess a surface motive of learning science. This finding implies that the implementation of standardized tests diminishes Taiwanese high school students' curiosity and interest in engaging deeply in science learning.

  4. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  5. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  6. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  7. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  8. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  9. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  10. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  11. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  12. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  13. E-Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    Not all demonstrations involve using exciting visual displays of one or a series of scientific principles. Demonstrations can be as simple as showing the interrelationship between scientific concepts or principles using concept maps. Concepts maps are tools that help people conceptualize and remember a conglomeration of facts making up complex…

  14. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  15. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: The Influence of Methods of Questioning and Analysis on the Interpretation of Children's Conceptions of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their knowledge lacks…

  16. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  17. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  18. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  19. Developing the Critical Thinking Skills of Astrobiology Students through Creative and Scientific Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Judith D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. Key Words: Scientific inquiry—Critical thinking—Curriculum development—Astrobiology—Microbialites. Astrobiology 15, 89–99. PMID:25474292

  20. STARPROBE: Scientific rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H. (Editor); Randolph, J. E. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The scientific rationale and instrumentation problems in the areas of solar internal dynamics and relativity, solar plasma and particle dynamics, and solar atmosphere structure were studied. Current STARPROBE mission and system design concepts are summarized.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  15. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  16. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  17. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  18. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  19. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  1. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  2. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  3. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  5. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  6. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  7. Definition and Formulation of Scientific Prediction and Its Role in Inquiry-Based Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The formulation of a scientific prediction by students in college-level laboratories is proposed. This activity will develop the students' ability to apply abstract concepts via deductive reasoning. For instances in which a hypothesis will be tested by an experiment, students should develop a prediction that states what sort of experimental…

  8. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  9. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  10. Concepts in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  13. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  14. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  15. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  16. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  17. An Inquiry-Based Practical for a Large, Foundation-Level Undergraduate Laboratory that Enhances Student Understanding of Basic Cellular Concepts and Scientific Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugarcic, A.; Zimbardi, K.; Macaranas, J.; Thorn, P.

    2012-01-01

    Student-centered education involving research experiences or inquiry have been shown to help undergraduate students understand, and become excited about, the process of scientific investigation. These benefits are particularly important for students in the early stages of their degree (Report and Kenny,…

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  1. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  2. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems. PMID:27113732

  3. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  4. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  5. Types of Concepts in Geoscience Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.

    2006-05-01

    Ontologies are increasingly viewed as a key enabler of scientific research in cyber-infrastructures. They provide a way of digitally representing the meaning of concepts embedded in the theories and models of geoscience, enabling such representations to be compared and contrasted computationally. This facilitates the discovery, integration and communication of digitally accessible geoscience resources, and potentially helps geoscientists attain new knowledge. As ontologies are typically built to closely reflect some aspect or viewpoint of a domain, recognizing significant ontological patterns within the domain should thus lead to more useful and robust ontologies. A key idea then motivating this work is the notion that geoscience concepts possess an ontological pattern that helps not only structure them, but also aids ontology development in disciplines where concepts are similarly abstracted from geospatial regions, such as in ecology, soil science, etc. Proposed is an ontology structure in which six basic concept types are identified, defined, and organized in increasing levels of abstraction, including a level for general concepts (e.g. 'granite') and a level for concepts specific to a geospace-time region (e.g. 'granites of Ireland'). Discussed will be the six concept types, the proposed structure that organizes them, and several examples from geoscience. Also mentioned will be the significant implementation challenges faced but not addressed by the proposed structure. In general, the proposal prioritizes conceptual granularity over its engineering deficits, but this prioritization remains to be tested in serious applications.

  6. A quantitative empirical analysis of the abstract/concrete distinction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts. Second, we test recent hypotheses that abstract concepts are organized according to association, whereas concrete concepts are organized according to (semantic) similarity. Third, we present evidence suggesting that concrete representations are more strongly feature-based than abstract concepts. We argue that degree of feature-based structure may fundamentally determine concreteness, and we discuss implications for cognitive and computational models of meaning. PMID:23941240

  7. The Importance of History and Philosophy of Science in Correcting Distorted Views of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole" Concepts in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Kira; Furio-Mas, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of historical facts can help teachers and students to correctly appreciate a variety of scientific theories. It is important to be aware of the evolution of the basic concepts, particularly the ones our students find very abstract and therefore difficult to understand. Historical knowledge of chemical concepts will allow us to…

  8. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  9. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  10. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  12. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  13. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  14. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  15. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  16. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  17. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  19. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  20. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  1. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  2. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  3. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  4. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  5. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  6. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  7. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  8. On Teaching Abstraction in Computer Science to Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a key concept in CS, one of the most fundamental ideas underlying CS and its practice. However, teaching this soft concept to novices is a very difficult task, as discussed by many CSE experts. This paper discusses this issue, and suggests a general framework for teaching abstraction in CS to novices, a framework that would fit into…

  9. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  10. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  11. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  12. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  13. Conceptual Resources for Constructing the Concepts of Electricity: The Role of Models, Analogies and Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; de Trafford, Tom; Quail, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The topic of electricity offers considerable challenge for the teacher hoping to provide students with an insight into scientific ways of thinking about circuits. The concepts used to make sense of electric circuits are abstract and students are expected to develop conceptual models of the relationship between non-observable qualities (current,…

  14. Managing Student Conceptions about Evolution Using the Integration of Multiliteracies in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jenni-Lea

    2009-01-01

    Educators are increasingly looking to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) as a means of enhancing student learning. The New Life Sciences (NLS) is a domain where complex and often abstract concepts must be communicated from a scientific perspective and understood by the student in terms of their underlying implications. This…

  15. Interactive Explanations: The Functional Role of Gestural and Bodily Action for Explaining and Learning Scientific Concepts in Face-to-Face Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopelitis, Stephanie A.

    As human beings, we live in, live with, and live through our bodies. And because of this it is no wonder that our hands and bodies are in motion as we interact with others in our world. Hands and body move as we give directions to another, anticipate which way to turn the screwdriver, and direct our friend to come sit next to us. Gestures, indeed, fill our everyday lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional role of the body in the parts of our lives where we teach and learn with another. This project is an investigation into, what I call, "interactive explanations". I explore how the hands and body work toward the joint achievement of explanation and learning in face-to-face arrangements. The study aims to uncover how the body participates in teaching and learning in and across events as it slides between the multiple, interdependent roles of (1) a communicative entity, (2) a tool for thinking, and (3) a resource to shape interaction. Understanding gestures functional roles as flexible and diverse better explains how the body participates in teaching and learning interactions. The study further aims to show that these roles and functions are dynamic and changeable based on the interests, goals and contingencies of participants' changing roles and aims in interactions, and within and across events. I employed the methodology of comparative microanalysis of pairs of videotaped conversations in which, first, experts in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) explained concepts to non-experts, and second, these non-experts re-explained the concept to other non-experts. The principle finding is that people strategically, creatively and collaboratively employ the hands and body as vital and flexible resources for the joint achievement of explanation and understanding. Findings further show that gestures used to explain complex STEM concepts travel across time with the non-expert into re-explanations of the concept. My

  16. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  18. 'Why Didn't He Just Paint it Right?' or Teaching Children About Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marilyn; Arnow, Mike

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how elementary school children perceive abstract art and describes activities used to increase their appreciation of abstract art. Students draw dinosaurs and discuss the variations in their drawings. Two movement activities which reinforce concepts about abstraction are described. (AM)

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  20. MUNICIPAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ABSTRACTS: NOVEMBER 1977-OCTOBER 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Municipal Technology Bulletin informs researchers, consultants, engineers, and government officials of current developments described in more than 4000 English and non-English language scientific and technical publications. Topics covered in the Bulletin and in the abstracts ...

  1. Spaces of Abstract Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Länger, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    We generalize the concept of a space of numerical events in such a way that this generalization corresponds to arbitrary orthomodular posets whereas spaces of numerical events correspond to orthomodular posets having a full set of states. Moreover, we show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between orthomodular posets and certain posets with sectionally antitone involutions. Finally, we characterize orthomodular lattices among orthomodular posets.

  2. Teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: Analyzing the impact of a teacher enhancement program in changing attitudes and perceptions of science and scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govett, Aimee Lee

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a residential science research experience in changing participants' attitudes and understanding of the nature of science and their view of themselves as science researchers. Data from interviews, journal writings, classroom observations and two pre-post instruments were used in the evaluation plan. As participants of this study, 16 inservice teachers (K--16) attended a two-week residential institute at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. The format of the institute featured a scientific research experience designed to arm its participants with the skills needed to model their classroom teaching after scientific research. The program included lessons on the fundamentals of radio astronomy, science talks and interactions with practicing scientists, in-depth tours of the NRAO facilities, and pedagogical instruction for implementing research in the classroom. The WVU College of Education staff and the NRAO staff stressed the importance of the nature of the research experience offered to these teachers. In the Education Sessions the WVU science education staff guided participants through the steps required to turn their experience around, in order to develop student research projects for their classrooms. The results from the Research Self Assessment instrument show significant gains for all participants in being more comfortable doing research. For the Nature of Science and Science Teaching instrument there were only three items that showed significant gains for all participants both in understanding the nature of science and in their views on implementing the Green Bank constructivist learning philosophy. The women, especially the elementary teacher group, showed the greatest change in their understanding of the nature of science as reflected in the interviews as well as in their personal journals. The seven men, who were all in the secondary field, made no significant

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  5. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    PubMed

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I

    2007-05-01

    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments. PMID:17547345

  6. From abstract to acclaim.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, T K

    1996-06-01

    Increasing specialisation in the health-care sector requires nurses to be proficient communicators both within their own profession and among other health-care disciplines. Although the work environment provides numerous opportunities for oral communication, traditionally we have been taught written communication. Like scientific writing, an oral presentation demands a sense of planning, audience awareness and attention to detail. Yet, because of the different medium, other important factors must also be considered. While a reader may select passages or reread a report, the audience must listen in a linear way. Your voice and body, aided by visual displays, will have a different effect on the listener than the printed pages have on the reader. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on both the content and the method of presentation if the audience is to be left feeling inspired. This article outlines the planning of a presentation, development of visual aids and delivery of a polished performance. PMID:8868815

  7. Developing focused wellness programs: using concept analysis to increase business value.

    PubMed

    Byczek, Lance; Kalina, Christine M; Levin, Pamela F

    2003-09-01

    Concept analysis is a useful tool in providing clarity to an abstract idea as well as an objective basis for developing wellness program products, goals, and outcomes. To plan for and develop successful wellness programs, it is critical for occupational health nurses to clearly understand a program concept as applied to a particular community or population. Occupational health nurses can use the outcome measures resulting from the concept analysis process to help demonstrate the business value of their wellness programs. This concept analysis demonstrates a predominance of the performance related attributes of fitness in the scientific literature. PMID:14510034

  8. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  9. Anhedonia: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nancy; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Anhedonia presents itself in a myriad of disease processes. To further develop our understanding of anhedonia and effective ways to manage it, the concept requires clear boundaries. This paper critically examined the current scientific literature and conducted a concept analysis of anhedonia to provide a more accurate and lucid understanding the concept. As part of the concept analysis, this paper also provides model, borderline, related, and contrary examples of anhedonia. PMID:23706888

  10. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  11. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  12. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  13. The Earth Exploration Toolbook and DLESE Data Services Workshops: Facilitating the Use of Geoscience Data to Convey Scientific Concepts to Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.; McAuliffe, C.; Domenico, B.; Taber, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Although Earth science data and tools are officially freely available to the public, specific data are generally difficult to find, and are often provided in formats that are difficult to use. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) and DLESE (Digital Library for Earth Systems Education) Data Services (http://www.dlese.org/cms/dataservices/) projects are working to facilitate the use of these data and analysis tools by teachers and students, and can serve as mechanisms, facilitated by eGY, for extending the reach of data resulting from the various I*Y scientific efforts. The EET gives educators and students an easy way to learn how to use Earth science data and data analysis tools for learning. Modules (called chapters) in the EET provide step-by-step instructions for accessing and analyzing Earth science datasets within the context of compelling case studies. Each chapter also provides pedagogical information to help the teacher use the data with their students. To introduce datasets and analysis tools to teachers, and to encourage them to use them with their students, the EET team provides telecon-online teacher professional development workshops. During these workshops teachers are guided through the use of a specific EET chapter. When a workshop is complete, participants have the software and data they have worked with installed and available on their own computers. We have run 17 of these workshops reaching over 230 teachers. New EET chapters can be developed through the use of an EET chapter template. The template provides a mechanism by which those outside the project can make their datasets and data analysis tools more accessible to teachers and students, and assures that new chapters are consistent with the EET format and that users have access to the support they need. The development of new EET chapters is facilitated through the DLESE Data Services Workshops. During these workshops data providers, tool developers, scientists

  14. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2009-09-01

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  15. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL

    2008-07-08

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  16. Taxonomic abstraction in psychobiology.

    PubMed

    Evans, S H; Chafetz, M D; Gage, F H

    1984-10-01

    If a body of knowledge in a scientific discipline is to be extended beyond empirical observation and into the realm of laws and principles, one of the fundamental requirements is a taxonomy which supports the systematic integration of observations. Psychobiology benefits from taxonomies provided by biology and chemistry, which include not only object oriented taxonomies such as species or chemical elements, but also process oriented taxonomies, such as oxidation, metabolism, phototaxis, or predation. Psychobiology has yet to provide equivalent taxonomies for its behavioral observations, although the common use of terms such as fear, anger, arousal, stress, and memory might lead one to suppose that these are based on a well established taxonomy of behavioral measures. In this report the logical and quantitative requirements for treating behavioral measures in terms of taxonomic classes are reviewed. A sample of studies representing recent research in psychobiology was examined to assess interest in such a taxonomy and to identify elements of current practice which might contribute to its development. Recent practice displays some evidence of interest in behavioral classes, in choice of language, and in frequent use of multiple dependent measures. Multivariate methods, which might elicit from such data evidence contributing to the development of a taxonomy, are rarely used. Recommendations are given on some appropriate analytic methods for data resulting from current practice and for new exploratory paradigms which could aim directly at the establishment of taxonomic classes for behaviors. PMID:6512516

  17. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  18. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  19. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  1. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  2. Avibase – a database system for managing and organizing taxonomic concepts

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Denis; Vaidya, Gaurav; Guralnick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scientific names of biological entities offer an imperfect resolution of the concepts that they are intended to represent. Often they are labels applied to entities ranging from entire populations to individual specimens representing those populations, even though such names only unambiguously identify the type specimen to which they were originally attached. Thus the real-life referents of names are constantly changing as biological circumscriptions are redefined and thereby alter the sets of individuals bearing those names. This problem is compounded by other characteristics of names that make them ambiguous identifiers of biological concepts, including emendations, homonymy and synonymy. Taxonomic concepts have been proposed as a way to address issues related to scientific names, but they have yet to receive broad recognition or implementation. Some efforts have been made towards building systems that address these issues by cataloguing and organizing taxonomic concepts, but most are still in conceptual or proof-of-concept stage. We present the on-line database Avibase as one possible approach to organizing taxonomic concepts. Avibase has been successfully used to describe and organize 844,000 species-level and 705,000 subspecies-level taxonomic concepts across every major bird taxonomic checklist of the last 125 years. The use of taxonomic concepts in place of scientific names, coupled with efficient resolution services, is a major step toward addressing some of the main deficiencies in the current practices of scientific name dissemination and use. PMID:25061375

  3. Concepts in Activities and Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue make valuable contributions toward a scientific understanding of concepts that is broader than the traditional view that has focused on categorizing by individuals. I propose considering concepts for categorization as a special case of concepts. At their clearest, they can be referred to as "formal concepts," or…

  4. Scientific Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of fraud in the presentation of results of scientific research cites cases looks at variations in the degree of misrepresentation, kinds and intents of fraud, attention given by public agencies (National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Public Health Service), and differences between scientific and civil fraud. (MSE)

  5. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  6. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  7. Abstracted Workow Framework with a Structure from Motion Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Adam J.

    point cloud through patch based techniques or densification algorithms such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM). The point cloud can be visualized or exploited by both humans and automated techniques. In some cases the point cloud is "draped" with original imagery in order to enhance the 3D model for a human viewer. The SfM workflow can be implemented in the abstracted framework, making it easily leverageable and extensible by multiple users. Like many processes in scientific and engineering domains, the workflow described for SfM is complex and requires many disparate components to form a functional system, often utilizing algorithms implemented by many users in different languages / environments and without knowledge of how the component fits into the larger system. In practice, this generally leads to issues interfacing the components, building the software for desired platforms, understanding its concept of operations, and how it can be manipulated in order to fit the desired function for a particular application. In addition, other scientists and engineers instinctively wish to analyze the performance of the system, establish new algorithms, optimize existing processes, and establish new functionality based on current research. This requires a framework whereby new components can be easily plugged in without affecting the current implemented functionality. The need for a universal programming environment establishes the motivation for the development of the abstracted workflow framework. This software implementation, named Catena, provides base classes from which new components must derive in order to operate within the framework. The derivation mandates requirements be satisfied in order to provide a complete implementation. Additionally, the developer must provide documentation of the component in terms of its overall function and inputs. The interface input and output values corresponding to the component must be defined in terms of their respective data types, and

  8. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet K.

    2014-01-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and non-peer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, we review the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, we describe the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, we present a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  9. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet K

    2014-12-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and nonpeer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, the author reviews the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, the author describes the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, the author presents a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  10. Concept Mapping: A Critical Thinking Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Charles M.; Zha, Shenghua

    2013-01-01

    Concept mapping, graphically depicting the structure of abstract concepts, is based on the observation that pictures and line drawings are often more easily comprehended than the words that represent an abstract concept. The efficacy of concept mapping for facilitating critical thinking was assessed in four sections of an introductory psychology…

  11. Achievement as a Function of Abstractness and Cognitive Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    A multiple choice achievement test was constructed in which both cognitive level and degree of abstractness were controlled. Subjects were 75 students from a major university in the Southwest. A group of 13 judges, also university students, classified the concepts for degree of abstractness. Results indicated that both cognitive level and degree…

  12. Concrete and Abstract Visualizations in History Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangsma, Maaike E.; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks with abstract and/or concrete visualizations on the…

  13. The Acquisition of Abstract Words by Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Young infants' learning of words for abstract concepts like "all gone" and "eat," in contrast to their learning of more concrete words like "apple" and "shoe," may follow a relatively protracted developmental course. We examined whether infants know such abstract words. Parents named one of two events shown in side-by-side videos while their…

  14. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  15. Scientific Globish versus scientific English.

    PubMed

    Tychinin, Dmitry N; Kamnev, Alexander A

    2013-10-01

    The proposed adoption of 'scientific Globish' as a simplified language standard for scholarly communication may appeal to authors who have difficulty with English proficiency. However, Globish might not justify the hopes being pinned on it and might open the door to further deterioration of the quality of English-language scientific writing. PMID:23928006

  16. A Developmental Study of Conceptual Tempo, Concept Learning, and Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliano, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    Shows that age or conceptual tempo are not related to the number of trials needed to reach the criteria for a learning task. Impulsive responders performed more poorly than groups of slow-inaccurate, fast-accurate, and reflective responders on the transfer of learning task. (RL)

  17. Sex, Culture, and Linguistic Relativity: Making Abstract Concepts Concrete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tracey

    2003-01-01

    Describes an exercise that combines outlined strategies to help students master the abstruse power of the linguistic relativity hypotheses in divining the relationship among language, thought, and culture in U.S. society. States the exercise accomplishes three important pedagogical tasks and that educator interaction with students motivates the…

  18. Integrated Data and Task Management for Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Valiev, Marat; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Palmer, B. J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2008-07-24

    Several emerging application areas require intelligent management of distributed data and tasks that encapsulate execution units for collection of processors or processor groups. This paper describes an integration of data and task parallelism to address the needs of such applications in context of the Global Array (GA) programming model. GA provides programming interfaces for managing shared arrays based on non-partitioned global address space programming model concepts. Compatibility with MPI enables the scientific programmer to benefit from performance and productivity advantages of these high level programming abstractions using standard programming languages and compilers.

  19. NGST NIRCam Scientific Program and Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Marcia J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Crampton, David; Doyon, Rene; Eisenstein, Daniel; Greene, Thomas P.; Hodapp, Klaus-Werner; Horner, Scott D.; Johnstone, Doug; Lesyna, Lawrence; Lilly, Simon; Meyer, Michael; Martin, Peter; McCarthy, Donald W., Jr.; Rieke, George H.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Stauffer, John; Trauger, John T.; Young, Erick T.

    2003-03-01

    The science program for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) relies heavily on a high performance nearinfrared imager. A design which supports the observations outlined in the Design Reference Mission (DRM) and which also supports enhanced searches for "first light" objects and planets has been developed. Key features of the design include use of refractive optics to minimize the volume and mass required, tunable filters for spectroscopic imaging, and redundant imagers for fail-safe wavefront sensing.

  20. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  1. Collaborations with Arne on Cataclysmic Variables (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, P.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The start of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2002 marked the beginning of a 14-year-long collaboration with Arne on the photometry of cataclysmic variables. Starting with the USNO Flagstaff station, and continuing with AAVSOnet, Arne and the AAVSO members contributed ground based followup of SDSS candidate CVs to determine their orbital periods and characteristics. In addition, many scientific studies using spacecraft observations with HST, XMM, and GALEX were enabled and improved due to their contemporaneous ground-based photometry. Some of the primary results in the 39 publications resulting from this long term collaboration will be summarized.

  2. Abstracting event-based control models for high autonomy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Cheng-Jye; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1993-01-01

    A high autonomy system needs many models on which to base control, management, design, and other interventions. These models differ in level of abstraction and in formalism. Concepts and tools are needed to organize the models into a coherent whole. The paper deals with the abstraction processes for systematic derivation of related models for use in event-based control. The multifaceted modeling methodology is briefly reviewed. The morphism concepts needed for application to model abstraction are described. A theory for supporting the construction of DEVS models needed for event-based control is then presented. An implemented morphism on the basis of this theory is also described.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  4. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  5. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  6. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  7. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  8. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  9. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  10. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  11. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  12. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  13. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  14. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  15. Research Methodologies in Science Education - Assessing Students' Alternative Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues related to students' alternative conceptions, how these conceptions affect student learning, identification of these conceptions, and teaching methods able to transform students' conceptions into scientific understanding. Includes 20 references. (YDS)

  16. Software Security - The Dangers of Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollmann, Dieter

    Software insecurity can be explained as a potpourri of hacking methods, ranging from the familiar, e.g. buffer overruns, to the exotic, e.g. code insertion with Chinese characters. From such an angle software security would just be a collection of specific countermeasures. We will observe a common principle that can guide a structured presentation of software security and give guidance for future research directions: There exists a discrepancy between the abstract programming concepts used by software developers and their concrete implementation on the given execution platform. In support of this thesis, five case studies will be discussed, viz characters, integers, variables, atomic transactions, and double linked lists.

  17. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  18. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  19. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  20. Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Scientific inquiry reflects how scientists come to understand the natural world, and it is at the heart of how students learn. From a very early age, children interact with their environment, ask questions, and seek ways to answer those questions. Understanding science content is significantly enhanced when ideas are anchored to inquiry…

  1. [Scientific presentation].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Giuliano

    2002-01-01

    To give a correct and effective scientific presentation, is an arduous task that asks for close examination of basic techniques of communication. This article proposes indications and suggestions to help public speakers to be communicators, to use visual aids and it explains how to capture the audience attention. PMID:12599721

  2. Encoding of Physics Concepts: Concreteness and Presentation Modality Reflected by Human Brain Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class. PMID:22848602

  3. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Abstracted Workow Framework with a Structure from Motion Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Adam J.

    point cloud through patch based techniques or densification algorithms such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM). The point cloud can be visualized or exploited by both humans and automated techniques. In some cases the point cloud is "draped" with original imagery in order to enhance the 3D model for a human viewer. The SfM workflow can be implemented in the abstracted framework, making it easily leverageable and extensible by multiple users. Like many processes in scientific and engineering domains, the workflow described for SfM is complex and requires many disparate components to form a functional system, often utilizing algorithms implemented by many users in different languages / environments and without knowledge of how the component fits into the larger system. In practice, this generally leads to issues interfacing the components, building the software for desired platforms, understanding its concept of operations, and how it can be manipulated in order to fit the desired function for a particular application. In addition, other scientists and engineers instinctively wish to analyze the performance of the system, establish new algorithms, optimize existing processes, and establish new functionality based on current research. This requires a framework whereby new components can be easily plugged in without affecting the current implemented functionality. The need for a universal programming environment establishes the motivation for the development of the abstracted workflow framework. This software implementation, named Catena, provides base classes from which new components must derive in order to operate within the framework. The derivation mandates requirements be satisfied in order to provide a complete implementation. Additionally, the developer must provide documentation of the component in terms of its overall function and inputs. The interface input and output values corresponding to the component must be defined in terms of their respective data types, and

  5. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  6. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Burlamaque-Neto, A.C.; Santos, G.R.; Lisbôa, L.M.; Goldim, J.R.; Machado, C.L.B.; Matte, U.; Giugliani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427

  7. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  8. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  9. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  10. Concepts in Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  11. Concept of Quasicrystalline Metal Alloys Becoming Clearer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawis, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of a public opinion survey aimed at measuring the general public's understanding of scientific concepts, and acceptance of scientific paradigms. Assessment and analysis by science and society experts is provided. (JM)

  12. Abstracts of Presentations--Seventh Annual 4S Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    4S - Society for Social Studies of Science, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents abstracts of papers for the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Society for the Social Studies of Science. Topics include, among others, rhetoric of a scientific controversy; recombinant DNA; science and social justice; patent citation analysis; national need and peer-review process; and scientism, romanticism, and social realist images of…

  13. Is risk analysis scientific?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). PMID:24919396

  14. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  15. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-10-01

    Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

  16. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  17. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  18. (abstract) Towards Ancillary Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SPICE information system for archiving, distributing, and accessing spacecraft navigation, orientation, and other ancillary data is described. A proposal is made for the further evolution of this concept to an internationally useful standard, to be.

  19. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  20. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  1. Scientific Services on the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David; Joshi, Karuna P.; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milt; Yesha, Yaacov; Nguyen, Phuong

    Scientific Computing was one of the first every applications for parallel and distributed computation. To this date, scientific applications remain some of the most compute intensive, and have inspired creation of petaflop compute infrastructure such as the Oak Ridge Jaguar and Los Alamos RoadRunner. Large dedicated hardware infrastructure has become both a blessing and a curse to the scientific community. Scientists are interested in cloud computing for much the same reason as businesses and other professionals. The hardware is provided, maintained, and administrated by a third party. Software abstraction and virtualization provide reliability, and fault tolerance. Graduated fees allow for multi-scale prototyping and execution. Cloud computing resources are only a few clicks away, and by far the easiest high performance distributed platform to gain access to. There may still be dedicated infrastructure for ultra-scale science, but the cloud can easily play a major part of the scientific computing initiative.

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  3. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  4. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  5. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  6. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  7. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  8. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  9. Scientific customer needs - NASA user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Some requirements for scientific users of the Space Station are considered. The use of testbeds to evaluate design concepts for information systems, and for interfacing between designers and builders of systems is examined. The need for an information system that provides an effective interaction between ground-based users and their space-based equipment is discussed.

  10. Recommendations for improving the home office project licence abstracts.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Michelle

    2006-05-01

    The Freedom of Information Act 2000 prompted the Government to evaluate how public understanding about the use of animals in scientific research can be improved and how animal experimentation is regulated within the UK. This resulted in the publication of anonymous project licence abstracts. Here, the abstracts published between December 2004 and October 2005 have been evaluated, by using a scoring system which takes into account their content and format, in order to assess whether they provide information that will facilitate the increased implementation of reduction, refinement and replacement strategies. The potential impact of freely-available Home Office project licence abstracts on public attitudes to animal testing and on the quality of animal-based research, is also discussed. Although some abstracts scored well, in general, the abstracts were found to be severely lacking in detail about the welfare of experimental animals. Thus, the abstracts tend to present a distorted picture of animal-based research. Many abstracts lack the details which would reveal how the licensing criteria had been met. It is concluded that, in their current form, the project abstracts are not sufficiently informative. A number of recommendations are made, which address this problem. PMID:16704294

  11. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  12. Scientific Toy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Tensegritoy, inspired by the tensegrity concepts of R. Buckminster Fuller, is an erector set like toy designed to give students an understanding of structural stability. It is used by children, architects, engineers, and teachers. The manufacturer, Tensegrity Systems Corporation, also offers a collapsible point of purchase display which incorporates technology developed for space station trusses described in "NASA Tech Briefs." The tech brief described deployable trusses that can be collapsed into small packages for space shuttle transport, then unfolded in space. As a result, the display occupies a minimum amount of floor space, freight cost savings are substantial and assembly can be completed quickly.

  13. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  14. Elementary pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding of dissolving: a Vygotskian concept development perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Pamela; Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2015-09-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the nature and the interrelatedness of pre-service teachers' misconceptions and scientific concepts for explaining dissolving before, during, and after a 5E learning cycle lesson on dissolving, the intervention. Sample, design, and methods: Guided by Vygotsky's theory of concept development, the study focused specifically on the spontaneous, and spontaneous pseudo-concepts held by the 61 elementary pre-service teachers during a 15-week science methods course. Data included concept maps, interview transcripts, written artifacts, drawings, and narratives, and were thematically analyzed to classify concepts and interrelatedness. Results: Results of the study showed that spontaneous pseudo-concepts (1) dominated pre-service teachers' understandings about dissolving throughout the study, and (2) were simply associated with scientific concepts during and after the intervention. Conclusion: Collectively, the results indicated that the pre-service teachers' did not acquire a unified system of knowledge about dissolving that could be characterized as abstract, generalizable, and hierarchical. Implications include the need for (1) familiarity with pre-service teachers' prior knowledge about science content; (2) a variety of formative assessments to assess their misconceptions; (3) emphasizing the importance of dialectical method for concept development during instruction; and (4) skillful content instructors.

  15. "Clicking through" or Learning Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidwell, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The author has developed an innovative science website resource that also shows how engineers use science. As well as addressing scientific facts and concepts, the resource also engages children in the process of scientific enquiry, using graph tools and data interpretation. Part of the resource helps children to understand that much of what they…

  16. Effect of the Kinesthetic Conflict on Promoting Scientific Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druyan, Sara

    1997-01-01

    Presents three studies that demonstrate the efficiency of the kinesthetic conflict in promoting the understanding of three scientific concepts among children aged 5-12. Results support Piaget's theory which determines the origins of scientific thinking. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  17. The window on psychology's literature: a history of Psychological Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Vandenbos, Gary R

    2006-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a decade after G. Stanley Hall opened America's first psychology laboratory. The Index was useful but was only a listing of titles. More information was needed, which led to the development of a journal of abstracts, first published in 1927. This article traces the history of Psychological Abstracts from its origins in the Index to the evolution of the American Psychological Association's electronic information system known as PsycINFO, of which Psychological Abstracts has become an outmoded part. Nevertheless, for most of its 80 years, Psychological Abstracts was psychology's window on the world of research. PMID:17154720

  18. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  19. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  20. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  1. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  2. Integration of Heterogeneous Bibliographic Information through Data Abstractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breazeal, Juliette Ow

    This study examines the integration of heterogeneous bibliographic information resources from geographically distributed locations in an automated, unified, and controlled way using abstract data types called "classes" through the Message-Object Model defined in Smalltalk-80 software. The concept of achieving data consistency by developing classes…

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of Contextual Acquisition of Concrete and Abstract Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestres-Misse, Anna; Munte, Thomas F.; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of a novel word can be acquired by extracting it from linguistic context. Here we simulated word learning of new words associated to concrete and abstract concepts in a variant of the human simulation paradigm that provided linguistic context information in order to characterize the brain systems involved. Native speakers of Spanish…

  4. The Representation of Abstract Words: Why Emotion Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the representation and processing of concrete concepts, knowledge of what abstract semantics might be is severely limited. In this article we first address the adequacy of the 2 dominant accounts (dual coding theory and the context availability model) put forward in order to explain representation and processing…

  5. Towards Data Abstraction in Networked Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of networked information retrieval and the interoperability of heterogeneous information-retrieval systems shows how differences concerning search operators and database schemas can be handled by applying data-abstraction concepts in combination with uncertain inference. Highlights include data types, data independence, schema…

  6. Cultural complexities and scientific development.

    PubMed

    Branco, Angela Uchoa

    2007-03-01

    Methodological issues in psychology consist of a key aspect for the scientific development of the discipline. In this paper I elaborate on the reasons why I partially agree with Toomela's ideas, and why I also disagree with some of his arguments. The convergence refers to the need for a radical change concerning the widespread use of methodologies that has been typical of mainstream psychology, which still flavors too positivist and pseudo-quantitative, overlooking the central relevance of theory for scientific development. The divergence resides in Toomela's insistence to oppose what he designates as "the North American" to "the German-Austrian" scientific thinking: from my perspective, the misuse of cultural categories can only lead to misguided and unconstructive dichotomies that entails a naive concept of culture, and do not contribute to scientific development. From a contemporary systemic approach, complex issues deserve more sophisticated analysis. PMID:17992868

  7. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  8. Selective dissemination and indexing of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J H

    1971-07-23

    Selective dissemination of information to individuals provides a new and promising method for keeping abreast of current scientific information. Since SDI services are directed to the information needs of each individual, they are a significant step beyond grouporiented services and products, which require considerable expenditure of effort by each user as he sorts useful information from trash. However, SDI systems do require a high degree of precision in matching scientists against documents. They must operate more efficiently and economically than many current systems which occasionally provide a useful item of information to users. To meet these stringent requirements for quality, precision, efficiency, and economy, more research must be devoted to comparing and improving indexing methods, which are the basic component of all information storage and retrieval systems. It is incredible that so much money has been spent on the development and operation of scientific information systems before basic data on the comparative performance of various indexing methods have been gathered, analyzed, and confirmed by multiple investigators. The design of an effective information system would seem to require this type of basic knowledge, just as basic properties of alternative materials must be known before an engineer can design a building, bridge, or factory. Yet, except for the few studies mentioned in the previous section, research on indexing methods has been greatly neglected. Bourne's comment about studies of indexing languages is still an appropriate description of the situation: "In almost all the experimental reports, the investigator worked with an indexing language different than that of other experimenters. Consequently, no one has ever had his test results verified, or expanded, or made more precise by another experimenter" (47). Most existing information systems are based on keyword indexing, with concepts broken into isolated terms during input operations

  9. The Power of Concept Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The ability to discover, explore, describe and mathematise relationships between different concepts is at the heart of scientific work of professional mathematicians and scientists. At school level, however, helping students to link, differentiate or investigate the nature of relationships between mathematics concepts remains in the shadow of…

  10. Scientific Inquiry: A Model for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1984-01-01

    Explores scientific inquiry as philosophical and behavioral model for online search specialist and information retrieval process. Nature of scientific research is described and online analogs to research concepts of variable, hypothesis formulation and testing, operational definition, validity, reliability, assumption, and cyclical nature of…

  11. Structuring the Composition Process in Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Eira Wyn

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on students' ability to explain their ideas in writing who were able to demonstrate a high level of scientific concept understanding during discussion. Indicates that scaffolding the writing process both at the sentence level and the text level facilitates an improvement in the expression of scientific knowledge. (Contains 14 references.)…

  12. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  13. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    parallel components. While industrial component systems do not directly address scientific computing issues, we leverage existing industry technologies and design concepts whenever possible.

  14. A qualitative study of college students' conceptions of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Julie Marie

    This study explored two research questions: (1) What are college students' conceptions of river topics and (2) What are the emergent patterns between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity? A basic interpretive qualitative research design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 24 college students from an introductory geology class. In-depth interviews were conducted and a demographic questionnaire administered. Interview responses were analyzed using a modified version of constant comparative analysis. Between-gender patterns and between-ethnic group patterns of the type of conceptions held were investigated by calculating relative likelihood statistics. Four findings emerged. Finding 1: students held mostly scientific and incomplete scientific conceptions of the nine river topics covered in the study. Finding 2: students' conceptions were complex. In addition to scientific and alternative conceptions, students also held incomplete scientific, incomplete scientific-alternative, and scientific-alternative conceptions. Individual students held a range of conceptions across the river topics. For each topic, there was a range of conceptions held by students. Finding 3: students had more alternative conceptions for processes, causes, and difficult-to-observe features. Finding 4: patterns were observed between students' conceptions and their gender and ethnicity. Men held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did women. Women held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did men. White students held scientific, incomplete scientific, and scientific-alternative conceptions more frequently than did Hispanic students. Hispanic students held incomplete scientific-alternative and alternative conceptions more frequently than did White students.

  15. The use and limits of scientific names in biological informatics

    PubMed Central

    Remsen, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scientific names serve to label biodiversity information: information related to species. Names, and their underlying taxonomic definitions, however, are unstable and ambiguous. This negatively impacts the utility of names as identifiers and as effective indexing tools in biological informatics where names are commonly utilized for searching, retrieving and integrating information about species. Semiotics provides a general model for describing the relationship between taxon names and taxon concepts. It distinguishes syntactics, which governs relationships among names, from semantics, which represents the relations between those labels and the taxa to which they refer. In the semiotic context, changes in semantics (i.e., taxonomic circumscription) do not consistently result in a corresponding and reflective change in syntax. Further, when syntactic changes do occur, they may be in response to semantic changes or in response to syntactic rules. This lack of consistency in the cardinal relationship between names and taxa places limits on how scientific names may be used in biological informatics in initially anchoring, and in the subsequent retrieval and integration, of relevant biodiversity information. Precision and recall are two measures of relevance. In biological taxonomy, recall is negatively impacted by changes or ambiguity in syntax while precision is negatively impacted when there are changes or ambiguity in semantics. Because changes in syntax are not correlated with changes in semantics, scientific names may be used, singly or conflated into synonymous sets, to improve recall in pattern recognition or search and retrieval. Names cannot be used, however, to improve precision. This is because changes in syntax do not uniquely identify changes in circumscription. These observations place limits on the utility of scientific names within biological informatics applications that rely on names as identifiers for taxa. Taxonomic systems and services used

  16. Scientific Utopia: An agenda for improving scientific communication (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, B.

    2013-12-01

    The scientist's primary incentive is publication. In the present culture, open practices do not increase chances of publication, and they often require additional work. Practicing the abstract scientific values of openness and reproducibility thus requires behaviors in addition to those relevant for the primary, concrete rewards. When in conflict, concrete rewards are likely to dominate over abstract ones. As a consequence, the reward structure for scientists does not encourage openness and reproducibility. This can be changed by nudging incentives to align scientific practices with scientific values. Science will benefit by creating and connecting technologies that nudge incentives while supporting and improving the scientific workflow. For example, it should be as easy to search the research literature for my topic as it is to search the Internet to find hilarious videos of cats falling off of furniture. I will introduce the Center for Open Science (http://centerforopenscience.org/) and efforts to improve openness and reproducibility such as http://openscienceframework.org/. There will be no cats.

  17. (abstract) Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    A descope of the EOS program now requires that all EOS platforms after AM1 be launched on DELTA-class vehicles, which results in much smaller platforms (and payloads) than previously envisaged. A major part of the TES hardware design effort has therefore been redirected towards meeting this challenge. The development of the TES concept continues on a schedule to permit flight on the EOS CHEM platform in 2002, where it is planned to be accompanied by HIRDLS and MLS.

  18. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  19. The self-concept of chiropractic students as science students

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine the self-concepts of chiropractic students as science students and if any personal variable affect their self-concepts. Participants Students in their first trimester and eighth trimester at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic during the 1993 academic year (n=158). Methods Peterson-Yaakobi Q-Sort, National Assessment of Educational Progress, two-tailed T-test, one way analysis of variance and Spearman-rho correlation. Results The majority of students have positive self- concepts as science students and although there was a difference between the 2 trimesters, it was not significant. As a group they generally had less exposure to science compared to undergraduates from a selected science program. Variables of socio-economic status, undergraduate major, and highest completed level of education did not statistically affect their self-concept. Conclusion Chiropractic students had the self-concept that enables them to subscribe to the philosophical foundations of science and better engage in basic sciences and, later, science-based clinical research. Knowledge of this self- concept can be used in the development of a more rigorous basic science curricula and clinical research programs at chiropractic colleges with the ultimate goal of providing a more firm scientifically based foundation for the profession. PMID:19674649

  20. Comparing Natural and Abstract Categories: A Case Study from Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Beth

    1985-01-01

    Designed to determine whether abstract and concrete concepts are classified similarly, this study used three separate experiments to explore the vertical and horizontal dimensions used by computer scientists to categorize the common concepts of their field. It found that concrete concept categorization operates over a wider range than previously…

  1. The Scientific Community as Audience: Toward a Rhetorical Analysis of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overington, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of Polanyi, Ziman and Kuhn toward a conception of a scientific community and offers a rhetorical perspective on the construction of scientific knowledge. Outlines a scheme for analyzing scientific discourse and illustrates its application. (MH)

  2. Children "Scientists" Know the Reasons Why and They Are "Poets" Too. Non-Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Strategy Aimed at Improving the Learning of Scientific Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Biggeri, Annibale; Boschi, Filippo; Conti, Paola; Fiorentini, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the efficacy of a strategy for science learning acquisition based on contextual, metacognitive and socio-cultural perspectives, strongly linked to the paradigm of conceptual change. The teaching model we adopted is based on co-operation for the realization of scientific experiences, and included direct observation, pair…

  3. Adaptation and extension of the framework of reducing abstraction in the case of differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, Debasree

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no consensus in regard to a unique meaning for abstraction, there is a recognition of the existence of several theories of abstraction, and that the ability to abstract is imperative to learning and doing meaningful mathematics. The theory of reducing abstraction maps the abstract nature of mathematics to the nature of knowledge construction by offering three interpretations of how students reduce abstraction while learning mathematical concepts. We apply this framework to explain students' cognition processes as they construct the concept of solution to differential equations and related concepts during a semester long study. Additionally, we refine and extend the framework to elucidate various nuances of the interplay between mathematical structures and human thoughts.

  4. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  5. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  6. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  7. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  8. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  9. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 36 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) distancing in young children's stories; (2) the effects of verbal and visual elaborations on the learning of abstract concepts; (3) the effects of underlined…

  10. Scientific Basis of Auriculotherapy: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Using a modern scientific basis, this article examines clinical findings and experimentally reproducible data that demonstrate reliably the objective reality of the auriculotherapy procedures initiated by Paul Nogier, MD, of Lyon, France. Objective: The aims of this review are to: (1) identify the Chinese acupoints and all relevant related subjects; (2) offer a critical analysis of different auricle cartographies or ear maps; and (3) evaluate evidence for auriculotherapy with respect to the constant progress of our knowledge of nervous-system organization. Discussion: Acupuncture points have lower electrical impedance than nonacupoints. This was demonstrated by Niboyet and Terral, utilizing a sinusoidal current with the technical arrangements of different equivalent circuits made at Unit 103 of the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Montpellier, France. This work demonstrated that physical behavior associated with acupuncture corresponds to a specific histologic structure located within the dermis termed the neurovascular complex (NVC). The concept of using sham points for testing acupuncture needs to be criticized. A reproducible experimental model of analgesia has been produced using the hind limb of a rabbit; this model is a proven demonstration of the positive action of acupuncture on pain. Acupuncture analgesia is a technique that has been used effectively by Chinese researchers in the 1970s for surgical applications. The different ear maps may have to be significantly modified because of the paucity of scientific validation of most of the localizations of organs or functions and, particularly, of nervous structures. Increased knowledge about complex nervous interactions should facilitate formulation of some scientifically acceptable hypothesis to explain the action of auriculotherapy. Conclusions: More scientific research should be performed to improve the scientific credibility of auriculotherapy. PMID

  11. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  12. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  13. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  14. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2 (JULY 1980-NOVEMBER 1980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the twenty-third and final issue of Oil Pollution Abstracts, a basic reference guide to current scientific and technical literature relevant to terrestrial and aquatic oil pollution. This issue contains 450 bibliographic entries with abstracts, covering the years 1977 to ...

  15. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1 (JANUARY 1980-JUNE 1980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS is a semi-annual basic reference guide to current scientific and technical literature relevant to terrestrial and aquatic oil pollution. This issue contains 750 bibliographic entries with abstracts, covering the years 1977 to 1980. The entries are arranged...

  16. Rhetorical Variation across Research Article Abstracts in Environmental Science and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeeaw, Supachai; Tangkiengsirisin, Supong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking…

  17. NASA Patent Abstracts: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 54

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents and applications for patent. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period June 1998 through December 1998. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order.

  18. Supercomputing 2002: NAS Demo Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hyperwall is a new concept in visual supercomputing, conceived and developed by the NAS Exploratory Computing Group. The hyperwall will allow simultaneous and coordinated visualization and interaction of an array of processes, such as a the computations of a parameter study or the parallel evolutions of a genetic algorithm population. Making over 65 million pixels available to the user, the hyperwall will enable and elicit qualitatively new ways of leveraging computers to accomplish science. It is currently still unclear whether we will be able to transport the hyperwall to SC02. The crucial display frame still has not been completed by the metal fabrication shop, although they promised an August delivery. Also, we are still working the fragile node issue, which may require transplantation of the compute nodes from the present 2U cases into 3U cases. This modification will increase the present 3-rack configuration to 5 racks.

  19. Advanced Aerobots for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Raymond, Carol A.; Matthews, Janet B.; Nicaise, Fabien; Jones, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    The Picosat and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Systems Engineering (PAUSE) project is developing balloon-borne instrumentation systems as aerobots for scientific exploration of remote planets and for diverse terrestrial purposes that can include scientific exploration, mapping, and military surveillance. The underlying concept of balloon-borne gondolas housing outer-space-qualified scientific instruments and associated data-processing and radio-communication equipment is not new. Instead, the novelty lies in numerous design details that, taken together, make a PAUSE aerobot smaller, less expensive, and less massive, relative to prior aerobots developed for similar purposes: Whereas the gondola (including the instrumentation system housed in it) of a typical prior aerobot has a mass of hundreds of kilograms, the mass of the gondola (with instrumentation system) of a PAUSE aerobot is a few kilograms.

  20. Scientific CCD technology at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, J.; Collins, S. A.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) were recognized for their potential as an imaging technology almost immediately following their conception in 1970. Twenty years later, they are firmly established as the technology of choice for visible imaging. While consumer applications of CCD's, especially the emerging home video camera market, dominated manufacturing activity, the scientific market for CCD imagers has become significant. Activity of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its industrial partners in the area of CCD imagers for space scientific instruments is described. Requirements for scientific imagers are significantly different from those needed for home video cameras, and are described. An imager for an instrument on the CRAF/Cassini mission is described in detail to highlight achieved levels of performance.

  1. A study of understanding: Alchemy, abstraction, and circulating reference in tertiary science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Brett W.

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an empirical study of the concept of understanding. After analyzing various constructions of understanding in current U.S. education literature, I suggest that understanding is defined by five distinct features---they are knowledge (or knowledge base), coherence, transfer, extrapolation, and cognition--- and that these features are heavily informed and shaped by the psychological sciences. This relationship is neither good nor bad, I argue, but it means that teaching for and learning with understanding are not heavily informed and shaped by, for example, the natural sciences. Drawing from historical, philosophical, and anthropological perspectives of science, but especially from the work of Bruno Latour, I enact a radical revision(ing) of psychological notions such as "abstraction" and "transfer." The two main purposes of this re-visioning are (1) to draw critical attention to particular characteristics of a cognitive learning theory that emphasizes abstract concepts, and (2) to align many of the principles and tools used in science education more closely with those used in empirical scientific research. Finally, by bringing some examples of teaching and learning from an undergraduate biology classroom into conversation with both psychological and empirical practices and perspectives, I suggest that problematizing the current construction of understanding creates much needed room in mainstream science education for more empirical forms of learning and styles of teaching. A shift to such forms and styles, I conclude, should prove to be more inclusive and less constraining for both students and teachers.

  2. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  3. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  4. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  5. The Role of Burke's Four Master Tropes in Scientific Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietge, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the processes behind four master tropes (metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony) and demonstrates instances where these tropes occur in the expression of scientific concepts. Shows that rhetorical and literary tropes are necessary components to a linguistic understanding of complex scientific concepts; that such tropes are, in fact,…

  6. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  7. SCCR Digital Learning System for Scientific Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, H. C.; Lee, C. Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports an adaptive digital learning project, scientific concept construction and reconstruction (SCCR), that was developed based on the theories of Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM) and scientific reasoning. In addition, the authors investigated the effects of an SCCR related to a "combustion" topic for sixth grade students…

  8. A training program for scientific supercomputing users

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, F.; Moher, T.; Sabelli, N.; Solem, A.

    1988-01-01

    There is need for a mechanism to transfer supercomputing technology into the hands of scientists and engineers in such a way that they will acquire a foundation of knowledge that will permit integration of supercomputing as a tool in their research. Most computing center training emphasizes computer-specific information about how to use a particular computer system; most academic programs teach concepts to computer scientists. Only a few brief courses and new programs are designed for computational scientists. This paper describes an eleven-week training program aimed principally at graduate and postdoctoral students in computationally-intensive fields. The program is designed to balance the specificity of computing center courses, the abstractness of computer science courses, and the personal contact of traditional apprentice approaches. It is based on the experience of computer scientists and computational scientists, and consists of seminars and clinics given by many visiting and local faculty. It covers a variety of supercomputing concepts, issues, and practices related to architecture, operating systems, software design, numerical considerations, code optimization, graphics, communications, and networks. Its research component encourages understanding of scientific computing and supercomputer hardware issues. Flexibility in thinking about computing needs is emphasized by the use of several different supercomputer architectures, such as the Cray X/MP48 at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IBM 3090 600E/VF at the Cornell National Supercomputer Facility, and Alliant FX/8 at the Advanced Computing Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Enhancing Eight Grade Students' Scientific Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning through a Web-Based Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Ya-Wen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the impacts of the Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR) digital learning system on eighth grade students' concept construction, conceptual change, and scientific reasoning involving the topic of "atoms". A two-factorial experimental design was carried out to investigate the effects of the approach of…

  10. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  11. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  12. MHD Contractors' Review Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The objectives of the Integrated Topping Cycle project are to design, construct, and deliver all prototypical hardware necessary to conduct long duration integrated MHD topping cycle proof-of-concept tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering data base on MHD power train reliability, maintainability, durability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up to the early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include the following three systems: (1) a slagging coal combustion subsystem with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with eastern (Illinois) or western (Montana Rosebud) coal; (2) a channel subsystem consisting of a segmented supersonic nozzle, channel (with current controls), and diffuser, capable of power output of 1.5 MW(sub e); and (3) a current consolidation subsystem to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  13. Scientific Literacy: Resurrecting the Phoenix with Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; O'Donnell, Jacqueline R.; Malone, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that students' understanding of scientific concepts is pre-determined by their reasoning ability. Other efforts suggest that American students' scientific literacy is in decline. One difficulty Bybee (2009) acknowledges is that there are two divergent philosophical models of scientific literacy. The first describes the…

  14. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  15. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  16. Describing multiple levels of abstraction in the metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrovouniotis, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    We discuss some central issues that arise in the computer representation of the metabolism and its subsystems. We provide a framework for the representation of metabolites and bioreactions at multiple levels of detail. The framework is based on defining an explicit linear mapping of metabolites and reactions from one level of detail to another. A simple reaction mechanism serves as an illustration and shows the emergence of the concept of a catalyst from metabolic abstraction levels.

  17. Feminism: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, H T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of feminism in order to clarify a sociological concept for its use in nursing theory and practice. This analysis is carried out using the Walker & Avant (1988) model. It includes: a literature review, an overview of the uses of the concept drawn from the literature, the defining attributes and the justification of their choice, the cases to demonstrate the concept, and the concept criteria. The concept was chosen out of an interest in developing a feminist nursing theory and desire to enhance nursing practice. The literature search proved most fruitful in the sociological literature. The nursing sources were fewer and concerned with practice rather than articulating any feminist nursing theory. Many of these sources were sociologists and nurses. The concept of feminism was defined as the concern with gender equality and the promotion of equal rights for men and woman, the expression of these concerns through theory or action, and the valuing of individuals for their contributions to society rather than their biological or sexual characteristics or roles. Although the concept of feminism was defined and analysed within the model suggested by Walker & Avant, the author found that the concept became oversimplified, losing much of the richness of the literature. The author felt that, for any development of theory or practice, this analysis would have to be expanded. It is argued that their model is too restrictive as it is based on positivist philosophy which seeks to establish divisions where, in fact, there is a blurring of meaning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263244

  18. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  19. Identifying and relating biological concepts in the Catalogue of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In this paper we describe our experience of adding globally unique identifiers to the Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life, an on-line index of organisms which is intended, ultimately, to cover all the world's known species. The scientific species names held in the Catalogue are names that already play an extensive role as terms in the organisation of information about living organisms in bioinformatics and other domains, but the effectiveness of their use is hindered by variation in individuals' opinions and understanding of these terms; indeed, in some cases more than one name will have been used to refer to the same organism. This means that it is desirable to be able to give unique labels to each of these differing concepts within the catalogue and to be able to determine which concepts are being used in other systems, in order that they can be associated with the concepts in the catalogue. Not only is this needed, but it is also necessary to know the relationships between alternative concepts that scientists might have employed, as these determine what can be inferred when data associated with related concepts is being processed. A further complication is that the catalogue itself is evolving as scientific opinion changes due to an increasing understanding of life. Results We describe how we are using Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) as globally unique identifiers in the Catalogue of Life, explaining how the mapping to species concepts is performed, how concepts are associated with specific editions of the catalogue, and how the Taxon Concept Schema has been adopted in order to express information about concepts and their relationships. We explore the implications of using globally unique identifiers in order to refer to abstract concepts such as species, which incorporate at least a measure of subjectivity in their definition, in contrast with the more traditional use of such identifiers to refer to more tangible entities, events, documents

  20. Malaysian Students' Scientific Argumentation: Do groups perform better than individuals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Lee Ling; Surif, Johari; Hau Seng, Cher

    2015-02-01

    The practices of argumentation have recently been upheld as an important need to develop students' understanding of scientific concepts. However, the present education system in Malaysia is still largely examination-based and teacher-oriented. Thus, this study aims to examine the mastery level of scientific argumentation and its scheme among Malaysian secondary-level science students. A total of 120 students were randomly assigned to answer a Scientific Argumentation Test (SAT), either individually or in a group. Based on the answers, two groups of students, one who have answered with valid scientific concepts and another who have answered with invalid concepts, were identified and interviewed. Quantitative analysis was performed on the SAT results to determine students' mastery of scientific argumentation, and their argumentation schemes were assessed using content analysis performed on the interview transcripts. The results showed that students were weak in the construction of scientific arguments with valid concepts. Moreover, most of the constructed arguments consisted of misconceptions. The results also showed that students who were involved in group argumentation tended to have a more complex argumentation scheme, compared to individual students. As a group, students were able to argue with more scientific elements and showed their understanding of macro and submicro concepts. Hence, science teachers need to emphasize on the construction of scientific argumentation in their teaching, especially at the macro, submicro, and symbolic levels of representations, to ensure students' understanding of the concepts. This will therefore enhance their mastery of scientific argumentation and improve their content knowledge.