Science.gov

Sample records for abstract semi-markov specification

  1. ASSIST - THE ABSTRACT SEMI-MARKOV SPECIFICATION INTERFACE TO THE SURE TOOL PROGRAM (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, is an interface that will enable reliability engineers to accurately design large semi-Markov models. The user describes the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. The abstract language allows efficient description of large, complex systems; a one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and transitions. The ASSIST program also includes model-reduction techniques to facilitate efficient modeling of large systems. Instead of listing the individual states of the Markov model, reliability engineers can specify the rules governing the behavior of a system, and these are used to automatically generate the model. ASSIST reads an input file describing the failure behavior of a system in an abstract language and generates a Markov model in the format needed for input to SURE, the semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator program, and PAWS/STEM, the Pade Approximation with Scaling program and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix. A Markov model consists of a number of system states and transitions between them. Each state in the model represents a possible state of the system in terms of which components have failed, which ones have been removed, etc. Within ASSIST, each state is defined by a state vector, where each element of the vector takes on an integer value within a defined range. An element can represent any meaningful characteristic, such as the number of working components of one type in the system, or the number of faulty components of another type in use. Statements representing transitions between states in the model have three parts: a condition expression, a destination expression, and a rate expression. The first expression is a Boolean expression describing the state space variable values of states

  2. ASSIST - THE ABSTRACT SEMI-MARKOV SPECIFICATION INTERFACE TO THE SURE TOOL PROGRAM (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, is an interface that will enable reliability engineers to accurately design large semi-Markov models. The user describes the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. The abstract language allows efficient description of large, complex systems; a one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and transitions. The ASSIST program also includes model-reduction techniques to facilitate efficient modeling of large systems. Instead of listing the individual states of the Markov model, reliability engineers can specify the rules governing the behavior of a system, and these are used to automatically generate the model. ASSIST reads an input file describing the failure behavior of a system in an abstract language and generates a Markov model in the format needed for input to SURE, the semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator program, and PAWS/STEM, the Pade Approximation with Scaling program and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix. A Markov model consists of a number of system states and transitions between them. Each state in the model represents a possible state of the system in terms of which components have failed, which ones have been removed, etc. Within ASSIST, each state is defined by a state vector, where each element of the vector takes on an integer value within a defined range. An element can represent any meaningful characteristic, such as the number of working components of one type in the system, or the number of faulty components of another type in use. Statements representing transitions between states in the model have three parts: a condition expression, a destination expression, and a rate expression. The first expression is a Boolean expression describing the state space variable values of states

  3. ASSIST - THE ABSTRACT SEMI-MARKOV SPECIFICATION INTERFACE TO THE SURE TOOL PROGRAM (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, is an interface that will enable reliability engineers to accurately design large semi-Markov models. The user describes the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. The abstract language allows efficient description of large, complex systems; a one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and transitions. The ASSIST program also includes model-reduction techniques to facilitate efficient modeling of large systems. Instead of listing the individual states of the Markov model, reliability engineers can specify the rules governing the behavior of a system, and these are used to automatically generate the model. ASSIST reads an input file describing the failure behavior of a system in an abstract language and generates a Markov model in the format needed for input to SURE, the semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator program, and PAWS/STEM, the Pade Approximation with Scaling program and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix. A Markov model consists of a number of system states and transitions between them. Each state in the model represents a possible state of the system in terms of which components have failed, which ones have been removed, etc. Within ASSIST, each state is defined by a state vector, where each element of the vector takes on an integer value within a defined range. An element can represent any meaningful characteristic, such as the number of working components of one type in the system, or the number of faulty components of another type in use. Statements representing transitions between states in the model have three parts: a condition expression, a destination expression, and a rate expression. The first expression is a Boolean expression describing the state space variable values of states

  4. ASSIST - THE ABSTRACT SEMI-MARKOV SPECIFICATION INTERFACE TO THE SURE TOOL PROGRAM (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, is an interface that will enable reliability engineers to accurately design large semi-Markov models. The user describes the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. The abstract language allows efficient description of large, complex systems; a one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and transitions. The ASSIST program also includes model-reduction techniques to facilitate efficient modeling of large systems. Instead of listing the individual states of the Markov model, reliability engineers can specify the rules governing the behavior of a system, and these are used to automatically generate the model. ASSIST reads an input file describing the failure behavior of a system in an abstract language and generates a Markov model in the format needed for input to SURE, the semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator program, and PAWS/STEM, the Pade Approximation with Scaling program and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix. A Markov model consists of a number of system states and transitions between them. Each state in the model represents a possible state of the system in terms of which components have failed, which ones have been removed, etc. Within ASSIST, each state is defined by a state vector, where each element of the vector takes on an integer value within a defined range. An element can represent any meaningful characteristic, such as the number of working components of one type in the system, or the number of faulty components of another type in use. Statements representing transitions between states in the model have three parts: a condition expression, a destination expression, and a rate expression. The first expression is a Boolean expression describing the state space variable values of states

  5. Semi-Markov Graph Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Raberto, Marco; Rapallo, Fabio; Scalas, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a model of graph (or network) dynamics based on two ingredients. The first ingredient is a Markov chain on the space of possible graphs. The second ingredient is a semi-Markov counting process of renewal type. The model consists in subordinating the Markov chain to the semi-Markov counting process. In simple words, this means that the chain transitions occur at random time instants called epochs. The model is quite rich and its possible connections with algebraic geometry are briefly discussed. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the space of undirected graphs with a fixed number of nodes. However, in an example, we present an interbank market model where it is meaningful to use directed graphs or even weighted graphs. PMID:21887245

  6. Inferring parental genomic ancestries using pooled semi-Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, James Y.; Halperin, Eran; Burchard, Esteban; Sankararaman, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: A basic problem of broad public and scientific interest is to use the DNA of an individual to infer the genomic ancestries of the parents. In particular, we are often interested in the fraction of each parent’s genome that comes from specific ancestries (e.g. European, African, Native American, etc). This has many applications ranging from understanding the inheritance of ancestry-related risks and traits to quantifying human assortative mating patterns. Results: We model the problem of parental genomic ancestry inference as a pooled semi-Markov process. We develop a general mathematical framework for pooled semi-Markov processes and construct efficient inference algorithms for these models. Applying our inference algorithm to genotype data from 231 Mexican trios and 258 Puerto Rican trios where we have the true genomic ancestry of each parent, we demonstrate that our method accurately infers parameters of the semi-Markov processes and parents’ genomic ancestries. We additionally validated the method on simulations. Our model of pooled semi-Markov process and inference algorithms may be of independent interest in other settings in genomics and machine learning. Contact: jazo@microsoft.com PMID:26072482

  7. Semi-Markov Arnason-Schwarz models.

    PubMed

    King, Ruth; Langrock, Roland

    2016-06-01

    We consider multi-state capture-recapture-recovery data where observed individuals are recorded in a set of possible discrete states. Traditionally, the Arnason-Schwarz model has been fitted to such data where the state process is modeled as a first-order Markov chain, though second-order models have also been proposed and fitted to data. However, low-order Markov models may not accurately represent the underlying biology. For example, specifying a (time-independent) first-order Markov process involves the assumption that the dwell time in each state (i.e., the duration of a stay in a given state) has a geometric distribution, and hence that the modal dwell time is one. Specifying time-dependent or higher-order processes provides additional flexibility, but at the expense of a potentially significant number of additional model parameters. We extend the Arnason-Schwarz model by specifying a semi-Markov model for the state process, where the dwell-time distribution is specified more generally, using, for example, a shifted Poisson or negative binomial distribution. A state expansion technique is applied in order to represent the resulting semi-Markov Arnason-Schwarz model in terms of a simpler and computationally tractable hidden Markov model. Semi-Markov Arnason-Schwarz models come with only a very modest increase in the number of parameters, yet permit a significantly more flexible state process. Model selection can be performed using standard procedures, and in particular via the use of information criteria. The semi-Markov approach allows for important biological inference to be drawn on the underlying state process, for example, on the times spent in the different states. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a simulation study, before being applied to real data corresponding to house finches where the states correspond to the presence or absence of conjunctivitis. PMID:26584064

  8. SURE - SEMI-MARKOV UNRELIABILITY RANGE EVALUATOR (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator, SURE, is an analysis tool for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems. Traditional reliability analyses are based on aggregates of fault-handling and fault-occurrence models. SURE provides an efficient means for calculating accurate upper and lower bounds for the death state probabilities for a large class of semi-Markov models, not just those which can be reduced to critical-pair architectures. The calculated bounds are close enough (usually within 5 percent of each other) for use in reliability studies of ultra-reliable computer systems. The SURE bounding theorems have algebraic solutions and are consequently computationally efficient even for large and complex systems. SURE can optionally regard a specified parameter as a variable over a range of values, enabling an automatic sensitivity analysis. Highly reliable systems employ redundancy and reconfiguration as methods of ensuring operation. When such systems are modeled stochastically, some state transitions are orders of magnitude faster than others; that is, fault recovery is usually faster than fault arrival. SURE takes these time differences into account. Slow transitions are described by exponential functions and fast transitions are modeled by either the White or Lee theorems based on means, variances, and percentiles. The user must assign identifiers to every state in the system and define all transitions in the semi-Markov model. SURE input statements are composed of variables and constants related by FORTRAN-like operators such as =, +, *, SIN, EXP, etc. There are a dozen major commands such as READ, READO, SAVE, SHOW, PRUNE, TRUNCate, CALCulator, and RUN. Once the state transitions have been defined, SURE calculates the upper and lower probability bounds for entering specified death states within a specified mission time. SURE output is tabular. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem

  9. SURE - SEMI-MARKOV UNRELIABILITY RANGE EVALUATOR (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator, SURE, is an analysis tool for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems. Traditional reliability analyses are based on aggregates of fault-handling and fault-occurrence models. SURE provides an efficient means for calculating accurate upper and lower bounds for the death state probabilities for a large class of semi-Markov models, not just those which can be reduced to critical-pair architectures. The calculated bounds are close enough (usually within 5 percent of each other) for use in reliability studies of ultra-reliable computer systems. The SURE bounding theorems have algebraic solutions and are consequently computationally efficient even for large and complex systems. SURE can optionally regard a specified parameter as a variable over a range of values, enabling an automatic sensitivity analysis. Highly reliable systems employ redundancy and reconfiguration as methods of ensuring operation. When such systems are modeled stochastically, some state transitions are orders of magnitude faster than others; that is, fault recovery is usually faster than fault arrival. SURE takes these time differences into account. Slow transitions are described by exponential functions and fast transitions are modeled by either the White or Lee theorems based on means, variances, and percentiles. The user must assign identifiers to every state in the system and define all transitions in the semi-Markov model. SURE input statements are composed of variables and constants related by FORTRAN-like operators such as =, +, *, SIN, EXP, etc. There are a dozen major commands such as READ, READO, SAVE, SHOW, PRUNE, TRUNCate, CALCulator, and RUN. Once the state transitions have been defined, SURE calculates the upper and lower probability bounds for entering specified death states within a specified mission time. SURE output is tabular. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem

  10. A semi-Markov model for price returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo

    2012-10-01

    We study the high frequency price dynamics of traded stocks by a model of returns using a semi-Markov approach. More precisely we assume that the intraday returns are described by a discrete time homogeneous semi-Markov process and the overnight returns are modeled by a Markov chain. Based on this assumptions we derived the equations for the first passage time distribution and the volatility autocorrelation function. Theoretical results have been compared with empirical findings from real data. In particular we analyzed high frequency data from the Italian stock market from 1 January 2007 until the end of December 2010. The semi-Markov hypothesis is also tested through a nonparametric test of hypothesis.

  11. Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. In a previous work we proposed different semi-Markov models, showing their ability to reproduce the autocorrelation structures of wind speed data. In that paper we showed also that the autocorrelation is higher with respect to the Markov model. Unfortunately this autocorrelation was still too small compared to the empirical one. In order to overcome the problem of low autocorrelation, in this paper we propose an indexed semi-Markov model. More precisely we assume that wind speed is described by a discrete time homogeneous semi-Markov process. We introduce a memory index which takes into account the periods of different wind activities. With this model the statistical characteristics of wind speed are faithfully reproduced. The wind is a very unstable phenomenon characterized by a sequence of lulls and sustained speeds, and a good wind generator must be able to reproduce such sequences. To check the validity of the predictive semi-Markovian model, the persistence of synthetic winds were calculated, then averaged and computed. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and the time lagged autocorrelation is used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a time series generated though a simple Markov chain. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic generation of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating

  12. The semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The SURE program is a design/validation tool for ultrareliable computer system architectures. The system uses simple algebraic formulas to compute accurate upper and lower bounds for the death state probabilities of a large class of semi-Markov models. The mathematical formulas used in the program were derived from a mathematical theorem proven by Allan White under contract to NASA Langley Research Center. This mathematical theorem is discussed along with the user interface to the SURE program.

  13. Performability analysis using semi-Markov reward processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco; Marie, Raymond A.; Sericola, Bruno; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    1990-01-01

    Beaudry (1978) proposed a simple method of computing the distribution of performability in a Markov reward process. Two extensions of Beaudry's approach are presented. The method is generalized to a semi-Markov reward process by removing the restriction requiring the association of zero reward to absorbing states only. The algorithm proceeds by replacing zero-reward nonabsorbing states by a probabilistic switch; it is therefore related to the elimination of vanishing states from the reachability graph of a generalized stochastic Petri net and to the elimination of fast transient states in a decomposition approach to stiff Markov chains. The use of the approach is illustrated with three applications.

  14. biomvRhsmm: Genomic Segmentation with Hidden Semi-Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput technologies like tiling array and next-generation sequencing (NGS) generate continuous homogeneous segments or signal peaks in the genome that represent transcripts and transcript variants (transcript mapping and quantification), regions of deletion and amplification (copy number variation), or regions characterized by particular common features like chromatin state or DNA methylation ratio (epigenetic modifications). However, the volume and output of data produced by these technologies present challenges in analysis. Here, a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) is implemented and tailored to handle multiple genomic profile, to better facilitate genome annotation by assisting in the detection of transcripts, regulatory regions, and copy number variation by holistic microarray or NGS. With support for various data distributions, instead of limiting itself to one specific application, the proposed hidden semi-Markov model is designed to allow modeling options to accommodate different types of genomic data and to serve as a general segmentation engine. By incorporating genomic positions into the sojourn distribution of HSMM, with optional prior learning using annotation or previous studies, the modeling output is more biologically sensible. The proposed model has been compared with several other state-of-the-art segmentation models through simulation benchmarking, which shows that our efficient implementation achieves comparable or better sensitivity and specificity in genomic segmentation. PMID:24995333

  15. Reduction Of Sizes Of Semi-Markov Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.; Palumbo, Dan L.

    1995-01-01

    Trimming technique reduces computational effort by order of magnitude while introducing negligible error. Error bound depends on only three parameters from semi-Markov model: maximum sum of rates for failure transitions leaving any state, maximum average holding time for recovery-mode state, and operating time for system. Error bound computed before any model generated, enabling modeler to decide immediately whether or not model can be trimmed. Trimming procedure specified by precise and easy description, making it easy to include trimming procedure in program generating mathematical models for use in assessing reliability. Typical application of technique in design of digital control systems required to be extremely reliable. In addition to aerospace applications, fault-tolerant design has growing importance in wide range of industrial applications.

  16. Estimation of the occurrence rate of strong earthquakes based on hidden semi-Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, I.; Limnios, N.; Tsaklidis, G.; Papadimitriou, E.

    2012-04-01

    The present paper aims at the application of hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) in an attempt to reveal key features for the earthquake generation, associated with the actual stress field, which is not accessible to direct observation. The models generalize the hidden Markov models by considering the hidden process to form actually a semi-Markov chain. Considering that the states of the models correspond to levels of actual stress fields, the stress field level at the occurrence time of each strong event is revealed. The dataset concerns a well catalogued seismically active region incorporating a variety of tectonic styles. More specifically, the models are applied in Greece and its surrounding lands, concerning a complete data sample with strong (M≥ 6.5) earthquakes that occurred in the study area since 1845 up to present. The earthquakes that occurred are grouped according to their magnitudes and the cases of two and three magnitude ranges for a corresponding number of states are examined. The parameters of the HSMMs are estimated and their confidence intervals are calculated based on their asymptotic behavior. The rate of the earthquake occurrence is introduced through the proposed HSMMs and its maximum likelihood estimator is calculated. The asymptotic properties of the estimator are studied, including the uniformly strongly consistency and the asymptotical normality. The confidence interval for the proposed estimator is given. We assume the state space of both the observable and the hidden process to be finite, the hidden Markov chain to be homogeneous and stationary and the observations to be conditionally independent. The hidden states at the occurrence time of each strong event are revealed and the rate of occurrence of an anticipated earthquake is estimated on the basis of the proposed HSMMs. Moreover, the mean time for the first occurrence of a strong anticipated earthquake is estimated and its confidence interval is calculated.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis in colorectal cancer using a semi-Markov model.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Christel; Combescure, Christophe; Foucher, Yohann; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-30

    Cost and effectiveness are usually modeled according to one studied event or one health state with parametric or non-parametric methods. In this paper, we propose an original method for assessing total costs while incorporating the dynamics of change in the health status of patients. A semi-Markov model in which the distributions of sojourn times are explicitly defined is developed. The hazard function of sojourn times is modeled by Weibull distributions specific to each transition. A vector of covariates is incorporated into the hazard function of each transition. From a regression model for costs, a cumulative cost function is derived. An estimation of the mean cost per patient in each state defined in the semi-Markov model could thus be made, and this enables us to identify the determinants of direct costs. The results of incremental net benefit (INB) are assessed using the bootstrap method. A cost-effectiveness analysis is performed in order to compare two strategies of follow-up in the colorectal cancer study. Two hundred and forty patients were enrolled in this study. Three health states are defined for patients with curative resection of colorectal cancer: alive without relapse, alive with relapse, and dead. The mean survival is 4.35 and 4.12 years, respectively, in the standard and moderate follow-up groups. We show that mean cost differs significantly by follow-up strategy and Dukes stage. Finally, the INB is assessed and this indicates that neither of the strategies compared was more cost-effective than the other. PMID:18058847

  18. Unsupervised Segmentation of Hidden Semi-Markov Non Stationary Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuyade-Lahorgue, Jérôme; Pieczynski, Wojciech

    2006-11-01

    In the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) model we have a hidden chain X, which is a Markov one and an observed chain Y. HMC are widely used; however, in some situations they have to be replaced by the more general "hidden semi-Markov chains" (HSMC) which are particular "triplet Markov chains" (TMC) T = (X, U, Y), where the auxiliary chain U models the semi-Markovianity of X. Otherwise, non stationary classical HMC can also be modeled by a triplet Markov stationary chain with, as a consequence, the possibility of parameters' estimation. The aim of this paper is to use simultaneously both properties. We consider a non stationary HSMC and model it as a TMC T = (X, U1, U2, Y), where U1 models the semi-Markovianity and U2 models the non stationarity. The TMC T being itself stationary, all parameters can be estimated by the general "Iterative Conditional Estimation" (ICE) method, which leads to unsupervised segmentation. We present some experiments showing the interest of the new model and related processing in image segmentation area.

  19. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.

    2015-03-10

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

  20. Semi-Markov adjunction to the Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, Gene; Hutchins, Monica A.; Leong, Frank J.; Babcock, Philip S., IV

    1988-01-01

    The rule-based Computer-Aided Markov Evaluator (CAME) program was expanded in its ability to incorporate the effect of fault-handling processes into the construction of a reliability model. The fault-handling processes are modeled as semi-Markov events and CAME constructs and appropriate semi-Markov model. To solve the model, the program outputs it in a form which can be directly solved with the Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator (SURE) program. As a means of evaluating the alterations made to the CAME program, the program is used to model the reliability of portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System Architecture (IAPSA 2) reference configuration. The reliability predictions are compared with a previous analysis. The results bear out the feasibility of utilizing CAME to generate appropriate semi-Markov models to model fault-handling processes.

  1. Hidden semi-Markov models reveal multiphasic movement of the endangered Florida panther.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Onorato, David P; Criffield, Marc A; Bolker, Benjamin M; Augustine, Ben C; McKinley, Scott A; Oli, Madan K

    2015-03-01

    Animals must move to find food and mates, and to avoid predators; movement thus influences survival and reproduction, and ultimately determines fitness. Precise description of movement and understanding of spatial and temporal patterns as well as relationships with intrinsic and extrinsic factors is important both for theoretical and applied reasons. We applied hidden semi-Markov models (HSMM) to hourly geographic positioning system (GPS) location data to understand movement patterns of the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) and to discern factors influencing these patterns. Three distinct movement modes were identified: (1) Resting mode, characterized by short step lengths and turning angles around 180(o); (2) Moderately active (or intermediate) mode characterized by intermediate step lengths and variable turning angles, and (3) Traveling mode, characterized by long step lengths and turning angles around 0(o). Males and females, and females with and without kittens, exhibited distinctly different movement patterns. Using the Viterbi algorithm, we show that differences in movement patterns of male and female Florida panthers were a consequence of sex-specific differences in diurnal patterns of state occupancy and sex-specific differences in state-specific movement parameters, whereas the differences between females with and without dependent kittens were caused solely by variation in state occupancy. Our study demonstrates the use of HSMM methodology to precisely describe movement and to dissect differences in movement patterns according to sex, and reproductive status. PMID:25251870

  2. Weighted-indexed semi-Markov models for modeling financial returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we propose a new stochastic model based on a generalization of semi-Markov chains for studying the high frequency price dynamics of traded stocks. We assume that the financial returns are described by a weighted-indexed semi-Markov chain model. We show, through Monte Carlo simulations, that the model is able to reproduce important stylized facts of financial time series such as the first-passage-time distributions and the persistence of volatility. The model is applied to data from the Italian and German stock markets from 1 January 2007 until the end of December 2010.

  3. First and second order semi-Markov chains for wind speed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prattico, F.; Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. Semi-Markov processes (SMP) are a wide class of stochastic processes which generalize at the same time both Markov chains and renewal processes. Their main advantage is that of using whatever type of waiting time distribution for modeling the time to have a transition from one state to another one. This major flexibility has a price to pay: availability of data to estimate the parameters of the model which are more numerous. Data availability is not an issue in wind speed studies, therefore, semi-Markov models can be used in a statistical efficient way. In this work we present three different semi-Markov chain models: the first one is a first-order SMP where the transition probabilities from two speed states (at time Tn and Tn-1) depend on the initial state (the state at Tn-1), final state (the state at Tn) and on the waiting time (given by t=Tn-Tn-1), the second model is a second order SMP where we consider the transition probabilities as depending also on the state the wind speed was before the initial state (which is the state at Tn-2) and the last one is still a second order SMP where the transition probabilities depends on the three states at Tn-2,Tn-1 and Tn and on the waiting times t_1=Tn-1-Tn-2 and t_2=Tn-Tn-1. The three models are used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and the time lagged autocorrelation is used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a time series generated though a simple Markov chain. [1] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling

  4. Estimation with Right-Censored Observations Under A Semi-Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X. Joan

    2013-01-01

    The semi-Markov process often provides a better framework than the classical Markov process for the analysis of events with multiple states. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that in the presence of right censoring, when the right end-point of the support of the censoring time is strictly less than the right end-point of the support of the semi-Markov kernel, the transition probability of the semi-Markov process is nonidentifiable, and the estimators proposed in the literature are inconsistent in general. We derive the set of all attainable values for the transition probability based on the censored data, and we propose a nonparametric inference procedure for the transition probability using this set. Second, the conventional approach to constructing confidence bands is not applicable for the semi-Markov kernel and the sojourn time distribution. We propose new perturbation resampling methods to construct these confidence bands. Different weights and transformations are explored in the construction. We use simulation to examine our proposals and illustrate them with hospitalization data from a recent cancer survivor study. PMID:23874060

  5. A reward semi-Markov process with memory for wind speed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. The primary goal of this analysis is the study of the time history of the wind in order to assess its reliability as a source of power and to determine the associated storage levels required. In order to assess this issue we use a probabilistic model based on indexed semi-Markov process [4] to which a reward structure is attached. Our model is used to calculate the expected energy produced by a given turbine and its variability expressed by the variance of the process. Our results can be used to compare different wind farms based on their reward and also on the risk of missed production due to the intrinsic variability of the wind speed process. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and backtesting procedure is used to compare results on first and second oder moments of rewards between real and synthetic data. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic gen- eration of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Re- newable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribu- tion, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802. [4]F. Petroni, G. D'Amico, F. Prattico, Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling. To be submitted.

  6. Partially observed semi-Markov zero-sum games with average payoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Goswami, Anindya

    2008-09-01

    We study a zero-sum partially observed semi-Markov game with average payoff on a countable state space. Under certain ergodicity conditions we show that a saddle point equilibrium exists. We achieve this by solving the corresponding average cost optimality equation using a span contraction methodE The average value is shown to be the unique zero of a Lipschitz continuous function. A value iteration scheme is developed to compute the value.

  7. Semi-Markov regime switching interest rate models and minimal entropy measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Julien; Devolder, Pierre

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present a discrete time regime switching binomial-like model of the term structure where the regime switches are governed by a discrete time semi-Markov process. We model the evolution of the prices of zero-coupon when given an initial term structure as in the model by Ho and Lee that we aim to extend. We discuss and derive conditions for the model to be arbitrage free and relate this to the notion of martingale measure. We explicitly show that due to the extra source of uncertainty coming from the underlying semi-Markov process, there are an infinite number of equivalent martingale measures. The notion of path independence is also studied in some detail, especially in the presence of regime switches. We deal with the market incompleteness by giving an explicit characterization of the minimal entropy martingale measure. We give an application to the pricing of a European bond option both in a Markov and semi-Markov framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions.

  8. Analysis of nonstationary signals and fields with the use of enclosed semi-Markov processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Lutsenko, V. I.; Masalov, S. A.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the possibility to describe the signals scattered by various physical objects such as underlying surfaces of land and sea, the segments of "clear sky," and processes of various physical natures, such as fluctuations of the refractive index of the troposphere and electromagnetic and acoustic radiation of a lithospheric nature, by enclosed semi-Markov processes is investigated. This approach makes it possible to construct statistic models for a broad class of signals and processes. In some cases, statistics based on atomic functions and WA systems of the Kravchenko-Rvachev functions show the best results.

  9. Semi-Markov Control Processes with Unknown Holding Times Distribution Under an Average Cost Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Vasquez, Fernando Minjarez-Sosa, J. Adolfo Rosas-Rosas, Luz del Carmen

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with a class of semi-Markov control models with Borel state and control spaces, possibly unbounded costs, and unknown holding times distribution F. Assuming that F does not depend on state-action pairs, we combine suitable methods of statistical estimation of the mean holding time with control procedures to construct an average cost optimal Markovian policy {pi}-hat={l_brace}f{sub n}{r_brace}, and an optimal stationary policy {l_brace}f{sub {infinity}}{r_brace}, where f{sub n} converges to f{sub {infinity}} in the sense of Schael.

  10. Estimating the survival function based on the semi-Markov model for dependent censoring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ziqiang; Zheng, Ming; Jin, Zhezhen

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (NPMLE) of the survival function based on a semi-Markov model under dependent censoring. We show that the NPMLE is asymptotically normal and achieves asymptotic nonparametric efficiency. We also provide a uniformly consistent estimator of the corresponding asymptotic covariance function based on an information operator. The finite-sample performance of the proposed NPMLE is examined with simulation studies, which show that the NPMLE has smaller mean squared error than the existing estimators and its corresponding pointwise confidence intervals have reasonable coverages. A real example is also presented. PMID:25772373

  11. First Passage Moments of Finite-State Semi-Markov Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Warr, Richard; Cordeiro, James

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, we discuss the computation of first-passage moments of a regular time-homogeneous semi-Markov process (SMP) with a finite state space to certain of its states that possess the property of universal accessibility (UA). A UA state is one which is accessible from any other state of the SMP, but which may or may not connect back to one or more other states. An important characteristic of UA is that it is the state-level version of the oft-invoked process-level property of irreducibility. We adapt existing results for irreducible SMPs to the derivation of an analytical matrix expression for the first passage moments to a single UA state of the SMP. In addition, consistent point estimators for these first passage moments, together with relevant R code, are provided.

  12. An estimator of the survival function based on the semi-Markov model under dependent censorship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yeoun; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-06-01

    Lee and Wolfe (Biometrics vol. 54 pp. 1176-1178, 1998) proposed the two-stage sampling design for testing the assumption of independent censoring, which involves further follow-up of a subset of lost-to-follow-up censored subjects. They also proposed an adjusted estimator for the survivor function for a proportional hazards model under the dependent censoring model. In this paper, a new estimator for the survivor function is proposed for the semi-Markov model under the dependent censorship on the basis of the two-stage sampling data. The consistency and the asymptotic distribution of the proposed estimator are derived. The estimation procedure is illustrated with an example of lung cancer clinical trial and simulation results are reported of the mean squared errors of estimators under a proportional hazards and two different nonproportional hazards models. PMID:15938546

  13. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William A.; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects—some good and some bad—on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  14. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William A; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  15. A novel method using adaptive hidden semi-Markov model for multi-sensor monitoring equipment health prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinming; Dong, Ming; Lv, Wenyuan; Geng, Xiuli; Li, Yupeng

    2015-12-01

    Health prognosis for equipment is considered as a key process of the condition-based maintenance strategy. This paper presents an integrated framework for multi-sensor equipment diagnosis and prognosis based on adaptive hidden semi-Markov model (AHSMM). Unlike hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM), the basic algorithms in an AHSMM are first modified in order for decreasing computation and space complexity. Then, the maximum likelihood linear regression transformations method is used to train the output and duration distributions to re-estimate all unknown parameters. The AHSMM is used to identify the hidden degradation state and obtain the transition probabilities among health states and durations. Finally, through the proposed hazard rate equations, one can predict the useful remaining life of equipment with multi-sensor information. Our main results are verified in real world applications: monitoring hydraulic pumps from Caterpillar Inc. The results show that the proposed methods are more effective for multi-sensor monitoring equipment health prognosis.

  16. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2014-01-01

    When animals have to make a number of decisions during a limited time interval, they face a fundamental problem: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible “conditions.” A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each “condition” being a “state” and the value of decision thresholds being the “actions” taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values. PMID:24904252

  17. A segmental hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM)-based diagnostics and prognostics framework and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; He, David

    2007-07-01

    Diagnostics and prognostics are two important aspects in a condition-based maintenance (CBM) program. However, these two tasks are often separately performed. For example, data might be collected and analysed separately for diagnosis and prognosis. This practice increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of CBM and may affect the accuracy of the diagnostic and prognostic results. In this paper, a statistical modelling methodology for performing both diagnosis and prognosis in a unified framework is presented. The methodology is developed based on segmental hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs). An HSMM is a hidden Markov model (HMM) with temporal structures. Unlike HMM, an HSMM does not follow the unrealistic Markov chain assumption and therefore provides more powerful modelling and analysis capability for real problems. In addition, an HSMM allows modelling the time duration of the hidden states and therefore is capable of prognosis. To facilitate the computation in the proposed HSMM-based diagnostics and prognostics, new forward-backward variables are defined and a modified forward-backward algorithm is developed. The existing state duration estimation methods are inefficient because they require a huge storage and computational load. Therefore, a new approach is proposed for training HSMMs in which state duration probabilities are estimated on the lattice (or trellis) of observations and states. The model parameters are estimated through the modified forward-backward training algorithm. The estimated state duration probability distributions combined with state-changing point detection can be used to predict the useful remaining life of a system. The evaluation of the proposed methodology was carried out through a real world application: health monitoring of hydraulic pumps. In the tests, the recognition rates for all states are greater than 96%. For each individual pump, the recognition rate is increased by 29.3% in comparison with HMMs. Because of the temporal

  18. Two Person Zero-Sum Semi-Markov Games with Unknown Holding Times Distribution on One Side: A Discounted Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Minjarez-Sosa, J. Adolfo Luque-Vasquez, Fernando

    2008-06-15

    This paper deals with two person zero-sum semi-Markov games with a possibly unbounded payoff function, under a discounted payoff criterion. Assuming that the distribution of the holding times H is unknown for one of the players, we combine suitable methods of statistical estimation of H with control procedures to construct an asymptotically discount optimal pair of strategies.

  19. Heart beat detection in multimodal physiological data using a hidden semi-Markov model and signal quality indices.

    PubMed

    A F Pimentel, Marco; Santos, Mauro D; Springer, David B; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-08-01

    Accurate heart beat detection in signals acquired from intensive care unit (ICU) patients is necessary for establishing both normality and detecting abnormal events. Detection is normally performed by analysing the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, and alarms are triggered when parameters derived from this signal exceed preset or variable thresholds. However, due to noisy and missing data, these alarms are frequently deemed to be false positives, and therefore ignored by clinical staff. The fusion of features derived from other signals, such as the arterial blood pressure (ABP) or the photoplethysmogram (PPG), has the potential to reduce such false alarms. In order to leverage the highly correlated temporal nature of the physiological signals, a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) approach, which uses the intra- and inter-beat depolarization interval, was designed to detect heart beats in such data. Features based on the wavelet transform, signal gradient and signal quality indices were extracted from the ECG and ABP waveforms for use in the HSMM framework. The presented method achieved an overall score of 89.13% on the hidden/test data set provided by the Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2014: Robust Detection of Heart Beats in Multimodal Data. PMID:26218536

  20. Model reduction by trimming for a class of semi-Markov reliability models and the corresponding error bound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    Semi-Markov processes have proved to be an effective and convenient tool to construct models of systems that achieve reliability by redundancy and reconfiguration. These models are able to depict complex system architectures and to capture the dynamics of fault arrival and system recovery. A disadvantage of this approach is that the models can be extremely large, which poses both a model and a computational problem. Techniques are needed to reduce the model size. Because these systems are used in critical applications where failure can be expensive, there must be an analytically derived bound for the error produced by the model reduction technique. A model reduction technique called trimming is presented that can be applied to a popular class of systems. Automatic model generation programs were written to help the reliability analyst produce models of complex systems. This method, trimming, is easy to implement and the error bound easy to compute. Hence, the method lends itself to inclusion in an automatic model generator.

  1. An abstract specification language for Markov reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Markov models can be used to compute the reliability of virtually any fault tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in a model of complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. An approach to this problem is presented utilizing an abstract model definition language. This high level language is described in a nonformal manner and illustrated by example.

  2. Reliability Assessment of Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems Using Sure and Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability assessment of Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems using Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator (SURE) and Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST).

  3. Abstract specification of synchronous data types for VLSI and proving the correctness of systolic network implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, D.K.; Li, H.F.

    1988-06-01

    The authors present a combined methodology for specifying abstract synchronous data types and proving the correctness of systolic network implementations. 1) The authors show that an extension of the Parnas trace method of specifying software modules containing distinct access programs yields a natural method of specifying abstract synchronous data types which possess distinct access operators and are intended for implementation in VLSI. 2). They present associated systematic proof techniques and establish the correctness of several novel systolic network implementations of familiar data types. In so far as these specifications refer to the ongoing, externally visible behavior of (abstract) synchronous objects rather than the instantaneous internal configurations of (concrete, implementing) synchronous systems, the methodology appears to be naturally suited to systolic network implementations with their associated rippling of control flow and data flow. The important distinction between systolic control-flow networks and systolic data-flow networks is also presented.

  4. Conflicting demands of abstract and specific visual object processing resolved by frontoparietal networks.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Brenton W; Marsolek, Chad J; Morseth, Brianna K; Speer, MacKenzie F; Burton, Philip C; Burgund, E Darcy

    2016-06-01

    Object categorization and exemplar identification place conflicting demands on the visual system, yet humans easily perform these fundamentally contradictory tasks. Previous studies suggest the existence of dissociable visual processing subsystems to accomplish the two abilities-an abstract category (AC) subsystem that operates effectively in the left hemisphere and a specific exemplar (SE) subsystem that operates effectively in the right hemisphere. This multiple subsystems theory explains a range of visual abilities, but previous studies have not explored what mechanisms exist for coordinating the function of multiple subsystems and/or resolving the conflicts that would arise between them. We collected functional MRI data while participants performed two variants of a cue-probe working memory task that required AC or SE processing. During the maintenance phase of the task, the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) exhibited hemispheric asymmetries in functional connectivity consistent with exerting proactive control over the two visual subsystems: greater connectivity to the left hemisphere during the AC task, and greater connectivity to the right hemisphere during the SE task. Moreover, probe-evoked activation revealed activity in a broad frontoparietal network (containing IPS) associated with reactive control when the two visual subsystems were in conflict, and variations in this conflict signal across trials was related to the visual similarity of the cue-probe stimulus pairs. Although many studies have confirmed the existence of multiple visual processing subsystems, this study is the first to identify the mechanisms responsible for coordinating their operations. PMID:26883940

  5. Are the Products of Statistical Learning Abstract or Stimulus-Specific?

    PubMed Central

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E.; Balaban, Evan; Hager, Alanna D.

    2012-01-01

    Learners can segment potential lexical units from syllable streams when statistically variable transitional probabilities between adjacent syllables are the only cues to word boundaries. Here we examine the nature of the representations that result from statistical learning by assessing learners’ ability to generalize across acoustically different stimuli. In three experiments, we compare two possibilities: that the products of statistical segmentation processes are abstract and generalizable representations, or, alternatively, that products of statistical learning are stimulus-bound and restricted to perceptually similar instances. In Experiment 1, learners segmented units from statistically predictable streams, and recognized these units when they were acoustically transformed by temporal reversals. In Experiment 2, learners were able to segment units from temporally reversed syllable streams, but were only able to generalize in conditions of mild acoustic transformation. In Experiment 3, learners were able to recognize statistically segmented units after a voice change but were unable to do so when the novel voice was mildly distorted. Together these results suggest that representations that result from statistical learning can be abstracted to some degree, but not in all listening conditions. PMID:22470357

  6. Semantic Domain-Specific Functional Integration for Action-Related vs. Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghio, Marta; Tettamanti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    A central topic in cognitive neuroscience concerns the representation of concepts and the specific neural mechanisms that mediate conceptual knowledge. Recently proposed modal theories assert that concepts are grounded on the integration of multimodal, distributed representations. The aim of the present work is to complement the available…

  7. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  8. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  9. Strengthening the case for stimulus-specificity in artificial grammar learning: no evidence for abstract representations with extended exposure.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Different theories have been proposed regarding the nature of the mental representations formed as a result of implicit learning of sequential regularities. Some theories postulate abstract surface-independent representations, while other theories postulate stimulus-specific representations. This article reports three experiments investigating the development of abstract representations in artificial grammar learning (AGL), using a methodological approach developed by Conway and Christiansen (2006). In all the experiments, the number of blocks during the exposure phase was manipulated (6 blocks vs. 18 blocks of exposure to sequences). Experiments 1 and 2 investigated both visual and auditory learning where sequences were presented element-by-element. Experiment 3 investigated visual learning using a sequence-by-sequence presentation technique more commonly used in visual AGL studies. Extending previous research (Conway & Christiansen, 2006) and in support of stimulus-specific accounts, the results of the experiments showed that extended observational learning results in increased stimulus-specific knowledge rather than abstraction towards surface-independent representations. PMID:19289361

  10. Interface To The SURE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program is interface program enabling reliability engineers to design large semi-Markov mathematical models accurately. Language enables efficient description of large, complicated systems. Also offers, as part of bundled package with SURE and PAWS/STEM, two other reliable analysis programs developed by Systems Validation Methods group at Langley Research Center.

  11. Identity-specific face adaptation effects: evidence for abstractive face representations.

    PubMed

    Hole, Graham

    2011-05-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they had been adapted, implying that they were now less sensitive to that particular face. Similar results were obtained when the adapting faces were highly dissimilar in viewpoint to the test morphs; when they were presented upside-down; or when they were vertically stretched to three times their normal height. These effects rule out explanations of adaptation effects solely in terms of low-level image-based adaptation. Instead they are consistent with the idea that relatively viewpoint-independent, person-specific adaptation occurred, at the level of either the "Face Recognition Units" or "Person Identity Nodes" in Burton, Bruce and Johnston's (1990) model of face recognition. PMID:21316651

  12. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: measurements and site-specific rate rules.

    PubMed

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardany, Ahmed E; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-06-28

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (C=O) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (C=O), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group): PMID:24817270

  13. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, Małgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    We present a context-sensitive reduction semantics for a lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions and we show that the functional implementation of this small-step semantics mechanically corresponds to that of the abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI’98, including first-class continuations. Starting from this reduction semantics, (1) we refocus it into a small-step abstract machine; (2) we fuse the transition function of this abstract machine with its driver loop, obtaining a big-step abstract machine which is staged; (3) we compress its corridor transitions, obtaining an eval/continue abstract machine; and (4) we unfold its ground closures, which yields an abstract machine that essentially coincides with Clinger’s machine. This lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions therefore aptly accounts for Core Scheme, including Clinger’s permutations and unpermutations.

  14. Building Disease-Specific Drug-Protein Connectivity Maps from Molecular Interaction Networks and PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jake Yue

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed concept of molecular connectivity maps enables researchers to integrate experimental measurements of genes, proteins, metabolites, and drug compounds under similar biological conditions. The study of these maps provides opportunities for future toxicogenomics and drug discovery applications. We developed a computational framework to build disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps. We integrated gene/protein and drug connectivity information based on protein interaction networks and literature mining, without requiring gene expression profile information derived from drug perturbation experiments on disease samples. We described the development and application of this computational framework using Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a primary example in three steps. First, molecular interaction networks were incorporated to reduce bias and improve relevance of AD seed proteins. Second, PubMed abstracts were used to retrieve enriched drug terms that are indirectly associated with AD through molecular mechanistic studies. Third and lastly, a comprehensive AD connectivity map was created by relating enriched drugs and related proteins in literature. We showed that this molecular connectivity map development approach outperformed both curated drug target databases and conventional information retrieval systems. Our initial explorations of the AD connectivity map yielded a new hypothesis that diltiazem and quinidine may be investigated as candidate drugs for AD treatment. Molecular connectivity maps derived computationally can help study molecular signature differences between different classes of drugs in specific disease contexts. To achieve overall good data coverage and quality, a series of statistical methods have been developed to overcome high levels of data noise in biological networks and literature mining results. Further development of computational molecular connectivity maps to cover major disease areas will likely set up a new model for

  15. Building disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps from molecular interaction networks and PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jake Yue

    2009-07-01

    The recently proposed concept of molecular connectivity maps enables researchers to integrate experimental measurements of genes, proteins, metabolites, and drug compounds under similar biological conditions. The study of these maps provides opportunities for future toxicogenomics and drug discovery applications. We developed a computational framework to build disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps. We integrated gene/protein and drug connectivity information based on protein interaction networks and literature mining, without requiring gene expression profile information derived from drug perturbation experiments on disease samples. We described the development and application of this computational framework using Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a primary example in three steps. First, molecular interaction networks were incorporated to reduce bias and improve relevance of AD seed proteins. Second, PubMed abstracts were used to retrieve enriched drug terms that are indirectly associated with AD through molecular mechanistic studies. Third and lastly, a comprehensive AD connectivity map was created by relating enriched drugs and related proteins in literature. We showed that this molecular connectivity map development approach outperformed both curated drug target databases and conventional information retrieval systems. Our initial explorations of the AD connectivity map yielded a new hypothesis that diltiazem and quinidine may be investigated as candidate drugs for AD treatment. Molecular connectivity maps derived computationally can help study molecular signature differences between different classes of drugs in specific disease contexts. To achieve overall good data coverage and quality, a series of statistical methods have been developed to overcome high levels of data noise in biological networks and literature mining results. Further development of computational molecular connectivity maps to cover major disease areas will likely set up a new model for

  16. Site specificity on OH α-H abstraction reaction for a zwitterionic β-hairpin peptide in aqueous solution: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ren-Jie; Jang, Soonmin; Kim, Hyunsik; Wu, Chen-Chang; Li, Feng-Yin

    2013-01-24

    Protein backbone oxidation was investigated by studying the α-H abstraction reaction in a ß-hairpin peptide, called Chignolin (PDB ID 1UAO), with density functional theory calculation at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) without any constraint. In order to stabilize the zwitterionic form of Chignolin with the salt bridges, the effects of aqueous solution were implemented by using microsolvation combined with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM). Comparison between three glycine residues located at three different sites in Chignolin was used to examine the possible site specificity of this backbone oxidation. To construct the reaction profile of these α-H abstraction reactions, the pre- and postreactive complexes along with their associated transition states were located and verified with the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) method. The bond dissociation energy and reaction rates of these OH α-H abstraction reactions were calculated with transition state theory. The differences in this abstraction reaction between the neutral and zwitterionic forms of Chignolin were also compared. A molecular dynamics simulation was implemented to study the explicit solvation effect on the abstracted Chignolin structure. The range of the simulation time scale covers from femtoseconds to microseconds, i.e., from onset of the abstraction to the abstracted products reaching thermal equilibrium. Our results show that there are three kinds of site-specificity in this abstraction reaction. The reactivity and stability of the abstraction products and their abstraction modes are all dependent on the location where OH attacks. Furthermore, the free energy landscapes of these abstraction products are distinctively different. This may imply that the pathological disorders or diseases caused by this type of radicals are also dependent on the abstraction location. PMID:23252826

  17. Separability of Abstract-Category and Specific-Exemplar Visual Object Subsystems: Evidence from fMRI Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Brenton W.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Steele, Vaughn R.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that dissociable neural subsystems underlie abstract-category (AC) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., cat, piano) and specific-exemplar (SE) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., a calico cat, a different calico cat, a grand piano, etc.). However, the degree of separability between these subsystems is not known, despite the importance of this issue for assessing relevant theories. Visual object representations are widely distributed in visual cortex, thus a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) approach to analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be critical for assessing the separability of different kinds of visual object processing. Here we examined the neural representations of visual object categories and visual object exemplars using multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity elicited in visual object processing areas during a repetition-priming task. In the encoding phase, participants viewed visual objects and the printed names of other objects. In the subsequent test phase, participants identified objects that were either same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed, word-primed, or unprimed. In visual object processing areas, classifiers were trained to distinguish same-exemplar primed objects from word-primed objects. Then, the abilities of these classifiers to discriminate different-exemplar primed objects and word-primed objects (reflecting AC priming) and to discriminate same-exemplar primed objects and different-exemplar primed objects (reflecting SE priming) was assessed. Results indicated that (a) repetition priming in occipital-temporal regions is organized asymmetrically, such that AC priming is more prevalent in the left hemisphere and SE priming is more prevalent in the right hemisphere, and (b) AC and SE subsystems are weakly modular, not strongly modular or unified. PMID:25528436

  18. Separability of abstract-category and specific-exemplar visual object subsystems: evidence from fMRI pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Brenton W; Deason, Rebecca G; Steele, Vaughn R; Koutstaal, Wilma; Marsolek, Chad J

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that dissociable neural subsystems underlie abstract-category (AC) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., cat, piano) and specific-exemplar (SE) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., a calico cat, a different calico cat, a grand piano, etc.). However, the degree of separability between these subsystems is not known, despite the importance of this issue for assessing relevant theories. Visual object representations are widely distributed in visual cortex, thus a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) approach to analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be critical for assessing the separability of different kinds of visual object processing. Here we examined the neural representations of visual object categories and visual object exemplars using multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity elicited in visual object processing areas during a repetition-priming task. In the encoding phase, participants viewed visual objects and the printed names of other objects. In the subsequent test phase, participants identified objects that were either same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed, word-primed, or unprimed. In visual object processing areas, classifiers were trained to distinguish same-exemplar primed objects from word-primed objects. Then, the abilities of these classifiers to discriminate different-exemplar primed objects and word-primed objects (reflecting AC priming) and to discriminate same-exemplar primed objects and different-exemplar primed objects (reflecting SE priming) was assessed. Results indicated that (a) repetition priming in occipital-temporal regions is organized asymmetrically, such that AC priming is more prevalent in the left hemisphere and SE priming is more prevalent in the right hemisphere, and (b) AC and SE subsystems are weakly modular, not strongly modular or unified. PMID:25528436

  19. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  20. Abstract and Lexically Specific Information in Sound Patterns: Evidence from /r/-sandhi in Rhotic and Non-rhotic Varieties of English.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2015-12-01

    Phonological theories differ as to whether phonological knowledge is abstract (e.g., phonemic), concrete (e.g., exemplar-based), or some combination of the two. The abstractness/concreteness of phonological knowledge was examined by analyzing the process of /r/-sandhi in two corpora of spoken English. Two predictions of exemplar-based theories were examined: the extent to which a word manifests a particular sound pattern like /r/-deletion should be influenced by (1) its lexical frequency and (2) its distribution in the language with respect to the sound pattern's conditioning environment. Lexical frequency was found to influence /r/-sandhi in a corpus of rhotic American English but not in a corpus of predominantly non-rhotic British English. No effect of a word's long-term distribution was found in either corpus. These results support theories proposing that phonological knowledge is both word-specific and abstract and indicate that speakers do not store all phonetic detail that is in principle available to them. The factors that may favor the use of word-specific versus abstract representations are discussed. PMID:27483743

  1. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  2. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  3. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  4. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  5. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  7. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  8. Developing General vs. Specific Abilities and Their Relationship to Diversity. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (4th, Lawrence, Kansas, September 30-October 1, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 32 papers on the development of general versus specific abilities and their relationship to diversity in gifted and talented students. Sample topics include: creative development at the college level; cultural and linguistic differences in gifted children; Project High Hopes, a program for gifted students with…

  9. ASSIST user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all the states and transitions in a complex system model can be devastatingly tedious and error prone. The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) computer program allows the user to describe the semi-Markov model in a high-level language. Instead of listing the individual model states, the user specifies the rules governing the behavior of the system, and these are used to generate the model automatically. A few statements in the abstract language can describe a very large, complex model. Because no assumptions are made about the system being modeled, ASSIST can be used to generate models describing the behavior of any system. The ASSIST program and its input language are described and illustrated by examples.

  10. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  11. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  12. Abstract: Magnetic solitons' contribution to the specific heat of (CH3)4NMnCl3 in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, F.

    1982-03-01

    It has been shown theoretically that linear magnetic systems with planar anisotropy should display nonlinear excitations, i.e., sine-Gordon solitons upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the chain axis. Experimental evidence for ID magnetic solitons has been presented for TMMC from neutron scattering and NMR measurements.1 The classical statistical mechanics of this system predict a soliton contribution to the free energy and thus to the specific heat.2 In order to test experimentally the thermodynamic relevance of magnetic solitons, I performed measurements of specific heat in single crystal TMMC in an external magnetic field up to 10 Tesla, applied both perpendicular and parallel to the chain. The measurements were performed with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 1.5-15 °K. The results show an extra contribution for H⊥c not present for H∥c. This contribution displays a broad maximum which scales approximately as H/T in agreement with the theory. The maximum occurs just above the peak in the specific heat which is observed in correspondence to the three-dimensional transition temperature, and it can be clearly resolved only for H⩾5.0 T. The soliton energy obtained by fitting the experiments to the classical theory is Es = 2.0 H for H = 5.39 T and Es = 1.8 H for H = 10 T to be compared with the theoretical value of Es = gμBHS = 3.35 H and with the value obtained by neutron scattering at H = 3.2 T, i.e., Es = 2.6 H. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is discussed in terms of renormalization corrections and of a possible soliton instability occurring for fields between 3 and 5 T. a)Permanent address: Institut di Fisica, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy. 1J. P. Boucher, L. P. Regnault, J. Rossad Miguod, J. P. Renard, J. Bouillot, and W. G. Stirling, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1956 (1981). 2K. M. Leung, D. Hone, D. L. Mills, P. S. Riseborough, and S. E. Trullinger, Phys. Rev. B 21, 4017 (1980).

  13. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  14. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  15. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  16. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  17. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  18. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  19. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  20. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  1. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  2. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  3. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  5. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  6. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  7. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  9. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  10. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  13. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  14. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  15. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  16. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  17. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  18. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  19. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  20. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  1. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  2. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  3. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  6. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  7. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  9. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  10. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  11. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  12. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  13. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  14. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  15. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  16. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  17. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  18. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  19. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  20. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  1. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  2. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  3. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  5. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  7. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  8. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  9. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  10. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  11. ASSIST internals reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) program was developed at NASA LaRC in order to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. A user manual was developed to detail its use. Certain technical specifics are of no concern to the end user, yet are of importance to those who must maintain and/or verify the correctness of the tool. This document takes a detailed look into these technical issues.

  12. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  13. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  14. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  15. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  16. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States, Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components . of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NO{sub x}, in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

  17. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  18. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  19. Guidelines for Abstracting Technical Literature on Instructional System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sanford P.; And Others

    Guidelines are presented for the preparation of abstracts of technical literature on instructional systems development (ISD). Although specifically created for abstracting information during the preparation of a technical data file on ISD, the guidelines are sufficiently general to apply to other areas in which abstracts of technical literature…

  20. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  1. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  2. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  4. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  5. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  6. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  7. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  9. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  10. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  11. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  12. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  15. Reliability Analysis for AFTI-F16 SRFCS Using ASSIST and SURE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on reliability analysis of an AFTI-16 Self-Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) using software tools SURE (Semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator and ASSIST (Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool). The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential utility of the software tools in the ongoing effort of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, where the class of systems must be extended beyond the originally intended serving class of electronic digital processors. The study concludes that SURE and ASSIST are applicable to reliability, analysis of flight control systems. They are especially efficient for sensitivity analysis that quantifies the dependence of system reliability on model parameters. The study also confirms an earlier finding on the dominant role of a parameter called a failure coverage. The paper will remark on issues related to the improvement of coverage and the optimization of redundancy level.

  16. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  17. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  18. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  20. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  1. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  2. Language abstractions for low level optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévai, Gergely; Gera, Zoltán; Kelemen, Zoltán

    2012-09-01

    In case of performance critical applications programmers are often forced to write code at a low abstraction level. This leads to programs that are hard to develop and maintain because the program text is mixed up by low level optimization tricks and is far from the algorithm it implements. Even if compilers are smart nowadays and provide the user with many automatically applied optimizations, practice shows that in some cases it is hopeless to optimize the program automatically without the programmer's knowledge. A complementary approach is to allow the programmer to fine tune the program but provide him with language features that make the optimization easier. These are language abstractions that make optimization techniques explicit without adding too much syntactic noise to the program text. This paper presents such language abstractions for two well-known optimizations: bitvectors and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data). The language features are implemented in the embedded domain specific language Feldspar which is specifically tailored for digital signal processing applications. While we present these language elements as part of Feldspar, the ideas behind them are general enough to be applied in other language definition projects as well.

  3. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  4. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  6. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  7. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  8. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  9. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  10. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  11. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  12. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  13. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  14. Abstracts of Review Articles and Educational Materials in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Contained are 99 abstracts of review articles, texts, books, manuals, learning programs, and audiovisual material used in teaching physiology. Specific fields include cell physiology, circulation, comparative physiology, development and aging, endocrinology and metabolism, environmental and exercise physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, muscle…

  15. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  16. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  17. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  18. Software Security - The Dangers of Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollmann, Dieter

    Software insecurity can be explained as a potpourri of hacking methods, ranging from the familiar, e.g. buffer overruns, to the exotic, e.g. code insertion with Chinese characters. From such an angle software security would just be a collection of specific countermeasures. We will observe a common principle that can guide a structured presentation of software security and give guidance for future research directions: There exists a discrepancy between the abstract programming concepts used by software developers and their concrete implementation on the given execution platform. In support of this thesis, five case studies will be discussed, viz characters, integers, variables, atomic transactions, and double linked lists.

  19. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  20. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  1. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  2. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  3. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  4. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  5. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  6. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  7. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  8. Frontal cortex and the discovery of abstract action rules

    PubMed Central

    Badre, David; Kayser, Andrew S.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although we often encounter circumstances with which we have no prior experience, we rapidly learn how to behave in these novel situations. Such adaptive behavior relies on abstract behavioral rules that are generalizable, rather than concrete rules mapping specific cues to specific responses. Though the frontal cortex is known to support concrete rule learning, less well understood are the neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition of abstract rules. Here we use a novel reinforcement learning paradigm to demonstrate that more anterior regions along the rostro-caudal axis of frontal cortex support rule learning at higher levels of abstraction. Moreover, these results indicate that when humans confront new rule learning problems, this rostro-caudal division of labor supports the search for relationships between context and action at multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously. PMID:20435006

  9. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  10. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  11. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  12. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  13. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  14. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  15. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  16. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  17. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  18. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  19. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  20. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  1. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  2. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  3. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  4. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  5. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  6. Specification Reformulation During Specification Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the ARIES Simulation Component (ASC) is to uncover behavioral errors by 'running' a specification at the earliest possible points during the specification development process. The problems to be overcome are the obvious ones the specification may be large, incomplete, underconstrained, and/or uncompilable. This paper describes how specification reformulation is used to mitigate these problems. ASC begins by decomposing validation into specific validation questions. Next, the specification is reformulated to abstract out all those features unrelated to the identified validation question thus creating a new specialized specification. ASC relies on a precise statement of the validation question and a careful application of transformations so as to preserve the essential specification semantics in the resulting specialized specification. This technique is a win if the resulting specialized specification is small enough so the user my easily handle any remaining obstacles to execution. This paper will: (1) describe what a validation question is; (2) outline analysis techniques for identifying what concepts are and are not relevant to a validation question; and (3) identify and apply transformations which remove these less relevant concepts while preserving those which are relevant.

  7. Intern Abstract for Spring 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, William

    2016-01-01

    The Human Interface Branch - EV3 - is evaluating Organic lighting-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an upgrade for current displays on future spacecraft. OLEDs have many advantages over current displays. Conventional displays require constant backlighting which draws a lot of power, but with OLEDs they generate light themselves. OLEDs are lighter, and weight is always a concern with space launches. OLEDs also grant greater viewing angles. OLEDs have been in the commercial market for almost ten years now. What is not known is how they will perform in a space-like environment; specifically deep space far away from the Earth's magnetosphere. In this environment, the OLEDs can be expected to experience vacuum and galactic radiation. The intern's responsibility has been to prepare the OLED for a battery of tests. Unfortunately, it will not be ready for testing at the end of the internship. That being said much progress has been made: a) Developed procedures to safely disassemble the tablet. b) Inventoried and identified critical electronic components. c) 3D printed a testing apparatus. d) Wrote software in Python that will test the OLED screen while being radiated. e) Built circuits to restart the tablet and the test pattern, and ensure it doesn't fall asleep during radiation testing. f) Built enclosure that will house all of the electronics Also, the intern has been working on a way to take messages from a simulated Caution and Warnings system, process said messages into packets, send audio packets to a multicast address that audio boxes are listening to, and output spoken audio. Currently, Cautions and Warnings use a tone to alert crew members of a situation, and then crew members have to read through their checklists to determine what the tone means. In urgent situations, EV3 wants to deliver concise and specific alerts to the crew to facilitate any mitigation efforts on their part. Significant progress was made on this project: a) Open channel with the simulated Caution

  8. Alternate Learning Center. Abstracts of Inservice Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Development and Operations.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts describing the 18 programs offered at the Alternate Learning Center of the Rhode Island Teacher Center which has as its Primary function school based inservice training for local teachers and administrators. Each project is described in detail, including course goals, specific objectives, training…

  9. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about…

  10. 37 CFR 1.72 - Title and abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Title and abstract. 1.72 Section 1.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification §...

  11. 37 CFR 1.72 - Title and abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Title and abstract. 1.72 Section 1.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification §...

  12. 37 CFR 1.72 - Title and abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Title and abstract. 1.72 Section 1.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification §...

  13. 37 CFR 1.72 - Title and abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Title and abstract. 1.72 Section 1.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification §...

  14. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  15. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  16. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  17. Types: A data abstraction package in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, S. )

    1990-08-01

    TYPES is a collection of Fortran programs which allow the creation and manipulation of abstract data objects'' without the need for a preprocessor. Each data object is assigned a type'' as it is created which implies participation in a set of characteristic operations. Available types include scalars, logicals, ordered sets, stacks, queues, sequences, trees, arrays, character strings, block text, histograms, virtual and allocatable memories. A data object may contain integers, reals, or other data objects in any combination. In addition to the type specific operations, a set of universal utilities allows for copying input/output to disk, naming, editing, displaying, user input, interactive creation, tests for equality of contents or structure, machine to machine translation or source code creation for and data object. TYPES is available on VAX/VMS, SUN 3, SPARC, DEC/Ultrix, Silicon Graphics 4D and Cray/Unicos machines. The capabilities of the package are discussed together with characteristic applications and experience in writing the GVerify package.

  18. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  19. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  20. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  1. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  2. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  3. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  4. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  5. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  6. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  7. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  8. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  9. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  10. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  11. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  12. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  13. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  14. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  15. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  16. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  17. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  18. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  19. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  20. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  1. NASA Patent Abstracts: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 54

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents and applications for patent. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period June 1998 through December 1998. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order.

  2. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  3. Writing, reviewing, and presenting an abstract.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts afford an opportunity to report data at professional meetings and, when published, in the literature. Accordingly, they should be prepared with great care. When writing an abstract, anticipate questions the reviewer will ask when judging it and provide complete answers. The presentation of an abstract should follow similar thought processes. State why a problem or question is important, how you addressed it, what you found, and how your findings can be applied to the issue at hand. Slides and text should provide coordinated visual and auditory input, respectively, to ensure complete comprehension. PMID:1816248

  4. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  5. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of current literature and research project summaries. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aquatic environment. This is...

  6. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  7. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  8. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  9. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  10. Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

  11. The abstract model of dynamic evolution based on services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ye; Li, Tong; Li, Yunfei; Gu, Hongxing

    2012-01-01

    Service-oriented software system is facing a challenge to regulate itself promptly because of the evolving Internet environment and user requirements In this paper, a new way that describe the dynamic evolution of services according to 3C mode(Will 1990) is proposed, and Extended workflow net is utilized to describe the abstract model of dynamic evolution of services from specific-functional-domain which is defined in this paper to the whole system.

  12. The abstract model of dynamic evolution based on services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ye; Li, Tong; Li, Yunfei; Gu, Hongxing

    2011-12-01

    Service-oriented software system is facing a challenge to regulate itself promptly because of the evolving Internet environment and user requirements In this paper, a new way that describe the dynamic evolution of services according to 3C mode(Will 1990) is proposed, and Extended workflow net is utilized to describe the abstract model of dynamic evolution of services from specific-functional-domain which is defined in this paper to the whole system.

  13. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  14. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  15. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  16. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  17. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  18. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words

    PubMed Central

    Danguecan, Ashley N.; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  19. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  20. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  1. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  2. The effects of groundwater abstraction on low flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater often constitutes an essential source of water. If groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge over a long time and over large areas persistent groundwater depletion can occur. The resulting lowering of groundwater levels can have negative effects on agricultural productivity but also on natural streamflow and associated wetlands and ecosystems, in particular during low-flow events when the groundwater contribution through baseflow is relatively large. In this study we focus on the effects of global groundwater abstraction on low-flow magnitude, frequency and duration for the major rivers of the world for the period 1960-2000. As a basis, we use the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB that calculates all major water balance terms on a daily time step at a 0.5ox0.5o resolution. Currently, PCR-GLOBWB represents groundwater and the associated baseflow by means of a linear reservoir that is parameterized using global lithological data and drainage density. It simulates renewable groundwater storage within each 0.5o cell. Lateral flow between cells is not considered. The specific runoff from the model is subsequently transformed into discharge by means of a kinematic wave routing scheme. In this study we perform a sensitivity analysis in which we evaluate the effects of total water demand for the period 1960-2000 (Wada et al., 2011: doi:10.5194/hess-15-3785-2011). This demand is preferentially met by renewable groundwater storage, secondly by surface water. Any remainder is assumed to stem from non- renewable (i.e. fossil) groundwater resources. Thus, groundwater abstractions act as a direct sink of (renewable) groundwater storage, whereas surface water abstractions act as a direct sink of streamflow. The resulting response is non-trivial as abstractions are variably taken from both groundwater and surface water, where return-flows contribute to a single source: return flow from

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  7. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  8. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  9. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  10. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  11. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  12. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  13. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  14. Mr. Birmingham and His New Star (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The year 2016 sees two anniversaries connected with the Irish astronomer John Birmingham (1816-1884): the 200th anniversary of his birth and the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the nova outburst in T Coronae Borealis.

  15. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of Social Work in…

  16. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  17. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  18. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  19. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  20. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  1. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  2. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  3. Static Abstractions and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    The element of static abstractions (SAs)--any pseudoheuristic listing of derived nominals whose purpose is to define good structure in prose writing--is one of the important historical components of the current traditional rhetoric inherited from the nineteenth century. SAs, of which unity, coherence, and emphasis are the best known examples, have…

  4. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  5. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  6. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  7. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  8. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  9. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  10. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  11. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  12. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  13. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry programs. (TW)

  14. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  15. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  17. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  18. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  19. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  20. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts." Each…

  1. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    von Elm, Erik; Costanza, Michael C; Walder, Bernhard; Tramèr, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    publication were associated with specific characteristics of abstracts and meetings. PMID:12854973

  2. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  3. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design. Technical Report #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper argues that an important design principle for building expert systems is to represent all control knowledge abstractly and separately from the domain knowledge upon which it operates. Abstract control knowledge is defined as the specifications of when and how a program is to carry out its operations, such as pursuing a goal, focusing,…

  4. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2002 through. December 2002. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included

  5. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2000 through December 2000. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in most records

  6. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2001 through December 2001. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in

  7. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. PMID:25902728

  8. Situation models, mental simulations, and abstract concepts in discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-08-01

    This article sets out to examine the role of symbolic and sensorimotor representations in discourse comprehension. It starts out with a review of the literature on situation models, showing how mental representations are constrained by linguistic and situational factors. These ideas are then extended to more explicitly include sensorimotor representations. Following Zwaan and Madden (2005), the author argues that sensorimotor and symbolic representations mutually constrain each other in discourse comprehension. These ideas are then developed further to propose two roles for abstract concepts in discourse comprehension. It is argued that they serve as pointers in memory, used (1) cataphorically to integrate upcoming information into a sensorimotor simulation, or (2) anaphorically integrate previously presented information into a sensorimotor simulation. In either case, the sensorimotor representation is a specific instantiation of the abstract concept. PMID:26088667

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcaini, Paolo; Gargantini, Angelo; Riccobene, Elvinia

    2010-01-01

    A model review is a validation technique aimed at determining if a model is of sufficient quality and allows defects to be identified early in the system development, reducing the cost of fixing them. In this paper we propose a technique to perform automatic review of Abstract State Machine (ASM) formal specifications. We first detect a family of typical vulnerabilities and defects a developer can introduce during the modeling activity using the ASMs and we express such faults as the violation of meta-properties that guarantee certain quality attributes of the specification. These meta-properties are then mapped to temporal logic formulas and model checked for their violation. As a proof of concept, we also report the result of applying this ASM review process to several specifications.

  3. Applying model abstraction techniques to optimize monitoring networks for detecting subsurface contaminant transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving strategies for monitoring subsurface contaminant transport includes performance comparison of competing models, developed independently or obtained via model abstraction. Model comparison and parameter discrimination involve specific performance indicators selected to better understand s...

  4. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  5. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  6. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  7. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  8. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  9. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  10. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  11. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  12. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  13. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  14. Abstract concepts: data from a Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2013-02-01

    Do humans and nonhumans share the ability to form abstract concepts? Until the 1960s, many researchers questioned whether avian subjects could form categorical constructs, much less more abstract formulations, including concepts such as same-different or exact understanding of number. Although ethologists argued that nonhumans, including birds, had to have some understanding of divisions such as prey versus predator, mate versus nonmate, food versus nonfood, or basic relational concepts such as more versus less, simply in order to survive, no claims were made that these abilities reflected cognitive processes, and little formal data from psychology laboratories could initially support such claims. Researchers like Anthony Wright, however, succeeded in obtaining such data and inspired many others to pursue these topics, with the eventual result that several avian species are now considered "feathered primates" in terms of cognitive processes. Here I review research on numerical concepts in the Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), demonstrating that at least one subject, Alex, understood number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, in ways comparing favorably to those of apes and young human children. He not only understood such concepts, but also appeared to learn them in ways more similar to humans than to apes. PMID:23089384

  15. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  16. On quantitative effects of RNA shape abstraction.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Markus E; Scheid, Anika

    2009-11-01

    Over the last few decades, much effort has been taken to develop approaches for identifying good predictions of RNA secondary structure. This is due to the fact that most computational prediction methods based on free energy minimization compute a number of suboptimal foldings and we have to identify the native folding among all these possible secondary structures. Using the abstract shapes approach as introduced by Giegerich et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 32(16):4843-4851, 2004), each class of similar secondary structures is represented by one shape and the native structures can be found among the top shape representatives. In this article, we derive some interesting results answering enumeration problems for abstract shapes and secondary structures of RNA. We compute precise asymptotics for the number of different shape representations of size n and for the number of different shapes showing up when abstracting from secondary structures of size n under a combinatorial point of view. A more realistic model taking primary structures into account remains an open challenge. We give some arguments why the present techniques cannot be applied in this case. PMID:19756808

  17. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  18. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  19. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2-4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  20. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2–4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  2. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Umilta', M. Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works. PMID:23162456

  3. NASA Patent Abstracts October 2006: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is an annual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA-owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included were originally published in NASA s Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2005 through September 2006. The range of subjects covered includes the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide's 10 broad subject divisions separated further into 76 specific categories. However, not all categories contain citations during the dates covered for this issue; therefore, the Table of Contents does not include all divisions and categories. This scheme was devised in 1975 and last revised in 2005 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. When available, citations contain a

  4. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  5. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Abstracts of 386 papers and plenary presentations are included. The plenary sessions related to the national technology initiative. The other sessions covered the following NDE topics: corrosion, electromagnetic arrays, elastic wave scattering and backscattering/noise, civil structures, material properties, holography, shearography, UT wave propagation, eddy currents, coatings, signal processing, radiography, computed tomography, EM imaging, adhesive bonds, NMR, laser ultrasonics, composites, thermal, magnetic measurements, nonlinear acoustics, interface modeling and characterization, UT transducers, new techniques, joined materials, probes and systems, fatigue cracks and fracture, imaging and sizing, NDE in engineering and process control, acoustics of cracks, and sensors. An author index is included. (DLC)

  6. Solar thermal components. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozman, W. R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts literature and technical papers on components applied to solar thermal energy utilization. The quarterly volumes are divided into ten categories: material properties; flat plat collectors; concentrating collectors; thermal storage; heat pumps; coolers and heat exchangers; solar ponds and distillation; greenhouses; process pleat; and irrigation pumps. Each quarterly volume is compiled from a wide variety of data bases, report literature, technical briefs, journal articles and other traditional and non traditional sources. The Technology Application Center maintains a library containing many of the articles and publications referenced in the series.

  7. The Lyncis Two for One Special (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The pulsating delta Scuti star AN Lyn and the near contact binary UU Lyn are conveniently located at high declination in the northern constellation of Lynx. These variable stars are about 15 arc minutes apart in the sky and differ in average brightness by roughly one magnitude. This combination makes it fairly straightforward to secure photometric data on both stars at the same time using a common set of comparison stars. We present observations made at the BYU West Mountain Observatory during the spring of 2015 and outline some preliminary conclusions that can be drawn about these distinctly different variable stars.

  8. Knowledge Abstraction in Chinese Chess Endgame Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Nian; Liu, Pangfeng; Hsu, Shun-Chin; Hsu, Tsan-Sheng

    Retrograde analysis is a well known approach to construct endgame databases. However, the size of the endgame databases are too large to be loaded into the main memory of a computer during tournaments. In this paper, a novel knowledge abstraction strategy is proposed to compress endgame databases. The goal is to obtain succinct knowledge for practical endgames. A specialized goal-oriented search method is described and applied on the important endgame KRKNMM. The method of combining a search algorithm with a small size of knowledge is used to handle endgame positions up to a limited depth, but with a high degree of correctness.

  9. Collaborations with Arne on Cataclysmic Variables (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, P.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The start of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2002 marked the beginning of a 14-year-long collaboration with Arne on the photometry of cataclysmic variables. Starting with the USNO Flagstaff station, and continuing with AAVSOnet, Arne and the AAVSO members contributed ground based followup of SDSS candidate CVs to determine their orbital periods and characteristics. In addition, many scientific studies using spacecraft observations with HST, XMM, and GALEX were enabled and improved due to their contemporaneous ground-based photometry. Some of the primary results in the 39 publications resulting from this long term collaboration will be summarized.

  10. A method for automatically abstracting visual documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Visual documents - motion sequences on film, video-tape, and digital recordings - constitute a major source of information for the Space Agency, as well as all other government and private sector entities. This article describes a method for automatically selecting key frames from visual documents. These frames may in turn be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents in visual libraries, hypermedia systems, and training guides. The performance of the abstracting algorithm reduces 51 minutes of video sequences to 134 frames; a reduction of information in the range of 700:1.

  11. Advanced techniques in reliability model representation and solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    The current tendency of flight control system designs is towards increased integration of applications and increased distribution of computational elements. The reliability analysis of such systems is difficult because subsystem interactions are increasingly interdependent. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have been working for several years to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques to address these problems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG) is a software tool that uses as input a graphical object-oriented block diagram of the system. RMG uses a failure-effects algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. The ASSURE software tool is a parallel processing program that uses the semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator (SURE) solution technique and the abstract semi-Markov specification interface to the SURE tool (ASSIST) modeling language. A failure modes-effects simulation is used by ASSURE. These tools were used to analyze a significant portion of a complex flight control system. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that distributed fault-tolerant system architectures can now be analyzed.

  12. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  13. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  14. Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

  15. Directory of Energy Information Administration Model Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-16

    This directory partially fulfills the requirements of Section 8c, of the documentation order, which states in part that: The Office of Statistical Standards will annually publish an EIA document based on the collected abstracts and the appendices. This report contains brief statements about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models active through March 1985 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these proprietary models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  16. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  17. Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a “balancing and weighing” strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a “fight-and-flight” strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses. PMID:21483767

  18. A multi-level typology of abstract visualization tasks.

    PubMed

    Brehmer, Matthew; Munzner, Tamara

    2013-12-01

    The considerable previous work characterizing visualization usage has focused on low-level tasks or interactions and high-level tasks, leaving a gap between them that is not addressed. This gap leads to a lack of distinction between the ends and means of a task, limiting the potential for rigorous analysis. We contribute a multi-level typology of visualization tasks to address this gap, distinguishing why and how a visualization task is performed, as well as what the task inputs and outputs are. Our typology allows complex tasks to be expressed as sequences of interdependent simpler tasks, resulting in concise and flexible descriptions for tasks of varying complexity and scope. It provides abstract rather than domain-specific descriptions of tasks, so that useful comparisons can be made between visualization systems targeted at different application domains. This descriptive power supports a level of analysis required for the generation of new designs, by guiding the translation of domain-specific problems into abstract tasks, and for the qualitative evaluation of visualization usage. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach in a detailed case study, comparing task descriptions from our typology to those derived from related work. We also discuss the similarities and differences between our typology and over two dozen extant classification systems and theoretical frameworks from the literatures of visualization, human-computer interaction, information retrieval, communications, and cartography. PMID:24051804

  19. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  20. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  1. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  2. eta Carinae Continues to Evolve (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eta Carinae affords us a unique opportunity to study the pre-supernova evolution of the most massive stars. For at least the last half century, it has maintained a 5.5-year spectroscopic cycle that culminates with abrupt decreases in the strong stellar wind emission features. Over the last 15 years, the star has brightened at an accelerated rate and altered its spectrum, in addition to the spectroscopic cycle, indicating an ongoing change in state. We present Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy and synthetic photometry from the most recent spectroscopic event (2014.5) that shows notable differences with past events and provides clues to the on-going evolution of the star.

  3. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  4. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  5. EE Cep Winks in Full Color (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We observe the long period (5.6 years) Eclipsing Binary Variable Star EE Cep during its 2014 eclipse. It was observed on every clear night from the Maria Mitchell Observatory as well as remote sites for a total of 25 nights. Each night consisted of a detailed time series in BVRI looking for short term variations for a total of >10,000 observations. The data was transformed to the Standard System. In addition, a time series was captured during the night of the eclipse. This data provides an alternate method to determine Time of Minimum than traditionally performed. The TOM varied with color. Several strong correlations are seen between colors substantiating the detection of variations on a time scale of hours. The long term light curve shows five interesting and different Phases with different characteristics.

  6. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  7. Predicting free choices for abstract intentions.

    PubMed

    Soon, Chun Siong; He, Anna Hanxi; Bode, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-04-01

    Unconscious neural activity has been repeatedly shown to precede and potentially even influence subsequent free decisions. However, to date, such findings have been mostly restricted to simple motor choices, and despite considerable debate, there is no evidence that the outcome of more complex free decisions can be predicted from prior brain signals. Here, we show that the outcome of a free decision to either add or subtract numbers can already be decoded from neural activity in medial prefrontal and parietal cortex 4 s before the participant reports they are consciously making their choice. These choice-predictive signals co-occurred with the so-called default mode brain activity pattern that was still dominant at the time when the choice-predictive signals occurred. Our results suggest that unconscious preparation of free choices is not restricted to motor preparation. Instead, decisions at multiple scales of abstraction evolve from the dynamics of preceding brain activity. PMID:23509300

  8. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  9. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  10. (abstract) Determination of the Specific Heat and Total Hemispherical Total Emissivity of the Highly Undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, R.; Kim, Y. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    High temperature high vacuum electrostatic levitation was combined with DSC experiments to determine the specific heat C(sub p) of the undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) liquid as a function of temperature. The containerless approach made it possible to undercool the melt to the glass transition temperature without inducing nucleation. Because the cooling process was purely radiative, noncontact temperature measurement techniques could be used to determine the specific heat to total hemispherical emissivity ratio, C(sub p)/epsilon(sub t), for the undercooled liquid region. Using C(sub p) values which were independently obtained by DSC, epsilon(sub t) could be determined. With knowledge of C(sub p) of the undercooled liquid it was possible to determine other thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy and entropy as a function of undercooling.

  11. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  12. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  14. Strengthening Structured Abstracts for Education Research: The Need for Claim-Based Structured Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Yin, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy recommendations involving the putative primacy of randomized clinical trials in educational settings have reignited research paradigm debates. The authors of this article use the vehicle of strengthening structured journal abstracts to point out the argumentative character of all education research claims. They offer suggestions to…

  15. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  16. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  17. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  18. Directory of Energy Information Administration model abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-11

    This report contains brief statements from the model managers about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models ''active'' through March 1987 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). A basic model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being sufficiently important to require sustained support and public scrutiny. An auxiliary model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being used only occasionally in analyses, and therefore requires minimal levels of documentation. A developing model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being under development and yet of sufficient interest to require a basic level of documentation at a future date. EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these ''proprietary'' models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  19. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  20. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  1. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B.

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  2. Going Over to the Dark Side (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) This is the tale of my continuing journey transforming from a visual to a CCD photometrist. It is my hope that sharing my experiences will help and encourage others to consider taking the same path. It has been hard, but fun; a wonderful opportunity as a newly retired physician to expand my horizons. However, my brain did have to make the switch from Biology to Physics. The major barrier that concerned me was cost, but change itself was also a challenge. Other issues included dealing with the complexity of technical systems and a myriad of details. My solution was to be patient and think small to insure success and then build upon all those little victories. The pedagogical component of this project was critical as well. It began with a good mentor and continued via networking with other members at meetings, taking CHOICE courses, and most importantly: practice, practice, practice. Each plateau suggested many new possibilities. I think “The Force” is now with me! The adventure continues.

  3. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  4. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  5. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    PubMed Central

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D.; Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., “printed schedule”); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., “conditional schedule”); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., “thin schedule”). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  6. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D; Amsel, Ben D; DeLong, Katherine A; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., "printed schedule"); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., "conditional schedule"); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., "thin schedule"). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  7. Testing Whether and When Abstract Symmetric Patterns Produce Affective Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bertamini, Marco; Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify. PMID:23840892

  8. Routes towards an abstract thermodynamics in the late nineteenth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoni, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Two different traditions of research emerged from Rudolf Clausius's version of thermodynamics. While James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann pursued the integration of thermodynamics with the kinetic theory of gases, others relied on a macroscopic and more abstract approach that set aside specific mechanical models. This second approach blossomed in about two decades in different countries of Europe and in the United States. François Massieu, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Hermann Helmholtz, and then Pierre Duhem explored the connections between the contents of thermodynamics and the formal structures of analytical mechanics. Others like the young Max Planck and Arthur von Oettingen pursued a sort of formal symmetry between thermal and mechanical variables. In the British Isles, Joseph John Thomson developed a dynamical approach to physics and chemistry, making use of the tools of abstract mechanics without excluding microscopic motions. Some developments were logically interconnected, as it was for Massieu's, Gibbs's, Helmholtz's, and Duhem's, even though they occurred in a largely independent manner. Duhem put forward the most original and most systematic reinterpretation of thermodynamics, which involved a bold upgrading of analytical mechanics and a bold mathematical unification of physics and chemistry. A strong commitment to unification was one of the hallmarks of all these theoretical researches.

  9. Photometry Transforms Generation with PTGP (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, G.; Menzies, K.; Silvis, G.; Harris, B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Historically the development of photometry transformation coefficients required extensive manual effort and the use of large spreadsheets. A new release—version 5.0—of the Photometry Transformations Generation Program (PTGP) achieves the goal of generating transformation coefficients without the use of spreadsheets—saving considerable time and ensuring data accuracy. PTGP version 5.0 works directly with VSP to retrieve the most recent standard star reference magnitudes (currently for M67 and NGC7790). It then processes instrument magnitude file(s) downloaded from vphot or exported from AIP4WIN or MAXIM. Either AUID or “Boulder” star identifications can be used for AIP4WIN and MAXIM. When using VPHOT data or “Boulder” star identifications, PTGP determines the AUID names for each of the reference standard stars. All standard transforms are calculated. Plots of each transform's data can be reviewed, and individual star observations added/deleted. Transform sets can be saved for further use. Transform sets can be compared and selected sets averaged. The averaged sets can be exported in a file format compatible with the AAVSO TA tool. The presentation will provide a brief overview and demonstration of the tool. It will also discuss the implications of using PYTHON for the development—both benefits and potential problems. The program runs on both PCs and Macs. A subsequent presentation will discuss the use of VPHOT and PTGP to generate transforms and the testing of the impacts of varying key VPHOT and PTGP parameters.

  10. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  11. Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are by theory, experiment, and bench-level testing of small systems, to develop scientifically-sound engineering processes and facility specifications for producing propellants and fuels, construction and shielding materials, and life support substances from the lithospheres and atmospheres of lunar, planetary, and asteroidal bodies. Current emphasis is on the production of oxygen, other usefull gases, metallic, ceramic/composite, and related byproducts from lunar regolith, carbonaceous chrondritic asteroids, and the carbon dioxide rich Martian atmosphere.

  12. Extracting rate changes in transcriptional regulation from MEDLINE abstracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Time delays are important factors that are often neglected in gene regulatory network (GRN) inference models. Validating time delays from knowledge bases is a challenge since the vast majority of biological databases do not record temporal information of gene regulations. Biological knowledge and facts on gene regulations are typically extracted from bio-literature with specialized methods that depend on the regulation task. In this paper, we mine evidences for time delays related to the transcriptional regulation of yeast from the PubMed abstracts. Results Since the vast majority of abstracts lack quantitative time information, we can only collect qualitative evidences of time delays. Specifically, the speed-up or delay in transcriptional regulation rate can provide evidences for time delays (shorter or longer) in GRN. Thus, we focus on deriving events related to rate changes in transcriptional regulation. A corpus of yeast regulation related abstracts was manually labeled with such events. In order to capture these events automatically, we create an ontology of sub-processes that are likely to result in transcription rate changes by combining textual patterns and biological knowledge. We also propose effective feature extraction methods based on the created ontology to identify the direct evidences with specific details of these events. Our ontologies outperform existing state-of-the-art gene regulation ontologies in the automatic rule learning method applied to our corpus. The proposed deterministic ontology rule-based method can achieve comparable performance to the automatic rule learning method based on decision trees. This demonstrates the effectiveness of our ontology in identifying rate-changing events. We also tested the effectiveness of the proposed feature mining methods on detecting direct evidence of events. Experimental results show that the machine learning method on these features achieves an F1-score of 71.43%. Conclusions The manually

  13. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  14. Clad Degradation- Summary and Abstraction for LA

    SciTech Connect

    D. Stahl

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this model report is to develop the summary cladding degradation abstraction that will be used in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Most civilian commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. The model addressed in this report is intended to describe the postulated condition of commercial Zircaloy-clad fuel as a function of postclosure time after it is placed in the repository. Earlier total system performance assessments analyzed the waste form as exposed UO{sub 2}, which was available for degradation at the intrinsic dissolution rate. Water in the waste package quickly became saturated with many of the radionuclides, limiting their release rate. In the total system performance assessments for the Viability Assessment and the Site Recommendation, cladding was analyzed as part of the waste form, limiting the amount of fuel available at any time for degradation. The current model is divided into two stages. The first considers predisposal rod failures (most of which occur during reactor operation and associated activities) and postdisposal mechanical failure (from static loading of rocks) as mechanisms for perforating the cladding. Other fuel failure mechanisms including those caused by handling or transportation have been screened out (excluded) or are treated elsewhere. All stainless-steel-clad fuel, which makes up a small percentage of the overall amount of fuel to be stored, is modeled as failed upon placement in the waste packages. The second stage of the degradation model is the splitting of the cladding from the reaction of water or moist air and UO{sub 2}. The splitting has been observed to be rapid in comparison to the total system performance assessment time steps and is modeled to be instantaneous. After the cladding splits, the rind buildup inside the cladding widens the split, increasing the diffusion area from the fuel rind to the waste package interior. This model report summarizes

  15. The Role of Representations in Executive Function: Investigating a Developmental Link between Flexibility and Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Kharitonova, Maria; Munakata, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Young children often perseverate, engaging in previously correct, but no longer appropriate behaviors. One account posits that such perseveration results from the use of stimulus-specific representations of a situation, which are distinct from abstract, generalizable representations that support flexible behavior. Previous findings supported this account, demonstrating that only children who flexibly switch between rules could generalize their behavior to novel stimuli. However, this link between flexibility and generalization might reflect general cognitive abilities, or depend upon similarities across the measures or their temporal order. The current work examined these issues by testing the specificity and generality of this link. In two experiments with 3-year-old children, flexibility was measured in terms of switching between rules in a card-sorting task, while abstraction was measured in terms of selecting which stimulus did not belong in an odd-one-out task. The link between flexibility and abstraction was general across (1) abstraction dimensions similar to or different from those in the card-sorting task and (2) abstraction tasks that preceded or followed the switching task. Good performance on abstraction and flexibility measures did not extend to all cognitive tasks, including an IQ measure, and dissociated from children’s ability to gaze at the correct stimulus in the odd-one-out task, suggesting that the link between flexibility and abstraction is specific to such measures, rather than reflecting general abilities that affect all tasks. We interpret these results in terms of the role that developing prefrontal cortical regions play in processes such as working memory, which can support both flexibility and abstraction. PMID:22144971

  16. Automatic processing of abstract musical tonality.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inyong; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Bressler, Scott; Loui, Psyche; Lee, Kyogu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Music perception builds on expectancy in harmony, melody, and rhythm. Neural responses to the violations of such expectations are observed in event-related potentials (ERPs) measured using electroencephalography. Most previous ERP studies demonstrating sensitivity to musical violations used stimuli that were temporally regular and musically structured, with less-frequent deviant events that differed from a specific expectation in some feature such as pitch, harmony, or rhythm. Here, we asked whether expectancies about Western musical scale are strong enough to elicit ERP deviance components. Specifically, we explored whether pitches inconsistent with an established scale context elicit deviant components even though equally rare pitches that fit into the established context do not, and even when their timing is unpredictable. We used Markov chains to create temporally irregular pseudo-random sequences of notes chosen from one of two diatonic scales. The Markov pitch-transition probabilities resulted in sequences that favored notes within the scale, but that lacked clear melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic structure. At the random positions, the sequence contained probe tones that were either within the established scale or were out of key. Our subjects ignored the note sequences, watching a self-selected silent movie with subtitles. Compared to the in-key probes, the out-of-key probes elicited a significantly larger P2 ERP component. Results show that random note sequences establish expectations of the "first-order" statistical property of musical key, even in listeners not actively monitoring the sequences. PMID:25538607

  17. Automatic processing of abstract musical tonality

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyong; Bharadwaj, Hari M.; Bressler, Scott; Loui, Psyche; Lee, Kyogu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2014-01-01

    Music perception builds on expectancy in harmony, melody, and rhythm. Neural responses to the violations of such expectations are observed in event-related potentials (ERPs) measured using electroencephalography. Most previous ERP studies demonstrating sensitivity to musical violations used stimuli that were temporally regular and musically structured, with less-frequent deviant events that differed from a specific expectation in some feature such as pitch, harmony, or rhythm. Here, we asked whether expectancies about Western musical scale are strong enough to elicit ERP deviance components. Specifically, we explored whether pitches inconsistent with an established scale context elicit deviant components even though equally rare pitches that fit into the established context do not, and even when their timing is unpredictable. We used Markov chains to create temporally irregular pseudo-random sequences of notes chosen from one of two diatonic scales. The Markov pitch-transition probabilities resulted in sequences that favored notes within the scale, but that lacked clear melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic structure. At the random positions, the sequence contained probe tones that were either within the established scale or were out of key. Our subjects ignored the note sequences, watching a self-selected silent movie with subtitles. Compared to the in-key probes, the out-of-key probes elicited a significantly larger P2 ERP component. Results show that random note sequences establish expectations of the “first-order” statistical property of musical key, even in listeners not actively monitoring the sequences. PMID:25538607

  18. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as “freedom.” Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  19. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as "freedom." Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  20. FISCAL YEAR 1976/CONTROL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE(Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organiz...

  1. FISCAL YEAR 1976/HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE (Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organi...

  2. A Review of Errors in the Journal Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    (percentage) of abstracts that involved with errors, the most erroneous part of the abstract, and the types and frequency of errors. Also the purpose expanded to compare the results with those of the previous…

  3. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  4. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  5. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts Online (ERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 14 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); Educational Research Abstract; Abstract number; Source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and Issue (journal…

  6. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  7. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  8. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  9. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  10. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  11. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  12. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  13. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  14. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  15. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  16. From mind to matter: neural correlates of abstract and concrete mindsets

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Much work in the field of social cognition shows that adopting an abstract (vs concrete) mindset alters the way people construe the world, thereby exerting substantial effects across innumerable aspects of human behavior. In order to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of these effects, we scanned participants as they performed two widely used tasks that induce an abstracting vs concretizing mindsets. Specifically, participants: (i) indicated ‘why’ perform certain activities (a task that involves abstraction) or ‘how’ the same activities are performed (a task that involves concretization) and (ii) generated superordinate categories for certain objects (a task that involves abstraction) or subordinate exemplars for the same objects (a task that involves concretization). We conducted a conjunction analysis of the two tasks, in order to uncover the neural activity associated with abstraction and concretization. The results showed that concretization was associated with activation in fronto-parietal regions implicated in goal-directed action; abstraction was associated with activity within posterior regions implicated in visual perception. We discuss these findings in light of construal-level theory’s notion of abstraction. PMID:23482624

  17. From mind to matter: neural correlates of abstract and concrete mindsets.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2014-05-01

    Much work in the field of social cognition shows that adopting an abstract (vs concrete) mindset alters the way people construe the world, thereby exerting substantial effects across innumerable aspects of human behavior. In order to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of these effects, we scanned participants as they performed two widely used tasks that induce an abstracting vs concretizing mindsets. Specifically, participants: (i) indicated 'why' perform certain activities (a task that involves abstraction) or 'how' the same activities are performed (a task that involves concretization) and (ii) generated superordinate categories for certain objects (a task that involves abstraction) or subordinate exemplars for the same objects (a task that involves concretization). We conducted a conjunction analysis of the two tasks, in order to uncover the neural activity associated with abstraction and concretization. The results showed that concretization was associated with activation in fronto-parietal regions implicated in goal-directed action; abstraction was associated with activity within posterior regions implicated in visual perception. We discuss these findings in light of construal-level theory's notion of abstraction. PMID:23482624

  18. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O’Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and thus guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in two masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets’ first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar co-activated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. PMID:26618911

  19. The primacy of abstract syllables in Chinese word production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in 2 masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets' first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar coactivated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618911

  20. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  1. Functional Abstraction as a Method to Discover Knowledge in Gene Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Computational analyses of functions of gene sets obtained in microarray analyses or by topical database searches are increasingly important in biology. To understand their functions, the sets are usually mapped to Gene Ontology knowledge bases by means of over-representation analysis (ORA). Its result represents the specific knowledge of the functionality of the gene set. However, the specific ontology typically consists of many terms and relationships, hindering the understanding of the ‘main story’. We developed a methodology to identify a comprehensibly small number of GO terms as “headlines” of the specific ontology allowing to understand all central aspects of the roles of the involved genes. The Functional Abstraction method finds a set of headlines that is specific enough to cover all details of a specific ontology and is abstract enough for human comprehension. This method exceeds the classical approaches at ORA abstraction and by focusing on information rather than decorrelation of GO terms, it directly targets human comprehension. Functional abstraction provides, with a maximum of certainty, information value, coverage and conciseness, a representation of the biological functions in a gene set plays a role. This is the necessary means to interpret complex Gene Ontology results thus strengthening the role of functional genomics in biomarker and drug discovery. PMID:24587272

  2. Magnetic properties of heterotrophic bacteria (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovceva, Nadezda V.; Glebova, Irina N.; Romanuk, Anatoly V.

    1994-05-01

    The magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization) of six species of heterotrophic bacteria were studied: alcaligenes faecalis 81, arthrobacter globiformis BKM 685, bacillus cereus 8, leptothrix pseudo-ochracea D-405, proteus vulgaris 14, and seliberia stellata. It has been shown that the magnetic properties of bacteria depend on (1) the peculiarity of the micro-organism (species-specific and connected with cultivation conditions); (2) the source of the iron in the media. Most of the bacteria are diamagnetic in media with a minimum of iron (χ∞=-7.2-0.3×10-6 sm3/g). The spore forming species (bacillus cereus) has increased diamagnetism. Usually the bacteria are paramagnetic in iron-containing media because they concentrate into Fe compounds. The paramagnetism of the iron-concentrating species (anthrobacter globiformis -χpar=2.4×10-6, leptothrix pseudo-ochtracea χpar=11.0×10-6 and seliberia stellata χpar=3.2×10-6 sm3/g) depends, in general, on magnetically ordered compounds. Iron compounds not accumulated by proteus vulgaris and these species are always diamagnetic .

  3. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  4. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; de la Calleja, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock's paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri's Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri's Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks.

  5. Vibrationally Driven Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction by Bromine Radical in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Shalowski, Michael A.; Crim, F. Fleming

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have shown that preparing reactants in specific vibrational states can affect the product state distribution and branching ratios in gas phase reactions. In the solution phase, however, no vibrational mediation study has been reported to date. In this work, we present our first attempt of vibrationally mediated bimolecular reaction in solution. Hydrogen abstraction from a solvent by a bromine radical can be a good candidate to test the effect of vibrational excitation on reaction dynamics because this reaction is highly endothermic and thus we can suppress any thermally initiated reaction in our experiment. Br radical quickly forms CT (charge transfer) complex with solvent molecule once it is generated from photolysis of a bromine source. The CT complex strongly absorbs visible light, which allows us to use electronic transient absorption for tracking Br radical population. For this experiment, we photolyze bromoform solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent with 267 nm to generate Br radical and excite the C-H stretch overtone of DMSO with 1700 nm a few hundred femtoseconds after the photolysis. Then, we monitor the population of Br-DMSO complex with 400 nm as a function of delay time between two pump beams and probe beam. As a preliminary result, we observed the enhancement of loss of Br-DMSO complex population due to the vibrational excitation. We think that increased loss of Br-DMSO complex is attributed to more loss of Br radical that abstracts hydrogen from DMSO and it is the vibrational excitation that promotes the reaction. To make a clear conclusion, we will next utilize infrared probing to directly detect HBr product formation.

  6. Identity-Specific Face Adaptation Effects: Evidence for Abstractive Face Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they…

  7. Does Mathematical Learning Occur in Going from Concrete to Abstract or in Going from Abstract to Concrete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract "and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. It is generally accepted that development goes from concrete toward the abstract; but dialectical theorists maintain just the opposite: development consists of an ascension from the abstract to the concrete. In this article, we…

  8. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  9. Abstract Art or Arbiters of Energy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    More than just the idle stuff of daydreams, clouds help control the flow of radiant energy around our world. Clouds are plentiful and widespread throughout Earth's atmosphere-covering up to 75 percent of our planet at any given time-so they play a dominant role in determining how much sunlight reaches the surface, how much sunlight is reflected back into space, how and where warmth is spread around the globe, and how much heat escapes from the surface and atmosphere back into space. Clouds are also highly variable. Clouds' myriad variations through time and space make them one of the greatest areas of uncertainty in scientists' understanding and predictions of climate change. In short, they play a central role in our world's climate system. The false-color image above shows a one-month composite of cloud optical thickness measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and averaged globally for April 2001. Optical thickness is a measure of how much solar radiation is not allowed to travel through a column of atmosphere. Areas colored red and yellow indicate very cloudy skies, on average, while areas colored green and light blue show moderately cloudy skies. Dark blue regions show where there is little or no cloud cover. This data product is an important new tool for helping scientists understand the roles clouds play in our global climate system. MODIS gives scientists new capabilities for measuring the structure and composition of clouds. MODIS observes the entire Earth almost every day in 36 spectral bands ranging from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths, enabling it to quantify a wide suite of clouds' physical and radiative properties. Specifically, MODIS can determine whether a cloud is composed of ice or water particles (or some combination of the two), it can measure the effective radius of the particles within a cloud, it can determine the temperature and altitude of cloud tops, and it can observe how much sunlight passes through a

  10. Going beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers' Responses to Anomalous Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Laura E.; Goodman, Noah D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Jenkins, Adrianna C.

    2008-01-01

    Given minimal evidence about novel objects, children might learn only relationships among the specific entities, or they might make a more abstract inference, positing classes of entities and the relations that hold among those classes. Here we show that preschoolers (mean: 57 months) can use sparse data about perceptually unique objects to infer…

  11. The Hierarchical Specification and Mechanical Verification of the SIFT Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The formal specification and proof methodology employed to demonstrate that the SIFT computer system meets its requirements are described. The hierarchy of design specifications is shown, from very abstract descriptions of system function down to the implementation. The most abstract design specifications are simple and easy to understand, almost all details of the realization were abstracted out, and are used to ensure that the system functions reliably and as intended. A succession of lower level specifications refines these specifications into more detailed, and more complex, views of the system design, culminating in the Pascal implementation. The section describes the rigorous mechanical proof that the abstract specifications are satisfied by the actual implementation.

  12. Abstracted Workow Framework with a Structure from Motion Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Adam J.

    In scientific and engineering disciplines, from academia to industry, there is an increasing need for the development of custom software to perform experiments, construct systems, and develop products. The natural mindset initially is to shortcut and bypass all overhead and process rigor in order to obtain an immediate result for the problem at hand, with the misconception that the software will simply be thrown away at the end. In a majority of the cases, it turns out the software persists for many years, and likely ends up in production systems for which it was not initially intended. In the current study, a framework that can be used in both industry and academic applications mitigates underlying problems associated with developing scientific and engineering software. This results in software that is much more maintainable, documented, and usable by others, specifically allowing new users to extend capabilities of components already implemented in the framework. There is a multi-disciplinary need in the fields of imaging science, computer science, and software engineering for a unified implementation model, which motivates the development of an abstracted software framework. Structure from motion (SfM) has been identified as one use case where the abstracted workflow framework can improve research efficiencies and eliminate implementation redundancies in scientific fields. The SfM process begins by obtaining 2D images of a scene from different perspectives. Features from the images are extracted and correspondences are established. This provides a sufficient amount of information to initialize the problem for fully automated processing. Transformations are established between views, and 3D points are established via triangulation algorithms. The parameters for the camera models for all views / images are solved through bundle adjustment, establishing a highly consistent point cloud. The initial sparse point cloud and camera matrices are used to generate a dense

  13. Natural category discrimination in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at three levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Jett, Stephanie E; Mosteller, Kelly W; Galvan, Moriah

    2013-09-01

    Two adult chimpanzees were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch screen computer, in which the discriminations varied in degree of abstraction. At the concrete level, discriminations could be made on the basis of single perceptual features, but at the more abstract level, categories were more inclusive, containing exemplars with variant perceptual features. For instance, at the most abstract level, the chimpanzees were required to select images of animals rather than nonanimals, and exemplars within both categories were perceptually diverse. One chimpanzee showed positive transfer at each level of abstraction but required more sessions to reach criterion as the discriminations became more abstract. The other chimpanzee failed to demonstrate consistent significant acquisition of a concept. The results indicate that unlike other apes and black bears, tested previously, chimpanzees found the most abstract discriminations the most difficult to acquire. Analyses of the features of pictures that yielded high or low accuracy revealed no significant differences on several key features, suggesting that the presence of facial features, eyes, or specific coloration did not control responding. In addition, the chimpanzees performed more accurately with photos judged as less typical exemplars of the category by human raters. However, responses to pictures of particular species suggest that chimpanzees may rely on perceptual similarity to familiar exemplars when acquiring experimenter-defined natural categories. PMID:23397185

  14. Generation and exploration of aggregation abstractions for scheduling and resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Linden, Theodore A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents research on the abstraction of computational theories for scheduling and resource allocation. The paper describes both theory and methods for the automated generation of aggregation abstractions and approximations in which detailed resource allocation constraints are replaced by constraints between aggregate demand and capacity. The interaction of aggregation abstraction generation with the more thoroughly investigated abstractions of weakening operator preconditions is briefly discussed. The purpose of generating abstract theories for aggregated demand and resources includes: answering queries about aggregate properties, such as gross feasibility; reducing computational costs by using the solution of aggregate problems to guide the solution of detailed problems; facilitating reformulating theories to approximate problems for which there are efficient problem-solving methods; and reducing computational costs of scheduling by providing more opportunities for variable and value-ordering heuristics to be effective. Experiments are being developed to characterize the properties of aggregations that make them cost effective. Both abstract and concrete theories are represented in a variant of first-order predicate calculus, which is a parameterized multi-sorted logic that facilitates specification of large problems. A particular problem is conceptually represented as a set of ground sentences that is consistent with a quantified theory.

  15. [The abstract--why and how it should be written].

    PubMed

    Kourilová, M; Hulín, I

    1989-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide stimuli for writing concise and coherent abstracts imaging the original article without loss of critical substance and clarity. The main functions of abstracts in providing quick information and reliable sources for indexing are emphasized. The purposes of the prospective reader have to be considered as they should determine the form and content of the abstract. The two main types, i.e. indicative and informative abstracts are assessed. The indicative abstract states what the full paper is about and is thus suitable only for review papers, essays, and nonexperimental studies. As its primary purpose is to help decide whether the full article should be read, it is practically useless when it accompanies a paper written in a different and not commonly accessible language (e.g. Slovak article, English abstract). The informative abstract has a high load of specified information. When concerning experimental work, it should state the aim, the material or subjects involved and methods used, the results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. The recently introduced structured abstract for clinical papers presents a comprehensive image of the full article in a format that makes explicit the elements of critical argument. A framework of useful steps for writing abstracts is provided by analyzing the three main phases of the abstracting process, i.e. 1. analytic reading, 2. extraction, organization and reduction of information, and 3. critical editing. The presented summary of hints for writing reader oriented abstracts and the list of actual examples of obfuscation should increase the awareness and commitment of authors in preparing good-quality abstracts. PMID:2819492

  16. Abstract models for the synthesis of optimization algorithms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G. G. L.; Polak, E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic approach to the problem of synthesis of optimization algorithms. Abstract models for algorithms are developed which guide the inventive process toward ?conceptual' algorithms which may consist of operations that are inadmissible in a practical method. Once the abstract models are established a set of methods for converting ?conceptual' algorithms falling into the class defined by the abstract models into ?implementable' iterative procedures is presented.

  17. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  18. How to prepare and submit abstracts for scientific meetings.

    PubMed

    Japiassú, Andre Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of study results is a key step in scientific research, and submitting an abstract to a meeting is often the first form of public communication. Meeting abstracts have a defined structure that is similar to abstracts for scientific articles, with an introduction, the objective, methods, results and conclusions. However, abstracts for meetings are not presented as part of a full article and, therefore, must contain the necessary and most relevant data. In this article, we detail their structure and include tips to make them technically correct. PMID:23917970

  19. Impact of proof validation on proof writing in abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Robert A.; Craviotto, Cathleen; Grassl, Richard M.

    2010-06-01

    Many undergraduate students have difficulty writing mathematical proofs even though this skill is important for the development of future teachers and those who may be involved in instruction or training as a graduate student or supervisor. In addition, research indicates that mathematics majors and secondary education mathematics majors possess little ability to determine whether arguments are valid proofs. Asking students to validate proofs using specific activities may not only help undergraduates develop the ability to validate proofs, but also may help increase their own proof writing abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proof validation on the ability to write proofs. Two sections of abstract algebra were the focus of a 'guided research' study-one section was taught using a weekly proof validation activity and the other was taught as a control group. Data analysis revealed that the validation group significantly outscored the control group on items involving proof writing on the final exam. Results of the proof validation activities are also presented.

  20. AAVSO and the International Year of Light (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The United Nations General Assembly has officially designated 2015 to be the International Year of Light (IYL). Modeled in part on the earlier International Year of Astronomy (IYA), this cross-disciplinary, international educational and outreach project will celebrate the importance of light in science, technology, cultural heritage, and the arts. It ties in with several important anniversaries, such as the 1000th anniversary of the publication of Ibn Al Haythem's “Book of Optics,” the 150th anniversary of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the centenary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, and the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Because variable stars are defined as such due to the variability of the light we observe from them, all of the AAVSO programs, regardless of type of variable or instrumentation (eye, DSLR, PEP, or CCD) have natural tie-ins to the study of light. This poster will highlight a number of specific ways that AAVSO members and the organization as a whole can become intimately involved with this unique outreach opportunity.

  1. Influence of biological kinematics on abstract concept processing.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Pesenti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During a random number generation task, human beings tend to produce more small numbers than large numbers. However, this small number bias is modulated when motor behaviour, such as a turn of the head, is performed during the random number generation task. This result fits with the finding that number representation is linked to laterally oriented actions, with small- and large-magnitude numbers generally linked to movement towards the left or the right side of space, respectively. To test whether this number-space association is specific to human motor behaviours or extends to any type of laterally oriented movements, we assessed whether the presentation of biological or nonbiological leftward or rightward movement affected a subsequent random number generation task. Biological and nonbiological movements were obtained by varying the kinematic parameters of the movements. Biological kinematics represented the tangential velocity actually observed in a human pointing movement; nonbiological kinematics represented equivalent movements but with an inverse tangential velocity along the path. The results show that only the observation of biological movements induces a space-number bias whereas observing nonbiological movements does not. This finding is the first evidence of a link between a biological marker and the semantic representation of a concept as abstract as number. PMID:25219421

  2. The First Results from the DESK Survey (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J.; KELT Team

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Young stellar objects (YSOs) are typically surrounded by protoplanetary circumstellar disks. One way to probe the size, mass, and composition of these disks is to observe a star being eclipsed by its own disk. So far only a few of these events have been discovered and analyzed in the literature. New wide-field time domain surveys are an ideal tool to search for rare eclipse events, depending on the coverage, cadence, and baseline of the survey. The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) exoplanet survey covers a large portion of the sky, including a significant fraction of the galactic plane. Using time-series photometry from KELT we are looking for disk-eclipsing events, specifically in young stellar associations. To date, we have discovered three previously unknown large dimming events around the young stars RW Aurigae, V409 Tau, and TYC 2505-672-1. We attribute the dimming of RW Aurigae to its tidally disrupted disk, while for V409 Tau the dimming is interpreted to be caused by a feature, possibly a warp or perturbation, in its nearly edge-on circumstellar disk. TYC 2505-672-1 appears to be similar to epsilon Aurigae, with an M-giant being eclipsed every ~69 years by a white dwarf with an accretion disk surrounding it. I will describe our results and discuss how we are planning to search for these kinds of objects in future surveys such as LSST.

  3. The long learning route to abstract letter units.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian

    2009-02-01

    This is a review of theory and evidence on how abstract letter units (ALUs) are initially learnt by the developing individual. Despite the predominance of the lower-case form of letters in the print environment, naming identification of upper case has precedence over lower case among preschool children. Such children showed a significant lag in extending their categories of upper-case variants to include the corresponding lower-case forms that are visually dissimilar. As late as 11 years of age children gave longer naming latencies for the lower-case than the upper-case forms. Initial learning of ALUs proceeded slowly over many months, consistent with the "common contexts" hypothesis but not consistent with the early acquisition predicted by the "common letter name" hypothesis. Evidence from cross-case transfer in a training experiment indicated that prior to acquiring full use of ALUs the children had formed representations of words that were letter based but specific to lower-case forms. PMID:18649251

  4. Treatment for lexical retrieval using abstract and concrete words in persons with aphasia: Effect of complexity.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Abbott, Karen

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND: The significance of imageability and concreteness as factors for lexical tasks in aphasic individuals is under debate. No previous treatment studies have looked specifically at training abstract words compared to concrete for improved lexical retrieval in patients with chronic aphasia. AIM: The goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a treatment for lexical retrieval that is based on models of lexical processing by utilizing abstractness as a mode of complexity. It was hypothesized that training abstract words in a category will result in improvement of those words and generalization to untrained target concrete words in the same category. Training concrete words in a category, however, will result in the retrieval of trained concrete words, but not generalization to target abstract words. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors was used to examine treatment and generalization. Generative naming for three categories (church, hospital, courthouse) was tested during baseline and treatment. Each treatment session was carried out in five steps: (1) category sorting, (2) feature selection, (3) yes/no feature questions, (4) word recall, and (5) free generative naming. RESULTS: Although participant 1 demonstrated neither significant learning nor generalization during abstract or concrete word training, participants 2, 3, and 4 showed significant learning during abstract word training and generalization to untrained concrete words. Participants 3 and 4 were also trained on concrete words which they improved on but did not show generalization to untrained abstract words. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present experiment support our hypothesis that training abstract words would result in greater learning and generalization to untrained concrete words. They also tentatively support the idea that generalization is facilitated by treatment focusing on more complex

  5. Multilevel and Hybrid Architecture for Device Abstraction and Context Information Management in Smart Home Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, Víctor; González, Roberto; San Martín, Luis Ángel; Campos, Antonio; Lobato, Vanesa

    Hardware device management, and context information acquisition and abstraction are key factors to develop the ambient intelligent paradigm in smart homes. This work presents an architecture that addresses these two problems and provides a usable framework to develop applications easily. In contrast to other proposals, this work addresses performance issues specifically. Results show that the execution performance of the developed prototype is suitable for deployment in a real environment. In addition, the modular design of the system allows the user to develop applications using different techniques and different levels of abstraction.

  6. Some design constraints required for the assembly of software components: The incorporation of atomic abstract types into generically structured abstract types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    It is nearly axiomatic, that to take the greatest advantage of the useful features available in a development system, and to avoid the negative interactions of those features, requires the exercise of a design methodology which constrains their use. A major design support feature of the Ada language is abstraction: for data, functions processes, resources, and system elements in general. Atomic abstract types can be created in packages defining those private types and all of the overloaded operators, functions, and hidden data required for their use in an application. Generically structured abstract types can be created in generic packages defining those structured private types, as buildups from the user-defined data types which are input as parameters. A study is made of the design constraints required for software incorporating either atomic or generically structured abstract types, if the integration of software components based on them is to be subsequently performed. The impact of these techniques on the reusability of software and the creation of project-specific software support environments is also discussed.

  7. Hanford Personnel Dosimeter supporting studies FY-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, G.W.R.; Cummings, F.M.; Aldrich, J.M.; Thorson, M.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections of this report which describe fundamental characteristics of the Hanford multipurpose personnel dosimeter (HMPD). Abstracts were not prepared for Appendix A and Appendix B which deal with calculated standard deviations for 100 mrem mixed field exposures and detailed calculations of standard deviations, respectively. (KRM)

  8. Reading and Abstracting Journal Articles in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Susan Howes

    1991-01-01

    An assignment centered on reading journal articles and writing abstracts is an effective way to improve student reading and writing skills in sedimentology and stratigraphy laboratories. Each student reads two articles and writes informative abstracts from the author's point of view. (PR)

  9. Bilingual Vocational Education. Project Abstracts 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Abstracts are provided for 16 bilingual vocational education projects offered in 1987-88. Each abstract provides information on: grantee; state; project title; project director, address, and telephone number; project officer and U.S. Department of Education address; language group(s) served; occupational skills area(s); length of training cycle…

  10. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  11. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  12. The Neural Development of an Abstract Concept of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    As literate adults, we appreciate numerical values as abstract entities that can be represented by a numeral, a word, a number of lines on a scorecard, or a sequence of chimes from a clock. This abstract, notation-independent appreciation of numbers develops gradually over the first several years of life. Here, using functional magnetic resonance…

  13. A Dialectical Approach to the Formation of Mathematical Abstractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper is structured in two sections. The first examines views of mathematical abstraction in two broad categories: empiricist and dialectical accounts. It documents the difficulties involved in and explores the potentialities of both accounts. Then it outlines a recent model which takes a dialectical materialist approach to abstraction in…

  14. The Role of Comprehension in Learning Concrete and Abstract Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy; Royer, James M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made to assess the effect of comprehension on the recognition of meaning and wording changes with concrete and abstract sentences. The results of the experiment were discussed in light of recent models which propose different storage mechanisms for concrete and abstract sentences. (Author/RM)

  15. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 11, Numbers 1-10, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D. Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 11 for 1998 contains the following 10 abstracts: (1) "What If They Learn Differently: Applying Multiple Intelligences Theory in the Community College" (Rene…

  16. Achievement as a Function of Abstractness and Cognitive Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    A multiple choice achievement test was constructed in which both cognitive level and degree of abstractness were controlled. Subjects were 75 students from a major university in the Southwest. A group of 13 judges, also university students, classified the concepts for degree of abstractness. Results indicated that both cognitive level and degree…

  17. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  18. On Teaching Abstraction in Computer Science to Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a key concept in CS, one of the most fundamental ideas underlying CS and its practice. However, teaching this soft concept to novices is a very difficult task, as discussed by many CSE experts. This paper discusses this issue, and suggests a general framework for teaching abstraction in CS to novices, a framework that would fit into…

  19. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  20. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  1. Abstraction in Expertise: A Study of Nurses' Conceptions of Concentration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard; Hoyles, Celia; Pozzi, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Uses situated abstraction to understand nurses' conceptions of intensive quantity of drug concentration. Explores nurses' conceptions to undertake a pointed examination of the degree of situatedness of nurses' knowledge and reasoning. Demonstrates that nurses' conceptions were abstracted within their practice when they coordinated mathematical…

  2. Concrete and Abstract Visualizations in History Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangsma, Maaike E.; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks with abstract and/or concrete visualizations on the…

  3. Concept Abstractness and the Representation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu; Paulson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research on noun-noun combinations has been largely focusing on concrete concepts. Three experiments examined the role of concept abstractness in the representation of noun-noun combinations. In Experiment 1, participants provided written interpretations for phrases constituted by nouns of varying degrees of abstractness. Interpretive focus (the…

  4. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet K.

    2014-01-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and non-peer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, we review the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, we describe the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, we present a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  5. An Introduction to Indexing and Abstracting for Technical Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dataflow Systems Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Indexing and abstracting can be thought of as a way of modeling an actual document or textual item. Both are miniature versions of the actual thing. Normally, the indexing model is used to locate desired information, while the abstracting model is used as a screening medium to help the searcher decide which of the apparently correct actual items…

  6. South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract, 2014. 36th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Mim, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract is a comprehensive, single-source compilation of tables and graphs which report data frequently requested by the Governor, Legislators, college and university staff, other state government officials, and the general public. The 2014 edition of the Statistical Abstract marks the 36th year of…

  7. International symposium on erosion and landscape evolution abstracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book contains all of the extended abstracts from the ASABE specialty conference, the International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution (ISELE), held September 18-21, 2011 at the Hilton Anchorage Hotel in Anchorage, Alaska. Three extended abstracts from the meeting keynote speakers as ...

  8. Abstraction to Implementation: A Two Stage Introduction to Computer Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolz, Ursula; Conjura, Edward

    A three-semester core curriculum for undergraduate computer science is proposed and described. Both functional and imperative programming styles are taught. The curriculum particularly addresses the problem of effectively presenting both abstraction and implementation. Two courses in the first semester emphasize abstraction. The next courses…

  9. Comparing Strategies for Teaching Abstract Concepts in an Online Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Eric J.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare traditional classification training for a set of abstract concepts with multiple-relations training consisting of inference practice and the use of a content diagram. To examine this, 200 undergraduate and graduate psychology students completed a Web-based tutorial covering the abstract concepts of a…

  10. Innovation Abstracts, Volume X, Numbers 1-30. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) staff development; (2) integrating computers into the curriculum; (3) a strategy for selecting and hiring good teachers; (4) faculty involvement in support services…

  11. The Acquisition of Abstract Words by Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Young infants' learning of words for abstract concepts like "all gone" and "eat," in contrast to their learning of more concrete words like "apple" and "shoe," may follow a relatively protracted developmental course. We examined whether infants know such abstract words. Parents named one of two events shown in side-by-side videos while their…

  12. Journal of Human Services Abstracts. Volume 8. Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Human Services Abstracts, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This quarterly journal contains abstracts of 150 of the documents recently included in Project SHARE automated database. (Project SHARE is a national clearinghouse for improving the management of human services.) The journal is divided into four parts: the abstracts themselves arranged in alphabetical order by title, a list of personal and…

  13. Abstract Art or the Politics and Pedagogies of Getting Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamler, Barbara; Thomson, Pat

    The writing of academic abstracts is more than a tiresome necessity of scholarly life. It is a practice which goes beyond genre and technique to questions of identity and the promotional economies of academic work. In this paper, a series of abstracts from a variety of refereed journals and conferences are deconstructed and a set of questions that…

  14. Driven to Abstraction: Doctoral Supervision and Writing Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamler, Barbara; Thomson, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The writing of academic abstracts is more than a tiresome necessity of scholarly life. It is a practice that goes beyond genre and technique to questions of writing and identity. In this article we deconstruct a series of abstracts from a variety of refereed journals to 'read' for the representation of data, argument, methodology and significance.…

  15. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet K

    2014-12-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and nonpeer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, the author reviews the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, the author describes the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, the author presents a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  16. Innovation Abstracts: Volume XI, Numbers 1-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) cooperative planning for institutional excellence; (2) rewarding scholarship among community college faculty; (3) in-class debates as a learning strategy; (4)…

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ABSTRACTS. SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH PUBLICATION NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LARSON, C. THEODORE

    A COLLECTION OF ANNOTATED ABSTRACTS PRESENTING THE REFERENCE DOCUMENTS WHICH WERE SELECTED BY THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH PROJECT. THEY REVIEW THE EXISTING LITERATURE OFFERING SIGNIFICANT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE VARIOUS RELATIONSHIPS THAT LINK ENVIRONMENT WITH HUMAN BEHAVIOR. THE INDIVIDUAL ABSTRACTS WILL PROVIDE OTHERS INTERESTED IN THIS AREA OF…

  18. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  19. Trends in Training--Six Years of CIRF Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training for Progress, 1967

    1967-01-01

    This issue of "Training for Progress," a bulletin published four times annually to provide for an international exchange of experience in vocational training, surveys the principal lines of thought and action in vocational education as seen through "CIRF Abstracts." An introductory editorial describes the development of "CIRF Abstracts" from its…

  20. Educational Research Abstracts (1972-1981). [Second Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Educational Development Inst., Seoul.

    This collection of abstracts describes 273 research reports selected among the research materials and publications produced by the Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI) since its foundation in August 1972, through December 1981. Most of these reports are briefly summarized into the abstract form while some are presented in descriptive…