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Sample records for abstract skill learning

  1. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  2. Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation and retention of motor skills. Plastic changes involving structural reorganization in gray and white matter architecture that occurs over shorter time periods than previously thought have been documented as well. Data from experimental animals provided crucial information on plausible cellular and molecular substrates contributing to large-scale reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. Here, we review findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity across different spatial and temporal scales that mediate motor skill learning, while identifying converging areas of interest, and possible avenues for future research. PMID:22078504

  3. Abstraction processes in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D R; Johnstone, T; Staggs, L

    1997-02-01

    Four experiments explored the extent the extent to which abstract knowledge may underlie subjects' performance when asked to judge the grammaticality of letter strings generated from an artificial grammar. In Experiment 1 and 2 subjects studied grammatical strings instantiated with one set of letters and were then tested on grammatical and ungrammatical strings formed either from the same or a changed letter-set. Even with a change of letter-set, subjects were found to be sensitive to a variety of violation of the grammar. In Experiments 3 and 4, the critical manipulation involved the way in which the training strings were studied: an incidental learning procedure was used for some subjects, and others engaged in an explicit code-breaking task to try to learn the rules of the grammar. When strings were generated from a biconditional (Experiment 4) but not from a standard finite-state grammar (Experiment 3), grammaticality judgements for test strings were independent of their surface similarity to specific studied strings. Overall, the results suggest that transfer in this simple memory task is mediated at least to some extent by abstract knowledge.

  4. Degradation of learned skills. A review and annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardlin, G. R.; Sitterley, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the literature dealing with the retention of learned skills is presented. Basic effects of task type, training, retention interval, and recall variables are discussed, providing a background against which more recent literature dealing with operational spaceflights tasks is compared and assessed. Detailed and summary abstracts of research reports having particular relevance to the problem of spaceflight skill retention are provided.

  5. Study Skills and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Ference; Svensson, Lennart

    1976-01-01

    The series of research studies contained in this project emphasize the central position of the learning process in research into teaching. The main studies under the project were based on four sets of material collected in the course of three academic years. A number of supplementary collections and processings of other material were also…

  6. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  7. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  8. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  9. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  10. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  11. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about…

  12. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  13. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  14. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.

  15. Learning with LOGO: Abstracts from the LOGO '84 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Yvonne

    1984-01-01

    Presents abstracts of three papers given at the first national LOGO conference. They are: "LOGO as an Empirical Window" (Sylvia Weir); "Quasi-Piagetian Learning in LOGO" (Uri Leron); and "Theories of LOGO" (Guy Groen). (JN)

  16. A New Learning and Skills Landscape? The Central Role of the Learning and Skills Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken; Edward, Sheila; Finlay, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This is the first paper from a project which is part of the Economic and Social Research Council's programme of research into "Teaching and learning". The project, entitled "The impact of policy on learning and inclusion in the new learning and skills sector", explores what impact the efforts to create a single learning and skills system are…

  17. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  18. Matching-to-sample abstract-concept learning by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Bodily, Kent D; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract concepts--rules that transcend training stimuli--have been argued to be unique to some species. Pigeons, a focus of much concept-learning research, were tested for learning a matching-to-sample abstract concept. Five pigeons were trained with three cartoon stimuli. Pigeons pecked a sample 10 times and then chose which of two simultaneously presented comparison stimuli matched the sample. After acquisition, abstract-concept learning was tested by presenting novel cartoons on 12 out of 96 trials for 4 consecutive sessions. A cycle of doubling the training set followed by retraining and novel-testing was repeated eight times, increasing the set size from 3 to 768 items. Transfer performance improved from chance (i.e., no abstract-concept learning) to a level equivalent to baseline performance (>80%) and was similar to an equivalent function for same/different abstract-concept learning. Analyses assessed the possibility that item-specific choice strategies accounted for acquisition and transfer performance. These analyses converged to rule out item-specific strategies at all but the smallest set-sizes (3-24 items). Ruling out these possibilities adds to the evidence that pigeons learned the relational abstract concept of matching-to-sample.

  19. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task.

  20. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge.

  1. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  2. Mobile Learning: Using Application "Auralbook" to Learn Aural Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi Wai Jason

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effectiveness of using mobile devices such as iPhone/iPad/android phone/tablet to facilitate mobile learning in aural skills. The application "Auralbook" was designed in 2011 by an engineer/musician to use mobile devices to learn aural skills. This application enables students to sing, record, clap and…

  3. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  4. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M.; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C.; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  5. Demonstrator skill modulates observational aversive learning.

    PubMed

    Selbing, Ida; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Learning to avoid danger by observing others can be relatively safe, because it does not incur the potential costs of individual trial and error. However, information gained through social observation might be less reliable than information gained through individual experiences, underscoring the need to apply observational learning critically. In order for observational learning to be adaptive it should be modulated by the skill of the observed person, the demonstrator. To address this issue, we used a probabilistic two-choice task where participants learned to minimize the number of electric shocks through individual learning and by observing a demonstrator performing the same task. By manipulating the demonstrator's skill we varied how useful the observable information was; the demonstrator either learned the task quickly or did not learn it at all (random choices). To investigate the modulatory effect in detail, the task was performed under three conditions of available observable information; no observable information, observation of choices only, and observation of both the choices and their consequences. As predicted, our results showed that observable information can improve performance compared to individual learning, both when the demonstrator is skilled and unskilled; observation of consequences improved performance for both groups while observation of choices only improved performance for the group observing the skilled demonstrator. Reinforcement learning modeling showed that demonstrator skill modulated observational learning from the demonstrator's choices, but not their consequences, by increasing the degree of imitation over time for the group that observed a fast learner. Our results show that humans can adaptively modulate observational learning in response to the usefulness of observable information.

  6. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  7. Alternate Learning Center. Abstracts of Inservice Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Development and Operations.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts describing the 18 programs offered at the Alternate Learning Center of the Rhode Island Teacher Center which has as its Primary function school based inservice training for local teachers and administrators. Each project is described in detail, including course goals, specific objectives, training…

  8. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  9. Framework for robot skill learning using reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang

    2003-09-01

    Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.

  10. From action to abstraction: Using the hands to learn math

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Miriam A.; Congdon, Eliza L.; Hemani-Lopez, Naureen; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children benefit from gesturing during math instruction. Here we ask whether gesturing promotes learning because it is itself a physical action, or because it uses physical action to represent abstract ideas. To address this question, we taught third-grade children a strategy for solving mathematical equivalence problems that was instantiated in one of three ways: (1) in the physical action children performed on objects, (2) in a concrete gesture miming that action, or (3) in an abstract gesture. All three types of hand movements helped children learn how to solve the problems on which they were trained. However, only gesture led to success on problems that required generalizing the knowledge gained. The results provide the first evidence that gesture promotes transfer of knowledge better than action, and suggest that the beneficial effects gesture has on learning may reside in the features that differentiate it from action. PMID:24503873

  11. Learning Discussion Skills Through Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Gene; Stanford, Barbara Dodds

    This book provides a sequence of 10 skill-building games and follow-up activities (beginning with "Getting Acquainted" and ending with "Arriving at a Consensus") designed to give students necessary practice in proper discussion techniques. Fifteen remedial exercises to treat such weaknesses as extreme aggressiveness or a habit of straying from the…

  12. Mathematical Games: Skill + Luck = Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John

    2008-01-01

    Left to their own devices, many students are happy to work within their comfort zone of skill and understanding, a level where they are confident that they will achieve regular success. The job of the classroom teacher is to help students reach beyond this and to help them make this level their new comfort zone. Clearly, teachers need to employ a…

  13. Connectionist reinforcement learning of robot control skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Nunes, Urbano; de Almeida, A. T.

    1998-07-01

    Many robot manipulator tasks are difficult to model explicitly and it is difficult to design and program automatic control algorithms for them. The development, improvement, and application of learning techniques taking advantage of sensory information would enable the acquisition of new robot skills and avoid some of the difficulties of explicit programming. In this paper we use a reinforcement learning approach for on-line generation of skills for control of robot manipulator systems. Instead of generating skills by explicit programming of a perception to action mapping they are generated by trial and error learning, guided by a performance evaluation feedback function. The resulting system may be seen as an anticipatory system that constructs an internal representation model of itself and of its environment. This enables it to identify its current situation and to generate corresponding appropriate commands to the system in order to perform the required skill. The method was applied to the problem of learning a force control skill in which the tool-tip of a robot manipulator must be moved from a free space situation, to a contact state with a compliant surface and having a constant interaction force.

  14. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  15. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  16. Individualized Learning Skills Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    The Truckee Meadows Community College curriculum development project was designed to enhance the success of underprepared college students aspiring to succeed in the college's occupational and general educational programs. Initial plans called for (1) the development of individualized learning and basic skills modules; (2) creation of an…

  17. Conditions of Practice in Perceptual Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…

  18. Learning Skills Centre--Department Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pat

    This report on an internal evaluation, which was conducted for developmental purposes, describes services provided at the Learning Skills Centres (LSC) on three separate campuses of Grant MacEwan Community College, in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). The key questions of the evaluation addressed student and staff awareness of the existence of the LSC;…

  19. Self-Modeling and Cognitive Skill Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.; Hanson, Antoinette R.

    This experiment investigated self-modeling among 60 children, enrolled in grades 3 and 4, during cognitive skill learning. Children received training on addition and subtraction of fractions. Subjects in one condition (mastery self-model) were videotaped while successfully solving problems and viewed their tapes. Children in the progress…

  20. Primary School Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are very important in problem solving. It is important to develop these skills from the first years of school. Thus, it is essential that primary school teachers master self-regulated learning skills and they know how to develop these skills in their pupils. In this article, we present the results of a research…

  1. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test. PMID:26599071

  2. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus).

    PubMed

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test.

  3. Serial pattern learning during skilled walking.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas G; Winter, Shawn S; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-03-01

    Rats possess a rich repertoire of sequentially organized, natural behaviors. It is possible that these natural behaviors may reflect implicit learning or relatively fixed movement patterns. The present study was conducted to determine whether factors known to influence implicit learning produce similar effects on the acquisition of skilled walking. Three groups of rats were trained to cross a horizontal ladder with rungs spaced according to three different levels of complexity. All training and testing were performed under dark conditions to assess the influence of non-visual modalities on skilled walking. Although all groups' performance improved throughout training, pattern complexity influenced the rate of improvement. In addition, performance during a probe session provided further evidence that each group encoded the rung spacing pattern experienced during training to create an internal representation. These observations demonstrate that the engram established during repetitive training represents either the temporal or spatial characteristics of rung spacing. These findings indicate that implicit learning contributes to the acquisition of natural sequential behaviors. Furthermore, serial pattern learning of rung spacing provides a novel task to determine sensory and motor contributions to the consolidation of skilled movement. PMID:22744781

  4. How learning to abstract shapes neural sound representations

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Anke; Vroomen, Jean; Formisano, Elia

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of acoustic signals into abstract perceptual representations is the essence of the efficient and goal-directed neural processing of sounds in complex natural environments. While the human and animal auditory system is perfectly equipped to process the spectrotemporal sound features, adequate sound identification and categorization require neural sound representations that are invariant to irrelevant stimulus parameters. Crucially, what is relevant and irrelevant is not necessarily intrinsic to the physical stimulus structure but needs to be learned over time, often through integration of information from other senses. This review discusses the main principles underlying categorical sound perception with a special focus on the role of learning and neural plasticity. We examine the role of different neural structures along the auditory processing pathway in the formation of abstract sound representations with respect to hierarchical as well as dynamic and distributed processing models. Whereas most fMRI studies on categorical sound processing employed speech sounds, the emphasis of the current review lies on the contribution of empirical studies using natural or artificial sounds that enable separating acoustic and perceptual processing levels and avoid interference with existing category representations. Finally, we discuss the opportunities of modern analyses techniques such as multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in studying categorical sound representations. With their increased sensitivity to distributed activation changes—even in absence of changes in overall signal level—these analyses techniques provide a promising tool to reveal the neural underpinnings of perceptually invariant sound representations. PMID:24917783

  5. Body Learning: Examining the Processes of Skill Learning in Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…

  6. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  7. Evaluating and Auditing a Community College Learning Skills Center Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Barbara Cohen; And Others

    The Learning Skills Center (LSC) at Los Angeles City College is an individualized learning laboratory which offers assistance to students in communication skills and quantitative skills, and provides tutoring in all college-level courses. ISC's programs are diagnostic and prescriptive, and services are available to students on both voluntary and…

  8. Development of Different Forms of Skill Learning throughout the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been…

  9. Modeling in learning two volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Zetou, Eleni; Tzetzis, George; Vernadakis, Nikos; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2002-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the influence of two different types of modeling and knowledge of performance on acquisition and retention of two volleyball skills (set and serve). Participants were 63 boys and 53 girls in elementary school, whose mean age was 11.7 yr. (SD=.5). The children were randomly assigned into two groups given the same practice method for 16 practice sessions (8 for the set and 8 for the serve) but different types of modeling. Some participants observed a videotape of an expert model performing the skills, and the second group observed a videotaped replay of their own performance. Verbal cues were provided simultaneously with the videotaped demonstration. The first group improved set and serve skills more on acquisition and on the retention test than the second group. This improvement was present when scores and form were evaluated. Modeling plus instructional cues seemed to improve children's learning of two volleyball skills (set and serve), and this procedure is suggested for use by practitioners. PMID:12186234

  10. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of modality-based instruction in test taking skills upon young children's performance on standardized reading tests; (2) the effects of five…

  11. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a model for the development of critical television viewing and listening skills in the public school setting; (2) English as a subject in the College of William and Mary; (3)…

  12. Improving Grasp Skills Using Schema Structured Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Grupen, ROderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the control-based approach to robotics, complex behavior is created by sequencing and combining control primitives. While it is desirable for the robot to autonomously learn the correct control sequence, searching through the large number of potential solutions can be time consuming. This paper constrains this search to variations of a generalized solution encoded in a framework known as an action schema. A new algorithm, SCHEMA STRUCTURED LEARNING, is proposed that repeatedly executes variations of the generalized solution in search of instantiations that satisfy action schema objectives. This approach is tested in a grasping task where Dexter, the UMass humanoid robot, learns which reaching and grasping controllers maximize the probability of grasp success.

  13. Towards Machine Learning of Motor Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    Autonomous robots that can adapt to novel situations has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial intelligence, and cognitive sciences. Early approaches to this goal during the heydays of artificial intelligence research in the late 1980s, however, made it clear that an approach purely based on reasoning or human insights would not be able to model all the perceptuomotor tasks that a robot should fulfill. Instead, new hope was put in the growing wake of machine learning that promised fully adaptive control algorithms which learn both by observation and trial-and-error. However, to date, learning techniques have yet to fulfill this promise as only few methods manage to scale into the high-dimensional domains of manipulator robotics, or even the new upcoming trend of humanoid robotics, and usually scaling was only achieved in precisely pre-structured domains. In this paper, we investigate the ingredients for a general approach to motor skill learning in order to get one step closer towards human-like performance. For doing so, we study two major components for such an approach, i.e., firstly, a theoretically well-founded general approach to representing the required control structures for task representation and execution and, secondly, appropriate learning algorithms which can be applied in this setting.

  14. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume VIII: Enhanced Basic Skills--Listening Skills, Communications, Speech, Self-Esteem, Individual Workplace Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, the last of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, contains 11 workplace literacy courses on enhanced basic skills including listening skills, communications, speech, self-esteem, and individual workplace skills. Introductory materials include a table of contents and a list…

  15. Improving Students' Interpersonal Skills through Experiential Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.

    2016-01-01

    Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…

  16. Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: A Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Dierdre; Taylor, Sue, Ed.

    A policy review examined the extent to which changes to the post-16 learning and skills policy environment, particularly in relation to further education (FE) colleges, were likely to support neighborhood renewal-related knowledge and skills development. It focused particularly on the development of skills and knowledge needed by regeneration…

  17. Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old skills.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  18. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  19. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  20. Lateral dominance as a factor in learning selected motor skills.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R W

    1971-09-01

    Lateral dominance, as determined by tests of eye, hand, and foot preference, was investigated as a factor in motor skill acquisition. 3 groups of Ss, classified as right dominant, crossed dominant, or mixed dominant, practiced 3 motor skills for 18 practice sessions. All 3 groups showed significant learning of the 3 motor skills; however, there was no significant difference among the groups in performance or in rate of improvement on the skills. It was concluded that Ss displaying different dominance patterns, as defined in this study, appear equally capable of learning selected new motor skills. PMID:23947378

  1. Speech and Nonspeech Sequence Skill Learning in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc; Saint-Cyr, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies compared the speech and nonspeech sequence skill learning of nine persons who stutter (PWS) and nine matched fluent speakers (PNS). Sequence skill learning was defined as a continuing process of stable improvement in speed and/or accuracy of sequencing performance over practice and was measured by comparing PWS's and PNS's performance…

  2. Social Skills Deficits in Learning Disabilities: The Psychiatric Comorbidity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Stephanie K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that social skill deficits among children with learning disabilities are associated with high rates of undetected psychiatric diagnoses. The maladaptive social skills patterns of children with specific subtypes of learning disabilities appear to mimic the symptom patterns of children with attention deficit…

  3. Development of the Self-Directed Learning Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…

  4. The Learning and Skills Sector: The Emerging Agenda. FEDA Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    Britain's new Learning and Skills Bill focuses on learners', not providers', interests. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) opens up funding for voluntary and community bodies, and organizations from outside education, and has a duty to encourage employers to participate in the provision of post-16 education and training. Local education…

  5. The Integration of Learning Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert; And Others

    Red Deer College's (RDC) efforts to integrate learning skills into the college curriculum are described in three papers. First, Glynis Wilson Boultbee defines learning skills (e.g., listening, viewing, reading, memorizing, asking questions, preparing for and writing exams, taking notes, researching, problem solving, and writing); attitudinal…

  6. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1985 (Vol. 45 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) conceptualization of main idea by special admission college freshmen; (2) the interactive effects of field dependence and adjunct questions on learning from prose; (3) an art based…

  7. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts in part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 27 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of second language learning on achievement in English; (2) developmental aspects and effects of variables on prekindergarten, kindergarten, and…

  8. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) the composing process of adult basic writing students; (2) an integrated approach to reading and writing for college students; (3) the teaching and learning of reading in the…

  9. Individual Differences in Learning and Transfer: Stable Tendencies for Learning Exemplars versus Abstracting Rules

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Robbins, Mathew; Wiener, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that during training some learners may focus on acquiring the particular exemplars and responses associated with the exemplars (termed exemplar learners), whereas other learners attempt to abstract underlying regularities reflected in the particular exemplars linked to an appropriate response (termed rule learners). Supporting this distinction, after training (on a function-learning task), participants either displayed an extrapolation profile reflecting acquisition of the trained cue-criterion associations (exemplar learners) or abstraction of the function rule (rule learners; Studies 1a and 1b). Further, working memory capacity (measured by Ospan) was associated with the tendency to rely on rule versus exemplar processes. Studies 1c and 2 examined the persistence of these learning tendencies on several categorization tasks. Study 1c showed that rule learners were more likely than exemplar learners (indexed a priori by extrapolation profiles) to resist using idiosyncratic features (exemplar similarity) in generalization (transfer) of the trained category. Study 2 showed that the rule learners but not the exemplar learners performed well on a novel categorization task (transfer) after training on an abstract coherent category. These patterns suggest that in complex conceptual tasks, (a) individuals tend to either focus on exemplars during learning or on extracting some abstraction of the concept, (b) this tendency might be a relatively stable characteristic of the individual, and (c) transfer patterns are determined by that tendency. PMID:23750912

  10. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  11. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Metzen, Jan H; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  12. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  13. Learning leadership skills in practice through quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Gamble, James; Vaux, Emma

    2014-02-01

    The development of leadership skills in doctors in training is essential to support both their professional development and the future supply of clinical leaders the NHS so desperately needs. There is, however, limited opportunity in current training programmes for trainees to learn and develop these skills, and what opportunity there is has often focused on management rather than leadership skills. Involvement in trainee-led supported quality improvement projects can teach these skills. We summarise the current limitations in leadership training and discuss how the College's 'Learning To Make a Difference' programme, and others like it, are helping to teach leadership.

  14. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  15. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  16. Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning…

  17. Students' Experiences of Learning Manual Clinical Skills through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…

  18. Dissertation Abstracts: Scientific Evidence Related to Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicmanec, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    This categorical analysis explores the mathematics education doctoral dissertations archived in UMI "Digital Dissertations" (1991-2005) and 115 abstracts of doctoral dissertations from 46 institutions offering doctoral degrees in 2004. The goal of this study is to a) index changes in the numbers of mathematics education doctoral candidates and b)…

  19. Study skills and the education of students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hoover, J J

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066

  20. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  1. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  2. Enhancing College Students' Life Skills through Project Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurdinger, Scott; Qureshi, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether life skills could be developed in a Project Based Learning (PBL) course. The participants were students enrolled in a graduate level PBL course. The same 35-question survey was given to students at the beginning and end of the course, and students were asked to rank their life skills using a Likert scale. Additionally,…

  3. Online Learning Communities: Enhancing Undergraduate Students' Acquisition of Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Flores, Noraida; Wang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of online learning communities (OLC) on enhancing the undergraduate students' acquisition of information skills. OLC was compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face sessions designed to facilitate students' information skill acquisition. Data were gathered through multiple…

  4. Writing to Learn Writing Skills--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Antonio S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed…

  5. Visual Spatial Skill: A Consequence of Learning to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…

  6. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  7. A Vocationally Oriented Skills Center for Remedial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, John

    1977-01-01

    A learning skills center was set up in Flint Hills Area Vocational-Technical School, Emporia, Kansas, to provide remedial instruction in basic skills leading to student success in the regular vocational program. Group instruction, individualized instruction, and multimedia aids are used to help the participants (high school students and adults)…

  8. Using Blended Learning in Developing Student Teachers Teaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to determine the effectiveness of using blended learning Approach in developing student teachers teaching skills, and defining teaching skills that confront students of teachers college at King Saud University need it. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with four experimental groups (Mathematics (21)--Science…

  9. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  10. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  11. Characterization of motor skill and instrumental learning time scales in a skilled reaching task in rat.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Manuel M; Ringer, Thomas; Schulz, Jörg B; Dichgans, Johannes; Luft, Andreas R

    2004-12-01

    Successful motor skill learning requires repetitive training interrupted by rest periods. In humans, improvement occurs within and between training sessions reflecting fast and slow components of motor learning [Karni A, Meyer G, Rey-Hipolito C, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, et al. The acquisition of skilled motor performance: fast and slow experience-driven changes in primary motor cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:861-8]. Here, these components are characterized in male and female rats using a model of skilled forelimb reaching and are compared to time scales of instrumental learning. Twenty female and 14 male adult Long-Evans rats were pre-trained to operate a motorized door (via a sensor in the opposite cage wall) to access a food pellet by tongue. Latencies between pellet removal and door opening were recorded as measures of instrumental learning. After criterion performance was achieved, skilled forelimb reaching was requested by increasing the pellet-window distance to 1.5cm. Reaching success was recorded per trial. Mean latencies decreased exponentially over sessions and no improvement within-session was found. Skill learning over eight training sessions followed an exponential course in females and a sigmoid course in males. Females acquired the skill significantly faster than males starting at higher baseline levels (P < 0.001) but reaching similar plateaus. Within-session improvement was found during the sessions 1-3 in females and 1-4 in males. Performance at the end of session 1 was not carried over to session 2. Learning curves of individual animals were highly variable. These findings confirm in rat that motor skill learning has fast and slow components. No within-session improvement is seen in instrumental learning.

  12. Learning Clinical Skills: An Interprofessional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Nicol, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    In a clinical skills center, nurses, doctors, and specialists helped nursing and medical students develop clinical and communication skills in the context of holistic patient care. Two aspects of the format received high ratings: realistic patient scenarios and interdisciplinary team teaching. (SK)

  13. Language Skills: Questions for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paran, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the changes in teaching the four language skills in the past 15 years. It focuses on two main changes for each skill: understanding spoken language and willingness to communicate for speaking; product, process, and genre approaches and a focus on feedback for writing; extensive reading and literature for reading; and…

  14. Work-Based Learning and Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Katherine L.; Moore, David Thornton; Bailey, Thomas R.

    1999-01-01

    A study tested the claim that work-based learning can have positive effects on academic learning. Data were obtained through interviews with faculty, staff, students, and employers, and observation of classroom-based links to the work-based learning components at three sites involved in a work-based learning project. At the three sites, a total of…

  15. Neural correlates of abstract rule learning: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Hoshi-Shiba, Reiko; Abla, Dilshat; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-09-01

    Abstract rule learning is a fundamental aspect of human cognition, and is essential for language acquisition. However, despite its importance, the neural mechanisms underlying abstract rule learning are still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of abstract rule learning by recording auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were first presented with artificial three-syllable sequences containing ABA or ABB abstract rules for learning. They were then tested on sequences of novel syllables following the ABA or ABB abstract rules, half of which were inconsistent with the rule previously learned. Grand-averaged ERPs revealed significant decreases in positivity at 200-260ms in response to consistent sequences during the earlier session of the test phase, and increased negativity at around 400ms in response to inconsistent sequences in the later session. The potentials exhibited a left anterior-dominant distribution. The appearance of the N400-like negativity in the later session suggests that temporal ERP changes occurred with the abstract rule learning process, and that the N400-like negativity is associated with the acquisition of abstract rules.

  16. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; Macmahon, Clare

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner's preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  17. Perspectives on Learning Styles in Motor and Sport Skills

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines. PMID:22416240

  18. Students' experiences of learning manual clinical skills through simulation.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Silén, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Håkan

    2013-03-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten third-year undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in three themes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator's contribution to the students' learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection. PMID:22395307

  19. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  20. Cooperative Learning: A Pedagogy to Improve Students' Generic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Joan; Larres, Patricia McCourt

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is two-fold. First, it provides guidance to educators and trainers on establishing a cooperative learning environment. Second, it examines final-year undergraduate accounting students' opinions on the effectiveness of a cooperative learning environment in delivering generic skills for their future professional…

  1. Plugging a Gap? Soft Skills Courses and Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Elisabet; Tett, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Governments across Europe have been encouraged by the European Union (EU) to take measures to upskill their workforce to ensure growth and social inclusion. Low-skilled workers are particular targets and learning providers and employers are expected to provide learning opportunities for them. However, research shows that those with low skills…

  2. Developing Learning Skills Through Library Services, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Zella, Comp.

    Compiled from a 1980 survey requesting library science guides for elementary and secondary schools, this booklet contains numerous learning activity examples from 36 states which are presented in three main sections. The introduction contains the preface and strategies for teaching learning skills. The major part of the document focuses on using…

  3. Social Skills of Slovenian Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…

  4. Developing a Scale for Constructivist Learning Environment Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The success of creating a constructivist learning environment is directly related to teachers' management abilities and therefore scales that evaluate those skills are essential to the process. Given the importance of this subject, the development of scales that address all aspects of the constructivist learning environment…

  5. Learning Climate and Work Group Skills in Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hauer, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the…

  6. Skills for Support: Personal Assistants and People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…

  7. Cooperative Learning and Soft Skills Training in an IT Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogy of higher education is shifting from passive to active and deep learning. At the same time, the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) are demanding soft skills training. Thus, in designing an IT course, we devised group teaching projects where students learn to work with…

  8. Improving Social Skills through the Use of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollman, Lucinda; Morgan, Catherine; Pergler, Jennifer; Russell, William; Watts, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project is to improve student social skills through the use of cooperative learning, in order to develop a positive classroom environment that is conducive to learning. The action research project will involve approximately 95 students, 95 parents, and 200 teachers. It is the intent of the teacher researchers to…

  9. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Motor-Skill Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    Learning of a procedural motor-skill task is known to progress through a series of unique memory stages. Performance initially improves during training, and continues to improve, without further rehearsal, across subsequent periods of sleep. Here, we investigate how this delayed sleep-dependent learning is affected when the task characteristics…

  10. Can Robots Help the Learning of Skilled Actions?

    PubMed Central

    Reinkensmeyer, David J.; Patton, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to move skillfully requires that the motor system adjusts muscle commands based on ongoing performance errors, a process influenced by the dynamics of the task being practiced. Recent experiments from our laboratories show how robotic devices can temporarily alter task dynamics in ways that contribute to the motor learning experience, suggesting possible applications in rehabilitation and sports training. PMID:19098524

  11. Thinking & Learning Skills: What Do We Expect of Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.; Ryan, Susan; Weeks, Sandra; Alpert, Alan; Schwols, Amitra; Moore, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study identifies the thinking and learning skills--such as good decision-making strategies and monitoring one's own learning progress--that students should acquire, as described in standards documents from state departments of education, from national subject-area organizations, and from organizations concerned about adequate…

  12. Learning by Leaps and Bounds. Why Motor Skills Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2008-01-01

    This new column about young children's movement and learning will offer practical ideas for teachers in the March, July, and November issues. In this column, she focuses on the role of teachers in helping young children learn motor skills. (Lists 4 resources and 1 online resource.)

  13. Innovative Pedagogies in Higher Education to Become Effective Teachers of 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Learning and Innovations Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    As today's graduates engage with the demands of the current Knowledge Age, the skills that they need to succeed in their lives after college, or any other institution of higher learning, are 21st century skills rather than 20th century skills. Kivunja (2014) calls this "the new learning paradigm" (p.85). Unfortunately, those skills are…

  14. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this study analyzed the influence of scenario-based skills training on students' learning skills. Method: the author evaluated the nursing skills laboratory exam papers of 605 sophomores in nursing programs for seven years. The study determined the common mistakes of students and the laboratory work was designed in a scenario-based format. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by assessing the number of errors the students committed and their achievement scores in laboratory examinations. This study presents the students' common mistakes in intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and their development of intravenous access skills, included in the nursing skills laboratory examination. Results: an analysis of the students' most common mistakes revealed that the most common was not following the principles of asepsis for all three skills (intramuscular, subcutaneous injection, intravenous access) in the first year of the scenario-based training. The students' exam achievement scores increased gradually, except in the fall semester of the academic year 2009-2010. The study found that the scenario-based skills training reduced students' common mistakes in examinations and enhanced their performance on exams. Conclusion: this method received a positive response from both students and instructors. The scenario-based training is available for use in addition to other skills training methods. PMID:27508922

  15. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking. PMID:25892366

  16. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking.

  17. A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for Their Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…

  18. Unpacking the Information, Media, and Technology Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Put simply, "Teaching our students so that they become well-equipped with the 21st century skills is the new learning paradigm" (Kivunja, 2014b, p. 85). These skills fall into four domains which the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) identify as the Traditional Core Skills, the Learning and Innovation Skills, the Career and Life…

  19. An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J; Kennedy, Rodney; Hanlon, Michael; Williams, A Mark

    2010-05-01

    We tested the 'learned parameters' hypothesis as an explanation of the 'especial skill effect'. Outcome attainment and movement kinematics were recorded for 10 expert and 10 novice players performing basketball free-throw shots at five distances (11-19 ft) with a regular and heavy weight basketball. As predicted, experts performed better than expected relative to the regression equation at the 15 ft, free-throw line with the regular basketball, supporting the 'especial skill effect'. This effect was not present for the experts when shooting with the heavy ball. Novices did not show an advantage at the free-throw line when performing with either ball. Although the outcome attainment scores support the 'learned parameters' hypotheses, kinematic analysis failed to identify differences in the movement pattern for the especial skill, suggesting that these skills (i.e., shooting at different distances) are not governed by separate motor programs.

  20. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  1. Learning Teamwork Skills in University Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho-Thomas, Pilar; Fuentes-Fernandez, Ruben; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    University courses about computer programming usually seek to provide students not only with technical knowledge, but also with the skills required to work in real-life software projects. Nowadays, the development of software applications requires the coordinated efforts of the members of one or more teams. Therefore, it is important for software…

  2. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  3. Lifelong Learning: Skills and Online Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Hsiung, Bob C.; Hales, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Advances in information technology enable the practicing psychiatrist's quest to keep up-to-date with new discoveries in psychiatry, as well as to meet recertification requirements. However, physicians' computer skills do not always keep up with technology, nor do they take advantage of online search and continuing education services.…

  4. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  5. How Students Develop Online Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    More and more, adult learners are finding the convenience and flexibility of online learning a match for their learning goals and busy lifestyles. Online degree programs, courses, and virtual universities targeting adult learners have proliferated in the past decade. Although students can easily locate an online course or degree program that's…

  6. Learning by Teaching: Developing Transferable Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollhans, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    "Learning by teaching" (German: "Lernen durch Lehren," commonly abbreviated as "LdL") is a teaching and learning approach which was developed by the French language teacher Jean-Pol Martin in German schools in the 1980s (Martin, 1985). The method sees students in the role of the teacher, and enhances their learning…

  7. Self-directed practice schedule enhances learning of suturing skills

    PubMed Central

    Safir, Oleg; Williams, Camille K.; Dubrowski, Adam; Backstein, David; Carnahan, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background Most preoperative surgical training programs experience challenges with the availability of expert surgeons to teach trainees. Some research suggests that trainees may benefit from being allowed to actively shape their learning environments, which could alleviate some of the time and resource pressures in surgical training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-directed or prescribed practice schedules (random or blocked) on learning suturing skills. Methods Participants watched an instructional video for simple interrupted, vertical mattress and horizontal mattress suturing then completed a pretest to assess baseline skills. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 practice groups: self-directed practice schedule, prescribed blocked practice schedule, prescribed random practice schedule or matched to the self-directed group (control). Practice of the skill was followed by a delayed (1 h) posttest. Improvement from pretest to posttest was determined based on differences in performance time and expert-based assessments. Results Analyses revealed a significant effect of group for difference in performance time of the simple interrupted suture. Random practice did not show the expected advantage for skill learning, but there was an advantage of self-directed practice. Conclusion Self-directed practice schedules may be desirable for optimal learning of simple technical skills, even when expert instruction is available. Instructors must also take into account the interaction between task difficulty and conditions of practice to develop ideal training environments. PMID:24284153

  8. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm.

  9. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm. PMID:18482830

  10. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  11. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  12. Influence of the workplace on learning physical examination skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting this. Methods Six focus group sessions with 32 students in Internal Medicine rotation (4–9 students per group; sessions 80–90 minutes). Verbatim transcripts were analysed by emerging themes and coded independently by three researchers followed by constant comparison and axial coding. Results Students report to learn the systematics of the physical examination, gain agility and become able to recognise pathological signs. The learning process combines working alongside others and working independently with increasing responsibility for patient care. Helpful behaviour includes making findings explicit through patient files or during observation, feedback by abnormal findings and taking initiative. Factors affecting the process negatively include lack of supervision, uncertainty about tasks and expectations, and social context such as hierarchy of learners and perceived learning environment. Conclusion Although individual student experiences vary greatly between different hospitals, it seems that proactivity and participation are central drivers for learning. These results can improve the quality of existing programmes and help design new ways to learn physical examination skills. PMID:24678562

  13. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  14. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning.

  15. Feedforward Self-Modeling Enhances Skill Acquisition in Children Learning Trampoline Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M.; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined. PMID:21779270

  16. Feedforward self-modeling enhances skill acquisition in children learning trampoline skills.

    PubMed

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.

  17. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  18. Statistical learning is constrained to less abstract patterns in complex sensory input (but not the least).

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lauren L; Rubinstein, Dani Y

    2016-08-01

    The influence of statistical information on behavior (either through learning or adaptation) is quickly becoming foundational to many domains of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, from language comprehension to visual development. We investigate a central problem impacting these diverse fields: when encountering input with rich statistical information, are there any constraints on learning? This paper examines learning outcomes when adult learners are given statistical information across multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously: from abstract, semantic categories of everyday objects to individual viewpoints on these objects. After revealing statistical learning of abstract, semantic categories with scrambled individual exemplars (Exp. 1), participants viewed pictures where the categories as well as the individual objects predicted picture order (e.g., bird1-dog1, bird2-dog2). Our findings suggest that participants preferentially encode the relationships between the individual objects, even in the presence of statistical regularities linking semantic categories (Exps. 2 and 3). In a final experiment we investigate whether learners are biased towards learning object-level regularities or simply construct the most detailed model given the data (and therefore best able to predict the specifics of the upcoming stimulus) by investigating whether participants preferentially learn from the statistical regularities linking individual snapshots of objects or the relationship between the objects themselves (e.g., bird_picture1-dog_picture1, bird_picture2-dog_picture2). We find that participants fail to learn the relationships between individual snapshots, suggesting a bias towards object-level statistical regularities as opposed to merely constructing the most complete model of the input. This work moves beyond the previous existence proofs that statistical learning is possible at both very high and very low levels of abstraction (categories vs. individual

  19. Developing a Workplace Skills Course: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holter, Norma C.; Kopka, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a multidisciplinary cornerstone business course focused on communication, teamwork, problem solving, professional demeanor, research, ethics, and diversity. Discusses lessons learned: change itself raises obstacles, appropriate faculty are crucial, and time frame and course content should not be overly ambitious. (SK)

  20. Isolated teenagers, cooperative learning, and the training of social skills.

    PubMed

    Mesch, D; Lew, M; Johnson, D W; Johnson, R

    1986-07-01

    The effects of individual and group contingencies on the achievement and social integration of isolated, learning-disabled students were studied. Five socially isolated and withdrawn eighth-grade students in foreign-language and math classes were subjects. The choice of working alone or in a group with no academic contingency (i.e., bonus points) was compared with working in cooperative learning groups with a group-academic contingency (i.e., bonus points), a group-academic contingency with social-skills training, and a group-academic contingency in combination with a social-skills contingency (i.e., bonus points). The results indicated that the combination of group-academic and social-skills contingencies produced in the socially isolated and withdrawn students the highest rates of appropriate social interaction with peers, acceptance and liking by peers, positive attitudes toward the subject area, and achievement. PMID:3761218

  1. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  2. Recognising Women's Skill. EAE647 Non-Formal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Eva; Leonard, Helen

    The material in this monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Non-Formal Learning, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It is designed to raise issues relating to skill definition. "Choosing a Worker or How Good Are Your Job Descriptions?" explores why interpersonal or…

  3. Learning Innovations in Colorado: Life Skills Activities K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This handbook was created by 138 Colorado educators statewide to provide their colleagues with exciting ideas for infusing life skills into the school curriculum. This handbook offers a wide variety of practical learning experiences for elementary through high school level students in three broad categories: career development; independent living;…

  4. Enhancing Argumentative Writing Skill through Contextual Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasani, Aceng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…

  5. Helping While Learning: A Skilled Group Helper Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a developmental group training workshop for training experienced counselors to do group counseling. Discusses stages of training including exploration, understanding, and action, which can help counselors learn helping skills for counseling that can often transfer to their own interpersonal lives and interactions with others. (JAC)

  6. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume V: Functional Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, one of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, includes five courses on functional skills for a workplace literacy curriculum. Introductory materials include a table of contents, a list of the curriculum topics covered in each guide, and a section called "Hello Computer"…

  7. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  8. Neural Substrates of Cognitive Skill Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, M. H.; Dagher, A.; Panisset, M.; Doyon, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive skill learning is normally acquired implicitly through frontostrial circuitry in healthy individuals, neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) do so by activating alternate, intact brain areas associated with explicit memory processing. To further test this hypothesis, 10 patients with PD and 12…

  9. Skills, Learning Styles and Success of First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Judy; Hughes, Moira

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between students' confidence in their generic skills on entry to university, their learning styles and their academic performance in first year. Research based on a large cohort of Scottish undergraduates found that students generally entered university feeling very confident that they already possessed…

  10. Developing Media Literacy Skills for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jessica Everett

    2014-01-01

    Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…

  11. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  12. Notetaking Skills and Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Charles A.; Suritsky, Sharon K.

    1993-01-01

    Research indicates that students with learning disabilities may experience significant difficulty with taking notes during teacher lectures. Approaches for helping students include task accommodations (such as taping the lectures or purchasing notes) and notetaking skill/strategy instruction (such as paraphrasing, outlining, using abbreviations,…

  13. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  14. Secondary School Pupils' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana; Balogh, Timea

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research on 258 secondary school pupils' (10-15 years old, 5th-8th grades) self-regulated learning skills as self-efficacy, self-judgement, self-reaction and their interest for studying Mathematics.

  15. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  16. The Temporal Dynamics of Strategy Execution in Cognitive Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajic, Daniel; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from algorithmic to memory-based performance is a core component of cognitive skill learning. There has been debate about the temporal dynamics of strategy execution, with some models assuming a race (i.e., independent, capacity unconstrained parallel processing) between algorithm and retrieval, and others assuming a choice…

  17. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  18. Assessment of Cognitive Social Skills in Learning Disabled Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.

    Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…

  19. Fact, Feeling, Fantasy: An Integrative Approach to Learning Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Charles A.; Nathan-Fasten, Lynn

    Both the cognitive and affective domains of learning may be combined in an integrative model of education which joins awareness of values, feelings, and self with the knowledge and skills necessary for expression and communication. This manual consists of four fantasy exercises which help to develop awareness of personal events, as well as…

  20. Promoting Global Literacy Skills through Technology- Infused Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared, Ed.; Mbae, Justus G., Ed.; Ngigi, Simon K., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing internationalization of today's classrooms calls for learning institutions to prepare students for success in an interdependent and technologically-advanced world. Faculty who are competent in multiple 21st century skills are best equipped to engage students in curricula that are relevant, transformative, and engaging across content…

  1. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  3. Attentional focus in complex skill learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, G; McNevin, N H; Fuchs, T; Ritter, F; Toole, T

    2000-09-01

    Experiment 1 examined whether it is more advantageous to direct learners' attention to the external effects of their movements relative to other external cues. Two groups of participants hit tennis balls at a target, with one group focusing on the ball coming toward them (antecedent) and the other group focusing on the ball leaving the racket (effect). The effect group demonstrated more effective learning. Experiment 2 examined whether it is more beneficial if the movement effect is related to the movement technique, relative to other movement effects (e.g., outcome). Two groups of participants hit golf balls at a target. The attention of these groups was directed to the club or the ball trajectory, respectively. The club group showed more effective learning than the target group, suggesting that focusing on technique-related effects is more effective. PMID:10999260

  4. Re-embodiment: incorporation through embodied learning of wheelchair skills.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2011-05-01

    In this article, the notion of re-embodiment is developed to include the ways that rearrangement and renewals of body schema take place in rehabilitation. More specifically, the embodied learning process of acquiring wheelchair skills serves as a starting point for fleshing out a phenomenological understanding of incorporation of assistive devices. By drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty, the reciprocal relation between acquisition habits and incorporation of instruments is explored in relation to the learning of wheelchair skills. On the basis of this, it is argued that through learning to manoeuvre the wheelchair, a reversible relation between is established between the moving body-subject and the wheelchair. In this sense, re-embodiment involves a gestalt switch from body image to body schema. PMID:20865328

  5. Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.

  6. Improving Undergraduates' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer-learning Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g., factoidz.com, answersingenesis.org). The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles

  7. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect

    PubMed Central

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  8. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect.

    PubMed

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  9. Implicit Learning of Semantic Category Sequences: Response-Independent Acquisition of Abstract Sequential Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goschke, Thomas; Bolte, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Through the use of a new serial naming task, the authors investigated implicit learning of repeating sequences of abstract semantic categories. Participants named objects (e.g., table, shirt) appearing in random order. Unbeknownst to them, the semantic categories of the objects (e.g., furniture, clothing) followed a repeating sequence.…

  10. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  11. Learning about Regiochemistry from a Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction Reaction in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears-Dundes, Christopher; Huon, Yoeup; Hotz, Richard P.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment has been developed in which the hydrogen-atom abstraction and the coupling of propionitrile, using Fenton's reagent, are investigated. Students learn about the regiochemistry of radical formation, the stereochemistry of product formation, and the interpretation of GC-MS data, in a safe reaction that can be easily completed in one…

  12. Some aspects of using new techniques of teaching/learning in education in optics (Abstract only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanska, Malgorzata

    2003-11-01

    The deep learning in Optics can be encouraged by stimulating and considerate teaching. It means that teacher should demonstrate his/her personal commitment to the subject and stress its meaning, relevance and importance to the students. It is also important to allow students to be creative in solving problems and in interpretation of its contents. In order to help the students to become more creative persons it is necessary to enhance the learning process of modern knowledge in Optics, to design and conduct experiments, stimulate passions and interests, allow an access to the e-learning system (Internet) and introduce the psychological training (creativity, communication, lateral thinking etc.) (Abstract only available)

  13. Reinforcing Communication Skills While Registered Nurses Simultaneously Learn Course Content: A Response to Learning Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen nursing students participated in Integrated Skills Reinforcement, an approach that reinforces writing, reading, speaking, and listening skills while students learn course content. Pre-/postassessment of writing showed that 93% achieved writing improvement. All students agreed that the approach improved understanding of course content, a…

  14. Facilitating Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Achievement with a Strategic Content Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Monica L.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Whether out of financial concerns for student retention or altruistic goals involving facilitating successful learning, efforts are being made to ensure college student success beyond chance independent study skills. Students often lack effective self-regulatory skills and study strategies necessary for success in college. With guidance through…

  15. Simulation-Based Education with Mastery Learning Improves Paracentesis Skills

    PubMed Central

    Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Cohen, Elaine R.; Vozenilek, John A.; O'Connor, Lanty M.; McGaghie, William C.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracentesis is a commonly performed bedside procedure that has the potential for serious complications. Therefore, simulation-based education for paracentesis is valuable for clinicians. Objective To assess internal medicine residents' procedural skills before and after simulation-based mastery learning on a paracentesis simulator. Methods A team with expertise in simulation and procedural skills developed and created a high fidelity, ultrasound-compatible paracentesis simulator. Fifty-eight first-year internal medicine residents completed a mastery learning-based intervention using the paracentesis simulator. Residents underwent baseline skill assessment (pretest) using a 25-item checklist. Residents completed a posttest after a 3-hour education session featuring a demonstration of the procedure, deliberate practice, ultrasound training, and feedback. All residents were expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) at posttest, the key feature of mastery learning. We compared pretest and posttest checklist scores to evaluate the effect of the educational intervention. Residents rated the training sessions. Results Residents' paracentesis skills improved from an average pretest score of 33.0% (SD  =  15.2%) to 92.7% (SD  =  5.4%) at posttest (P < .001). After the training intervention, all residents met or exceeded the MPS. The training sessions and realism of the simulation were rated highly by learners. Conclusion This study demonstrates the ability of a paracentesis simulator to significantly improve procedural competence. PMID:23451302

  16. Contextual interference in complex bimanual skill learning leads to better skill persistence.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Lisa; Swinnen, Stephan P; Beets, Iseult A M

    2014-01-01

    The contextual interference (CI) effect is a robust phenomenon in the (motor) skill learning literature. However, CI has yielded mixed results in complex task learning. The current study addressed whether the CI effect is generalizable to bimanual skill learning, with a focus on the temporal evolution of memory processes. In contrast to previous studies, an extensive training schedule, distributed across multiple days of practice, was provided. Participants practiced three frequency ratios across three practice days following either a blocked or random practice schedule. During the acquisition phase, better overall performance for the blocked practice group was observed, but this difference diminished as practice progressed. At immediate and delayed retention, the random practice group outperformed the blocked practice group, except for the most difficult frequency ratio. Our main finding is that the random practice group showed superior performance persistence over a one week time interval in all three frequency ratios compared to the blocked practice group. This study contributes to our understanding of learning, consolidation and memory of complex motor skills, which helps optimizing training protocols in future studies and rehabilitation settings. PMID:24960171

  17. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Wulf, Gabriele; Maquestiaux, François

    2015-06-01

    Witt, Linkenauger, and Proffitt (Psychological Science, 23, 397-399, 2012) demonstrated that golf putting performance was enhanced when the hole was surrounded by small circles, making it look larger, relative to when it was surrounded by large circles, making it look smaller. In the present study, we examined whether practicing putting with small or large surrounding circles would have not only immediate effects on performance, but also longer-lasting effects on motor learning. Two groups of nongolfers practiced putting golf balls to a 10.4-cm circle ("hole") from a distance of 2 m. Small or large circles were projected around the hole during the practice phase. Perception of hole size was affected by the size of the surrounding circles. Also, self-efficacy was higher in the group with the perceived larger hole. One day after practice, participants performed the putting task, but without visual illusions (i.e., a retention test). Putting accuracy in retention was greater for the group that had practiced with the perceived larger hole. These findings suggest that the apparently larger target led to the more effective learning outcome. PMID:25316049

  18. Transfer of Complex Skill Learning from Virtual to Real Rowing

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  19. Transfer of complex skill learning from virtual to real rowing.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  20. Abstract rule learning: the differential effects of lesions in frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Andrew S; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Learning progressively more abstract stimulus-response mappings requires progressively more anterior regions of the lateral frontal cortex. Using an individual differences approach, we studied subjects with frontal lesions performing a hierarchical reinforcement-learning task to investigate how frontal cortex contributes to abstract rule learning. We predicted that subjects with lesions of the left pre-premotor (pre-PMd) cortex, a region implicated in abstract rule learning, would demonstrate impaired acquisition of second-order, as opposed to first-order, rules. We found that 4 subjects with such lesions did indeed demonstrate a second-order rule-learning impairment, but that these subjects nonetheless performed better than subjects with other frontal lesions in a second-order rule condition. This finding resulted from both their restricted exploration of the feature space and the task structure of this condition, for which they identified partially representative first-order rules. Significantly, across all subjects, suboptimal but above-chance performance in this condition correlated with increasing disconnection of left pre-PMd from the putative functional hierarchy, defined by reduced functional connectivity between left pre-PMd and adjacent nodes. These findings support the theory that activity within lateral frontal cortex shapes the search for relevant stimulus-response mappings, while emphasizing that the behavioral correlate of impairments depends critically on task structure.

  1. Communicative signals support abstract rule learning by 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the discovery of abstract rules like those found in natural language may be evolutionarily tuned to speech, according to previous research. When infants hear speech sounds, they can learn rules that govern their combination, but when they hear non-speech sounds such as sine-wave tones, they fail to do so. Here we show that infants' rule learning is not tied to speech per se, but is instead enhanced more broadly by communicative signals. In two experiments, infants succeeded in learning and generalizing rules from tones that were introduced as if they could be used to communicate. In two control experiments, infants failed to learn the very same rules when familiarized to tones outside of a communicative exchange. These results reveal that infants' attention to social agents and communication catalyzes a fundamental achievement of human learning. PMID:27150270

  2. Communicative signals support abstract rule learning by 7-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brock; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the discovery of abstract rules like those found in natural language may be evolutionarily tuned to speech, according to previous research. When infants hear speech sounds, they can learn rules that govern their combination, but when they hear non-speech sounds such as sine-wave tones, they fail to do so. Here we show that infants’ rule learning is not tied to speech per se, but is instead enhanced more broadly by communicative signals. In two experiments, infants succeeded in learning and generalizing rules from tones that were introduced as if they could be used to communicate. In two control experiments, infants failed to learn the very same rules when familiarized to tones outside of a communicative exchange. These results reveal that infants’ attention to social agents and communication catalyzes a fundamental achievement of human learning. PMID:27150270

  3. Foresight Group Roundtable: Fresh Thinking for Learning and Skills. Centre for Innovation in Learning--Positioning Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…

  4. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author’s perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants’ own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public health The nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of

  5. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  6. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  7. Learning formative skills of nursing practice in an accelerated program.

    PubMed

    McNiesh, Susan; Benner, Patricia; Chesla, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe how students in an accelerated master's degree entry program experientially learned the practice of nursing. One research question examined in this study was: What formative experiences did students identify as helping them develop and differentiate their clinical practice? Data from clinical observations and a combination of small group and individual interviews were collected and analyzed using interpretive phenomenological methods. Students identified formative skills learned through the independent care of a patient as pivotal in their identity and agency development. By experiencing the responsibility and action from within the body and from within concrete situations, students developed a new understanding that changed their embodied ways of perceiving and orienting to the situation, as well as their skills and sense of agency.

  8. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. Design. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. Conclusion. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment. PMID:26941437

  9. The learning of motor skills: sports science and ergonomics perspectives.

    PubMed

    Annett, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes some of the common origins of ergonomics and sports science in the UK with particular reference to research on motor learning. Attention is drawn to the value of analytical methods developed by ergonomists in deriving training prescriptions and their relationship with conventional learning theory is discussed. The cognitive revolution, which in the last 25 years has changed the face of psychology, has also had its impact on ergonomics and basic research on motor skills. The role of cognitive processes in motor learning is being reassessed and there is a renewed interest in topics such as verbal instruction, imitation, imagery, and mental practice which to earlier generations of behavioural scientists appeared beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The paper outlines some recent research into the role of imagery in motor learning illustrating these new approaches.

  10. Learning Communities: Strengthening Lifelong Learning through Practice. A Demos/Learning and Skills Development Agency Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Development Agency, London (England).

    This paper details the work of Demos and the Learning and Skills Development Agency to examine how new institutional structures for supporting lifelong learning can develop in ways that best support community-based learning activities in the United Kingdom. Three seminar background papers and notes are provided, each followed by seminar notes.…

  11. Count Me in: The Role of Action Learning in Making Learning and Skills Provision More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Gill

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the role of action learning in a national programme of research and development. The aim of the programme was to improve provision for disabled learners in the learning and skills sector by supporting providers in implementing the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act (2002). Practitioners worked on a wide range…

  12. Inter-Life: A Novel, Three-Dimensional, Virtual Learning Environment for Life Transition Skills Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Alison M.; Lally, Vic; Sclater, Madeleine; Parussel, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from one of the first empirical research studies which has investigated the impact of Inter-Life; a novel three-dimensional immersive virtual learning environment, on learning and development of social and educational life transition skills in a group of looked after and accommodated children. Drawing on social…

  13. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  14. Abstract or Concrete Examples in Learning Mathematics? A Replication and Elaboration of Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler's Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bock, Dirk; Deprez, Johan; Van Dooren, Wim; Roelens, Michel; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler (2008a) published in "Science" a study on "The advantage of abstract examples in learning math," in which they claim that students may benefit more from learning mathematics through a single abstract, symbolic representation than from multiple concrete examples. This publication elicited both enthusiastic and…

  15. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered. PMID:26388825

  16. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing.

  17. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  18. Prototype Abstraction and Distinctive Feature Learning: An Application to Learning Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Using recognition tests with new and old exemplars (multiple-component characters) and prototypes (common components), the traditional language learning technique of paired-associate training with exemplars of Chinese characters and specific English translations led to the poorest performance of the three methods tested. Learning either exemplars…

  19. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.

  20. Student Learning through Service Learning: Effects on Academic Development, Civic Responsibility, Interpersonal Skills and Practical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Ali; Hauf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Although anecdotal evidence and research alike espouse the benefits of service learning, some researchers have suggested that more rigorous testing is required in order to determine its true effect on students. This is particularly true in the case of academic development, which has been inconsistently linked to service learning. It has been…

  1. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S.; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore medical students’ attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students’ attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. Results: The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Conclusion: Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age. PMID:27381541

  2. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  3. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  4. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  5. Discovering Abstract Concepts to Aid Cross-Map Transfer for a Learning Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpson, Cédric; Corruble, Vincent

    The capacity to apply knowledge in a context different than the one in which it was learned has become crucial within the area of autonomous agents. This paper specifically addresses the issue of transfer of knowledge acquired through online learning in partially observable environments. We investigate the discovery of relevant abstract concepts which help the transfer of knowledge in the context of an environment characterized by its 2D geographical configuration. The architecture proposed is tested in a simple grid-world environment where two agents duel each other. Results show that an agent’s performances are improved through learning, including when it is tested on a map it has not yet seen.

  6. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M

    2013-08-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

  7. EQClinic: a platform for learning communication skills in clinical consultations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M.; Lim, Renee L.; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a

  8. [Motor asymmetry and learning new skills in animals].

    PubMed

    Budilin, S Iu; Pletneva, E V; Ioffe, M E; Arsen'ev, G N

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between the ability to learn new motor skills and preference to the right or left front paw when performing manipulation movements in rats. As a new skill used the Morris water maze, in which the animals are initially trained to detect platform hidden under water at the swim of the sector of the opposite platform, and then when sailing from sectors on the left or the right of the platform. Preference paw was determined by using the taking of animal food from a narrow horizontal tube and, accordingly, the rats were divided into left-handedness and right-handedness. We found that when changing the place of launch, that is the first voyage from the left or right of the sector, are right-handed, unlike left-handed, spent significantly more time to find the platform. PMID:25713870

  9. Learning to Study: Study Skills/Study Strategies. Book H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrum, Charles T., II

    This workbook is one of a series that provides students with examples of location skills, organizational skills, interpretation skills, retention skills, test-taking skills, rate skills, and study strategies. Location skills include locating general reference sources and reviewing the card catalog system and the Dewey decimal system.…

  10. Sleep-independent off-line enhancement and time of the day effects in three forms of skill learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Lukács, Ágnes

    2016-05-01

    The role of sleep in memory and skill-learning processes is an important and widely debated issue. The current study explores the nature of the relationship between sleep and off-line improvement in three tasks for measuring different aspects of skill learning: the serial reaction time (SRT) task, which is a motor sequence learning task; the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task, testing abstract verbal sequence learning; and the weather prediction (WP) task, which is a non-sequential categorization task. Each participant was tested on one of the three tasks twice, either in a Wake condition (with a 12-h off-line period without sleep), or in a Sleep condition (with sleep). Results showed no sleep-related off-line improvement throughout the three tasks in a two-session re-learning design, but a sleep-independent time-based effect was found on the SRT task. No performance boost was observed in the WP and AGL tasks. Performance on the SRT showed a time of the day effect: the Sleep group outperforming the Wake group; however, this effect was restricted to overall response latencies. Taken together, no evidence was found in favor of sleep-dependent off-line enhancement in skill learning, but methodological concerns warrant further investigations. PMID:26861244

  11. Hidden Markov model approach to skill learning and its application to telerobotics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. . Robotics Inst. Univ. of Akron, OH . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Xu, Y. . Robotics Inst.); Chen, C.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of how human skill can be represented as a parametric model using a hidden Markov model (HMM), and how an HMM-based skill model can be used to learn human skill. HMM is feasible to characterize a doubly stochastic process--measurable action and immeasurable mental states--that is involved in the skill learning. The authors formulated the learning problem as a multidimensional HMM and developed a testbed for a variety of skill learning applications. Based on ''the most likely performance'' criterion, the best action sequence can be selected from all previously measured action data by modeling the skill as an HMM. The proposed method has been implemented in the teleoperation control of a space station robot system, and some important implementation issues have been discussed. The method allows a robot to learn human skill certain tasks and to improve motion performance.

  12. Learning and Skills: Opportunities or Threats for Disabled Learners? FEDA Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    Challenges will be created by proposed changes to post-school education and training for people with learning difficulties and disabilities. Two important bills have been proposed. The Learning and Skills Bill (LSB) changes the whole architecture of the post-school education and training sector. LSB sets up the Learning and Skills Council (LSC)…

  13. Note-Taking Skills of Middle School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…

  14. The Role of Visual Learning in Improving Students' High-Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiyn, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Various concepts have been introduced to improve students' analytical thinking skills based on problem based learning (PBL). This paper introduces a new concept to increase student's analytical thinking skills based on a visual learning strategy. Such a strategy has three fundamental components: a teacher, a student, and a learning process. The…

  15. Development of a Learning Model for Enhancing Social Skills on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traisorn, Rattanaporn; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were: 1) to study the situation, problems and needs for a learning model to enhance the social skills of sixth grade students; 2) to develop a learning model that would address those needs; 3) to study the effectiveness of that learning model; 4) to compare performance on pretests and posttests of social skills; and 5) to…

  16. Language, Speech, and Communication Skills Training: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: communications curricula for technical education programs; the recorded oral communication of business students; interactions between parents and speech-language…

  17. Reading and Study Skills: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July 1978 through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 1 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the relationship between readability of written material and reading competency of upper middle class adult readers, the economic benefits of adult basic education…

  18. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) an alternative high school English curriculum and its relationship to student alienation and pupil control ideology; (2) an oral language program for fifth…

  19. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a hierarchy of purposes for reading assignments applied to secondary school social studies; (2) the effects of sentence combining practice on reading comprehension; (3) the effects of…

  20. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information of recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) spelling as a cognitive-linguistic developmental process; (2) the impact of cursive writing models on spelling achievement; (3) an intelligent…

  1. Reading and Study Skills: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July 1978 through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 1 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: various factors in terms of attitudes toward reading; the effect of group counseling on self-concept and reading achievement; the effect of three modes of…

  2. Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 14 titles deal with the following topics: observable behaviors and verbal responses elicited by a specific listening task; the relationship between oral spelling, auditory sequencing, and vocal rhythm; the effect of listening…

  3. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1985 (Vol. 46 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 11 titles deal with the following topics: (1) teacher self-assessment and analysis of feedback to student miscues during oral reading; (2) the humor found in basal readers appropriate to second and fourth grade students; (3) an…

  4. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1983 (Vol. 43 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) spelling; (2) the effect of orientation instructions using a terminal value as an extrinsic motivator of listening comprehension; (3) a schematic method for…

  5. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Preschool and Elementary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 47 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: a programed tutoring project in which older students tutored first grade students; oral reading miscues made by children in high, medium, and low reading groups;…

  6. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

  7. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  8. Recognition of Tacit Skills: Sustaining Learning Outcomes in Adult Learning and Work Re-Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Kersh, Natasha; Kontiainen, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on the project "Recognition of Tacit Skills and Knowledge in Work Re-entry" carried out as a part of the ESRC-funded Research Network "Improving Incentives to Learning in the Workplace". The network aims to contribute to improved practice among a wide range of practitioners. The study has investigated the part played by tacit…

  9. Changes in Students' Use of Lifelong Learning Skills during a Problem-Based Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.

    2005-01-01

    In a climate of continual change and innovation, lifelong learning is a critical professional development objective which has a direct impact on organizations' effectiveness and ability to compete and innovate. To help learners continually upgrade their skills and knowledge so they can effectively address emerging organizational and professional…

  10. Learning to "See" Less than Nothing: Putting Perceptual Skills to Work for Learning Numerical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Jessica M.; Blair, Kristen P.; Bofferding, Laura; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    How can children's natural perceptuo-motor skills be harnessed for teaching and learning mathematical structure? We address this question in the case of the integers. Existing research suggests that adult mental representations of integers recruit perceptuo-motor functionalities involving symmetry. Building on these findings, we designed a…

  11. Cognitive processing and motor skill learning in motor-handicapped teenagers: effects of learning method.

    PubMed

    Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gerome C; Lavisse, Dominique; Perrin, Philippe P

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of a motor skill learning method intended to promote learning course personalization through an increase in cognitive processing deployment in motor-handicapped persons. Thirty-three secondary school students volunteered to participate in an archery motor skill learning session, 11 motor-handicapped (MH(1)) and 11 able-bodied (AB) teenagers following a standard learning method, and 11 motor-handicapped teenagers following a cognitive enriched learning method (MH(2)) based on the use of an individually written and illustrated document. The results showed that MH(1) displayed lower performances than AB, both in terms of the mental representations of the movements expected and performed and of efficiency of the movement. On the other hand, MH(2) performances were higher than MH(1) for all these parameters, and similar to those of AB at the end of the learning session. Personalization of the learning course allowed optimization of the learning potential in motor-handicapped teenagers to resolve the difficulties inherent to their handicap.

  12. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics.

  13. Learning Profiles and the "Skills Gap" in Four Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Schooling and Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2014-01-01

    Educational access in developing countries has improved significantly in recent years, but less evidence is available on learning and learning progress in comparative perspective. This paper employs data from Young Lives to examine levels and trends in cognitive skill development and the links to enrolment in school across the four study countries…

  14. Motor skill learning is associated with diffusion characteristics of white matter in individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Borich, Michael R.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imaging advances allow investigation of white matter following stroke; a growing body of literature has shown links between diffusion-based measures of white matter microstructure and motor function. However, the relationship between these measures and motor skill learning has not been considered in individuals with stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between post-training white matter microstructural status, as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) within the ipsilesional posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and learning of a novel motor task in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods Thirteen participants with chronic stroke and nine healthy controls practiced a visuomotor pursuit task across five sessions. Change in motor behavior associated with learning was indexed by comparing baseline performance with a delayed retention test. Fractional anisotropy (FA) indexed at the retention test was the primary DTI-derived outcome measure. Results In individuals with chronic stroke, we discovered an association between post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA and the magnitude of change associated with motor learning; hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the combination of age, time post stroke and ipsilesional PLIC FA post-training was associated with motor learning related change (R2=0.649, p=0.02). Baseline motor performance was not related to post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA. Discussion and Conclusions Diffusion characteristics of post-training ipsilesional PLIC were linked to magnitude of change in skilled motor behavior. These results imply that the microstructural properties of regional white matter indexed by diffusion behavior may be an important factor to consider when determining potential response to rehabilitation in persons with stroke. Video Abstract available (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1.) for more insights from the authors. PMID:23934017

  15. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26983919

  16. Variability of Practice and Contextual Interference in Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Hall, K. G.; Magill, R. A.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning benefits in multiple-task learning situations are a result of contextual interference or of schema enhancement related to the amount of variability in the practice session. Two experiments were designed that replicated and extended the experiment reported by Wulf and Schmidt (1988). In a 2 (same vs. different relative time) x 2 (blocked vs. random practice schedule) design, 48 right-handed subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A tapping task was employed that required a right-handed tap of three small brass plates arranged in a diamond pattern. Each segment had a specific time requirement. Target times and response times were provided on a computer screen directly in front of the subject. Each subject participated in two acquisition sessions (i.e., 198 practice trials) and was tested for learning on several different retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 2, a control group was added that received no acquisition phase. Results of both experiments showed a typical contextual interference effect, with depressed scores by the random groups during acquisition but significantly better scores than the blocked groups on several retention and transfer tests. Certain characteristics of the tests were found to influence the demonstration of the practice schedule effects. These results were consistent with predictions from Magill and Hall (1990) that the learning benefits of contextual interference are more likely to occur when skill variations are from different classes of movement and that the amount of variability in practice is more influential when the to-be-learned tasks are parameter modifications of the same generalized motor program. PMID:12529226

  17. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  18. Learning a unimanual motor skill by partial commissurotomy patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Campbell, R; Marshall, J C; Zaidel, D W

    1990-09-01

    A series of motor tests on four Chinese partial commissurotomy patients is reported. The single-stage commissurotomy in all four patients included the anterior commissures and two-thirds or four-fifths section of the corpus callosum with sparing of the splenium. There was no demonstrable ability to transfer hand posture in these patients. This was the major evidence for functional deconnexion. A newly learned task of one-hand knotting revealed right hand impairment in all four patients. There was no dyspraxia in the right hand for over-learned object-handling tasks in these patients. It is suggested that there might be right hemisphere specialisation for the initial acquisition of unimanual object-handling skills and that the spared callosal fibres in the splenium alone are insufficient to mediate task control under these conditions. This is supported by the finding that one of these patients, who was the only one who had a right parietal lesion, was unable to perform the newly learned task with either hand.

  19. Learning a unimanual motor skill by partial commissurotomy patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y P; Campbell, R; Marshall, J C; Zaidel, D W

    1990-01-01

    A series of motor tests on four Chinese partial commissurotomy patients is reported. The single-stage commissurotomy in all four patients included the anterior commissures and two-thirds or four-fifths section of the corpus callosum with sparing of the splenium. There was no demonstrable ability to transfer hand posture in these patients. This was the major evidence for functional deconnexion. A newly learned task of one-hand knotting revealed right hand impairment in all four patients. There was no dyspraxia in the right hand for over-learned object-handling tasks in these patients. It is suggested that there might be right hemisphere specialisation for the initial acquisition of unimanual object-handling skills and that the spared callosal fibres in the splenium alone are insufficient to mediate task control under these conditions. This is supported by the finding that one of these patients, who was the only one who had a right parietal lesion, was unable to perform the newly learned task with either hand. Images PMID:2246661

  20. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.

  1. Designing On-Demand Education for Simultaneous Development of Domain-Specific and Self-Directed Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taminiau, E. M. C.; Kester, L.; Corbalan, G.; Spector, J. M.; Kirschner, P. A.; Van Merriënboer, J. J. G.

    2015-01-01

    On-demand education enables individual learners to choose their learning pathways according to their own learning needs. They must use self-directed learning (SDL) skills involving self-assessment and task selection to determine appropriate pathways for learning. Learners who lack these skills must develop them because SDL skills are prerequisite…

  2. Social Work and Law Interdisciplinary Service Learning: Increasing Future Lawyers' Interpersonal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Stephanie K.; Quiring, Stephanie Q.; Harris, Evan; Hagan, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Social workers and attorneys both interact with persons from diverse backgrounds every day, yet although interpersonal skills are an essential focus of social work education, these skills are not addressed in legal education. Interdisciplinary courses in which social workers and lawyers learn interpersonal skills together and have an opportunity…

  3. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  4. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  5. Conception of Learning and Clinical Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Exercise Science Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan; Chuter, Vivienne; Rooney, Kieron

    2013-01-01

    Learning clinical skills presents a novel experience for undergraduate students, particularly when it comes to preparing for skill assessment. Compared with the thousands of hours of practice believed to be necessary for the development of motor skill expertise (1), these students have significantly limited exposure time. Furthermore, effective…

  6. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  7. Medical Students Learning Communication Skills in a Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Muhammad J.; Major, Stella; Mirza, Deen M.; Prinsloo, Engela A. M.; Osman, Ossama; Amiri, Leena; McLean, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Communications skills (CS) training for medical interviewing is increasingly being conducted in English at medical schools worldwide. In this study, we sought to identify whether Arabic-speaking medical students experienced difficulty with the different components of the CS training that were conducted in English. Methods: Individual third-year preclinical medical students (N = 45) were videotaped while interviewing simulated patients. Each student assessed his/her performance on a 13-item (5-point scale) assessment form, which was also completed by the tutor and other students in the group. Results: Of the 13 components of their CS training, tutors awarded the lowest marks for students’ abilities to express empathy, ask about patients’ feelings, use transition statements, ask about functional impact, and elicit patients’ expectations (P <0.001). Conclusion: The expression of empathy and the ability to elicit patients’ feelings and expectations are difficult to develop in medical students learning CS in a second language. PMID:23573389

  8. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…

  9. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  10. Sequence Skill Learning in Persons Who Stutter: Implications for Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia and cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical connections are known to play a critical role in sequence skill learning and increasing automaticity over practice. The current paper reviews four studies comparing the sequence skill learning and the transition to automaticity of persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) over…

  11. Cognitive Skills in Internet-Supported Learning Environments in Higher Education: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate Bekele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    How did Internet-supported learning environments (ISLE) impact students' critical thinking (CT) and problem solving (PS) skills in higher education? What specific indicators have been used to measure CT? What types of problems and learning approaches were chosen to assess PS skills? This paper qualitatively reviewed studies published in academic…

  12. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  13. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  14. From "Story" to Argument: The Acquisition of Academic Writing Skills in an Open-Learning Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley-Maidment, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Examines the acquisition of academic writing skills by adult students studying by distance learning in the United Kingdom. Results indicate that the text-based nature of distance leaning affects both the way in which students acquire writing skills and the development of their identity as academic writers. Differences in the learning process were…

  15. "Second Generation" E-Learning: Characteristics and Design Principles for Supporting Management Soft-Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean; Morgan, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    This article develops the concept of "second generation" e-learning as a new paradigm for thinking about online learning. Whereas "first generation" approaches have been effective for developing technical skills, the same approach has not proven effective for developing management soft-skills (e.g., in the field of leadership education). The…

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Development Portfolio: How to Improve Students' Self-Directed Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kicken, Wendy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen; Slot, Wim

    2009-01-01

    In on-demand education, students often experience problems with directing their own learning processes. A Structured Task Evaluation and Planning Portfolio (STEPP) was designed to help students develop 3 basic self-directed learning skills: Assessing the quality of own performance, formulating learning needs, and selecting future learning tasks. A…

  17. The Delivery of Recreation Programs: Students Gain Entry Level Management Skills through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Dupree, Jessica; Hodges, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Service learning is a well established pedagogy within higher education. Specifically, service learning allows students to engage in "real world" activities to practice skills and reflect upon their own competence. To enhance the effectiveness of service learning, instructors need to consider a multitude of learning influences. This…

  18. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  19. An Assessment of Cooperative Learning Used for Basic Computer Skills Instruction in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; Anson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Reports research on cooperative learning strategies used in a college computer skills lab course and compares learning performance and retention of students taught via cooperative teams or traditional individual learning. Results show that both performance and retention were significantly improved with the use of cooperative learning. (Author/JMV)

  20. Academic Progress Depending on the Skills and Qualities of Learning in Students of a Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesús, Araiza Vázquez María; Claudia, Dörfer; Rosalinda, Castillo Corpus

    2015-01-01

    This research was to establish the relationship between qualities of learning; learning skills and academic performance in undergraduate students. 310 undergraduates participated in this research of which 72% are female and 28% male. All responded Scale Learning Strategies of Roman and Gallego (1994) and Questionnaire Learning Styles of…

  1. Self Regulated Learning for Developing Nursing Skills via Web-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Hua, Khor Bee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether the first year student nurses able to learn and develop the psychomotor skills for basic nursing care using web-based learning environment. More importantly, the researcher investigated whether web-based learning environment using self regulated learning strategy able to help students to apply the…

  2. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. PMID:26280911

  3. The differential consolidation of perceptual and motor learning in skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hallgató, Emese; Győri-Dani, Dóra; Pekár, Judit; Janacsek, Karolina; Nemeth, Dezso

    2013-04-01

    Implicit skill learning is an unconscious way of learning which underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills. This form of learning is based on both motor and perceptual information. Although many studies have investigated the perceptual and motor components of "online" skill learning, the effect of consolidation on perceptual and motor characteristics of skill learning has not been studied to our knowledge. In our research we used a sequence learning task to determine if consolidation had the same or different effect on the perceptual and the motor components of skill acquisition. We introduced a 12-h (including or not including sleep) and a 24-h (diurnal control) delay between the learning and the testing phase with AM-PM, PM-AM, AM-AM and PM-PM groups, in order to examine whether the offline period had differential effects on perceptual and motor learning. Although both perceptual and motor learning were significant in the testing phase, results showed that motor knowledge transfers more effectively than perceptual knowledge during the offline period, irrespective of whether sleep occurred or not and whether there was a 12- or 24-h delay period between the learning and the testing phase. These results have important implications for the debate concerning perceptual/motor learning and the role of sleep in skill acquisition.

  4. Consistently modeling the same movement strategy is more important than model skill level in observational learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J; Dean, Noah

    2014-02-01

    The experiment undertaken was designed to elucidate the impact of model skill level on observational learning processes. The task was bimanual circle tracing with a 90° relative phase lead of one hand over the other hand. Observer groups watched videos of either an instruction model, a discovery model, or a skilled model. The instruction and skilled model always performed the task with the same movement strategy, the right-arm traced clockwise and the left-arm counterclockwise around circle templates with the right-arm leading. The discovery model used several movement strategies (tracing-direction/hand-lead) during practice. Observation of the instruction and skilled model provided a significant benefit compared to the discovery model when performing the 90° relative phase pattern in a post-observation test. The observers of the discovery model had significant room for improvement and benefited from post-observation practice of the 90° pattern. The benefit of a model is found in the consistency with which that model uses the same movement strategy, and not within the skill level of the model. It is the consistency in strategy modeled that allows observers to develop an abstract perceptual representation of the task that can be implemented into a coordinated action. Theoretically, the results show that movement strategy information (relative motion direction, hand lead) and relative phase information can be detected through visual perception processes and be successfully mapped to outgoing motor commands within an observational learning context.

  5. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. PMID:21700421

  6. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity.

  7. Can Visual Illusions Be Used to Facilitate Sport Skill Learning?

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Meer, Yor; Moerman, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that practicing putting with visual illusions that make the hole appear larger than it actually is leads to longer-lasting performance improvements. Interestingly, from a motor control and learning perspective, it may be possible to actually predict the opposite to occur, as facing a smaller appearing target should enforce performers to be more precise. To test this idea the authors invited participants to practice an aiming task (i.e., a marble-shooting task) with either a visual illusion that made the target appear larger or a visual illusion that made the target appear smaller. They applied a pre-post test design, included a control group training without any illusory effects and increased the amount of practice to 450 trials. In contrast to earlier reports, the results revealed that the group that trained with the visual illusion that made the target look smaller improved performance from pre- to posttest, whereas the group practicing with visual illusions that made the target appear larger did not show any improvements. Notably, also the control group improved from pre- to posttest. The authors conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of whether and how visual illusions may be useful training tools for sport skill learning. PMID:27254078

  8. Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning sport skills.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jared M; Magill, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the contextual interference effect, in two experiments we investigated a form of practice schedule that provided novices with systematic increases in contextual interference. This new type of practice schedule was compared with traditional blocked and random scheduling for two types of sports skills. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that practising variations of the same task with systematic increases in contextual interference would lead to superior performance compared with blocked or random scheduling. Participants practised golf putting tasks following a blocked, random or increasing schedule, which involved initial blocked trials, followed by serial practice trials, and ended with random scheduling. Participants who followed the increasing schedule had superior retention test performance. In Experiment 2, we tested if these learning benefits were observed when learning tasks controlled by different generalized motor programs. Participants practised three different basketball passes (chest, overhead, single arm) in a blocked, random or increasing schedule. Participants practising with gradual increases in contextual interference performed better on retention and transfer tests than participants practising with blocked or random scheduling. The results of these two expe PMID:20845219

  9. Radiographic skills learning: procedure simulation using adaptive hypermedia.

    PubMed

    Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Proimos, B

    1996-10-01

    The design and development of a simulation tool supporting learning of radiographic skills is reported. This tool has by textual, graphical and iconic resources, organized according to a building-block, adaptive hypermedia approach, which is described and supported by an image base of radiographs. It offers interactive user-controlled simulation of radiographic imaging procedures. The development is based on a commercially available environment (Toolbook 3.0, Asymetrix Corporation). The core of the system is an attributed precedence (priority) graph, which represents a task outline (concept and resources structure), which is dynamically adjusted to selected procedures. The user interface imitates a conventional radiography system, i.e. operating console, tube, table, patient and cassette. System parameters, such as patient positioning, focus-to-patient distance, magnification, field dimensions, tube voltage and mAs are under user control. Their effects on image quality are presented, by means of an image base acquired under controlled exposure conditions. Innovative use of hypermedia, computer based learning and simulation principles and technology in the development of this tool resulted in an enhanced interactive environment providing radiographic parameter control and visualization of parameter effects on image quality. PMID:9038530

  10. The functional anatomy of sleep-dependent visual skill learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2005-11-01

    Learning of procedural skills develops gradually, with performance improving significantly with practice. But improvement on some tasks, including a visual texture discrimination task, continues in the absence of further practice, expressly during periods of sleep and not across equivalent waking episodes. Here we report that the brain activation revealed significantly different patterns of performance-related functional activity following a night of sleep relative to 1 h post-training without intervening sleep. When task activation patterns after a night of sleep were compared with activation patterns without intervening sleep (1 h post-training), significant regions of increased signal intensity were observed in the primary visual cortex, the occipital temporal junction, the medial temporal lobe and the inferior parietal lobe. In contrast, a region of decreased signal intensity was found in the right temporal pole. Corroborating these condition differences, correlations between behavioural performance and brain activation revealed significantly different patterns of performance-related functional activity following a night of sleep relative to those without intervening sleep. Together, these data provide evidence of overnight bi-directional changes in functional anatomy, differences that may form the neural basis of sleep-dependent learning expressed on this task.

  11. Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning sport skills.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jared M; Magill, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the contextual interference effect, in two experiments we investigated a form of practice schedule that provided novices with systematic increases in contextual interference. This new type of practice schedule was compared with traditional blocked and random scheduling for two types of sports skills. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that practising variations of the same task with systematic increases in contextual interference would lead to superior performance compared with blocked or random scheduling. Participants practised golf putting tasks following a blocked, random or increasing schedule, which involved initial blocked trials, followed by serial practice trials, and ended with random scheduling. Participants who followed the increasing schedule had superior retention test performance. In Experiment 2, we tested if these learning benefits were observed when learning tasks controlled by different generalized motor programs. Participants practised three different basketball passes (chest, overhead, single arm) in a blocked, random or increasing schedule. Participants practising with gradual increases in contextual interference performed better on retention and transfer tests than participants practising with blocked or random scheduling. The results of these two expe

  12. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula. PMID:27068992

  13. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364

  14. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills, and Language Learning in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to literacy and essential skills, as well as the learning of second and other languages in Canada. It builds upon the work of the OECD (n.d.) and Werquin…

  15. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, P<.001), problem solving (F=6.91, P=.001), and self-directed learning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning.

  16. The Development of a Learning Gap between Students with Strong Prerequisite Skills and Students with Weak Prerequisite Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Nathan B.; de La Harpe, Kimberly; Kontur, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates how mastery of prerequisite course material impacts student learning in follow-on courses. To measure the importance of prerequisite skills, we compare the exam scores of students with a GPA of 3.0 or better in their multidisciplinary prerequisite classes to the exam scores of students with a GPA of less than 3.0 in their…

  17. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity. PMID:3764289

  18. Learning Leadership Skills in a Simulated Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Saarinen, Eeli; Lainema, Timo; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…

  19. Diversity as a Learning Goal: Challenges in Assessing Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Pam

    2009-01-01

    At Oklahoma State University (OSU), faculty have defined expectations for students' learning of knowledge, skills, and attitudes about diversity, and have implemented a process to assess students' achievement of the diversity learning goal. As was done for other general education learning goals such as written communication ability and critical…

  20. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  1. The Role of Perceptions of Friendships and Peers in Learning Skills in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koekoek, Jeroen; Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most research on how children learn when using the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach has focused on cognitive dimensions in teaching games models. A social constructivist perspective suggests, however, that learning also takes place during social interactions. Since the process of learning game skills tends to have a…

  2. Summative Co-Assessment: A Deep Learning Approach To Enhancing Employability Skills and Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Service-learning is a pedagogy that combines academic study with service to the community. Voluntary work placements are integral to service-learning and offer students an ideal opportunity to develop their employability skills and attributes. In a service-learning course, it was considered good practice to raise students' awareness of the…

  3. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning on the Reading Comprehension Skills in Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolukbas, Fatma; Keskin, Funda; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a process through which students with various abilities, gender, nationalities and different level of social skills carry out their learning process by working in small groups and helping each other. Cooperative learning is a pedagogical use of small groups which enable students to maximize both their own and others'…

  4. Promoting Academic Writing/Referencing Skills: Outcome of an Undergraduate E-Learning Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cary A.; Dickson, Rumona; Humphreys, Anne-Louise; McQuillan, Vicky; Smears, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Future health care professionals will require self-directed learning skills. e-Learning is a tool to assist in this process and therefore there is a need to develop the capacity and readiness to utilise e-learning within educational programmes. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-curricular online referencing and anti-plagiarism…

  5. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  6. The Implementation of Interactive Multimedia Learning Materials in Teaching Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampa, Andi Tenri

    2015-01-01

    One of the factors that may affect the success of the learning process is the use of learning media. Therefore, this research aimed to implement and evaluate the interactive multimedia learning materials using Wondershare Quizcreator program and audio materials in teaching "English listening skills". The research problem was whether or…

  7. Designing Multimedia Learning Systems for Adult Learners: Basic Skills with a Workforce Emphasis. NCAL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John P.

    An analysis was conducted of the results of a formative evaluation of the LiteracyLink "Workplace Essential Skills" (WES) learning system conducted in the fall of 1998. (The WES learning system is a multimedia learning system integrating text, sound, graphics, animation, video, and images in a computer system and includes a videotape series, a…

  8. Language Development and Learning to Read: The Scientific Study of How Language Development Affects Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Research on reading has tried, and failed, to account for wide disparities in reading skill even among children taught by the same method. Why do some children learn to read easily and quickly while others, in the same classroom and taught by the same teacher, don't learn to read at all? In "Language Development and Learning to Read", Diane…

  9. Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative approach to learning that teaches a multitude of strategies critical for success in the twenty-first century. Students drive their own learning through inquiry, as well as work collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. From gleaning new, viable technology skills, to…

  10. Impact of a Blended Environment with m-Learning on EFL Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obari, Hiroyuki; Lambacher, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study conducted from April 2013 to January 2014 sought to ascertain whether a blended learning (BL) environment incorporating m-learning could help Japanese undergraduates improve their English language skills. In this paper, various emerging technologies (including Globalvoice English, ATR CALL Brix, the mobile learning-oriented…

  11. Got Game? A Choice-Based Learning Assessment of Data Literacy and Visualization Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Doris B.; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    In partnership with both formal and informal learning institutions, researchers have been building a suite of online games, called choicelets, to serve as interactive assessments of learning skills, e.g. critical thinking or seeking feedback. Unlike more traditional assessments, which take a retrospective, knowledge-based view of learning,…

  12. Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects to Promote Cell Biology Learning and Scientific Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  13. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    PubMed

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.

  14. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    PubMed

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  15. LDA '94: A Capital IDEA. Poster Session Abstracts of the International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Washington, D.C., March 16-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    This booklet brings together one-page to two-page abstracts from research poster sessions held at a conference on learning disabilities. The 17 research abstracts are presented within four poster session categories: (1) research on assessment and characteristics of students with learning disabilities (with abstracts on handwriting, mainstreaming…

  16. Effects of Project-Based Learning Strategy on Self-Directed Learning Skills of Educational Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Abdullah, Maria Chong Binti; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of globalization as well as the need to train skilled and knowledgeable employees for the 21st century workforce, higher education needs to take a more critical look at the educational practices and instructional methods which lead to improvements in students' essential skills such as self-directed learning. This study sought…

  17. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter), shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter), and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r = −0.82) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r = 0.70); the correlations was much lesser (−0.16 < r > 0.25) in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r = 0.91). Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR < 0.05). These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role

  18. Evaluating a skills centre: learning psychomotor skills--a review of the theory.

    PubMed

    Knight, C M

    1998-08-01

    The formal teaching of skills based on the theoretical principles of skill acquisition has, so far, been practised by teachers responsible for preparing students for their first adult clinical placement on the diploma programme. Whether teachers on other programmes are using similar models of skill acquisition has been surveyed, and the results are presently being analysed. This approach to teaching skills within the context of the Skills Centre is also being evaluated. However, as indicated in the introduction to this paper, it is important to develop and implement the theoretical foundations for skills teaching before any evaluative research on it can take place (Chen 1986). Now these foundations are in place, the evaluative strategy can proceed.

  19. The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2004-01-01

    Web-based learning is becoming prevalent in science learning. Some use specially designed programs, while others use materials available on the Internet. This qualitative case study examined the process of acquisition of integrated science process skills, particularly the skill of controlling variables, in a web-based learning environment among grade 5 children. Data were gathered primarily from children's conversations and teacher-student conversations. Analysis of the data revealed that the children acquired the skill in three phases: from the phase of recognition to the phase of familiarization and finally to the phase of automation. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the skill only involved the acquisition of certain subskills of the skill of controlling variables. This progression could be influenced by the web-based instructional material that provided declarative knowledge, concrete visualization and opportunities for practise.

  20. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. PMID:26638046

  1. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness.

  2. Student C&IT Skills Development and the Learning Environment: Evaluation and Module Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grattan, John; Brown, Giles H.; Horgan, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Students who used the Geohazards course were compared with those using the Malta Fieldcourse, both intended to develop skills in communications and information technology. The result was that both courses were altered, particularly in terms of the learning environment. (JOW)

  3. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  4. Birth of an Abstraction: A Dynamical Systems Account of the Discovery of an Elsewhere Principle in a Category Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Whitney; Cho, Pyeong W.; Dankowicz, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Human participants and recurrent ("connectionist") neural networks were both trained on a categorization system abstractly similar to natural language systems involving irregular ("strong") classes and a default class. Both the humans and the networks exhibited staged learning and a generalization pattern reminiscent of the…

  5. Optimizing Skill Learning: Moving to Match the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ree K.

    1978-01-01

    Students can be helped to learn how to learn by structuring a learning situation that will facilitate an active process of seeking successful solutions to relevant motor problems by matching movements to the characteristics of the performance environment. (MM)

  6. Growth of Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers: Impact of Sleep Habits and Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molnar, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study used a longitudinal design to identify how sleep habits and learning-related behaviors impact the development of cognitive skills in preschoolers (ages 3-5). Sixty- seven children with parental report and cognitive skill assessment data were included. Scores on the Differential Ability Scales (C. Elliott, 1990)…

  7. Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

  8. Rethinking UK Small Employers' Skills Policies and the Role of Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, John

    2008-01-01

    Small business employers in the UK are widely perceived as adopting a reactive, ad hoc approach to employee skill formation. Employer reliance on workplace learning is often treated, explicitly or implicitly, as evidence of such an approach. Small employers' approaches to skill creation are investigated using data from two employer samples. Three…

  9. For Better or Worse? The Marriage of Key Skills Development and On-line Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norah; Fitzgibbon, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the University of Glamorgan's electronic learning module on employability and professional development demonstrates the feasibility of teaching transferable, "soft" skills online. Advantages compared with face-to-face include transparency, flexibility, development of information technology skills, openness, and teamwork; disadvantages…

  10. Comparing Language Teaching and Other-Skill Teaching: Has the Language Teacher Anything to Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; Jackson, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a research project which observes the teaching practices of trainers working in three non-linguistic skill ("other-skill") areas--music (classical singing), table tennis, and flight simulation. The aim is to compare these practices with those of the language teacher and to consider whether the latter has anything to learn from…

  11. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  12. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…

  13. Computational Skills, Working Memory, and Conceptual Knowledge in Older Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Donald J.; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor…

  14. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  15. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  16. Building Student Self-Efficacy and Mastery of Skills through Service Learning Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilarski, C.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 40) responded positively to a semantic differential scale after experiencing a "direct practice" service learning group work course. Qualitative data documented student's perceptions of increased skill levels relating to self-efficacy--understood as positively influencing mastery of skills and performance…

  17. Helping Disadvantaged Children Learn to Read by Teaching Them Phoneme Identification Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michael A.; Wallach, Lise

    The rationale, development, and implementation of a reading program designed to teach disadvantaged children the skills prerequisite to learning to read are discussed in this paper. Of particular importance are skills in the recognition and manipulation of basic speech sounds, phonemes. The first of the program's three parts takes two and one-half…

  18. Why, How and What To Practice: Integrating Skills Teaching and Learning in the Undergraduate Law Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolski, Bobette

    2002-01-01

    Considers one model, currently operating at the law school in Australia's Bond University, for the integration of skills teaching and learning in the undergraduate law curriculum. Attempts to systematize the various approaches to skills integration adopted by law schools in Australia, America, and the United Kingdom. (EV)

  19. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  20. The Learning and Development of Low-Skilled Workers Training to Become Surgical Technologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Judith Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how low-skilled workers who participated in a health care training program learned to acquire the technical, cognitive, and developmental competencies they needed to gain skilled employment in higher-level positions in the field and thus advance their careers. The data methods used were: (1) in-depth…

  1. Retention of Learned Skills. The Effects of Physical Practice and Mental/Physical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    A study evaluated the retention level of three gymnastics skills learned by health and physical education students using either physical practice or a combination of mental and physical practice. Mental practice was found to have a positive effect on skill retention. Results and recommendations are offered. (DF)

  2. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  3. A Systematic Approach for Teaching Notetaking Skills to Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne-Smith, Mary

    1989-01-01

    A five-step method for teaching notetaking skills in students with mild learning handicaps includes evaluating current performance, teaching preskills, teaching a notetaking system, providing for distributed practice, and providing for skill generalization. Additional practical suggestions for teachers are provided. (MSE)

  4. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  5. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  6. Analysis of Basic Skill Competencies of Learning Disabled Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; And Others

    The study compared minimum competency test scores of approximately 1,000 learning disabled Florida tenth graders with those of regular class peers and surveyed 200 employers concerning the perceived importance of the competency test skills. Item performance, skill performance, and mastery scores on the State Student Assessment Test-II (SSAT-II)…

  7. Factor Related to the Skipping of Subordinate Skills in Gagne's Learning Hierarchies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Katy

    Gagne proposed in his learning hierarchy model that a final task could not be performed by an individual who does not have the subordinate skills, and that any superordinate task involved in the hierarchy of skill building could be performed by an individual provided suitable instructions were given, and provided the relevant subordinate knowledge…

  8. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  9. Validation of Skills, Knowledge and Experience in Lifelong Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, James

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines systems of validation of skills and experience as well as the main methods/tools currently used for validating skills and knowledge in lifelong learning. The paper uses mixed methods--a case study research and content analysis of European Union policy documents and frameworks--as a basis for this research. The selection of the…

  10. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  11. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  12. Cost Effective Skill Training Module Development Dramatically Leveraging Knowledge and Skills Learned on the Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utterstrom, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia authoring packages and low cost delivery systems make it possible to produce and deliver inexpensive skill training modules. This article examines computer-based training (CBT) in the workplace; features of skill training modules; steps in their development; and delivery alternatives (CD-ROM, batch download, CD-ROM jukebox or tower,…

  13. Learning Psychomotor Skills in TAFE (or The Psychology of Psychomotor Skills). Educational Psychology for TAFE Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anthony

    Developed for use in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teacher education, this module is intended to widen teachers' knowledge and understanding of the psychology of psychomotor skills to improve teaching of psychomotor skills in the TAFE classroom or workshop. The module is divided into two parts: basic and advanced. The first part, "What…

  14. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5

  15. Maintenance of skills for today's family physician: the SAGE approach to physician learning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Robert C; Junnila, Jennifer L; Seehusen, Dean A; Edwards, John A; Runkle, Guy P

    2005-12-01

    Physicians need practical ways to maintain and augment clinical skills after residency training. The problem is amplified when a physician encounters a new practice environment that requires retraining in particular skills. With their broad scope of practice, family physicians are especially prone to deterioration of infrequently used skills. The SAGE model for lifelong learning provides a simple solution for today's military family physicians. Scan, assess, gather, and experience are four key steps physicians should take when maintaining or upgrading clinical skills. This approach allows physicians to identify available resources and to develop action plans to improve skills. Supervisors must encourage physicians to be honest in self-assessment of patient care skills and should support the acquisition of improved skills. System-based solutions, in keeping with suggestions from the Institute of Medicine, are introduced.

  16. Teaching, Learning and Assessment for Adults: Improving Foundation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many adults in OECD countries have low language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) skills. The consequences of these low foundation skills span the economic, health and social well-being of individuals, families and communities. Investment in this sector of adult education is therefore crucial. This study looks specifically inside the programmes for…

  17. Learning by Doing: Introducing Research Skills to Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Niamh

    2009-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive economy, the capacity for self-motivation, problem-solving skills and an ability to think critically are core graduate attributes. However, the capacity to create an educational environment that develops and harnesses such skills is a distinct challenge as resources become increasingly restricted. Geographical Skills…

  18. Learning Soft Skills at Work: An Interview with Annalee Luhman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Muir, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Soft skills are attitudes and behaviors displayed in interactions among individuals that affect the outcomes of such encounters. These differ from hard skills, which are the technical knowledge and abilities required to perform specific job-related tasks more formally stated in job descriptions. In the past, it was felt that managers and employees…

  19. Research Based Learning Approach: Students Perspective of Skills Obtained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazura, Kerry; Tuttle, Harlee

    2010-01-01

    This study describes undergraduate students' evaluation of skills gained from two different research experiences (observation vs. interview) while enrolled in a child development course (N=83). At the end of the semester students were asked to complete a skills questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three themes that were used to create the…

  20. Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

  1. The Bases of Competence. Skills for Lifelong Learning and Employability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Frederick T.; Rush, James C.; Berdrow, Iris

    This book, which is intended primarily for instructional development specialists, academic leaders, and faculty members in all types of postsecondary institutions, explains what skills and competencies students need to succeed in today's workplace and details how colleges and universities can strengthen the curriculum to cultivate those skills in…

  2. The Examination of Online Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Web-Based Learning Environments in Terms of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether online self-regulated learning skills differentiate student attitudes towards the internet and web-based education in web-based learning environments. Following survey method of research, the results were presented in descriptive manner. 169 university students participated in the study group.…

  3. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  4. Examining the Effectiveness of a Program Developed for Teaching Social Skills to Hearing Impaired Students Based on Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether a social skill instruction program, prepared according to the cooperative learning method, is effective for children with hearing disability in learning the basic social skills, starting and continuing a relationship, conducting a work with a group, and the generalization of these skills. Nine learning…

  5. Strategies for Learning: Teaching Thinking Skills across the Curriculum through Science. Analyzing Information and Data. Teacher's Edition. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Robert A.; Roy, Kenneth Russell

    Science process skills such as observing, classifying, inferring, interpreting, predicting, and hypothesizing can all be classified as a sub category of thinking skills. This book is part of the series "Strategies for Learning" that focuses on the step-by-step development and application of thinking skills as a vehicle for learning science. The…

  6. Hard and Soft Skills Enhancement in Entrepreunership Learning for the Twelfth Grade Students of SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayuningtyas, Lidya Pradina; Djatmika, Ery Tri; Wardana, Ludi Wishnu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the following things: (1) contributions of both hard and soft skills in entrepreneurship learning in SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang; (2) how to increase hard and soft skills on entrepreneurship learning in SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang; and (3) the purpose hard and the soft skills. The research findings showed that: (1)…

  7. Reinforcing communication skills while registered nurses simultaneously learn course content: a response to learning needs.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, B B

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Integrated Skills Reinforcement (ISR) in a baccalaureate nursing course entitled "Principles of Health Assessment" for 15 registered nurse students. ISR is a comprehensive teaching-learning approach that simultaneously reinforces student writing, reading, speaking, and listening skills while they learn course content. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of ISR on writing skills and student satisfaction. A learner's guide and teacher's guide, created in advance by the teacher, described specific language activities and assignments that were implemented throughout the ISR course. During each class, the teacher promoted discussion, collaboration, and co-inquiry among students, using course content as the vehicle of exchange. Writing was assessed at the beginning and end of the course. The influence of ISR on the content, organization, sentence structure, tone, and strength of position of student writing was analyzed. Writing samples were scored by an independent evaluator trained in methods of holistic scoring. Ninety-three per cent (14 of 15 students) achieved writing growth from .5 to 1.5 points on a scale of 6 points. Student response to both the ISR approach and specific ISR activities was assessed by teacher-created surveys administered at the middle-end of the course. One hundred per cent of the students at the end of this project agreed that the ISR activities, specifically the writing and reading activities, helped them better understand the course content. These responses differed from evaluations written by the same students at the middle of the course. The ISR approach fostered analysis and communication through active collaboration, behaviors cited as critical for effective participation of nurses in today's complex health care environment.

  8. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  9. Habit and Skill Learning in Schizophrenia: Evidence of Normal Striatal Processing With Abnormal Cortical Input

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, Thomas W.; Terrazas, Alejandro; Bigelow, Llewellyn B.; Malley, James D.; Hyde, Thomas; Egan, Michael F.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Goldberg, Terry E.

    2002-01-01

    Different forms of nondeclarative learning involve regionally specific striatal circuits. The motor circuit (involving the putamen) has been associated with motor–skill learning and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) circuit (involving the caudate) has been associated with cognitive–habit learning. Efforts to differentiate functional striatal circuits within patient samples have been limited. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding striatal-dependent nondeclarative learning deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, a cognitive–habit learning task (probabilistic weather prediction) was used to assess the DLPFC circuit and a motor–skill learning task (pursuit rotor) was used to assess the motor circuit in 35 patients with schizophrenia and 35 normal controls. Patients with schizophrenia displayed significant performance differences from controls on both nondeclarative tasks; however, cognitive–habit learning rate in patients did not differ from controls. There were performance and learning-rate differences on the motor–skill learning task between the whole sample of patients and controls, however, analysis of a subset of patients and controls matched on general intellectual level eliminated learning rate differences between groups. The abnormal performance offset between patients with schizophrenia and controls in the absence of learning rate differences suggests that abnormal cortical processing provides altered input to normal striatal circuitry. PMID:12464703

  10. Learning and teaching motor skills in regional anesthesia: a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Slater, Reuben J; Castanelli, Damian J; Barrington, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature on learning in regional anesthesia broadly covers the rate of skill acquisition and the structure of educational programs. A complementary body of literature spanning psychology to medical education can be found describing skill acquisition in other fields. Concepts described in this literature have direct application to the teaching of regional anesthesia. This review introduces a selection of these complementary educational concepts, applying them to ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia skills education. Key educational concepts presented in this article can be divided into 3 sections, namely, how residents acquire manual skills, how tutors teach, and type of feedback.

  11. Strengthening Parenting Skills: School Age. Secondary Learning Guide 2. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on strengthening parenting skills is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems;…

  12. Microsituations as an Active-Learning Tool To Teach Endocrine Pharmacology and Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Barbara F.; Lubawy, William C.

    1998-01-01

    Microsituations teaching is a case-based, active learning tool developed from cognitive learning theory to teach problem-solving skills to large classes while conserving faculty and other resources. Since implementing this method in an endocrine pharmacology course at the University of Kentucky, student performance on problem-solving examinations…

  13. Blind Evaluation of Body Reflexes and Motor Skills in Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freides, David; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Twelve 6 to 10 year old boys with learning disability were blindly compared with paired controls on measures of postural and equilibrium reflexes as well as skills. Learning disabled children as a group showed significant deficits on all measures; a few, however, were totally without deficit. (Author/SBH)

  14. Using Videotape in a Multimedia Approach to Teaching Language Skills to Learning Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Pamela J.

    Some general approaches to individualized tutorial instruction are described with specific examples of a multimedia model for learning used with one 13 year old learning disabled student deficient in language skills. The model is presented in the form of a wheel, with a topic, theme, concept, or content area at the hub; radiating out from the…

  15. The Effect of Virtual versus Traditional Learning in Achieving Competency-Based Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Shahsavari, Sakine; Sobhanian, Saeed; Dastpak, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: By rapid developing of the network technology, the internet-based learning methods are substituting the traditional classrooms making them expand to the virtual network learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virtual systems on competency-based skills of first-year nursing students.…

  16. The Learning Gains of Male Inmates Participating in a Basic Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messemer, Jonathan E.; Valentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the learning gains for a group of male inmates (n = 124) participating in an adult basic education program in a closed security prison within the southeastern region of the United States. Learning gains were measured for the basic skill areas of reading, math, and language. The number of hours of…

  17. Facilitating the Development of Study Skills through a Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian; Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Barber, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a Blended Learning (BL) environment designed to facilitate the learning of study skills with a large (over 200) and diverse undergraduate student cohort in a Higher Education (HE) institution in the UK. A BL environment was designed using the model provided by Kerres & De Witt (2003), and was also…

  18. Cognitively Demanding Learning Materials with Texts and Instructional Pictures: Teachers' Diagnostic Skills, Pedagogical Beliefs and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigated…

  19. Teaching Community Ecology as a Jigsaw: A Collaborative Learning Activity Fostering Library Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia I.; Lena Chang

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative learning activity that helps in developing library research skills is presented to help students get acquainted with librarians, used to the physical layout of the library resources, and develop an awareness of the information contained in the different library resources. The collaborative learning exercise introduces the students…

  20. Life Skills Training through Situated Learning Experiences: An Alternative Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the value of situated learning as an alternative to the traditional college course instructional approach for pre-service teachers. The situated learning mode of teaching immerses students in the actual setting, practicing the skills and concepts emphasized in the curriculum. Through a partnership with a college, community…

  1. Learning Daily Life and Vocational Skills in Natural Settings: A Tanzanian Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-MacDonald, Angela

    2012-01-01

    At a special education school in Tanzania, children learn in natural settings using a functional curriculum that has been adapted to their local context. Children with developmental disabilities are supported in learning the skills and knowledge they need to participate in their families and the community. The school utilized funds of knowledge…

  2. Teaching Critical Management Skills: The Role of Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joham, Carmen; Clarke, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores problem-based learning (PBL) as a vehicle for developing critical management skills and preparing students for their future careers. Using student reflections and facilitator observations the paper presents the nature of individuals' experiences with learning and teaching in a PBL setting in the management discipline. The study…

  3. Perceptions of Skill Development in a Living-Learning First-Year Experience Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerri Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…

  4. Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children are often diagnosed with language impairment, although they may simply have fewer opportunities to learn English than English-speaking monolingual children. This study examined whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning skills is an effective method for identifying bilingual children with primary language…

  5. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  6. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  7. Evaluating Listening and Speaking Skills in a Mobile Game-Based Learning Environment with Situational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shih, Timothy K.; Ma, Zhao-Heng; Shadiev, Rustam; Chen, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Game-based learning activities that facilitate students' listening and speaking skills were designed in this study. To participate in learning activities, students in the control group used traditional methods, while students in the experimental group used a mobile system. In our study, we looked into the feasibility of mobile game-based learning…

  8. A Delphi Study on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Applied on Computer Science (CS) Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porta, Marcela; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Martinez-Costa, Carme; Maillet, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a new pedagogical domain aiming to study the usage of information and communication technologies to support teaching and learning. The following study investigated how this domain is used to increase technical skills in Computer Science (CS). A Delphi method was applied, using three-rounds of online survey…

  9. Crosswalk Analysis of Deeper Learning Skills to Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted a crosswalk between the Deeper Learning Skills (DLS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The purpose of the crosswalk was to understand the ways in which strategies for deeper learning relate to the CCSS. This comparison was not solely or simply an alignment study, although some…

  10. Unravelling the Lifelong Learning Process for Canadian Workers and Adult Learners Acquiring Higher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…

  11. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  12. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  13. The Effects of Collectivism-Individualism on the Cooperative Learning of Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…

  14. Taxonomy of Learning Skills. Interim Technical Report for the Period February 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Shute, Valerie J.

    Questions concerning individual differences in learning ability may be more precisely addressed in light of an agreed-upon taxonomy of learning skills. Existing taxonomies are reviewed, and their shortcomings are described. A taxonomy is then proposed based on a synthesis of current thought consisting of four dimensions: the forms of knowledge;…

  15. Skills, Standards, and Disabilities: How Youth with Learning Disabilities Fare in High School and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are "more" likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate from high…

  16. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  17. Digital Learning: Strengthening and Assessing 21st Century Skills, Grades 5-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serim, Ferdi

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a practical pathway for developing twenty-first-century skills while simultaneously strengthening content-area learning. "Digital Learning" contains a wealth of research-based practices to integrate the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for both…

  18. The Effect of Blended Learning and Social Media-Supported Learning on the Students' Attitude and Self-Directed Learning Skills in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgunduz, Devrim; Akinoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blended learning and social media supported learning on the students' attitude and self-directed learning skills in Science Education. This research took place with the 7th grade 74 students attending to a primary school in Kadikoy, Istanbul and carried out "Our Body Systems"…

  19. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Yael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The impact of enhanced observation or enhanced prediction on scientific reasoning about heat energy and temperature problems was investigated. Instruction was successful in improving prediction and observation skills in the microcomputer-based laboratory environment. (CW)

  20. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning. PMID:27183399

  1. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  2. Technologies That Capitalize on Study Skills with Learning Style Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dusti D.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the tools available in the rapidly changing digital learning environment and offers a variety of approaches for how they can assist students with visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learning strengths. Teachers can use visual, auditory, and kinesthetic assessment tests to identify learning preferences and then recommend…

  3. Developing Recreation Skills in Persons with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This book provides specific suggestions for ways to make accommodations and modify leisure activities to enable and encourage the participation of individuals with learning disabilities. The following chapters include: (1) "An Introduction"; (2) "Learning Disabilities," which describes types of learning disabilities, guidelines in assessing…

  4. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  5. Separate neural substrates for skill learning and performance in the ventral and dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Hisham E; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Rudy, Jerry W; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the striatum of the basal ganglia is a primary substrate for the learning and performance of skills. We provide evidence that two regions of the rat striatum, ventral and dorsal, play distinct roles in instrumental conditioning (skill learning), with the ventral striatum being critical for learning and the dorsal striatum being important for performance but, notably, not for learning. This implies an actor (dorsal) versus director (ventral) division of labor, which is a new variant of the widely discussed actor-critic architecture. Our results also imply that the successful performance of a skill can ultimately result in its establishment as a habit outside the basal ganglia. PMID:17187065

  6. Influence of self-controlled feedback on learning a serial motor skill.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soowoen; Ali, Asif; Kim, Wonchan; Kim, Jingu; Choi, Sungmook; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Self-controlled feedback on a variety of tasks are well established as effective means of facilitating motor skill learning. This study assessed the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance of a serial motor skill. The task was to learn the sequence of 18 movements that make up the Taekwondo Poomsae Taegeuk first, which is the first beginner's practice form learned in this martial art. Twenty-four novice female participants (M age=27.2 yr., SD=1.8) were divided into two groups. All participants performed 16 trials in 4 blocks of the acquisition phase and 20 hr. later, 8 trials in 2 blocks of the retention phase. The self-controlled feedback group had significantly higher performance compared to the yoked-feedback group with regard to acquisition and retention. The results of this study may contribute to the literature regarding feedback by extending the usefulness of self-controlled feedback for learning a serial skill.

  7. Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study seeks to test the causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemologies on student conceptual learning in physics. A causal model, integrating multiple variables that were investigated separately in the prior literature, is proposed and tested through path analysis. These variables include student preinstructional reasoning skills measured by the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, pre- and postepistemological views measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, and pre- and postperformance on Newtonian concepts measured by the Force Concept Inventory. Students from a traditionally taught calculus-based introductory mechanics course at a research university participated in the study. Results largely support the postulated causal model and reveal strong influences of reasoning skills and preinstructional epistemology on student conceptual learning gains. Interestingly enough, postinstructional epistemology does not appear to have a significant influence on student learning gains. Moreover, pre- and postinstructional epistemology, although barely different from each other on average, have little causal connection between them.

  8. College Experiences and Student Inputs: Factors That Promote the Development of Skills and Attributes that Enhance Learning among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemosit, Caroline Chepkurui

    2012-01-01

    The study involved an exploration of factors that promoted the development of skills and attributes that enhanced learning among college students. The factors explored in this study were, active learning, student-teacher interaction, time on tasks, institutional expectations, student inputs, and skills and attributes that enhance learning. This…

  9. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  10. Can effective teaching and learning strategies help student nurses to retain drug calculation skills?

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2008-10-01

    Student nurses need to develop and retain drug calculation skills in order accurately to calculate drug dosages in clinical practice. If student nurses are to qualify and be fit to practise accurate drug calculation skills, then educational strategies need to not only show that the skills of student nurses have improved but that these skills have been retained over a period of time. A quasi-experimental approach was used to test the effectiveness of a range of strategies in improving retention of drug calculation skills. The results from an IV additive drug calculation test were used to compare the drug calculation skills of student nurses between two groups of students who had received different approaches to teaching drug calculation skills. The sample group received specific teaching and learning strategies in relation to drug calculation skills and the second group received only lectures on drug calculation skills. All test results for students were anonymous. The results from the test for both groups were statistically analysed using the Mann Whitney test to ascertain whether the range of strategies improved the results for the IV additive test. The results were further analysed and compared to ascertain the types and numbers of errors made in each of the sample groups. The results showed that there is a highly significant difference between the two samples using a two-tailed test (U=39.5, p<0.001). The strategies implemented therefore did make a difference to the retention of drug calculation skills in the students in the intervention group. Further research is required into the retention of drug calculation skills by students and nurses, but there does appears to be evidence to suggest that sound teaching and learning strategies do result in better retention of drug calculation skills.

  11. Degradation of learned skills. Effectiveness of practice methods on simulated space flight skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.; Berge, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Manual flight control and emergency procedure task skill degradation was evaluated after time intervals of from 1 to 6 months. The tasks were associated with a simulated launch through the orbit insertion flight phase of a space vehicle. The results showed that acceptable flight control performance was retained for 2 months, rapidly deteriorating thereafter by a factor of 1.7 to 3.1 depending on the performance measure used. Procedural task performance showed unacceptable degradation after only 1 month, and exceeded an order of magnitude after 4 months. The effectiveness of static rehearsal (checklists and briefings) and dynamic warmup (simulator practice) retraining methods were compared for the two tasks. Static rehearsal effectively countered procedural skill degradation, while some combination of dynamic warmup appeared necessary for flight control skill retention. It was apparent that these differences between methods were not solely a function of task type or retraining method, but were a function of the performance measures used for each task.

  12. Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why?

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Robbert J; van Geel, Koos; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-08-01

    Lack of published studies on students' practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1-3 using a pre-established interview guide. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. The interview guide was based on questionnaire results; overall response rate for Years 1-3 was 90% (n = 875). Students report a variety of activities to improve their physical examination skills. On average, students devote 20% of self-study time to skill training with Year 1 students practising significantly more than Year 3 students. Practice patterns shift from just-in-time learning to a longitudinal selfdirected approach. Factors influencing this change are assessment methods and simulated/real patients. Learning resources used include textbooks, examination guidelines, scientific articles, the Internet, videos/DVDs and scoring forms from previous OSCEs. Practising skills on fellow students happens at university rooms or at home. Also family and friends were mentioned to help. Simulated/real patients stimulated students to practise of physical examination skills, initially causing confusion and anxiety about skill performance but leading to increased feelings of competence. Difficult or enjoyable skills stimulate students to practise. The strategies students adopt to master physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions are self-directed. OSCE assessment does have influence, but learning takes place also when there is no upcoming assessment. Simulated and real patients provide strong incentives to work on skills. Early patient contacts make students feel more prepared for clinical practice.

  13. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  14. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this approach,…

  15. Learning of Abstract Concepts through Full-Body Interaction: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinverni, Laura; Pares, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years several learning environments based on novel interaction modalities have been developed. Within this field, Full-body Interaction Learning Environments open promising possibilities given their capacity to involve the users at different levels, such as sensorimotor experience, cognitive aspects and affective factors.…

  16. Explicating a Mechanism for Conceptual Learning: Elaborating the Construct of Reflective Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Tzur, Ron; Heinz, Karen; Kinzel, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    We articulate and explicate a mechanism for mathematics conceptual learning that can serve as a basis for the design of mathematics lessons. The mechanism, reflection on activity-effect relationships, addresses the learning paradox (Pascual-Leone, 1976), a paradox that derives from careful attention to the construct of assimilation (Piaget, 1970).…

  17. An Examination of Strategy Implementation during Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method: Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases…

  18. Enabling Active Learning. Conference Programme and Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (1st, Hull, England, United Kingdom, September 19-21, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Simon, Ed.

    This program for the 1994 Association for Learning Technology Conference provides a conference schedule and summarizes the presentations of the discussion workshops, hands-on workshops, live demonstrations, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "The Conceptualisation Cycle" (J. Mayes & L.…

  19. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  20. Impact of Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting: Student Perception and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better…

  1. From Tech Skills to Life Skills: Google Online Marketing Challenge and Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croes, Jo-Anne V.; Visser, Melina M.

    2015-01-01

    The Google Online Marketing Challenge (GOMC) is a global, online student competition sponsored by Google. It is a prime example of an experiential learning activity that includes using real money ($250 sponsored by Google) with a real client. The GOMC has yielded compelling results in student engagement and learning objectives related to the…

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  3. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  4. Teaching Communication Skills to Medical and Pharmacy Students Through a Blended Learning Course.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rick; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction.

  5. Teaching Communication Skills to Medical and Pharmacy Students Through a Blended Learning Course

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E.; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction. PMID:27293231

  6. Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

    Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

  7. Using peer-assisted learning to teach basic surgical skills: medical students' experiences.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mahdi; Sinha, Yashashwi; Weinberg, Daniel

    2013-08-22

    Standard medical curricula in the United Kingdom (UK) typically provide basic surgical-skills teaching before medical students are introduced into the clinical environment. However, these sessions are often led by clinical teaching fellows and/or consultants. Depending on the roles undertaken (e.g., session organizers, peer tutors), a peer-assisted learning (PAL) approach may afford many benefits to teaching surgical skills. At the University of Keele's School of Medicine, informal PAL is used by the Surgical Society to teach basic surgical skills to pre-clinical students. As medical students who assumed different roles within this peer-assisted model, we present our experiences and discuss the possible implications of incorporating such sessions into UK medical curricula. Our anecdotal evidence suggests that a combination of PAL sessions--used as an adjunct to faculty-led sessions--may provide optimal learning opportunities in delivering a basic surgical skills session for pre-clinical students.

  8. Strategy guidance and memory aiding in learning a problem-solving skill.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R A; Lundy, D H; Schneider, W

    1992-04-01

    Guidance can help learners overcome the difficulties of getting started in a novel domain, but it is often ineffective in promoting learning and transfer. This article examines two aspects of guidance--communicating solution strategies for a problem domain and providing working memory support--in learning a novel problem-solving skill. Subjects in two experiments learned to troubleshoot simulated information networks. The learning environment varied in type of guidance provided--none, variable template, fixed template, and procedural instruction--and in availability of memory aiding. Variable-template guidance was effective when memory aiding was provided, and procedural instructions produced effective learning with or without memory aiding. However, fixed-template guidance was not effective, and there was no consistent effect of memory aiding in unguided, discovery learning conditions. The results have theoretical implications for the locus of guided-learning effects and suggest practical guidelines for the design of guided-learning environments.

  9. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    PubMed

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  10. Procedural learning, consolidation, and transfer of a new skill in Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Caroline; Wansard, Murielle; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the differences in procedural learning abilities between children with DCD and typically developing children by investigating the steps that lead to skill automatization (i.e., the stages of fast learning, consolidation, and slow learning). Transfer of the skill to a new situation was also assessed. We tested 34 children aged 6-12 years with and without DCD on a perceptuomotor adaptation task, a form of procedural learning that is thought to involve the cerebellum and the basal ganglia (regions whose impairment has been associated with DCD) but also other brain areas including frontal regions. The results showed similar rates of learning, consolidation, and transfer in DCD and control children. However, the DCD children's performance remained slower than that of controls throughout the procedural task and they reached a lower asymptotic performance level; the difficulties observed at the outset did not diminish with practice.

  11. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  12. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.

  13. Skilled interaction among professional carers in special accommodations for adult people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H

    2013-09-01

    Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities.

  14. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. PMID:26010383

  15. Distinct contribution of the cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar systems to motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Julien; Penhune, Virginia; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2003-01-01

    This review paper focuses on studies in healthy human subjects that examined the functional neuroanatomy and cerebral plasticity associated with the learning, consolidation and retention phases of motor skilled behaviors using modern brain imaging techniques. Evidence in support of a recent model proposed by Doyon and Ungerleider [Functional Anatomy of Motor Skill Learning. In: Squire LR, Schacter DL, editors. Neuropsychology of Memory. New York: Guilford Press, 2002.] is also discussed. The latter suggests that experience-dependent changes in the brain depend not only on the stage of learning, but also on whether subjects are required to learn a new sequence of movements (motor sequence learning) or learn to adapt to environmental perturbations (motor adaptation). This model proposes that the cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar systems contribute differentially to motor sequence learning and motor adaptation, respectively, and that this is most apparent during the slow learning phase (i.e. automatization) when subjects achieve asymptotic performance, as well as during reactivation of the new skilled behavior in the retention phase.

  16. Enacting Viewing Skills with Apps to Promote Collaborative Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Kay Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper comprises discussion on the research findings of this study into how apps can be used in the classroom to collaboratively promote construction of mathematical knowledge in children in ways that fundamentally transform the instructional environment. The study results identify how children enact viewing skills through digital texts to…

  17. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-01-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary…

  18. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  19. Workplace Literacy: Critical Perspectives on Learning Basic Skills at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Tom

    Material from academic journals, the ERIC database, and the mass media regarding workplace literacy was reviewed. Among the review's major conclusions were the following: (1) the growing complexities of the workplace and society have contributed to evolving definitions of workplace literacy that include development skills generally associated with…

  20. Learning Career Management Skills in Europe: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Career management skills (CMS) are increasingly touted as necessary for all citizens, young and adult, particularly given the realities of employment and self-employment in a knowledge-based society, where "protean", "portfolio" careers are expected to increasingly become the norm, and lifelong career guidance an entitlement of all citizens. This…

  1. Facilitating Experiential Learning of Study Skills in Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Smith, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the student population in the UK has grown considerably, and students are entering higher education with a more diverse range of qualifications and skills. This is particularly the case in post-1992 universities with a widening participation agenda, as these institutions have a larger share of students from non-traditional…

  2. It's the Economy, Stupid! Re-Thinking Learning and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    In England, vocational education and training (VET) does not exist as an institutionalized system as in Europe, where specialist institutions are tied to vocational qualifications, the labor market, and long-term objectives. Education has purposes other than to provide a skilled work force for the economy. However, the relationship between…

  3. Human Resources Skills: Learning through an Interactive Multimedia Business Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Johanna; Drummond, Damon

    2000-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the design and development of an interactive multimedia simulation package for management education called Business Simulation which combines the concepts of case study methods with business simulation games. It is designed to provide students with skills-based training in human resources management, particularly…

  4. Educators' Social and Emotional Skills Vital to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.; Weissbourd, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' social and emotional competencies are very important to their overall effectiveness, but such skills are frequently overlooked. Social and emotional competencies like managing emotions and stress are needed more today than ever before. More practices and policies to support and foster educators' social and emotional…

  5. Reclaiming Basic Skills: In Defence of Long-Life Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The author draws upon recent experience of providing consultancy services to a working group established by the European Commission in 2001 to facilitate the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy for economic, social, and environmental renewal in the European Union. The article begins with a critique of the "new basic skills" identified at the…

  6. Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

  7. Using Visualization and Relaxation in Learning Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Charles H.

    Educators are beginning to call attention to the failure to integrate right-brain, intuitive, holistic, visual processes into the curriculum. Approaches to right-brain education have characteristically called for the use of slow music, visual imagery, and relaxation techniques. Suggested principles for teaching basic skills include the facts that…

  8. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  9. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  10. Multiple Intelligences in Virtual and Traditional Skill Instructional Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKethan, Robert; Rabinowitz, Erik; Kernodle, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) how Multiple Intelligence (MI) strengths correlate to learning in virtual and traditional environments and (b) the effectiveness of learning with and without an authority figure in attendance. Participants (N=69) were randomly assigned to four groups, administered the Multiple Intelligences…

  11. The Influence of Programming Skills on Learning and Study Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee

    The relationship between learning to program at a construct level and learning and study strategies was studied for college students enrolled in a beginning Pascal programing course and a calculus course (four sections of the programing course and two of the mathematics course). For both the experimental group (n=42) and the first control group…

  12. Learning Style: Cognitive and Thinking Skills. Instructional Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.

    Learning style is the foundation of successful teaching and teaching for thinking. The recent conceptualization of the brain as a complex system for processing and storing information can be meaningful to educators. Too many schools, however, rely on a rather mechanistic approach to learning. Future school administrators must be taught to…

  13. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  14. Smart Learning: A Study Skills Guide for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, William; Murphy, Thomas

    This book is designed to help teenagers make the most of their study time and learn how to take good notes, how to plan writing projects, and how to prepare for tests. Chapters in the book are: What It Takes; Active Learning; Writing; PREPsteps; Take Note; Making Time for Time; The Real Test; and Going for the Gold. (RS)

  15. Distributed Practice and Procedural Memory Consolidation in Musicians' Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to determine whether musicians' learning is affected by the time intervals interposed between practice sessions. Twenty-nine non-pianist musicians learned a 9-note sequence on a piano keyboard in three practice sessions that were separated by 5 min, 6 hr, or 24 hr. Significant improvements in performance accuracy were…

  16. Psychomotor skills acquisition of novice learners: a case for contextual learning.

    PubMed

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.

  17. Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Helen; Oprescu, Florin I; Downer, Terri; Phillips, Nicole M; McTier, Lauren; Lord, Bill; Barr, Nigel; Alla, Kristel; Bright, Peter; Dayton, Jeanne; Simbag, Vilma; Visser, Irene

    2016-07-01

    Information and communications technology is influencing the delivery of education in tertiary institutions. In particular, the increased use of videos for teaching and learning clinical skills in nursing may be a promising direction to pursue, yet we need to better document the current research in this area of inquiry. The aim of this paper was to explore and document the current areas of research into the use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education. The four main areas of current and future research are effectiveness, efficiency, usage, and quality of videos as teaching and learning materials. While there is a clear need for additional research in the area, the use of videos seems to be a promising, relevant, and increasingly used instructional strategy that could enhance the quality of clinical skills education. PMID:27237353

  18. Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Helen; Oprescu, Florin I; Downer, Terri; Phillips, Nicole M; McTier, Lauren; Lord, Bill; Barr, Nigel; Alla, Kristel; Bright, Peter; Dayton, Jeanne; Simbag, Vilma; Visser, Irene

    2016-07-01

    Information and communications technology is influencing the delivery of education in tertiary institutions. In particular, the increased use of videos for teaching and learning clinical skills in nursing may be a promising direction to pursue, yet we need to better document the current research in this area of inquiry. The aim of this paper was to explore and document the current areas of research into the use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education. The four main areas of current and future research are effectiveness, efficiency, usage, and quality of videos as teaching and learning materials. While there is a clear need for additional research in the area, the use of videos seems to be a promising, relevant, and increasingly used instructional strategy that could enhance the quality of clinical skills education.

  19. Abstract Rule Learning for Visual Sequences in 8- and 11-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Fernandes, Keith J.; Frank, Michael C.; Kirkham, Natasha; Marcus, Gary; Rabagliati, Hugh; Slemmer, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the development of a fundamental component of cognition: to recognize and generalize abstract relations. Infants were presented with simple rule-governed patterned sequences of visual shapes (ABB, AAB, and ABA) that could be discriminated from differences in the position of the repeated element (late,…

  20. Degradation of learned skills: Effectiveness of practice methods on visual approach and landing skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.; Zaitzeff, L. P.; Berge, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Flight control and procedural task skill degradation, and the effectiveness of retraining methods were evaluated for a simulated space vehicle approach and landing under instrument and visual flight conditions. Fifteen experienced pilots were trained and then tested after 4 months either without the benefits of practice or with static rehearsal, dynamic rehearsal or with dynamic warmup practice. Performance on both the flight control and procedure tasks degraded significantly after 4 months. The rehearsal methods effectively countered procedure task skill degradation, while dynamic rehearsal or a combination of static rehearsal and dynamic warmup practice was required for the flight control tasks. The quality of the retraining methods appeared to be primarily dependent on the efficiency of visual cue reinforcement.

  1. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  2. Practice with sleep makes perfect: sleep-dependent motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew P; Brakefield, Tiffany; Morgan, Alexandra; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Improvement in motor skill performance is known to continue for at least 24 hr following training, yet the relative contributions of time spent awake and asleep are unknown. Here we provide evidence that a night of sleep results in a 20% increase in motor speed without loss of accuracy, while an equivalent period of time during wake provides no significant benefit. Furthermore, a significant correlation exists between the improved performance overnight and the amount of stage 2 NREM sleep, particularly late in the night. This finding of sleep-dependent motor skill improvement may have important implications for the efficient learning of all skilled actions in humans.

  3. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage.

  4. Accessing first-grade teachers' images and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students: The use of abstract symbolic drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droy, Karen A.

    The purpose of this study was to explore teacher beliefs and images of students, learning, and teaching. The study was designed to elicit images and beliefs with the use of teachers' symbolic drawing and subsequent interpretation of their drawings. Twelve first grade teachers with teaching experience ranging from 1½ to 25 years, and from a variety of educational settings (i.e., urban, suburban, traditional public schools, non-traditional public or private schools) participated. Data collection utilized two primary methods of qualitative inquiry: teacher created abstract symbolic drawings and interviewing. The combination of symbolic drawings and interviewing provided an effective means for teachers to access, reflect upon, and express their tacit images and beliefs in a cohesive and holistic manner. The twelve teachers in this study appeared on the surface to have similar images of learning and teaching. Teachers talked about learning as a process that involved images of filtering, connecting, becoming stuck, and disconnecting. One major difference emerged that separated teachers into two distinct groups. The majority of teachers, ten out of twelve, viewed learning as a fact-based associative categorization where students either made connections through associations or replaced old information with new information. Only two teachers talked about learning as theory-based, describing learning as making connection through an assimilatory categorization process or making revisions to personal theories. Teachers who viewed learning as fact based also viewed teaching as fact-based. In general, these teachers used discussion, teacher questions, and a large variety of activities to help students collect new facts and make associative connections. Teachers who viewed learning as theory-based used activities, discussion, and teacher questions to promote conversation and thinking. They expected students to use new facts to build and revise theories with the use of logical

  5. The application of top-down abstraction learning using prediction as a supervisory signal to cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugan, Jonathan; Khalili, Aram E.

    2014-05-01

    Current computer systems are dumb automatons, and their blind execution of instructions makes them open to attack. Their inability to reason means that they don't consider the larger, constantly changing context outside their immediate inputs. Their nearsightedness is particularly dangerous because, in our complex systems, it is difficult to prevent all exploitable situations. Additionally, the lack of autonomous oversight of our systems means they are unable to fight through attacks. Keeping adversaries completely out of systems may be an unreasonable expectation, and our systems need to adapt to attacks and other disruptions to achieve their objectives. What is needed is an autonomous controller within the computer system that can sense the state of the system and reason about that state. In this paper, we present Self-Awareness Through Predictive Abstraction Modeling (SATPAM). SATPAM uses prediction to learn abstractions that allow it to recognize the right events at the right level of detail. These abstractions allow SATPAM to break the world into small, relatively independent, pieces that allow employment of existing reasoning methods. SATPAM goes beyond classification-based machine learning and statistical anomaly detection to be able to reason about the system, and SATPAM's knowledge representation and reasoning is more like that of a human. For example, humans intuitively know that the color of a car is not relevant to any mechanical problem, and SATPAM provides a plausible method whereby a machine can acquire such reasoning patterns. In this paper, we present the initial experimental results using SATPAM.

  6. Strategies for Teaching Composition Skills to Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallecorsa, Ada L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a process-oriented writing program for use with learning-disabled students at all grade levels. Strategies for helping students at the planning stage, the drafting stage, and the evaluation and revision stage are offered. (DB)

  7. Rhythms of Learning: Creative Tools for Developing Lifelong Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris; Campbell, Don G.

    This document contends that there is a meaningful connection between artistic abilities and academic abilities, notably in the relationship between musical and mathematical/scientific abilities. Based on the premise that music makes it possible to master difficult abstract concepts faster and with greater retention, this handbook encourages…

  8. Skills learned through professional internships can contribute to higher confidence in students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.

    2014-12-01

    Through completing an internship, a student has the opportunity to learn skills that may not be typically emphasized in the classroom. Students can create a unique professional identity by participating in internships that may be relevant to their career path. The diversity of internships can also allow a student to try an experience in a job that may be away from their assumed career trajectory, contributing to students finding where their skills could fit best. I have learned a core set of skills that have supported my transition from an undergraduate degree through two internships in both a non-profit organization and an oil and gas company. This presentation will include an analysis of the project management and communication skills that have given me "real-world" experience to understand what skills could be useful in pursuing a career in the Earth sciences. I believed that participation in clubs, mentoring assignments, and classes abroad during my undergraduate were fully providing me with the fundamental skills to enter the professional job market. Although I did learn time management, facilitation and collaboration, I did not fully gauge the necessity of a crucial understanding of these skills in the workplace. My skills using collaborative work have strengthened most since finishing my undergraduate degree. Through group work at each of my internships, I learned clear communication, management, respect, financial responsibility and how to fulfill an obligation towards a common goal. Without strengthening those skills, I do not think I would be pursuing a graduate degree in the Earth sciences with confidence. The essential skills I have learned have furthered my assurance to approach a problem with certainty when developing a hypothesis, seeking help from others, and developing a solution. This presentation will suggest further research and how specific feedback can be gathered from other Earth science students who have completed internships. With further

  9. Cultivating ICT Students' Interpersonal Soft Skills in Online Learning Environments Using Traditional Active Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Trina S.; Blackman, Anna; Andersen, Trevor; Hay, Rachel; Lee, Ickjai; Gray, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Flexible online delivery of tertiary ICT programs is experiencing rapid growth. Creating an online environment that develops team building and interpersonal skills is difficult due to factors such as student isolation and the individual-centric model of online learning that encourages discrete study rather than teamwork. Incorporating teamwork…

  10. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  11. Enhancing Learning and Problem Solving Skills: Orienting and Self-Judging, Two Powerful and Trainable Learning Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; De Corte, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Studied orienting and self-judging as study and problem-solving activities with 47 college freshmen and two control groups of 47 each. Results show that the intervention group, taught these learning tools, had more knowledge about orienting and self-judging and used these skills better. Both metaknowledge and transfer behavior were positively…

  12. Degradation of learned skills. Static practice effectiveness for visual approach and landing skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    The effectivess of an improved static retraining method was evaluated for a simulated space vehicle approach and landing under instrument and visual flight conditions. Experienced pilots were trained and then tested after 4 months without flying to compare their performance using the improved method with three methods previously evaluated. Use of the improved static retraining method resulted in no practical or significant skill degradation and was found to be even more effective than methods using a dynamic presentation of visual cues. The results suggested that properly structured open loop methods of flight control task retraining are feasible.

  13. Effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Hyung-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in sophomore nursing students. In this prospective, quasi-experimental study, we compared the pretest and post-test scores of an experimental group and a nonequivalent, nonsynchronized control group. Both groups were selected using convenience sampling, and consisted of students enrolled in a health communication course in the fall semesters of 2011 (control group) and 2012 (experimental group) at a nursing college in Suwon, South Korea. The two courses covered the same material, but in 2011 the course was lecture-based, while in 2012, lectures were replaced by case-based learning comprising five authentic cases of patient-nurse communication. At post-test, the case-based learning group showed significantly greater communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation than the lecture-based learning group. This finding suggests that case-based learning is an effective learning and teaching method.

  14. Note-taking skills of middle school students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been reported on the problems that school-age students with LD encounter when recording notes during science lectures. Using a sample size of 90 middle school students, the performance of students with LD was compared to students with no learning disabilities (NLD). Results found that students with LD performed significantly worse than students with NLD in terms of the type and amount of notes recorded and test performance.

  15. The effects of metacognitive instruction embedded within an asynchronous learning network on scientific inquiry skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zion, Michal; Michalsky, Tova; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2005-08-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the effects of four learning methods on students’ scientific inquiry skills. The four learning methods are: (a) metacognitive-guided inquiry within asynchronous learning networked technology (MINT); (b) an asynchronous learning network (ALN) with no metacognitive guidance; (c) metacognitive-guided inquiry embedded within face-to-face (F2F) interaction; and (d) F2F interaction with no metacognitive guidance. The study examined general scientific ability and domain-specific inquiry skills in microbiology. Participants were 407 10th-grade students (15 years old). The MINT research group significantly outperformed all other research groups, and F2F (group d) acquired the lowest mean scores. No significant differences were found between research groups (b) and (c). MINT makes significant contributions to students’ achievements in designing experiments and drawing conclusions. The novel use of metacognitive training within an ALN environment demonstrates the advantage of enhancing the effects of ALN on students’ achievements in science.

  16. Bimodal Emotion Congruency Is Critical to Preverbal Infants' Abstract Rule Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-01-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of…

  17. Identification and Descriptions of the Momentum Effect in Studies of Learning: An Abstract Science Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jae-Sool; Mayer, Victor J.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies of the validity of the intensive time-series design have revealed a post-intervention increase in the level of achievement data (the "momentum effect"). Reports on the development and use of a technique to study the effect as it is observed in several data sets on the learning of plate tectonics. (Author/JN)

  18. Analogical Scaffolding and the Learning of Abstract Ideas in Physics: An Example from Electromagnetic Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolefsky, Noah S.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a model of analogy, analogical scaffolding, which explains present and prior results of student learning with analogies. We build on prior models of representation, blending, and layering of ideas. Extending this model's explanatory power, we propose ways in which the model can be applied to design a curriculum directed at…

  19. Implementation of Abstract Data Types in Dynamic Sketches for Learning Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasute, Egle; Dagiene, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    A long-term observation of students' usage of a dynamic geometry in a classroom at all grade levels has challenged to develop an approach for learning and understanding mathematics in an easier way for both students and teachers. The paper deals with the results of a study that investigates the process and outcomes of the implementation of…

  20. Genetic variation in dopamine-related gene expression influences motor skill learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Chen, M; Forssberg, H; Diaz Heijtz, R

    2013-08-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic basis, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders and developmental coordination disorder, involve deficits in fine motor skills. This phenotype may depend on heritable variation in components of the dopamine (DA) system, which is known to play a critical role in motor skill learning. In this study, we took advantage of two inbred strains of mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) that differ markedly in the number of midbrain DA neurons in order to investigate the influence of such naturally occurring genetic variation on the acquisition and performance of fine motor skills. Gene expression analysis of midbrain, frontal cortex and striatum showed significant differences in the expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic (DAergic) markers (e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase, DA transporter, DA D4 receptor, DA D5 receptor and DARPP-32) between these two strains. BALB/c mice had lower learning rate and performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared with C57BL/6 mice. A negative correlation was found between the motor learning rate and level of DARPP-32 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex contralateral to the trained forelimb. The rate of motor learning was also negatively correlated with the levels of DARPP-32 and DA D1 receptor mRNAs in the striatum. Our results suggest that genetically driven variation in frontostriatal DAergic neurotransmission is a major contributor to individual differences in motor skill learning. Moreover, these findings implicate the D1R/cAMP/DARPP-32 signaling pathway in those neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with fine motor skill deficits.

  1. Teaching and Learning Reflexive Skills in Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research: A Framework and Its Application in Environmental Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, K. P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial skill for researchers in inter- and transdisciplinary environmental projects is the ability to be reflexive about knowledge and knowledge production. Few studies exist on the operationalization of reflexive skills and teaching and learning strategies that help students master these skills. This research aims to contribute in this…

  2. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950225

  3. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Todd L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition

  5. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    PubMed

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  6. An introduction to independent learning skills for incoming medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Reidelbach, M A; Willis, D B; Konecky, J L; Rasmussen, R J; Stark, J

    1988-01-01

    A partnership was initiated between educators of the College of Medicine and the McGoogan Library at the University of Nebraska Medical Center to establish a new educational component for incoming medical students. The objective was to encourage the development of the students' independent information seeking skills. A three-day seminar was introduced in which the process of seeking information was emphasized rather than the final product. Cooperative development of the seminar resulted in a fresh approach to educating medical students at the College of Medicine and the emergence of an ongoing instructional link between the library faculty and educators in the College of Medicine. PMID:3370381

  7. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  8. How to Integrate Cooperative Skills Training into Learning Tasks: An Illustration with Young Pupils' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehraus, Katia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how to integrate cooperative skills training into learning tasks in the area of writing. Cooperative learning sessions, aimed at developing both cooperative and cognitive skills, were created and conducted in two elementary school classes (Grade 2, age 7-8). Pupils' teamwork interactions were videotaped and analysed.…

  9. The Relationship between Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Regulated Learning through Homework Behaviours, Motivation, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…

  10. The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

  11. Design Principles for Support in Developing Students' Transformative Inquiry Skills in Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedaste, Margus; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this explorative study was to find the factors limiting sixth-grade learners' outcomes in acquiring skills related to the transformative inquiry learning processes as well as to analyse the interrelations between inquiry skills in order to develop an optimal support system for designing Web-based inquiry learning environments. A…

  12. The Impact of Kindergarten Learning-Related Skills on Academic Trajectories at the End of Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that children's learning-related skills (including self-regulation and social competence) contribute to early school success. The present study investigated the relation of kindergarten learning-related skills to reading and math trajectories in 538 children between kindergarten and sixth grade, and examined how children…

  13. The Effects of Metacognitive Instruction Embedded within an Asynchronous Learning Network on Scientific Inquiry Skills. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Michalsky, Tova; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2005-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the effects of four learning methods on students' scientific inquiry skills. The four learning methods are: (a) metacognitive-guided inquiry within asynchronous learning networked technology (MINT); (b) an asynchronous learning network (ALN) with no metacognitive guidance; (c) metacognitive-guided inquiry…

  14. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Skill Deficit: The Role of Open Distance Learning (ODL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Mamta; Jena, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Skills acquisition is vital for any economic growth, particularly in an era of economic and technological changes. The need for skill development is a vital challenge, foremost for a developing nation, such as India. Therefore, vocational education and training (VET) is a direct means of providing workers with skills more relevant to their…

  15. An onset is an onset: Evidence from abstraction of newly-learned phonotactic constraints.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    Phonotactic constraints are language-specific patterns in the sequencing of speech sounds. Are these constraints represented at the syllable level (ng cannot begin syllables in English) or at the word level (ng cannot begin words)? In a continuous recognition-memory task, participants more often falsely recognized novel test items that followed than violated the training constraints, whether training and test items matched in word structure (one or two syllables) or position of restricted consonants (word-edge or word-medial position). E.g., learning that ps are onsets and fs codas, participants generalized from pef (one syllable) to putvif (two syllables), and from putvif (word-edge positions) to bufpak (word-medial positions). These results suggest that newly-learned phonotactic constraints are represented at the syllable level. The syllable is a representational unit available and spontaneously used when learning speech-sound constraints. In the current experiments, an onset is an onset and a coda a coda, regardless of word structure or word position.

  16. Role of Suzanne Mubarak Science Exploration Center in Motivating Physics Learning (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, Mona

    2009-04-01

    The role of Science Exploration centers to promote learning ``beyond school walls'' is demonstrated. The Suzane Mubarak Science Exploration Center (www.smsec.com) at Hadaek El Kobba, Cairo, was inaugurated in 1998 with the assistance of Zusane Mubarak, the first lady of Egypt and the minister of education. It was the first interactive science and technology center in Egypt. After 10 years, the number of centers has increased to 33 nationwide. Since its inauguration the center has received over 3 million visitors. Through different facilities, such as the internet, science cities, multimedia, and virtual reality programs, basic principles of science are simplified and their technological applications in our daily lives are explored. These facilities are fully equipped with new media such as video conferencing, videotapes, overhead projectors, data shows, and libraries, as well as demonstration tools for basic science. The main objectives of the science exploration centers are discussed such as: (1) curricula development for on-line learning; (2) integration of e-learning programs into basic science (physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology) and (3) workshops and organizations for students, teachers, and communities dealing with basic science programs.

  17. A Blended Learning Scenario to Enhance Learners' Oral Production Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a mobile assisted blended learning scenario for pronunciation in Korean language. In particular, we analyze how asynchronous oral communication between learners of Korean and native speakers via "kakaotalk" (an open source mobile phone application) may be beneficial to the learner in terms of…

  18. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume III: Basic Skills--Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, one of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, includes curriculum materials for nine workplace literacy basic reading and writing courses. Introductory materials include a table of contents and a list of subjects covered by each of the eight guides in the series. There are…

  19. Case-Based Modeling for Learning Management and Interpersonal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to case-based modeling (CBM) and a demonstration of the efficacy of this instructional model. CBM is grounded primarily in the concepts and theory of experiential learning, augmented by concepts of script creation. Although it is labor intensive, the model is one that has value for instruction in various…

  20. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  1. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146374

  2. Basic Skills Education: Pasadena City College's Teaching and Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kay

    2009-01-01

    This article features Pasadena City College's (PCC) Teaching and Learning Center (TLC), an eight-year-old holistic approach to guiding underprepared students through math, English, and other challenges of college. TLC aims to revolutionize the way faculty look at their students and teach them. The center's approach is one that is spreading through…

  3. Knowledge Management in the Learning Society. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book focuses on understanding knowledge and learning in the contexts of economic development and social cohesion. A preliminary overview is presented of the knowledge processes at work in different sectors, and the book identifies a number of ways in which microlevel or sectoral understanding of the knowledge-based economy is important in…

  4. Transferring the Soft-Skills Technology of Workplace Learning and Performance to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jenny; Rothwell, William J.; Webster, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses international business and workplace learning and performance (WLP), and describes a long-term strategic alliance between Motorola University China, Penn State University, Beijing University, and Nankai University. Highlights include a needs assessment of multinational corporations in China; transferring the soft-skills technology of WLP…

  5. Development of Junior Pupils Research Skills in Interrelation with Universal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabirova, Elvira G.; Zakirova, Venera G.; Masalimova, Alfiya R.

    2016-01-01

    Actuality of the studied problem is stipulated by the fact that the learning activity is the leading one for pupils and it defines development of main cognitive particularities of evolving personality. As the result of this activity becomes formation of cognitive motives, research skills, subjectively new knowledge and ways of activity for pupils.…

  6. Business Simulation as an Active Learning Activity for Developing Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Yves; Coulmont, Michel; Sandu, Raluca

    2016-01-01

    Business simulations are innovative instruction models for active or cooperative learning. In this paper, we look at the social constructionist roots of these education models in light of the current efforts to enhance employability skills in undergraduate and graduate studies. More specifically, we analyse the role of business simulations in…

  7. Digital Stories Targeting Social Skills for Children with Disabilities: Multidimensional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori

    2008-01-01

    Many children learn easily by watching others, imitating actions, and cuing into subtle social cues. However, some students with disabilities have trouble acquiring these social skills. These children require a more intensive intervention to make gains in the social area. For students who have difficulties initiating and maintaining interactions,…

  8. Student Teachers' Skills in the Implementation of Collaborative Learning: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruys, Ilse; Van Keer, Hilde; Aelterman, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the development of student teachers' skills in implementing collaborative learning (CL) using a multilevel repeated measures design. Participants were 105 pre-service teachers that were trained in CL implementation. The results indicate that student teachers generally perform well in implementing CL. Further, it appears that…

  9. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  10. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  11. The Effect of Using Laptops on the Spelling Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Sigal; Shamir, Adina; Fershtman, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of using laptops on the spelling skills of students with learning disabilities (LD). It was conducted as part of the Israeli "Katom" (A Computer for Every Class, Student, and Teacher) Program. Participants included 93 Hebrew-speaking students with LD aged 13-16, who attend 10 special education classes in a…

  12. Project RAILS: Lessons Learned about Rubric Assessment of Information Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jackie; Zou, Ning; Mills, Jenny Rushing; Holmes, Claire; Oakleaf, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Rubric assessment of information literacy is an important tool for librarians seeking to show evidence of student learning. The authors, who collaborated on the Rubric Assessment of Informational Literacy Skills (RAILS) research project, draw from their shared experience to present practical recommendations for implementing rubric assessment in a…

  13. The Effect of Simulation-Based Learning on Prospective Teachers' Inference Skills in Teaching Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur; Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli

    2015-01-01

    The effect of simulation-based probability teaching on the prospective teachers' inference skills has been examined with this research. In line with this purpose, it has been aimed to examine the design, implementation and efficiency of a learning environment for experimental probability. Activities were built on modeling, simulation and the…

  14. Math Learning Model That Accommodates Cognitive Style to Build Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…

  15. Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To address the need to connect Americans with learning opportunities, the Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education released the present report. Grounded in evidence and informed by effective and emerging practices, "Making Skills Everyone's Business" offers seven strategies that hold great promise for improving the conditions…

  16. Undergraduate Social Work Students: Learning Interviewing Skills in a Hybrid Practice Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This action research case study explored undergraduate social work students' perceived learning of interviewing skills in a hybrid environment course delivery. The single case study consisted of 19 students enrolled in a practice course blending web-based and face-to-face (f2f) meetings (4 of 15 f2f) within a large urban college. As part of…

  17. Challenges for Adult Skill Formation in the Globalising Learning Economy--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Rasmussen, Palle

    2016-01-01

    The globalising learning economy driven by more intense competition and the wide use of information and communication technologies is characterised by rapid change in technologies and markets. At the level of labour markets and within enterprises, this is reflected in continuous change in skill requirements for employees. This is true for all…

  18. Managerial Skills Development of Selected Private Institutions of Higher Learning in Batangas, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magbojos, Carina R.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning face a new situation on higher education. It holds some novel threats and presents some fresh opportunities. Given the uncertainty of the future, collage and university administrators cannot allow their organizations to drift. This study assessed the managerial skills development of the administrators of the five…

  19. Emerging Tacts and Selections from Previous Learned Skills: A Comparison between Two Types of Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-González, Luis Antonio; Cereijo-Blanco, Noelia; Carnerero, José Julio

    2014-01-01

    Naming consists of tacting an object and selecting it upon hearing its name as a result of emergence. After acquiring naming, children learn object-name relations more quickly and, hence, it is an important achievement in development. We studied the acquisition of the two skills that define naming, using two procedures, in seven typically…

  20. Endless Change in the Learning and Skills Sector: The Impact on Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, Sheila; Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of change on tutors and managers in 24 learning sites in England, in vocational courses at Level 1 or Level 2 in further education (FE) colleges and in basic skills provision in adult community education and workplaces. We discuss the views of these participants in the research project, "The Impact of Policy on…