Science.gov

Sample records for abstract skill learning

  1. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  2. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  3. Oral Skills Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, J. Vernon

    1980-01-01

    Twelve methods to enhance the learning of college students and at the same time increase their oral communication skills and classroom participation are presented. They include: facilitators of class discussions, triadic critiques of students' essays, panel discussions, forum periods, debates, and manuscript reading. (JMD)

  4. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  5. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods. PMID:16385137

  6. Learning Outcomes: Skills or Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciancone, Tom; Tout, Dave

    Participants in a teacher workshop compared these two approaches to learning outcomes in adult numeracy: (1) teaching mathematical skills and (2) using and applying mathematics from real life. The first approach was illustrated by an Ontario, Canada, program based on traditional school math, whose outcomes are skill-based and are the following:…

  7. Atlas Skills for Learning Rather than Learning Atlas Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, R. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for visual learning and describes an approach to skills instruction which aids students in using atlases. Maintains that teachers must help students see atlases as tools capable of providing useful information rather than experiencing atlas learning as an empty exercise with little relevance to their lives. (JDH)

  8. Degradation of learned skills. A review and annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardlin, G. R.; Sitterley, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the literature dealing with the retention of learned skills is presented. Basic effects of task type, training, retention interval, and recall variables are discussed, providing a background against which more recent literature dealing with operational spaceflights tasks is compared and assessed. Detailed and summary abstracts of research reports having particular relevance to the problem of spaceflight skill retention are provided.

  9. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  10. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  11. Modeling surgical skill learning with cognitive simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Hyun; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung-hung; Paik, Jaehyon; Ritter, Frank E; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    We used a cognitive architecture (ACT-R) to explore the procedural learning of surgical tasks and then to understand the process of perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill performance. The ACT-R cognitive model simulates declarative memory processes during motor learning. In this ongoing study, four surgical tasks (bimanual carrying, peg transfer, needle passing, and suture tying) were performed using the da Vinci© surgical system. Preliminary results revealed that an ACT-R model produced similar learning effects. Cognitive simulation can be used to demonstrate and optimize the perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill training. PMID:21335834

  12. Development of Learning to Learn Skills in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…

  13. Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills…

  14. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  15. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text. PMID:1436432

  16. Team-Skills Training Enhances Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stratford, Robert J.; Bizo, Lewis A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of team-skills training on collaborative learning in a university setting. Groups worked under one of three conditions: (1) groups received team-skill training as a group and remained in that group (Trained-Together), (2) groups received team-skills training, but were then reassigned into new groups…

  17. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  18. Phases of Learning: Ninth Graders' Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-01-01

    Explores students' cognitive behaviors observed in the process of learning as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill such as choosing wisely. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata…

  19. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  20. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  1. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  2. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions. PMID:10549829

  3. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about…

  4. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  5. Learning Abstract Statistics Concepts Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jamie D.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching and learning of statistics has impacted the curriculum in elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education. Because of this growing movement to expand and include statistics into all levels of education, there is also a considerable interest in how to teach statistics. For statistics concepts that tend to be very difficult or…

  6. Learning features in computer simulation skills training.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Olsson, Mats; Petersson, Göran; Silén, Charlotte

    2010-09-01

    New simulation tools imply new opportunities to teach skills and train health care professionals. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning gained from computer simulation skills training. The study was designed for optimal educational settings, which benefit student-centred learning. Twenty-four second year undergraduate nursing students practised intravenous catheterization with the computer simulation program CathSim. Questionnaires were answered before and after the skills training, and after the skills examination. When using CathSim, the students appreciated the variation in patient cases, the immediate feedback, and a better understanding of anatomy, but they missed having an arm model to hold. We concluded that CathSim was useful in the students' learning process and skills training when appropriately integrated into the curriculum. Learning features to be aware of when organizing curricula with simulators are motivation, realism, variation, meaningfulness and feedback. PMID:20015690

  7. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Magnotti, John F.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Wright, Anthony A.; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  8. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task. PMID:25972399

  9. Concrete and Abstract Visualizations in History Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangsma, Maaike E.; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks with abstract and/or concrete visualizations on the…

  10. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. PMID:25902728

  11. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  12. Influence of Audio-Visual Presentations on Learning Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Ling

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that investigated whether various types of visual illustrations influenced abstract concept learning when combined with audio instruction. Discusses results of analysis of variance and pretest posttest scores in relation to learning performance, attitudes toward the computer-based program, and differences in…

  13. Mobile Learning: Using Application "Auralbook" to Learn Aural Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi Wai Jason

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effectiveness of using mobile devices such as iPhone/iPad/android phone/tablet to facilitate mobile learning in aural skills. The application "Auralbook" was designed in 2011 by an engineer/musician to use mobile devices to learn aural skills. This application enables students to sing, record, clap and…

  14. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  15. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration.

    PubMed

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  16. Learning tactile skills through curious exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Leo; Oddo, Calogero M.; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Förster, Alexander; Carrozza, Maria C.; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots. PMID:22837748

  17. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  18. Framework for robot skill learning using reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang

    2003-09-01

    Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.

  19. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  20. Phases of Learning: ninth graders' skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-01-01

    The present study explored in detail students' cognitive behaviours observed in the process of learning, as performed in the classroom context while acquiring a thinking skill ('choosing wisely'). The participants comprised 10 ninth graders. They were engaged in a year long, independent, open-ended inquiry project in science, performed in a group setting and guided by a curriculum for the instruction of cognitive skills, designed in accordance with the literature recommendations. Micro-analysis of the students' video-recorded repeated applications of the skill, identified 10 steps along the learning process, disclosing the students' development of schemata along three parallel lines: utterance clarification, elaboration and generalisation of core concepts, and schema integration, automation, and manipulation. These lines of development correspond to the phases/levels of learning suggested in the literature.

  1. Alternate Learning Center. Abstracts of Inservice Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Development and Operations.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts describing the 18 programs offered at the Alternate Learning Center of the Rhode Island Teacher Center which has as its Primary function school based inservice training for local teachers and administrators. Each project is described in detail, including course goals, specific objectives, training…

  2. Cognitive Skills in Workplace Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiter, Alison

    This philosophical and empirical investigation explored whether cognitive skills can be acquired in a workplace setting. A preliminary investigation looked at views of knowledge in liberal humanism where knowledge is a matter for individuals with transcendent minds with objects of knowledge being matters for which there is clear perceptual…

  3. Connectionist reinforcement learning of robot control skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Nunes, Urbano; de Almeida, A. T.

    1998-07-01

    Many robot manipulator tasks are difficult to model explicitly and it is difficult to design and program automatic control algorithms for them. The development, improvement, and application of learning techniques taking advantage of sensory information would enable the acquisition of new robot skills and avoid some of the difficulties of explicit programming. In this paper we use a reinforcement learning approach for on-line generation of skills for control of robot manipulator systems. Instead of generating skills by explicit programming of a perception to action mapping they are generated by trial and error learning, guided by a performance evaluation feedback function. The resulting system may be seen as an anticipatory system that constructs an internal representation model of itself and of its environment. This enables it to identify its current situation and to generate corresponding appropriate commands to the system in order to perform the required skill. The method was applied to the problem of learning a force control skill in which the tool-tip of a robot manipulator must be moved from a free space situation, to a contact state with a compliant surface and having a constant interaction force.

  4. Experience and Abstract Reasoning in Learning Backward Induction

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Daniel R.; Vostroknutov, Alexander; Rustichini, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Backward induction is a benchmark of game theoretic rationality, yet surprisingly little is known as to how humans discover and initially learn to apply this abstract solution concept in experimental settings. We use behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the way in which subjects playing in a sequential game of perfect information learn the optimal backward induction strategy for the game. Experimental data from our two studies support two main findings: First, subjects converge to a common process of recursive inference similar to the backward induction procedure for solving the game. The process is recursive because earlier insights and conclusions are used as inputs in later steps of the inference. This process is matched by a similar pattern in brain activation, which also proceeds backward, following the prediction error: brain activity initially codes the responses to losses in final positions; in later trials this activity shifts to the starting position. Second, the learning process is not exclusively cognitive, but instead combines experience-based learning and abstract reasoning. Critical experiences leading to the adoption of an improved solution strategy appear to be stimulated by brain activity in the reward system. This indicates that the negative affect induced by initial failures facilitates the switch to a different method of solving the problem. Abstract reasoning is combined with this response, and is expressed by activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Differences in brain activation match differences in performance between subjects who show different learning speeds. PMID:22363254

  5. Soft Skills at the Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakir, Roselina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…

  6. Conditions of Practice in Perceptual Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…

  7. Benchmarking for the Learning and Skills Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    This document is designed to introduce practitioners in the United Kingdom's learning and skills sector to the principles and practice of benchmarking. The first section defines benchmarking and differentiates metric, diagnostic, and process benchmarking. The remainder of the booklet details the following steps of the benchmarking process: (1) get…

  8. The Library Skills Learning Package: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kathleen H.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Library Skills Learning Package, a printed, self-contained instructional program consisting of explanations and procedures for use of specific library resources and exercises which require the student to use a source in order to answer the questions. It was tested in a special communications class…

  9. Primary School Teachers' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are very important in problem solving. It is important to develop these skills from the first years of school. Thus, it is essential that primary school teachers master self-regulated learning skills and they know how to develop these skills in their pupils. In this article, we present the results of a research…

  10. Does Mathematical Learning Occur in Going from Concrete to Abstract or in Going from Abstract to Concrete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract "and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. It is generally accepted that development goes from concrete toward the abstract; but dialectical theorists maintain just the opposite: development consists of an ascension from the abstract to the concrete. In this article, we…

  11. Same/Different Abstract Concept Learning by Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E.

    2015-01-01

    While several phylogenetically diverse species have proved capable of learning abstract concepts, previous attempts to teach fish have been unsuccessful. In this report, the ability of archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) to learn the concepts of sameness and difference using a simultaneous two-item discrimination task was tested. Six archerfish were trained to either select a pair of same or different stimuli which were presented simultaneously. Training consisted of a 2-phase approach. Training phase 1: the symbols in the same and different pair did not change, thereby allowing the fish to solve the test through direct association. The fish were trained consecutively with four different sets of stimuli to familiarize them with the general procedure before moving on to the next training phase. Training phase 2: six different symbols were used to form the same or different pairs. After acquisition, same/different concept learning was tested by presenting fish with six novel stimuli (transfer test). Five fish successfully completed the first training phase. Only one individual passed the second training phase, however, transfer performance was consistent with chance. This individual was given further training using 60 training exemplars but the individual was unable to reach the training criterion. We hypothesize that archerfish are able to solve a limited version of the same/different test by learning the response to each possible stimulus configuration or by developing a series of relatively simple choice contingencies. We conclude that the simultaneous two-item discrimination task we describe cannot be successfully used to test the concepts of same and different in archerfish. In addition, despite considerable effort training archerfish using several tests and training methods, there is still no evidence that fish can learn an abstract concept-based test. PMID:26599071

  12. Assessments of "Learning-Related Skills" and "Interpersonal Skills" Constructs within Early Childhood Environments in Singapore"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sok Mui; Rodger, Sylvia; Brown, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Social skills are necessary for developing successful relationships and promoting learning. "Interpersonal skills" (IPS) are needed for maintaining friendships while "learning-related skills" (LRS) are required for positive classroom behaviours. In this study, we investigated the construct validity of LRS and IPS within two existing assessments:…

  13. Body Learning: Examining the Processes of Skill Learning in Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…

  14. How learning to abstract shapes neural sound representations

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Anke; Vroomen, Jean; Formisano, Elia

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of acoustic signals into abstract perceptual representations is the essence of the efficient and goal-directed neural processing of sounds in complex natural environments. While the human and animal auditory system is perfectly equipped to process the spectrotemporal sound features, adequate sound identification and categorization require neural sound representations that are invariant to irrelevant stimulus parameters. Crucially, what is relevant and irrelevant is not necessarily intrinsic to the physical stimulus structure but needs to be learned over time, often through integration of information from other senses. This review discusses the main principles underlying categorical sound perception with a special focus on the role of learning and neural plasticity. We examine the role of different neural structures along the auditory processing pathway in the formation of abstract sound representations with respect to hierarchical as well as dynamic and distributed processing models. Whereas most fMRI studies on categorical sound processing employed speech sounds, the emphasis of the current review lies on the contribution of empirical studies using natural or artificial sounds that enable separating acoustic and perceptual processing levels and avoid interference with existing category representations. Finally, we discuss the opportunities of modern analyses techniques such as multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in studying categorical sound representations. With their increased sensitivity to distributed activation changes—even in absence of changes in overall signal level—these analyses techniques provide a promising tool to reveal the neural underpinnings of perceptually invariant sound representations. PMID:24917783

  15. Development of Different Forms of Skill Learning throughout the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been…

  16. Neural Correlates of Abstract Rule Learning: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fang; Hoshi-Shiba, Reiko; Abla, Dilshat; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract rule learning is a fundamental aspect of human cognition, and is essential for language acquisition. However, despite its importance, the neural mechanisms underlying abstract rule learning are still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of abstract rule learning by recording auditory event-related…

  17. Improving Grasp Skills Using Schema Structured Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Grupen, ROderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the control-based approach to robotics, complex behavior is created by sequencing and combining control primitives. While it is desirable for the robot to autonomously learn the correct control sequence, searching through the large number of potential solutions can be time consuming. This paper constrains this search to variations of a generalized solution encoded in a framework known as an action schema. A new algorithm, SCHEMA STRUCTURED LEARNING, is proposed that repeatedly executes variations of the generalized solution in search of instantiations that satisfy action schema objectives. This approach is tested in a grasping task where Dexter, the UMass humanoid robot, learns which reaching and grasping controllers maximize the probability of grasp success.

  18. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 36 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) distancing in young children's stories; (2) the effects of verbal and visual elaborations on the learning of abstract concepts; (3) the effects of underlined…

  19. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of modality-based instruction in test taking skills upon young children's performance on standardized reading tests; (2) the effects of five…

  20. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) an inductive method for teaching three skills necessary for reading narrative fiction; (2) the use of reading strategies in secondary level content area classrooms; (3) seventh grade…

  1. Striving for Excellence. The International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Atlanta, Georgia, March 4-7, 1992). Research Poster Session Abstract. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    Eleven abstracts of research projects related to individuals with learning disabilities are compiled in this booklet. The research projects were presented in poster sessions at the March 1992 International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America. Titles and authors of poster sessions include: "Perceptual and Verbal Skills of…

  2. Effects of aging on priming and skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hashtroudi, S; Chrosniak, L D; Schwartz, B L

    1991-12-01

    This study examined the effects of aging on 2 kinds of implicit memory; repetition priming and skill learning. In Experiment 1, older adults showed less improvement in the skill of reading inverted words than did young adults, but priming performance did not differ for the 2 age groups. Similarly, in Experiment 2, in a partial-word identification task, skill learning was observed only for young adults, whereas there was no age difference in priming. Experiments 1a and 2a, however, showed that when older adults were presented with more perceptual information than were young adults, the age deficit in skill learning was eliminated. These results indicate that skill learning is impaired under data-limited conditions, whereas priming is unaffected under these conditions. It is proposed that the age deficit in skill learning is related to a deficit in perceptual organization and reorganization. PMID:1777149

  3. Group Intervention: Improving Social Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Givon, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Life Skills program used to improve the social skills of 12 students with learning disabilities in an Israeli middle school. Each of two groups (girls or boys) met weekly for 5 months to address social skills topics. The article notes gender differences in reactions and participation, and outcomes in such areas as…

  4. Metacognitive Skills for Adult Learning. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Metacognition refers to the ability of learners to be aware of and monitor their learning processes. Cognitive skills are those needed to perform a task, whereas metacognitive skills are necessary to understand how it was performed. Metacognitive skills are generally divided into two types: self-assessment (the ability to assess one's own…

  5. Improving Students' Interpersonal Skills through Experiential Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.

    2016-01-01

    Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…

  6. Increasing Third Grade Social Skills through Cooperative Learning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Mona Layne

    A primary grades specialist implemented a 10-week practicum intervention designed to increase third graders' social skills by training their teachers in cooperative learning techniques and providing cooperatively structured lessons. Eight skills were addressed; these included the skills of accepting peers' ideas for group activities, completing…

  7. Neural Modularity Helps Organisms Evolve to Learn New Skills without Forgetting Old Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  8. Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old skills.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to

  9. The long learning route to abstract letter units.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian

    2009-02-01

    This is a review of theory and evidence on how abstract letter units (ALUs) are initially learnt by the developing individual. Despite the predominance of the lower-case form of letters in the print environment, naming identification of upper case has precedence over lower case among preschool children. Such children showed a significant lag in extending their categories of upper-case variants to include the corresponding lower-case forms that are visually dissimilar. As late as 11 years of age children gave longer naming latencies for the lower-case than the upper-case forms. Initial learning of ALUs proceeded slowly over many months, consistent with the "common contexts" hypothesis but not consistent with the early acquisition predicted by the "common letter name" hypothesis. Evidence from cross-case transfer in a training experiment indicated that prior to acquiring full use of ALUs the children had formed representations of words that were letter based but specific to lower-case forms. PMID:18649251

  10. Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vincent S.; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are “active learners”: we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  11. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence. PMID:18509079

  12. The Learning and Skills Sector: The Emerging Agenda. FEDA Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    Britain's new Learning and Skills Bill focuses on learners', not providers', interests. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) opens up funding for voluntary and community bodies, and organizations from outside education, and has a duty to encourage employers to participate in the provision of post-16 education and training. Local education…

  13. Development of the Self-Directed Learning Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…

  14. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  15. Teaching Learning-Related Social Skills in Kindergarten Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Michelle Hsiu-Chen; Karp, Grace Goc; Davis, Debby

    2010-01-01

    A lack of social skills may lead young children to have difficulties in establishing close relationships with their peers. This could lead to school maladjustment and academic failure. Research indicates that it is important for children to learn specific learning-related social skills (LRSS) to get along with others in order to succeed in the…

  16. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  17. The Meaningful Learning of Intellectual Skills: An Application of Ausubel's Subsumption Theory to the Domain of Intellectual Skills Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.

    1981-01-01

    Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)

  18. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  19. Individual Differences in Learning and Transfer: Stable Tendencies for Learning Exemplars versus Abstracting Rules

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Robbins, Mathew; Wiener, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that during training some learners may focus on acquiring the particular exemplars and responses associated with the exemplars (termed exemplar learners), whereas other learners attempt to abstract underlying regularities reflected in the particular exemplars linked to an appropriate response (termed rule learners). Supporting this distinction, after training (on a function-learning task), participants either displayed an extrapolation profile reflecting acquisition of the trained cue-criterion associations (exemplar learners) or abstraction of the function rule (rule learners; Studies 1a and 1b). Further, working memory capacity (measured by Ospan) was associated with the tendency to rely on rule versus exemplar processes. Studies 1c and 2 examined the persistence of these learning tendencies on several categorization tasks. Study 1c showed that rule learners were more likely than exemplar learners (indexed a priori by extrapolation profiles) to resist using idiosyncratic features (exemplar similarity) in generalization (transfer) of the trained category. Study 2 showed that the rule learners but not the exemplar learners performed well on a novel categorization task (transfer) after training on an abstract coherent category. These patterns suggest that in complex conceptual tasks, (a) individuals tend to either focus on exemplars during learning or on extracting some abstraction of the concept, (b) this tendency might be a relatively stable characteristic of the individual, and (c) transfer patterns are determined by that tendency. PMID:23750912

  20. The Role of Comprehension in Learning Concrete and Abstract Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy; Royer, James M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made to assess the effect of comprehension on the recognition of meaning and wording changes with concrete and abstract sentences. The results of the experiment were discussed in light of recent models which propose different storage mechanisms for concrete and abstract sentences. (Author/RM)

  1. Toward Generalization of Automated Temporal Abstraction to Partially Observable Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Çilden, Erkin; Polat, Faruk

    2015-08-01

    Temporal abstraction for reinforcement learning (RL) aims to decrease learning time by making use of repeated sub-policy patterns in the learning task. Automatic extraction of abstractions during RL process is difficult but has many challenges such as dealing with the curse of dimensionality. Various studies have explored the subject under the assumption that the problem domain is fully observable by the learning agent. Learning abstractions for partially observable RL is a relatively less explored area. In this paper, we adapt an existing automatic abstraction method, namely extended sequence tree, originally designed for fully observable problems. The modified method covers a certain family of model-based partially observable RL settings. We also introduce belief state discretization methods that can be used with this new abstraction mechanism. The effectiveness of the proposed abstraction method is shown empirically by experimenting on well-known benchmark problems. PMID:25216494

  2. Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning…

  3. The NIACE Response to the Learning and Skills Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2000

    2000-01-01

    Reactions to proposed British legislation include "A Warm Welcome"; "Learning to Succeed" (Taubman); "Counting down to 1 April 2001" (Silver, Gravatt); "Two Cheers (at Least) for the Learning and Skills Bill" (Taylor); "Reflecting Our Priorities" (Gibson); "The Beginning of a Golden Age?" (Hughes); "Creating a Learning Society" (Davey); and…

  4. Students' Experiences of Learning Manual Clinical Skills through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…

  5. Critical Learning Skills for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Morgan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A survey addressing critical skills for business students was developed and disseminated. Sixteen critical skills (such as critical thinking and time management) were identified as skills that need to be acquired in order for business students to be successful in their advanced courses and careers. The survey was disseminated and taken by several…

  6. Using Thinking Skills To Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    In theory, effective thinking is a trait that is valued by schools at all levels; however, it is a skill that is very rarely taught. Teaching thinking skills explicitly and embedding them into a literacy curriculum can help students become more effective critical and creative thinkers. This article defines thinking skills, describes how they…

  7. A Developmental Study of Conceptual Tempo, Concept Learning, and Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliano, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    Shows that age or conceptual tempo are not related to the number of trials needed to reach the criteria for a learning task. Impulsive responders performed more poorly than groups of slow-inaccurate, fast-accurate, and reflective responders on the transfer of learning task. (RL)

  8. Study skills and the education of students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hoover, J J

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses an area of education for students with learning disabilities that is often neglected. The topic of study skills education, although not new to education in general, has only recently been emphasized in the literature for students with handicaps. An overview of the study skill proficiency (or lack of it) of students with learning disabilities is provided, followed by the presentation of 15 student study skill strategies designed to assist students in their use of various study skills. These strategies may be employed appropriately and effectively with many students with learning disabilities provided that individual needs and abilities are considered. The article concludes with a discussion about the implementation of a study skills program, including guidelines to follow in this process. PMID:2769066

  9. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D.; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca2+ signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca2+ signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning. PMID:26346977

  10. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  11. Visual Spatial Skill: A Consequence of Learning to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Zhou, Yanling; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Does learning to read influence one's visual skill? In Study 1, kindergartners from Hong Kong, Korea, Israel, and Spain were tested on word reading and a task of visual spatial skill. Chinese and Korean kindergartners significantly outperformed Israeli and Spanish readers on the visual task. Moreover, in all cultures except Korea, good readers…

  12. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  13. Enhancing College Students' Life Skills through Project Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurdinger, Scott; Qureshi, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether life skills could be developed in a Project Based Learning (PBL) course. The participants were students enrolled in a graduate level PBL course. The same 35-question survey was given to students at the beginning and end of the course, and students were asked to rank their life skills using a Likert scale. Additionally,…

  14. Worker-Centered Learning: A Union Guide to Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC. Working for America Inst.

    This guide is designed to be used by union leaders wishing to increase the basic skills (the full array of reading, writing, communication, math, reasoning, and problem-solving skills) of their members by running a workplace learning program. It provides guidelines for analyzing the needs of the target group of workers and for developing an…

  15. Developing Knowledge and Skills in Engineers: A Learning Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platts, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge and skill requirements for manufacturing system design and describes an innovative "learning laboratory" approach to educating graduate level manufacturing engineers. The laboratory provides a mechanism that gives engineers a wide range of knowledge and skills in design and implementation, much of which cannot be…

  16. The Testing Effect on Skills Learning Might Last 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromann, C. B.; Bohnstedt, C.; Jensen, M. L.; Ringsted, C.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research question was: does testing as a final activity in a…

  17. Online Learning Communities: Enhancing Undergraduate Students' Acquisition of Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Flores, Noraida; Wang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of online learning communities (OLC) on enhancing the undergraduate students' acquisition of information skills. OLC was compared with online tutorials and one-shot face-to-face sessions designed to facilitate students' information skill acquisition. Data were gathered through multiple…

  18. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  19. A Vocationally Oriented Skills Center for Remedial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, John

    1977-01-01

    A learning skills center was set up in Flint Hills Area Vocational-Technical School, Emporia, Kansas, to provide remedial instruction in basic skills leading to student success in the regular vocational program. Group instruction, individualized instruction, and multimedia aids are used to help the participants (high school students and adults)…

  20. Using Blended Learning in Developing Student Teachers Teaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to determine the effectiveness of using blended learning Approach in developing student teachers teaching skills, and defining teaching skills that confront students of teachers college at King Saud University need it. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with four experimental groups (Mathematics (21)--Science…

  1. Recognizing the Connections between Thinking Skills and Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Daisy E.; Block, James H.

    1990-01-01

    According to recent research, when teachers focus on higher mental processes (problem solving, application of principles, analytical skills, and creativity) within a mastery learning format, students' thinking skills and knowledge levels improve. Baltimore County (Maryland) and East Islip (New York) School Districts have programs integrating…

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  3. Writing to learn writing skills - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, António S. C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes a case study in which the main objective is to understand how engineering students can improve their writing skills, regarding spelling and syntax, when taught specifically on these issues. The methodology Writing To Learn is applied in two courses and, making use of the written texts, the students' writing skills are assessed and evaluated. In one course, writing skills are taught and assessed and in the other they are only assessed. The comparison allows conclusions on the success of teaching writing skills, the influence of text styles and the differences between basic and advanced writing skills. It was found that writing skills were successfully taught, particularly with regard to basic writing skills. Advanced writing errors are twice as common as basic writing errors. Schematic writing styles favour a reduced number of writing errors.

  4. Dissertation Abstracts: Scientific Evidence Related to Teaching and Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicmanec, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    This categorical analysis explores the mathematics education doctoral dissertations archived in UMI "Digital Dissertations" (1991-2005) and 115 abstracts of doctoral dissertations from 46 institutions offering doctoral degrees in 2004. The goal of this study is to a) index changes in the numbers of mathematics education doctoral candidates and b)…

  5. Learning Clinical Skills: An Interprofessional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Nicol, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    In a clinical skills center, nurses, doctors, and specialists helped nursing and medical students develop clinical and communication skills in the context of holistic patient care. Two aspects of the format received high ratings: realistic patient scenarios and interdisciplinary team teaching. (SK)

  6. Language Skills: Questions for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paran, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the changes in teaching the four language skills in the past 15 years. It focuses on two main changes for each skill: understanding spoken language and willingness to communicate for speaking; product, process, and genre approaches and a focus on feedback for writing; extensive reading and literature for reading; and…

  7. Development of different forms of skill learning throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc

    2015-03-01

    The acquisition of complex motor, cognitive, and social skills, like playing a musical instrument or mastering sports or a language, is generally associated with implicit skill learning (SL). Although it is a general view that SL is most effective in childhood, and such skills are best acquired if learning starts early, this idea has rarely been tested by systematic empirical studies on the developmental pathways of SL from childhood to old age. In this paper, we challenge the view that childhood and early school years are the prime time for skill learning by tracking age-related changes in performance in three different paradigms of SL. We collected data from participants between 7 and 87 years for (1) a Serial Reaction Time Task (SRT) testing the learning of motor sequences, (2) an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task testing the extraction of regularities from auditory sequences, and (3) Probabilistic Category Learning in the Weather Prediction task (WP), a non-sequential categorization task. Results on all three tasks show that adolescence and adulthood are the most efficient periods for skill learning, since instead of becoming less and less effective with age, SL improves from childhood into adulthood and then later declines with aging. PMID:25039658

  8. Students' experiences of learning manual clinical skills through simulation.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Silén, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Håkan

    2013-03-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten third-year undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in three themes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator's contribution to the students' learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection. PMID:22395307

  9. Using Action Learning to Consolidate Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Clare; Powell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to answer the questions: (1) How can action learning aid in strategic change?; (2) What are the benefits of using action learning as part of a broader learning intervention?; (3) What are the issues to consider when introducing action learning into a corporate environment?; and (4) How can you engage people in reflection as a…

  10. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  11. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge. PMID:25475919

  12. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  13. The Learning of Consumer Skills in Adolescents: An Eclectic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Cheng

    A study investigated the learning of consumer skills by adolescents, using two theoretical approaches--the social learning and the family communication pattern approaches. It was hypothesized that (1) assuming that parents are more experienced consumers than are adolescents, frequent discussion with parents on consumption matters are likely to…

  14. Can Robots Help the Learning of Skilled Actions?

    PubMed Central

    Reinkensmeyer, David J.; Patton, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to move skillfully requires that the motor system adjusts muscle commands based on ongoing performance errors, a process influenced by the dynamics of the task being practiced. Recent experiments from our laboratories show how robotic devices can temporarily alter task dynamics in ways that contribute to the motor learning experience, suggesting possible applications in rehabilitation and sports training. PMID:19098524

  15. Learning Style Changes and Their Relationship to Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriopoulos, C.; Pomonis, Gerasimos

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the results of a research on learning styles and critical thinking skills of sixty eight postgraduate students of Master's Level Business Education Programs. These students have participated in both phases of our research. In the first phase, carried out in spring 2005, Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI v.3) was the basis…

  16. Individual Skill Differences and Large-Scale Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alexa W.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited…

  17. Thinking & Learning Skills: What Do We Expect of Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.; Ryan, Susan; Weeks, Sandra; Alpert, Alan; Schwols, Amitra; Moore, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study identifies the thinking and learning skills--such as good decision-making strategies and monitoring one's own learning progress--that students should acquire, as described in standards documents from state departments of education, from national subject-area organizations, and from organizations concerned about adequate…

  18. Developing a Scale for Constructivist Learning Environment Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The success of creating a constructivist learning environment is directly related to teachers' management abilities and therefore scales that evaluate those skills are essential to the process. Given the importance of this subject, the development of scales that address all aspects of the constructivist learning environment…

  19. Learning Climate and Work Group Skills in Care Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hauer, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the…

  20. ICT Skills Learning Strategies and Histories of Trainee Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a one-year action research study at the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom) which explored processes by which a cohort of postgraduate teacher trainees learned personal information and communication technology (ICT) skills. Discusses learning strategies reported by students in interviews; considers previous experience and software…

  1. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Motor-Skill Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    Learning of a procedural motor-skill task is known to progress through a series of unique memory stages. Performance initially improves during training, and continues to improve, without further rehearsal, across subsequent periods of sleep. Here, we investigate how this delayed sleep-dependent learning is affected when the task characteristics…

  2. Plugging a Gap? Soft Skills Courses and Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Elisabet; Tett, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Governments across Europe have been encouraged by the European Union (EU) to take measures to upskill their workforce to ensure growth and social inclusion. Low-skilled workers are particular targets and learning providers and employers are expected to provide learning opportunities for them. However, research shows that those with low skills…

  3. Skills for Support: Personal Assistants and People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie; Rudge, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    For people with learning disabilities to have control over their lives, the quality of their support staff matters. This paper reports on an inclusive research study, which used video analysis to study the communication skills of personal assistants (PAs) who worked with people with learning disabilities. The findings reveal some of the fine…

  4. Social Skills of Slovenian Primary School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Majda; Prah, Alenka; Cagran, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Social skills of students with special needs play a very important role in their successful integration into inclusive learning environments. The aim of present empirical research was to establish whether students with learning disabilities (LD) attending grades 7-9 of regular primary school in Slovenia experience difficulties in social skills…

  5. Cooperative Learning and Soft Skills Training in an IT Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogy of higher education is shifting from passive to active and deep learning. At the same time, the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) are demanding soft skills training. Thus, in designing an IT course, we devised group teaching projects where students learn to work with…

  6. Innovative Pedagogies in Higher Education to Become Effective Teachers of 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Learning and Innovations Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    As today's graduates engage with the demands of the current Knowledge Age, the skills that they need to succeed in their lives after college, or any other institution of higher learning, are 21st century skills rather than 20th century skills. Kivunja (2014) calls this "the new learning paradigm" (p.85). Unfortunately, those skills are…

  7. Responses to the Learning and Skills Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 2000

    2000-01-01

    Includes "Commentary" (Alan Tuckett); "Lifelong Learning" (Malcolm Wicks); "An Opposition View" (Tim Boswell); "Opening up the Learning Market" (Jacqui Henderson); "Ringing in the Changes" (Chris Hughes); and "More Reasons to Be Cheerful, More Causes for Concern" (Alastair Thomson). (SK)

  8. Individual skill differences and large-scale environmental learning.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alexa W; Shelton, Amy L

    2006-05-01

    Spatial skills are known to vary widely among normal individuals. This project was designed to address whether these individual differences are differentially related to large-scale environmental learning from route (ground-level) and survey (aerial) perspectives. Participants learned two virtual environments (route and survey) with limited exposure and tested on judgments about relative locations of objects. They also performed a series of spatial and nonspatial component skill tests. With limited learning, performance after route encoding was worse than performance after survey encoding. Furthermore, performance after route and survey encoding appeared to be preferentially linked to perspective and object-based transformations, respectively. Together, the results provide clues to how different skills might be engaged by different individuals for the same goal of learning a large-scale environment. PMID:16719662

  9. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking. PMID:25892366

  10. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this study analyzed the influence of scenario-based skills training on students' learning skills. Method: the author evaluated the nursing skills laboratory exam papers of 605 sophomores in nursing programs for seven years. The study determined the common mistakes of students and the laboratory work was designed in a scenario-based format. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by assessing the number of errors the students committed and their achievement scores in laboratory examinations. This study presents the students' common mistakes in intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and their development of intravenous access skills, included in the nursing skills laboratory examination. Results: an analysis of the students' most common mistakes revealed that the most common was not following the principles of asepsis for all three skills (intramuscular, subcutaneous injection, intravenous access) in the first year of the scenario-based training. The students' exam achievement scores increased gradually, except in the fall semester of the academic year 2009-2010. The study found that the scenario-based skills training reduced students' common mistakes in examinations and enhanced their performance on exams. Conclusion: this method received a positive response from both students and instructors. The scenario-based training is available for use in addition to other skills training methods. PMID:27508922

  11. A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for Their Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…

  12. Learn in Brain-Friendly Ways: How To Succeed with Quality Learning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimes, Rudolf E.

    This book for students describes Quality Learning or QLearn, a "brain-friendly" learning strategy that involves five types of learning-skill modules. QLearn is described as a "brain-friendly" system of multi-channel learning, designed for secondary, university, adult students and trainees in business and industry. Under the system learners apply…

  13. Unpacking the Information, Media, and Technology Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Put simply, "Teaching our students so that they become well-equipped with the 21st century skills is the new learning paradigm" (Kivunja, 2014b, p. 85). These skills fall into four domains which the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) identify as the Traditional Core Skills, the Learning and Innovation Skills, the Career and Life…

  14. Basic Skills for Experiential Learning: What Skills Do Students Need to Make the Most of Experiential Learning Opportunities. LES Papers on Learning and Teaching. Paper #75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duley, John

    Identification of the basic skills and roles in field experience education should answer the question "Can and should educators identify a set of basic skills required for effective performance in experiential learning as part of general education?" New roles required of students in using experiential learning opportunities include initiator,…

  15. An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J; Kennedy, Rodney; Hanlon, Michael; Williams, A Mark

    2010-05-01

    We tested the 'learned parameters' hypothesis as an explanation of the 'especial skill effect'. Outcome attainment and movement kinematics were recorded for 10 expert and 10 novice players performing basketball free-throw shots at five distances (11-19 ft) with a regular and heavy weight basketball. As predicted, experts performed better than expected relative to the regression equation at the 15 ft, free-throw line with the regular basketball, supporting the 'especial skill effect'. This effect was not present for the experts when shooting with the heavy ball. Novices did not show an advantage at the free-throw line when performing with either ball. Although the outcome attainment scores support the 'learned parameters' hypotheses, kinematic analysis failed to identify differences in the movement pattern for the especial skill, suggesting that these skills (i.e., shooting at different distances) are not governed by separate motor programs. PMID:20045100

  16. Successful College Writing: Skills, Strategies, Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhorter, Kathleen T.

    This book provides students with the kind of extra help they will need to meet the demands of their first-year writing course as well as their other courses. Through its highly visual, student-centered approach, the book teaches basic skills and engages students immediately in the thinking-writing process, guiding them through the writing…

  17. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  18. Lifelong Learning: Skills and Online Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Russell F.; Hsiung, Bob C.; Hales, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Advances in information technology enable the practicing psychiatrist's quest to keep up-to-date with new discoveries in psychiatry, as well as to meet recertification requirements. However, physicians' computer skills do not always keep up with technology, nor do they take advantage of online search and continuing education services.…

  19. Learning Teamwork Skills in University Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho-Thomas, Pilar; Fuentes-Fernandez, Ruben; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    University courses about computer programming usually seek to provide students not only with technical knowledge, but also with the skills required to work in real-life software projects. Nowadays, the development of software applications requires the coordinated efforts of the members of one or more teams. Therefore, it is important for software…

  20. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  1. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  2. Learning by Teaching: Developing Transferable Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollhans, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    "Learning by teaching" (German: "Lernen durch Lehren," commonly abbreviated as "LdL") is a teaching and learning approach which was developed by the French language teacher Jean-Pol Martin in German schools in the 1980s (Martin, 1985). The method sees students in the role of the teacher, and enhances their learning…

  3. Critical Thinking Skills Fire up Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Heather; Linn, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    With increased teacher accountability and decreased funding, effective professional learning is more critical than ever. Teachers and educational leaders need to be fully and continuously supported in their professional growth around the changes they face, such as implementing Common Core, learning to interpret and use student data, and supporting…

  4. Cognitive learning strategies: their effectiveness in acquiring racquetball skill.

    PubMed

    Tennant, L M

    2000-06-01

    Racquetball players were compared to assess whether a Self-directed strategy (self-monitoring), a Task-oriented strategy (attentional focusing), or a Combined use of both strategies would be beneficial in acquisition of racquetball skills. According to skill (Beginning, Advanced), players (N=80) were assigned into treatment groups. After treatment, participants executed diagonal lob serves and rallies for Acquisition and Retention phases (Session 1). During Session 2, subjects competed in a modified play setting (Transfer phase). Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed differences by skill during the basic tests favored Advanced players. During modified play, the Task-oriented group won significantly more points and games compared to the Self-directed and Control groups, regardless of skill. Results are discussed relative to skill and the literature on learning strategies. PMID:10883768

  5. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm. PMID:18482830

  6. The Effects of Memory and Abstractive Integration on Children's Probability Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitler, Shulamith; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relation between children's (1) probability learning performance and a measure of their memory for items presented in a sequence and (2) probability learning and performance on a test of abstractive integration. Participating were 80 six- and seven-year-old boys and girls from both low and middle socioeconomic classes. (Author/RH)

  7. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  8. Statistical Learning is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658

  9. Influence of the workplace on learning physical examination skills

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting this. Methods Six focus group sessions with 32 students in Internal Medicine rotation (4–9 students per group; sessions 80–90 minutes). Verbatim transcripts were analysed by emerging themes and coded independently by three researchers followed by constant comparison and axial coding. Results Students report to learn the systematics of the physical examination, gain agility and become able to recognise pathological signs. The learning process combines working alongside others and working independently with increasing responsibility for patient care. Helpful behaviour includes making findings explicit through patient files or during observation, feedback by abnormal findings and taking initiative. Factors affecting the process negatively include lack of supervision, uncertainty about tasks and expectations, and social context such as hierarchy of learners and perceived learning environment. Conclusion Although individual student experiences vary greatly between different hospitals, it seems that proactivity and participation are central drivers for learning. These results can improve the quality of existing programmes and help design new ways to learn physical examination skills. PMID:24678562

  10. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  11. Feedforward Self-Modeling Enhances Skill Acquisition in Children Learning Trampoline Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Vertes, Kelly; Rymal, Amanda M.; Martini, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM) video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined. PMID:21779270

  12. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  13. An Enrichment and Learning Skills Center for Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Marjorie C.

    The Academic Enrichment and Learning Skills Center at Indiana State University came into being primarily because of the reading problems among the student body. The center has two language laboratories, each having 30 positions. Emphasis in designing the physical plant was placed on attractiveness and quiet. Teaching machines such as the…

  14. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  15. Skills for a New Century. A Blueprint for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Vice President, Washington, DC.

    A group of leaders from business, organized labor, education, and government convened by Vice President Gore synthesized current thinking and promising practices on work force learning and issued recommendations to help Americans acquire the skills they need for the 21st century workplace. Four key recommendations were made for work force learning…

  16. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  17. Helping While Learning: A Skilled Group Helper Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a developmental group training workshop for training experienced counselors to do group counseling. Discusses stages of training including exploration, understanding, and action, which can help counselors learn helping skills for counseling that can often transfer to their own interpersonal lives and interactions with others. (JAC)

  18. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  19. Developing Media Literacy Skills for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jessica Everett

    2014-01-01

    Students with specific learning disabilities (SLD), such as emotional disturbances, and speech or language impairment, attending high schools located in the rural Mississippi Delta lack media literacy skills that could impact the student's ability to successfully graduate from high school. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify…

  20. Recognising Women's Skill. EAE647 Non-Formal Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Eva; Leonard, Helen

    The material in this monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Non-Formal Learning, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It is designed to raise issues relating to skill definition. "Choosing a Worker or How Good Are Your Job Descriptions?" explores why interpersonal or…

  1. Neural Substrates of Cognitive Skill Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, M. H.; Dagher, A.; Panisset, M.; Doyon, J.

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive skill learning is normally acquired implicitly through frontostrial circuitry in healthy individuals, neuroimaging studies suggest that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) do so by activating alternate, intact brain areas associated with explicit memory processing. To further test this hypothesis, 10 patients with PD and 12…

  2. The Temporal Dynamics of Strategy Execution in Cognitive Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajic, Daniel; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from algorithmic to memory-based performance is a core component of cognitive skill learning. There has been debate about the temporal dynamics of strategy execution, with some models assuming a race (i.e., independent, capacity unconstrained parallel processing) between algorithm and retrieval, and others assuming a choice…

  3. Promoting Global Literacy Skills through Technology- Infused Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared, Ed.; Mbae, Justus G., Ed.; Ngigi, Simon K., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing internationalization of today's classrooms calls for learning institutions to prepare students for success in an interdependent and technologically-advanced world. Faculty who are competent in multiple 21st century skills are best equipped to engage students in curricula that are relevant, transformative, and engaging across content…

  4. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  5. Secondary School Pupils' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana; Balogh, Timea

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research on 258 secondary school pupils' (10-15 years old, 5th-8th grades) self-regulated learning skills as self-efficacy, self-judgement, self-reaction and their interest for studying Mathematics.

  6. Assessment of Cognitive Social Skills in Learning Disabled Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.

    Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…

  7. Fact, Feeling, Fantasy: An Integrative Approach to Learning Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Charles A.; Nathan-Fasten, Lynn

    Both the cognitive and affective domains of learning may be combined in an integrative model of education which joins awareness of values, feelings, and self with the knowledge and skills necessary for expression and communication. This manual consists of four fantasy exercises which help to develop awareness of personal events, as well as…

  8. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume V: Functional Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, one of a series of eight curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, includes five courses on functional skills for a workplace literacy curriculum. Introductory materials include a table of contents, a list of the curriculum topics covered in each guide, and a section called "Hello Computer"…

  9. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  10. Developing a Workplace Skills Course: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holter, Norma C.; Kopka, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of a multidisciplinary cornerstone business course focused on communication, teamwork, problem solving, professional demeanor, research, ethics, and diversity. Discusses lessons learned: change itself raises obstacles, appropriate faculty are crucial, and time frame and course content should not be overly ambitious. (SK)

  11. Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.

  12. Improving Undergraduates' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer-learning Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g., factoidz.com, answersingenesis.org). The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles

  13. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect

    PubMed Central

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  14. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect.

    PubMed

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  15. Facilitating Self-Regulated Learning Skills and Achievement with a Strategic Content Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Monica L.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Whether out of financial concerns for student retention or altruistic goals involving facilitating successful learning, efforts are being made to ensure college student success beyond chance independent study skills. Students often lack effective self-regulatory skills and study strategies necessary for success in college. With guidance through…

  16. Statistical learning is constrained to less abstract patterns in complex sensory input (but not the least).

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lauren L; Rubinstein, Dani Y

    2016-08-01

    The influence of statistical information on behavior (either through learning or adaptation) is quickly becoming foundational to many domains of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, from language comprehension to visual development. We investigate a central problem impacting these diverse fields: when encountering input with rich statistical information, are there any constraints on learning? This paper examines learning outcomes when adult learners are given statistical information across multiple levels of abstraction simultaneously: from abstract, semantic categories of everyday objects to individual viewpoints on these objects. After revealing statistical learning of abstract, semantic categories with scrambled individual exemplars (Exp. 1), participants viewed pictures where the categories as well as the individual objects predicted picture order (e.g., bird1-dog1, bird2-dog2). Our findings suggest that participants preferentially encode the relationships between the individual objects, even in the presence of statistical regularities linking semantic categories (Exps. 2 and 3). In a final experiment we investigate whether learners are biased towards learning object-level regularities or simply construct the most detailed model given the data (and therefore best able to predict the specifics of the upcoming stimulus) by investigating whether participants preferentially learn from the statistical regularities linking individual snapshots of objects or the relationship between the objects themselves (e.g., bird_picture1-dog_picture1, bird_picture2-dog_picture2). We find that participants fail to learn the relationships between individual snapshots, suggesting a bias towards object-level statistical regularities as opposed to merely constructing the most complete model of the input. This work moves beyond the previous existence proofs that statistical learning is possible at both very high and very low levels of abstraction (categories vs. individual

  17. Contextual interference in complex bimanual skill learning leads to better skill persistence.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Lisa; Swinnen, Stephan P; Beets, Iseult A M

    2014-01-01

    The contextual interference (CI) effect is a robust phenomenon in the (motor) skill learning literature. However, CI has yielded mixed results in complex task learning. The current study addressed whether the CI effect is generalizable to bimanual skill learning, with a focus on the temporal evolution of memory processes. In contrast to previous studies, an extensive training schedule, distributed across multiple days of practice, was provided. Participants practiced three frequency ratios across three practice days following either a blocked or random practice schedule. During the acquisition phase, better overall performance for the blocked practice group was observed, but this difference diminished as practice progressed. At immediate and delayed retention, the random practice group outperformed the blocked practice group, except for the most difficult frequency ratio. Our main finding is that the random practice group showed superior performance persistence over a one week time interval in all three frequency ratios compared to the blocked practice group. This study contributes to our understanding of learning, consolidation and memory of complex motor skills, which helps optimizing training protocols in future studies and rehabilitation settings. PMID:24960171

  18. Transfer of Complex Skill Learning from Virtual to Real Rowing

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  19. Transfer of complex skill learning from virtual to real rowing.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  20. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  1. Visual illusions can facilitate sport skill learning.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Wulf, Gabriele; Maquestiaux, François

    2015-06-01

    Witt, Linkenauger, and Proffitt (Psychological Science, 23, 397-399, 2012) demonstrated that golf putting performance was enhanced when the hole was surrounded by small circles, making it look larger, relative to when it was surrounded by large circles, making it look smaller. In the present study, we examined whether practicing putting with small or large surrounding circles would have not only immediate effects on performance, but also longer-lasting effects on motor learning. Two groups of nongolfers practiced putting golf balls to a 10.4-cm circle ("hole") from a distance of 2 m. Small or large circles were projected around the hole during the practice phase. Perception of hole size was affected by the size of the surrounding circles. Also, self-efficacy was higher in the group with the perceived larger hole. One day after practice, participants performed the putting task, but without visual illusions (i.e., a retention test). Putting accuracy in retention was greater for the group that had practiced with the perceived larger hole. These findings suggest that the apparently larger target led to the more effective learning outcome. PMID:25316049

  2. Foresight Group Roundtable: Fresh Thinking for Learning and Skills. Centre for Innovation in Learning--Positioning Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…

  3. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  4. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author’s perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants’ own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public health The nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of

  5. Some aspects of using new techniques of teaching/learning in education in optics (Abstract only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanska, Malgorzata

    2003-11-01

    The deep learning in Optics can be encouraged by stimulating and considerate teaching. It means that teacher should demonstrate his/her personal commitment to the subject and stress its meaning, relevance and importance to the students. It is also important to allow students to be creative in solving problems and in interpretation of its contents. In order to help the students to become more creative persons it is necessary to enhance the learning process of modern knowledge in Optics, to design and conduct experiments, stimulate passions and interests, allow an access to the e-learning system (Internet) and introduce the psychological training (creativity, communication, lateral thinking etc.) (Abstract only available)

  6. Learning about Regiochemistry from a Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction Reaction in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears-Dundes, Christopher; Huon, Yoeup; Hotz, Richard P.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment has been developed in which the hydrogen-atom abstraction and the coupling of propionitrile, using Fenton's reagent, are investigated. Students learn about the regiochemistry of radical formation, the stereochemistry of product formation, and the interpretation of GC-MS data, in a safe reaction that can be easily completed in one…

  7. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  8. Information from Multiple Modalities Helps 5-Month-Olds Learn Abstract Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Marcus, Gary F.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    By 7 months of age, infants are able to learn rules based on the abstract relationships between stimuli ( Marcus et al., 1999 ), but they are better able to do so when exposed to speech than to some other classes of stimuli. In the current experiments we ask whether multimodal stimulus information will aid younger infants in identifying abstract…

  9. Using a simulated environment to support students learning clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Doody, O; Condon, M

    2013-11-01

    Within intellectual disability nursing students are prepared within a biopsychosocialeducational model and curriculum address these challenges. Using a simulated learning environment has great potential for promoting competence and in-depth knowledge of substantive topics relevant to practice. This article presents an assignment designed to more closely resemble real-world activities to allow students develop and exercise skills that translate to practice activities and incorporates a student's reflective comments on the process. The assignment was designed to foster intellectual disability student nurses ability to facilitate family/client education. The aim of the assignment was fulfilled through the students designing a clinical skill teaching session that could be used with families/clients. The sessions were recorded and the student reviewed their recording to reflect on their performance and to self assess. To facilitate student learning the modules academic lecturer also reviewed the recording and both lecturer and student meet to discuss the reflection and self assessment. PMID:23602694

  10. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills

    PubMed Central

    Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. Design. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. Conclusion. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment. PMID:26941437

  11. Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719

  12. A Simulated Learning Environment for Teaching Medicine Dispensing Skills.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jenny; Styles, Kim; Sewell, Keith; Trinder, Peta; Marriott, Jennifer; Maher, Sheryl; Naidu, Som

    2016-02-25

    Objective. To develop an authentic simulation of the professional practice dispensary context for students to develop their dispensing skills in a risk-free environment. Design. A development team used an Agile software development method to create MyDispense, a web-based simulation. Modeled on virtual learning environments elements, the software employed widely available standards-based technologies to create a virtual community pharmacy environment. Assessment. First-year pharmacy students who used the software in their tutorials, were, at the end of the second semester, surveyed on their prior dispensing experience and their perceptions of MyDispense as a tool to learn dispensing skills. Conclusion. The dispensary simulation is an effective tool for helping students develop dispensing competency and knowledge in a safe environment. PMID:26941437

  13. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  14. Using Adult Learning Principles as a Framework for Learning ICT Skills Needed for Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyitayo, Oduronke Temitope

    2013-01-01

    Students in higher institutions need to carry out research projects. The focus of this paper explores a model to help students learn ICT skills needed for research projects. Generally students go through the "long and hard route" to learn and use ICT resources because they do not know how to do it. The paper explores the Adult Learning…

  15. Count Me in: The Role of Action Learning in Making Learning and Skills Provision More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Gill

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the role of action learning in a national programme of research and development. The aim of the programme was to improve provision for disabled learners in the learning and skills sector by supporting providers in implementing the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act (2002). Practitioners worked on a wide range…

  16. Effects of Learning Skills Interventions on Student Learning: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Through meta-analysis, 51 studies are examined in which interventions were aimed to enhance student learning by improving student use of either one or a combination of learning or study skills. Results obtained, through categorizing the interventions in hierarchical levels of structural complexity and as either near or far in terms of transfer,…

  17. Inter-Life: A Novel, Three-Dimensional, Virtual Learning Environment for Life Transition Skills Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Alison M.; Lally, Vic; Sclater, Madeleine; Parussel, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from one of the first empirical research studies which has investigated the impact of Inter-Life; a novel three-dimensional immersive virtual learning environment, on learning and development of social and educational life transition skills in a group of looked after and accommodated children. Drawing on social…

  18. Communicative signals support abstract rule learning by 7-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brock; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the discovery of abstract rules like those found in natural language may be evolutionarily tuned to speech, according to previous research. When infants hear speech sounds, they can learn rules that govern their combination, but when they hear non-speech sounds such as sine-wave tones, they fail to do so. Here we show that infants’ rule learning is not tied to speech per se, but is instead enhanced more broadly by communicative signals. In two experiments, infants succeeded in learning and generalizing rules from tones that were introduced as if they could be used to communicate. In two control experiments, infants failed to learn the very same rules when familiarized to tones outside of a communicative exchange. These results reveal that infants’ attention to social agents and communication catalyzes a fundamental achievement of human learning. PMID:27150270

  19. Communicative signals support abstract rule learning by 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the discovery of abstract rules like those found in natural language may be evolutionarily tuned to speech, according to previous research. When infants hear speech sounds, they can learn rules that govern their combination, but when they hear non-speech sounds such as sine-wave tones, they fail to do so. Here we show that infants' rule learning is not tied to speech per se, but is instead enhanced more broadly by communicative signals. In two experiments, infants succeeded in learning and generalizing rules from tones that were introduced as if they could be used to communicate. In two control experiments, infants failed to learn the very same rules when familiarized to tones outside of a communicative exchange. These results reveal that infants' attention to social agents and communication catalyzes a fundamental achievement of human learning. PMID:27150270

  20. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-10-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary requirements. The disparate levels of competency of the good and poor students made it difficult to target a certain level. Cooperative learning in the form of projects and peer teaching was designed to address the major concern of disparate entry skills, and at the same time the method used should also succeed in keeping students interest in class, developing communication skills and improving self-learning. Slower and weaker students were expected to benefit from being taught by good students, who were better prepared, and good students would gain deeper comprehension of the subject matter. From evaluations, the approach was considered successful since the overall passing rate was greater than 95% compared to previous years of around 70-80%. It had also succeeded in improving the learning environment in class. Future simulation classes will continue to use the cooperative approach with minor adjustments.

  1. Generalization of object manipulation skills learned without limb motion.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher D; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2003-06-15

    Recent work suggests that human subjects may learn mappings between object motion and exerted torque during manipulation of freely pivoting or unstable objects. In the present work, we studied an object manipulation task involving no arm movement to determine how subjects internally represent the force-motion relationship of an object during a skilled manipulation task. Human subjects learned to balance a simulated inverted pendulum. The simulation was controlled by pressing on a fixed force sensor, and applied forces resulted in motion of the simulated pendulum on a computer screen according to its equation of motion. Each subject initially learned the task in one arm posture and was tested 1 d later in a new arm posture. In one test condition, the effects of arm torque were matched to the original task, and in the other test condition, the simulation was unchanged. The pattern of skill transfer to different arm postures suggested that subjects had learned joint torque responses rather than a general model of the object interface forces. A second experiment showed that the advantage of training with matched arm torques was object specific, because torque-matched training on a tracking task involving similar forces was not a substitute for training in the balancing task. PMID:12832503

  2. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  3. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  4. Student Learning through Service Learning: Effects on Academic Development, Civic Responsibility, Interpersonal Skills and Practical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Ali; Hauf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Although anecdotal evidence and research alike espouse the benefits of service learning, some researchers have suggested that more rigorous testing is required in order to determine its true effect on students. This is particularly true in the case of academic development, which has been inconsistently linked to service learning. It has been…

  5. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  6. The Effects of Learned Leadership/Membership Skills on Work Performance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banathy, Bela H.; And Others

    The project examined the effects of learned leadership/membership skills on performance in task-oriented groups, developed competence-based instructional materials to teach such skills, and examined the effects of such skills on individual and group knowledge, skills, attitudes, and performance. Following a literature review, materials review, and…

  7. Women match men when learning a spatial skill.

    PubMed

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-07-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a matched-pair two-wave longitudinal design. Participants were screened with the use of an attentional visual field task, with the objective of selecting and matching 10 male-female pairs, over a wide range (30% to 57% correct). Subsequently, 20 participants 17-23 years of age (selected from 43 screened) were trained for 10 hr (distributed over several sessions) by playing a first-person shooter video game. This genre is known to be highly effective in enhancing spatial skills. All 20 participants improved, with matched members of the male-female pairs achieving very similar gains, independent of starting level. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the learning trajectory of women is not inferior to that of men when acquiring a basic spatial skill. Training methods that develop basic spatial skills may be essential to achieve gender parity in both basic and complex spatial tasks. PMID:19586273

  8. Prototype Abstraction and Distinctive Feature Learning: An Application to Learning Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Robbins, Donald

    1977-01-01

    Using recognition tests with new and old exemplars (multiple-component characters) and prototypes (common components), the traditional language learning technique of paired-associate training with exemplars of Chinese characters and specific English translations led to the poorest performance of the three methods tested. Learning either exemplars…

  9. EQClinic: a platform for learning communication skills in clinical consultations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M.; Lim, Renee L.; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a

  10. [Motor asymmetry and learning new skills in animals].

    PubMed

    Budilin, S Iu; Pletneva, E V; Ioffe, M E; Arsen'ev, G N

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between the ability to learn new motor skills and preference to the right or left front paw when performing manipulation movements in rats. As a new skill used the Morris water maze, in which the animals are initially trained to detect platform hidden under water at the swim of the sector of the opposite platform, and then when sailing from sectors on the left or the right of the platform. Preference paw was determined by using the taking of animal food from a narrow horizontal tube and, accordingly, the rats were divided into left-handedness and right-handedness. We found that when changing the place of launch, that is the first voyage from the left or right of the sector, are right-handed, unlike left-handed, spent significantly more time to find the platform. PMID:25713870

  11. Teacher Education in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," March through December 1977 (Vol. 37 No. 9 through Vol. 38 No. 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics related to teacher education in reading and communication skills: inservice education in secondary reading for English teachers; prospective English teachers' attitudes toward composition;…

  12. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Thomas A; Cook, Robert G; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered. PMID:26388825

  13. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PMID:25437792

  14. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Thomas A.; Cook, Robert G.; Katz, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS) to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS) conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered. PMID:26388825

  15. Abstract or Concrete Examples in Learning Mathematics? A Replication and Elaboration of Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler's Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bock, Dirk; Deprez, Johan; Van Dooren, Wim; Roelens, Michel; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler (2008a) published in "Science" a study on "The advantage of abstract examples in learning math," in which they claim that students may benefit more from learning mathematics through a single abstract, symbolic representation than from multiple concrete examples. This publication elicited both enthusiastic and…

  16. Sleep-independent off-line enhancement and time of the day effects in three forms of skill learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Lukács, Ágnes

    2016-05-01

    The role of sleep in memory and skill-learning processes is an important and widely debated issue. The current study explores the nature of the relationship between sleep and off-line improvement in three tasks for measuring different aspects of skill learning: the serial reaction time (SRT) task, which is a motor sequence learning task; the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task, testing abstract verbal sequence learning; and the weather prediction (WP) task, which is a non-sequential categorization task. Each participant was tested on one of the three tasks twice, either in a Wake condition (with a 12-h off-line period without sleep), or in a Sleep condition (with sleep). Results showed no sleep-related off-line improvement throughout the three tasks in a two-session re-learning design, but a sleep-independent time-based effect was found on the SRT task. No performance boost was observed in the WP and AGL tasks. Performance on the SRT showed a time of the day effect: the Sleep group outperforming the Wake group; however, this effect was restricted to overall response latencies. Taken together, no evidence was found in favor of sleep-dependent off-line enhancement in skill learning, but methodological concerns warrant further investigations. PMID:26861244

  17. A qualitative study to explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning.

    PubMed

    Rees, C E; Sheard, C E; McPherson, A C

    2002-05-01

    This qualitative study explores medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. Thirty-two medical students, including representatives from each year of the medical degree, participated in five focus-group discussions. Theme analysis of each transcript by two independent analysts produced two attitude-related themes: positive attitudes towards communication skills and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. Students held both positive and negative attitudes towards different aspects of communication skills learning. Students' negative attitudes were related to communication skills being a subjective social science, which was viewed as 'non-academic' and 'common sense'. Students with negative attitudes towards communication skills learning were thought to be good communicators. Some reported being socialized into developing the negative attitudes held by older students and qualified doctors. The timing of communication skills learning was also thought to be important in determining attitudes. The findings within each of these themes and their educational implications are discussed in this paper. PMID:12098416

  18. Hidden Markov model approach to skill learning and its application to telerobotics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. . Robotics Inst. Univ. of Akron, OH . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Xu, Y. . Robotics Inst.); Chen, C.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of how human skill can be represented as a parametric model using a hidden Markov model (HMM), and how an HMM-based skill model can be used to learn human skill. HMM is feasible to characterize a doubly stochastic process--measurable action and immeasurable mental states--that is involved in the skill learning. The authors formulated the learning problem as a multidimensional HMM and developed a testbed for a variety of skill learning applications. Based on ''the most likely performance'' criterion, the best action sequence can be selected from all previously measured action data by modeling the skill as an HMM. The proposed method has been implemented in the teleoperation control of a space station robot system, and some important implementation issues have been discussed. The method allows a robot to learn human skill certain tasks and to improve motion performance.

  19. Note-Taking Skills of Middle School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…

  20. Learning and Skills: Opportunities or Threats for Disabled Learners? FEDA Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    Challenges will be created by proposed changes to post-school education and training for people with learning difficulties and disabilities. Two important bills have been proposed. The Learning and Skills Bill (LSB) changes the whole architecture of the post-school education and training sector. LSB sets up the Learning and Skills Council (LSC)…

  1. Development of a Learning Model for Enhancing Social Skills on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traisorn, Rattanaporn; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were: 1) to study the situation, problems and needs for a learning model to enhance the social skills of sixth grade students; 2) to develop a learning model that would address those needs; 3) to study the effectiveness of that learning model; 4) to compare performance on pretests and posttests of social skills; and 5) to…

  2. Discovering Abstract Concepts to Aid Cross-Map Transfer for a Learning Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpson, Cédric; Corruble, Vincent

    The capacity to apply knowledge in a context different than the one in which it was learned has become crucial within the area of autonomous agents. This paper specifically addresses the issue of transfer of knowledge acquired through online learning in partially observable environments. We investigate the discovery of relevant abstract concepts which help the transfer of knowledge in the context of an environment characterized by its 2D geographical configuration. The architecture proposed is tested in a simple grid-world environment where two agents duel each other. Results show that an agent’s performances are improved through learning, including when it is tested on a map it has not yet seen.

  3. Learning to "See" Less than Nothing: Putting Perceptual Skills to Work for Learning Numerical Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Jessica M.; Blair, Kristen P.; Bofferding, Laura; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    How can children's natural perceptuo-motor skills be harnessed for teaching and learning mathematical structure? We address this question in the case of the integers. Existing research suggests that adult mental representations of integers recruit perceptuo-motor functionalities involving symmetry. Building on these findings, we designed a…

  4. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  5. Changes in Students' Use of Lifelong Learning Skills during a Problem-Based Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.

    2005-01-01

    In a climate of continual change and innovation, lifelong learning is a critical professional development objective which has a direct impact on organizations' effectiveness and ability to compete and innovate. To help learners continually upgrade their skills and knowledge so they can effectively address emerging organizational and professional…

  6. Learning Profiles and the "Skills Gap" in Four Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis of Schooling and Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2014-01-01

    Educational access in developing countries has improved significantly in recent years, but less evidence is available on learning and learning progress in comparative perspective. This paper employs data from Young Lives to examine levels and trends in cognitive skill development and the links to enrolment in school across the four study countries…

  7. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics. PMID:25298388

  8. Are the Products of Statistical Learning Abstract or Stimulus-Specific?

    PubMed Central

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E.; Balaban, Evan; Hager, Alanna D.

    2012-01-01

    Learners can segment potential lexical units from syllable streams when statistically variable transitional probabilities between adjacent syllables are the only cues to word boundaries. Here we examine the nature of the representations that result from statistical learning by assessing learners’ ability to generalize across acoustically different stimuli. In three experiments, we compare two possibilities: that the products of statistical segmentation processes are abstract and generalizable representations, or, alternatively, that products of statistical learning are stimulus-bound and restricted to perceptually similar instances. In Experiment 1, learners segmented units from statistically predictable streams, and recognized these units when they were acoustically transformed by temporal reversals. In Experiment 2, learners were able to segment units from temporally reversed syllable streams, but were only able to generalize in conditions of mild acoustic transformation. In Experiment 3, learners were able to recognize statistically segmented units after a voice change but were unable to do so when the novel voice was mildly distorted. Together these results suggest that representations that result from statistical learning can be abstracted to some degree, but not in all listening conditions. PMID:22470357

  9. Motor skill learning is associated with diffusion characteristics of white matter in individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Borich, Michael R.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imaging advances allow investigation of white matter following stroke; a growing body of literature has shown links between diffusion-based measures of white matter microstructure and motor function. However, the relationship between these measures and motor skill learning has not been considered in individuals with stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between post-training white matter microstructural status, as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) within the ipsilesional posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and learning of a novel motor task in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods Thirteen participants with chronic stroke and nine healthy controls practiced a visuomotor pursuit task across five sessions. Change in motor behavior associated with learning was indexed by comparing baseline performance with a delayed retention test. Fractional anisotropy (FA) indexed at the retention test was the primary DTI-derived outcome measure. Results In individuals with chronic stroke, we discovered an association between post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA and the magnitude of change associated with motor learning; hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the combination of age, time post stroke and ipsilesional PLIC FA post-training was associated with motor learning related change (R2=0.649, p=0.02). Baseline motor performance was not related to post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA. Discussion and Conclusions Diffusion characteristics of post-training ipsilesional PLIC were linked to magnitude of change in skilled motor behavior. These results imply that the microstructural properties of regional white matter indexed by diffusion behavior may be an important factor to consider when determining potential response to rehabilitation in persons with stroke. Video Abstract available (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1.) for more insights from the authors. PMID:23934017

  10. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1985 (Vol. 46 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 28 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of superlearning on retention/hypermnesia of rare English words in college students; (2) a Delphi study of American, British, and Canadian English…

  11. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: alternative views of the English curriculum; development of curriculum theory and language arts; sentence combining; vocabulary development; the effect of music…

  12. Language, Speech, and Communication Skills Training: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: communications curricula for technical education programs; the recorded oral communication of business students; interactions between parents and speech-language…

  13. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 20 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) reading readiness, linguistic awareness, and nonverbal problem solving ability in relation to first grade reading achievement; (2) predictive accuracy of third…

  14. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1985 (Vol. 46 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 11 titles deal with the following topics: (1) teacher self-assessment and analysis of feedback to student miscues during oral reading; (2) the humor found in basal readers appropriate to second and fourth grade students; (3) an…

  15. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Preschool and Elementary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) inferential questions in four basal readers; (2) reading instruction in an effective school setting; (3) the social-emotional dimension of teacher-student…

  16. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 35 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) cloze procedure; (2) the monitoring and facilitation of reading growth; (3) the effect of immediate item feedback on the reliability and validity of verbal…

  17. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  18. Effectiveness of simulation-based learning on student nurses' self-efficacy and performance while learning fundamental nursing skills.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    It was noted worldwide while learning fundamental skills and facing skills assessments, nursing students seemed to experience low confidence and high anxiety levels. Could simulation-based learning help to enhance students' self-efficacy and performance? Its effectiveness is mostly unidentified. This study was conducted to provide a shared experience to give nurse educators confidence and an insight into how simulation-based teaching can fit into nursing skills learning. A pilot study was completed with 50 second-year undergraduate nursing students, and the main study included 98 students where a pretest-posttest design was adopted. Data were gathered through four questionnaires and a performance assessment under scrutinized controls such as previous experiences, lecturers' teaching skills, duration of teaching, procedure of skills performance assessment and the inter-rater reliability. The results showed that simulation-based learning significantly improved students' self-efficacy regarding skills learning and the skills performance that nurse educators wish students to acquire. However, technology anxiety, examiners' critical attitudes towards students' performance and their unpredicted verbal and non-verbal expressions, have been found as possible confounding factors. The simulation-based learning proved to have a powerful positive effect on students' achievement outcomes. Nursing skills learning is one area that can benefit greatly from this kind of teaching and learning method. PMID:26444820

  19. Designing On-Demand Education for Simultaneous Development of Domain-Specific and Self-Directed Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taminiau, E. M. C.; Kester, L.; Corbalan, G.; Spector, J. M.; Kirschner, P. A.; Van Merriënboer, J. J. G.

    2015-01-01

    On-demand education enables individual learners to choose their learning pathways according to their own learning needs. They must use self-directed learning (SDL) skills involving self-assessment and task selection to determine appropriate pathways for learning. Learners who lack these skills must develop them because SDL skills are prerequisite…

  20. Variability of Practice and Contextual Interference in Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Hall, K. G.; Magill, R. A.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning benefits in multiple-task learning situations are a result of contextual interference or of schema enhancement related to the amount of variability in the practice session. Two experiments were designed that replicated and extended the experiment reported by Wulf and Schmidt (1988). In a 2 (same vs. different relative time) x 2 (blocked vs. random practice schedule) design, 48 right-handed subjects were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A tapping task was employed that required a right-handed tap of three small brass plates arranged in a diamond pattern. Each segment had a specific time requirement. Target times and response times were provided on a computer screen directly in front of the subject. Each subject participated in two acquisition sessions (i.e., 198 practice trials) and was tested for learning on several different retention and transfer tests. In Experiment 2, a control group was added that received no acquisition phase. Results of both experiments showed a typical contextual interference effect, with depressed scores by the random groups during acquisition but significantly better scores than the blocked groups on several retention and transfer tests. Certain characteristics of the tests were found to influence the demonstration of the practice schedule effects. These results were consistent with predictions from Magill and Hall (1990) that the learning benefits of contextual interference are more likely to occur when skill variations are from different classes of movement and that the amount of variability in practice is more influential when the to-be-learned tasks are parameter modifications of the same generalized motor program. PMID:12529226

  1. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  2. Conception of Learning and Clinical Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Exercise Science Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nathan; Chuter, Vivienne; Rooney, Kieron

    2013-01-01

    Learning clinical skills presents a novel experience for undergraduate students, particularly when it comes to preparing for skill assessment. Compared with the thousands of hours of practice believed to be necessary for the development of motor skill expertise (1), these students have significantly limited exposure time. Furthermore, effective…

  3. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  4. Assessing Teamwork Skills for Assurance of Learning Using CATME Team Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughry, Misty L.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Woehr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges of business must meet assurance of learning requirements to gain or maintain AACSB accreditation under the new standards adopted April 8, 2013. Team skills are among the most important skills desired by recruiters, yet employers and scholars perceive that team skills are frequently deficient in college graduates. This article describes…

  5. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  6. Social Work and Law Interdisciplinary Service Learning: Increasing Future Lawyers' Interpersonal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Stephanie K.; Quiring, Stephanie Q.; Harris, Evan; Hagan, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Social workers and attorneys both interact with persons from diverse backgrounds every day, yet although interpersonal skills are an essential focus of social work education, these skills are not addressed in legal education. Interdisciplinary courses in which social workers and lawyers learn interpersonal skills together and have an opportunity…

  7. Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

  8. Reorganization and plastic changes of the human brain associated with skill learning and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    Novel experience and learning new skills are known as modulators of brain function. Advances in non-invasive brain imaging have provided new insight into structural and functional reorganization associated with skill learning and expertise. Especially, significant imaging evidences come from the domains of sports and music. Data from in vivo imaging studies in sports and music have provided vital information on plausible neural substrates contributing to brain reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. This mini review will attempt to take a narrow snapshot of imaging findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity that mediate skill learning and expertise while identifying converging areas of interest and possible avenues for future research. PMID:24550812

  9. Encouraging Students To Acquire Key Skills and Manage Their Own Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickles, T. Anthony

    The United Kingdom higher education system is being encouraged to provide opportunities for students to acquire key skills/employability skills and to become better learners with a greater awareness of their individual learning needs, including the need to develop habits that will lead to lifelong learning. A number of issues need to be resolved…

  10. The Gain-Loss Model: A Probabilistic Skill Multimap Model for Assessing Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robusto, Egidio; Stefanutti, Luca; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of knowledge space theory, a probabilistic skill multimap model for assessing learning processes is proposed. The learning process of a student is modeled as a function of the student's knowledge and of an educational intervention on the attainment of specific skills required to solve problems in a knowledge…

  11. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  12. Teaching Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Manage Classroom Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mary C.; Bambara, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    A study of three males (grades 7-8) with learning disabilities investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral self-management training package on the consistent use of specific classroom survival skills. Results demonstrated more consistent use of targeted classroom survival skills by all students in both learning support and mainstream…

  13. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  14. "Second Generation" E-Learning: Characteristics and Design Principles for Supporting Management Soft-Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean; Morgan, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    This article develops the concept of "second generation" e-learning as a new paradigm for thinking about online learning. Whereas "first generation" approaches have been effective for developing technical skills, the same approach has not proven effective for developing management soft-skills (e.g., in the field of leadership education). The…

  15. YTS Core Skills and the Accreditation of Work Based Learning. Working Paper. Information Bank Number 2220.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    The Core Skills Project has developed in the "core skills" an instrument that can be used in the analysis of occupational competence. Any development of accreditation of work-based learning entails assessment of learning in the workplace. The success of such assessment depends on identifying the outcomes of experience in terms of competence and…

  16. The Effects of the Language for Learning Program on the Receptive Language Skills of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Trout, Alexandra; Nordness, Philip D.; Nelson, J. Ron; Epstein, Michael H.; Knobel, Maria-Louisa; Epstein, Alice; Maguire, Ken; Birdsell, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the effects of the Language for Learning (formerly DISTAR) program on the receptive language skills of a general sample of kindergarten children. Indicates that the Language for Learning program produced both statistically and educationally significant effects on the receptive language skills of children. Discusses results, limitations,…

  17. How to Teach Thinking and Learning Skills: A Practical Programme for the Whole School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, Catherine Jane

    2007-01-01

    By helping children to form positive thinking and learning habits, and to develop a range of transferable skills, we give them the tools they need to become successful learners. This book is grounded in the best of current practice and theories surrounding thinking and learning skills. It provides a highly effective method for introducing a…

  18. Cognitive Skills in Internet-Supported Learning Environments in Higher Education: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate Bekele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    How did Internet-supported learning environments (ISLE) impact students' critical thinking (CT) and problem solving (PS) skills in higher education? What specific indicators have been used to measure CT? What types of problems and learning approaches were chosen to assess PS skills? This paper qualitatively reviewed studies published in academic…

  19. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26983919

  20. Self Regulated Learning for Developing Nursing Skills via Web-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Hua, Khor Bee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether the first year student nurses able to learn and develop the psychomotor skills for basic nursing care using web-based learning environment. More importantly, the researcher investigated whether web-based learning environment using self regulated learning strategy able to help students to apply the…

  1. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  2. An Assessment of Cooperative Learning Used for Basic Computer Skills Instruction in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; Anson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Reports research on cooperative learning strategies used in a college computer skills lab course and compares learning performance and retention of students taught via cooperative teams or traditional individual learning. Results show that both performance and retention were significantly improved with the use of cooperative learning. (Author/JMV)

  3. Academic Progress Depending on the Skills and Qualities of Learning in Students of a Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesús, Araiza Vázquez María; Claudia, Dörfer; Rosalinda, Castillo Corpus

    2015-01-01

    This research was to establish the relationship between qualities of learning; learning skills and academic performance in undergraduate students. 310 undergraduates participated in this research of which 72% are female and 28% male. All responded Scale Learning Strategies of Roman and Gallego (1994) and Questionnaire Learning Styles of…

  4. The Delivery of Recreation Programs: Students Gain Entry Level Management Skills through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Jo An M.; Dupree, Jessica; Hodges, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Service learning is a well established pedagogy within higher education. Specifically, service learning allows students to engage in "real world" activities to practice skills and reflect upon their own competence. To enhance the effectiveness of service learning, instructors need to consider a multitude of learning influences. This…

  5. Multivariate cross-classification: applying machine learning techniques to characterize abstraction in neural representations

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jonas T.; Man, Kingson; Greening, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Here we highlight an emerging trend in the use of machine learning classifiers to test for abstraction across patterns of neural activity. When a classifier algorithm is trained on data from one cognitive context, and tested on data from another, conclusions can be drawn about the role of a given brain region in representing information that abstracts across those cognitive contexts. We call this kind of analysis Multivariate Cross-Classification (MVCC), and review several domains where it has recently made an impact. MVCC has been important in establishing correspondences among neural patterns across cognitive domains, including motor-perception matching and cross-sensory matching. It has been used to test for similarity between neural patterns evoked by perception and those generated from memory. Other work has used MVCC to investigate the similarity of representations for semantic categories across different kinds of stimulus presentation, and in the presence of different cognitive demands. We use these examples to demonstrate the power of MVCC as a tool for investigating neural abstraction and discuss some important methodological issues related to its application. PMID:25859202

  6. Multivariate cross-classification: applying machine learning techniques to characterize abstraction in neural representations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonas T; Man, Kingson; Greening, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    Here we highlight an emerging trend in the use of machine learning classifiers to test for abstraction across patterns of neural activity. When a classifier algorithm is trained on data from one cognitive context, and tested on data from another, conclusions can be drawn about the role of a given brain region in representing information that abstracts across those cognitive contexts. We call this kind of analysis Multivariate Cross-Classification (MVCC), and review several domains where it has recently made an impact. MVCC has been important in establishing correspondences among neural patterns across cognitive domains, including motor-perception matching and cross-sensory matching. It has been used to test for similarity between neural patterns evoked by perception and those generated from memory. Other work has used MVCC to investigate the similarity of representations for semantic categories across different kinds of stimulus presentation, and in the presence of different cognitive demands. We use these examples to demonstrate the power of MVCC as a tool for investigating neural abstraction and discuss some important methodological issues related to its application. PMID:25859202

  7. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. PMID:21700421

  8. Bilingual, Bicultural, and Bidialectal Studies Related to Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the communicative competence of teenage boys in a northern United States urban warren; (2) the effects of second language learning upon reading achievement in…

  9. Abstract-concept learning carryover effects from the initial training set in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tamo; Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Bodily, Kent D; Sturz, Bradley R

    2009-02-01

    Three groups of pigeons were trained in a same/different task with 32, 64, or 1,024 color-picture stimuli. They were tested with novel transfer pictures. The training-testing cycle was repeated with training-set doublings. The 32-item group learned the same/different task as rapidly as a previous 8-item group and transferred better than the 8-item group at the 32-item training set. The 64- and 1,024-item groups learned the task only somewhat slower than other groups, but their transfer was better and equivalent to baseline performances. These results show that pigeons trained with small sets (e.g., 8 items) have carryover effects that hamper transfer when the training set is expanded. Without carryover effects (i.e., initial transfer from the 32- and 64-item groups), pigeons show the same degree of transfer as rhesus and capuchin monkeys at these same set sizes. This finding has implications for the general ability of abstract-concept learning across species with different neural architectures. PMID:19236147

  10. Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning sport skills.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jared M; Magill, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the contextual interference effect, in two experiments we investigated a form of practice schedule that provided novices with systematic increases in contextual interference. This new type of practice schedule was compared with traditional blocked and random scheduling for two types of sports skills. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that practising variations of the same task with systematic increases in contextual interference would lead to superior performance compared with blocked or random scheduling. Participants practised golf putting tasks following a blocked, random or increasing schedule, which involved initial blocked trials, followed by serial practice trials, and ended with random scheduling. Participants who followed the increasing schedule had superior retention test performance. In Experiment 2, we tested if these learning benefits were observed when learning tasks controlled by different generalized motor programs. Participants practised three different basketball passes (chest, overhead, single arm) in a blocked, random or increasing schedule. Participants practising with gradual increases in contextual interference performed better on retention and transfer tests than participants practising with blocked or random scheduling. The results of these two expe PMID:20845219

  11. Radiographic skills learning: procedure simulation using adaptive hypermedia.

    PubMed

    Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Proimos, B

    1996-10-01

    The design and development of a simulation tool supporting learning of radiographic skills is reported. This tool has by textual, graphical and iconic resources, organized according to a building-block, adaptive hypermedia approach, which is described and supported by an image base of radiographs. It offers interactive user-controlled simulation of radiographic imaging procedures. The development is based on a commercially available environment (Toolbook 3.0, Asymetrix Corporation). The core of the system is an attributed precedence (priority) graph, which represents a task outline (concept and resources structure), which is dynamically adjusted to selected procedures. The user interface imitates a conventional radiography system, i.e. operating console, tube, table, patient and cassette. System parameters, such as patient positioning, focus-to-patient distance, magnification, field dimensions, tube voltage and mAs are under user control. Their effects on image quality are presented, by means of an image base acquired under controlled exposure conditions. Innovative use of hypermedia, computer based learning and simulation principles and technology in the development of this tool resulted in an enhanced interactive environment providing radiographic parameter control and visualization of parameter effects on image quality. PMID:9038530

  12. Can Visual Illusions Be Used to Facilitate Sport Skill Learning?

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Meer, Yor; Moerman, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that practicing putting with visual illusions that make the hole appear larger than it actually is leads to longer-lasting performance improvements. Interestingly, from a motor control and learning perspective, it may be possible to actually predict the opposite to occur, as facing a smaller appearing target should enforce performers to be more precise. To test this idea the authors invited participants to practice an aiming task (i.e., a marble-shooting task) with either a visual illusion that made the target appear larger or a visual illusion that made the target appear smaller. They applied a pre-post test design, included a control group training without any illusory effects and increased the amount of practice to 450 trials. In contrast to earlier reports, the results revealed that the group that trained with the visual illusion that made the target look smaller improved performance from pre- to posttest, whereas the group practicing with visual illusions that made the target appear larger did not show any improvements. Notably, also the control group improved from pre- to posttest. The authors conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of whether and how visual illusions may be useful training tools for sport skill learning. PMID:27254078

  13. Motor Skill Learning Induces Changes in White Matter Microstructure and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A.; Foxley, Sean; Schlagheck, Theresa; Scholz, Jan; Jbabdi, Saad; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Miller, Karla L.; Taylor, Amy; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey; Sibson, Nicola R.; Bannerman, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning a novel motor skill is associated with well characterized structural and functional plasticity in the rodent motor cortex. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies of visuomotor learning in humans have suggested that structural plasticity can occur in white matter (WM), but the biological basis for such changes is unclear. We assessed the influence of motor skill learning on WM structure within sensorimotor cortex using both diffusion MRI fractional anisotropy (FA) and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Seventy-two adult (male) rats were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (skilled reaching, unskilled reaching, and caged control). After 11 d of training, postmortem diffusion MRI revealed significantly higher FA in the skilled reaching group compared with the control groups, specifically in the WM subjacent to the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the trained limb. In addition, within the skilled reaching group, FA across widespread regions of WM in the contralateral hemisphere correlated significantly with learning rate. Immunohistological analysis conducted on a subset of 24 animals (eight per group) revealed significantly increased myelin staining in the WM underlying motor cortex in the hemisphere contralateral (but not ipsilateral) to the trained limb for the skilled learning group versus the control groups. Within the trained hemisphere (but not the untrained hemisphere), myelin staining density correlated significantly with learning rate. Our results suggest that learning a novel motor skill induces structural change in task-relevant WM pathways and that these changes may in part reflect learning-related increases in myelination. PMID:24336716

  14. Motor skill learning induces changes in white matter microstructure and myelination.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Foxley, Sean; Schlagheck, Theresa; Scholz, Jan; Jbabdi, Saad; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Miller, Karla L; Taylor, Amy; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey; Sibson, Nicola R; Bannerman, David; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2013-12-11

    Learning a novel motor skill is associated with well characterized structural and functional plasticity in the rodent motor cortex. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies of visuomotor learning in humans have suggested that structural plasticity can occur in white matter (WM), but the biological basis for such changes is unclear. We assessed the influence of motor skill learning on WM structure within sensorimotor cortex using both diffusion MRI fractional anisotropy (FA) and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Seventy-two adult (male) rats were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (skilled reaching, unskilled reaching, and caged control). After 11 d of training, postmortem diffusion MRI revealed significantly higher FA in the skilled reaching group compared with the control groups, specifically in the WM subjacent to the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the trained limb. In addition, within the skilled reaching group, FA across widespread regions of WM in the contralateral hemisphere correlated significantly with learning rate. Immunohistological analysis conducted on a subset of 24 animals (eight per group) revealed significantly increased myelin staining in the WM underlying motor cortex in the hemisphere contralateral (but not ipsilateral) to the trained limb for the skilled learning group versus the control groups. Within the trained hemisphere (but not the untrained hemisphere), myelin staining density correlated significantly with learning rate. Our results suggest that learning a novel motor skill induces structural change in task-relevant WM pathways and that these changes may in part reflect learning-related increases in myelination. PMID:24336716

  15. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…

  16. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula. PMID:27068992

  17. Basic practical skills teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education – a review on methodological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Daniela; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Practical skills are an essential part of physicians’ daily routine. Nevertheless, medical graduates’ performance of basic skills is often below the expected level. This review aims to identify and summarize teaching approaches of basic practical skills in undergraduate medical education which provide evidence with respect to effective students’ learning of these skills. Methods: Basic practical skills were defined as basic physical examination skills, routine skills which get better with practice, and skills which are also performed by nurses. We searched PubMed with different terms describing these basic practical skills. In total, 3467 identified publications were screened and 205 articles were eventually reviewed for eligibility. Results: 43 studies that included at least one basic practical skill, a comparison of two groups of undergraduate medical students and effects on students’ performance were analyzed. Seven basic practical skills and 15 different teaching methods could be identified. The most consistent results with respect to effective teaching and acquisition of basic practical skills were found for structured skills training, feedback, and self-directed learning. Simulation was effective with specific teaching methods and in several studies no differences in teaching effects were detected between expert or peer instructors. Multimedia instruction, when used in the right setting, also showed beneficial effects for basic practical skills learning. Conclusion: A combination of voluntary or obligatory self-study with multimedia applications like video clips in combination with a structured program including the possibility for individual exercise with personal feedback by peers or teachers might provide a good learning opportunity for basic practical skills. PMID:27579364

  18. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  19. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. PMID:26280911

  20. Teaching cognitive skills improves learning in surgical skills courses: a blinded, prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kohls-Gatzoulis, Julie A.; Regehr, Glenn; Hutchison, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the teaching of cognitive skills within a technical skills course, we carried out a blinded, randomized prospective study. Methods Twenty-one junior residents (postgraduate years 1– 3) from a single program at a surgical-skills training centre were randomized to 2 surgical skills courses teaching total knee arthroplasty. One course taught only technical skill and had more repetitions of the task (5 or 6). The other focused more on developing cognitive skills and had fewer task repetitions (3 or 4). All were tested with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) both before and after the course, as well as a pre- and postcourse error-detection exam and a postcourse exam with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to test their cognitive skills. Results Both groups' technical skills as assessed by OSATS were equivalent, both pre- and postcourse. Taking their courses improved the technical skills of both groups (OSATS, p < 0.01) over their pre-course scores. Both groups demonstrated equivalent levels of knowledge on the MCQ exam, but the cognitive group scored better on the error-detection test (p = 0.02). Conclusions Cognitive skills training enhances the ability to correctly execute a surgical skill. Furthermore, specific training and practice are required to develop procedural knowledge into appropriate cognitive skills. Surgeons need to be trained to judge the correctness of their actions. PMID:15362330

  1. Basic Learning Skills Grades K-6. Minimum Statewide Educational Objectives Approved by the Board of Education May 27, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Elementary Education.

    The specific educational objectives or basic learning skills are listed for the Virginia elementary school grades. Minimum skills are listed in reading, communications, and mathematics. Terminal objectives for reading include skills in word identification or decoding, comprehension, and study skills. Communication skills include listening,…

  2. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, P<.001), problem solving (F=6.91, P=.001), and self-directed learning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning. PMID:26066305

  3. The Development of a Learning Gap between Students with Strong Prerequisite Skills and Students with Weak Prerequisite Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Nathan B.; de La Harpe, Kimberly; Kontur, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates how mastery of prerequisite course material impacts student learning in follow-on courses. To measure the importance of prerequisite skills, we compare the exam scores of students with a GPA of 3.0 or better in their multidisciplinary prerequisite classes to the exam scores of students with a GPA of less than 3.0 in their…

  4. Thinking Skill Frameworks for Post-16 Learners: An Evaluation. A Research Report for the Learning and Skills Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David; Baumfield, Viv; Higgins, Steve; Lin, Mei; Miller, Jen; Newton, Doug; Robson, Sue; Elliott, Joe; Gregson, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the authors aim to review and advance knowledge of systematic ways of classifying thinking skills. They concentrate on taxonomies and theory-based frameworks, in the belief that studying and using them will promote better understanding of how people think and learn at the age of 16 or above. Their overarching interest is in how…

  5. Effects of peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. PMID:21323255

  6. Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative approach to learning that teaches a multitude of strategies critical for success in the twenty-first century. Students drive their own learning through inquiry, as well as work collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. From gleaning new, viable technology skills, to…

  7. The Implementation of Interactive Multimedia Learning Materials in Teaching Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampa, Andi Tenri

    2015-01-01

    One of the factors that may affect the success of the learning process is the use of learning media. Therefore, this research aimed to implement and evaluate the interactive multimedia learning materials using Wondershare Quizcreator program and audio materials in teaching "English listening skills". The research problem was whether or…

  8. The Role of Perceptions of Friendships and Peers in Learning Skills in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koekoek, Jeroen; Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most research on how children learn when using the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach has focused on cognitive dimensions in teaching games models. A social constructivist perspective suggests, however, that learning also takes place during social interactions. Since the process of learning game skills tends to have a…

  9. Promoting Academic Writing/Referencing Skills: Outcome of an Undergraduate E-Learning Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cary A.; Dickson, Rumona; Humphreys, Anne-Louise; McQuillan, Vicky; Smears, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Future health care professionals will require self-directed learning skills. e-Learning is a tool to assist in this process and therefore there is a need to develop the capacity and readiness to utilise e-learning within educational programmes. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-curricular online referencing and anti-plagiarism…

  10. Lifelong Learning Skills and Attributes: The Perceptions of Australian Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Don

    2007-01-01

    Lifelong learning encompasses formal and informal learning aimed at personal fulfilment, active citizenship, flexibility of employability and social inclusion (European Commission, 2001). Policy is often framed on the importance of skills in the new economies. Knowledge, being the foundation of modern economies, means learning is the central…

  11. Impact of a Blended Environment with m-Learning on EFL Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obari, Hiroyuki; Lambacher, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study conducted from April 2013 to January 2014 sought to ascertain whether a blended learning (BL) environment incorporating m-learning could help Japanese undergraduates improve their English language skills. In this paper, various emerging technologies (including Globalvoice English, ATR CALL Brix, the mobile learning-oriented…

  12. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning on the Reading Comprehension Skills in Turkish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolukbas, Fatma; Keskin, Funda; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a process through which students with various abilities, gender, nationalities and different level of social skills carry out their learning process by working in small groups and helping each other. Cooperative learning is a pedagogical use of small groups which enable students to maximize both their own and others'…

  13. Summative Co-Assessment: A Deep Learning Approach To Enhancing Employability Skills and Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Service-learning is a pedagogy that combines academic study with service to the community. Voluntary work placements are integral to service-learning and offer students an ideal opportunity to develop their employability skills and attributes. In a service-learning course, it was considered good practice to raise students' awareness of the…

  14. Got Game? A Choice-Based Learning Assessment of Data Literacy and Visualization Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Doris B.; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    In partnership with both formal and informal learning institutions, researchers have been building a suite of online games, called choicelets, to serve as interactive assessments of learning skills, e.g. critical thinking or seeking feedback. Unlike more traditional assessments, which take a retrospective, knowledge-based view of learning,…

  15. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  16. Language Development and Learning to Read: The Scientific Study of How Language Development Affects Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Research on reading has tried, and failed, to account for wide disparities in reading skill even among children taught by the same method. Why do some children learn to read easily and quickly while others, in the same classroom and taught by the same teacher, don't learn to read at all? In "Language Development and Learning to Read", Diane…

  17. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  18. Impact of Various Instructional Strategies for Enhancing Mathematical Skills of Learning Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Taranjit; Kohli, Tehal; Devi, Batani

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The current study tested the comparative efficacy of various strategies on basic mathematical skills of learning disabled children. Methods: Learning disabled children were randomly assigned to multimedia, cognitive, eclectic and control conditions. Assessment included the use of IQ, Diagnostic Test of Learning Disability, and Pre and…

  19. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity. PMID:3764289

  20. Learning Leadership Skills in a Simulated Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Saarinen, Eeli; Lainema, Timo; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…

  1. Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects to Promote Cell Biology Learning and Scientific Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  2. Effects of Project-Based Learning Strategy on Self-Directed Learning Skills of Educational Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Abdullah, Maria Chong Binti; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of globalization as well as the need to train skilled and knowledgeable employees for the 21st century workforce, higher education needs to take a more critical look at the educational practices and instructional methods which lead to improvements in students' essential skills such as self-directed learning. This study sought…

  3. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter), shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter), and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r = −0.82) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r = 0.70); the correlations was much lesser (−0.16 < r > 0.25) in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r = 0.91). Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR < 0.05). These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role

  4. The acquisition of integrated science process skills in a web-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2004-01-01

    Web-based learning is becoming prevalent in science learning. Some use specially designed programs, while others use materials available on the Internet. This qualitative case study examined the process of acquisition of integrated science process skills, particularly the skill of controlling variables, in a web-based learning environment among grade 5 children. Data were gathered primarily from children's conversations and teacher-student conversations. Analysis of the data revealed that the children acquired the skill in three phases: from the phase of recognition to the phase of familiarization and finally to the phase of automation. Nevertheless, the acquisition of the skill only involved the acquisition of certain subskills of the skill of controlling variables. This progression could be influenced by the web-based instructional material that provided declarative knowledge, concrete visualization and opportunities for practise.

  5. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness. PMID:26638046

  6. Student C&IT Skills Development and the Learning Environment: Evaluation and Module Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grattan, John; Brown, Giles H.; Horgan, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Students who used the Geohazards course were compared with those using the Malta Fieldcourse, both intended to develop skills in communications and information technology. The result was that both courses were altered, particularly in terms of the learning environment. (JOW)

  7. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  8. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  9. Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

  10. Rethinking UK Small Employers' Skills Policies and the Role of Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, John

    2008-01-01

    Small business employers in the UK are widely perceived as adopting a reactive, ad hoc approach to employee skill formation. Employer reliance on workplace learning is often treated, explicitly or implicitly, as evidence of such an approach. Small employers' approaches to skill creation are investigated using data from two employer samples. Three…

  11. Analysis of Basic Skill Competencies of Learning Disabled Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; And Others

    The study compared minimum competency test scores of approximately 1,000 learning disabled Florida tenth graders with those of regular class peers and surveyed 200 employers concerning the perceived importance of the competency test skills. Item performance, skill performance, and mastery scores on the State Student Assessment Test-II (SSAT-II)…

  12. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…

  13. The Learning and Development of Low-Skilled Workers Training to Become Surgical Technologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Judith Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how low-skilled workers who participated in a health care training program learned to acquire the technical, cognitive, and developmental competencies they needed to gain skilled employment in higher-level positions in the field and thus advance their careers. The data methods used were: (1) in-depth…

  14. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  15. Using a Collaborative Learning Project To Teach Information Literacy Skills to Twelfth Grade Regular English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Michael W.

    A practicum project was developed and implemented to teach information retrieval literacy skills to Grade 12 regular English students in a public high school. The research skills that the students were learning by mastering the electronic information systems in the school media center were used to research a "real world" problem to be written up…

  16. Case Study: Teaching Learning Skills as a Foundation for Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of instructional materials that teach knowledge and skills needed for technical training focuses on cooperative development between U.S. and Canadian educators and the Agency for Instructional Technology (AIT) to produce the "Math Works" and "Principles of Technology" materials. Learning skills are discussed, and instructional design…

  17. Validation of Skills, Knowledge and Experience in Lifelong Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, James

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines systems of validation of skills and experience as well as the main methods/tools currently used for validating skills and knowledge in lifelong learning. The paper uses mixed methods--a case study research and content analysis of European Union policy documents and frameworks--as a basis for this research. The selection of the…

  18. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  19. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  20. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  1. Survival Skills: A Guide to Making It on Your Own. Connections: Linking Work and Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This guidebook offers suggestions for teaching survival skills to students. It provides strategies for implementing key elements of an approach to learning survival skills that engages students as active, self-directed learners in the community. The guidebook is designed to help educators link students to resources in the community so that they…

  2. Building Student Self-Efficacy and Mastery of Skills through Service Learning Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilarski, C.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 40) responded positively to a semantic differential scale after experiencing a "direct practice" service learning group work course. Qualitative data documented student's perceptions of increased skill levels relating to self-efficacy--understood as positively influencing mastery of skills and performance…

  3. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  4. For Better or Worse? The Marriage of Key Skills Development and On-line Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norah; Fitzgibbon, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the University of Glamorgan's electronic learning module on employability and professional development demonstrates the feasibility of teaching transferable, "soft" skills online. Advantages compared with face-to-face include transparency, flexibility, development of information technology skills, openness, and teamwork; disadvantages…

  5. Computational Skills, Working Memory, and Conceptual Knowledge in Older Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbott, Donald J.; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor…

  6. A Systematic Approach for Teaching Notetaking Skills to Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne-Smith, Mary

    1989-01-01

    A five-step method for teaching notetaking skills in students with mild learning handicaps includes evaluating current performance, teaching preskills, teaching a notetaking system, providing for distributed practice, and providing for skill generalization. Additional practical suggestions for teachers are provided. (MSE)

  7. Skill Learning as a Concept in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: An Action Theoretic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, M.; Stewart, J.

    1984-01-01

    An action theoretic account of skill learning and skill use is offered as a useful heuristic for life-span developmental psychology. The version presented is one that is particularly prominent in industrial psychology in the German-speaking countries. (Author/RH)

  8. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  9. Growth of Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers: Impact of Sleep Habits and Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molnar, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study used a longitudinal design to identify how sleep habits and learning-related behaviors impact the development of cognitive skills in preschoolers (ages 3-5). Sixty- seven children with parental report and cognitive skill assessment data were included. Scores on the Differential Ability Scales (C. Elliott, 1990)…

  10. A Context-Aware Mobile Learning System for Supporting Cognitive Apprenticeships in Nursing Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, Liang-Hao; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    The aim of nursing education is to foster in students the competence of applying integrated knowledge with clinical skills to the application domains. In the traditional approach, in-class knowledge learning and clinical skills training are usually conducted separately, such that the students might not be able to integrate the knowledge and the…

  11. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  12. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  13. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5

  14. Learning Psychomotor Skills in TAFE (or The Psychology of Psychomotor Skills). Educational Psychology for TAFE Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anthony

    Developed for use in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teacher education, this module is intended to widen teachers' knowledge and understanding of the psychology of psychomotor skills to improve teaching of psychomotor skills in the TAFE classroom or workshop. The module is divided into two parts: basic and advanced. The first part, "What…

  15. Cost Effective Skill Training Module Development Dramatically Leveraging Knowledge and Skills Learned on the Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utterstrom, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia authoring packages and low cost delivery systems make it possible to produce and deliver inexpensive skill training modules. This article examines computer-based training (CBT) in the workplace; features of skill training modules; steps in their development; and delivery alternatives (CD-ROM, batch download, CD-ROM jukebox or tower,…

  16. LDA '94: A Capital IDEA. Poster Session Abstracts of the International Conference of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (Washington, D.C., March 16-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Steven C., Comp.

    This booklet brings together one-page to two-page abstracts from research poster sessions held at a conference on learning disabilities. The 17 research abstracts are presented within four poster session categories: (1) research on assessment and characteristics of students with learning disabilities (with abstracts on handwriting, mainstreaming…

  17. The Examination of Online Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Web-Based Learning Environments in Terms of Different Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether online self-regulated learning skills differentiate student attitudes towards the internet and web-based education in web-based learning environments. Following survey method of research, the results were presented in descriptive manner. 169 university students participated in the study group.…

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of a Program Developed for Teaching Social Skills to Hearing Impaired Students Based on Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether a social skill instruction program, prepared according to the cooperative learning method, is effective for children with hearing disability in learning the basic social skills, starting and continuing a relationship, conducting a work with a group, and the generalization of these skills. Nine learning…

  19. Hard and Soft Skills Enhancement in Entrepreunership Learning for the Twelfth Grade Students of SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayuningtyas, Lidya Pradina; Djatmika, Ery Tri; Wardana, Ludi Wishnu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the following things: (1) contributions of both hard and soft skills in entrepreneurship learning in SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang; (2) how to increase hard and soft skills on entrepreneurship learning in SMK Kartika IV-1 Malang; and (3) the purpose hard and the soft skills. The research findings showed that: (1)…

  20. Strategies for Learning: Teaching Thinking Skills across the Curriculum through Science. Analyzing Information and Data. Teacher's Edition. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Robert A.; Roy, Kenneth Russell

    Science process skills such as observing, classifying, inferring, interpreting, predicting, and hypothesizing can all be classified as a sub category of thinking skills. This book is part of the series "Strategies for Learning" that focuses on the step-by-step development and application of thinking skills as a vehicle for learning science. The…

  1. Teaching, Learning and Assessment for Adults: Improving Foundation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many adults in OECD countries have low language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) skills. The consequences of these low foundation skills span the economic, health and social well-being of individuals, families and communities. Investment in this sector of adult education is therefore crucial. This study looks specifically inside the programmes for…

  2. Lessons Learned: Job Skills Education Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Job Skills Education Program (JSEP) is a computer-based, functional basic skills curriculum and instructional delivery system originally designed for the U.S. Department of the Army. The U.S. Department of Labor funded an exploration of the feasibility of increasing the use of JSEP as a workplace literacy tool for employers. It was found that…

  3. The Bases of Competence. Skills for Lifelong Learning and Employability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Frederick T.; Rush, James C.; Berdrow, Iris

    This book, which is intended primarily for instructional development specialists, academic leaders, and faculty members in all types of postsecondary institutions, explains what skills and competencies students need to succeed in today's workplace and details how colleges and universities can strengthen the curriculum to cultivate those skills in…

  4. Learning Soft Skills at Work: An Interview with Annalee Luhman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Muir, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Soft skills are attitudes and behaviors displayed in interactions among individuals that affect the outcomes of such encounters. These differ from hard skills, which are the technical knowledge and abilities required to perform specific job-related tasks more formally stated in job descriptions. In the past, it was felt that managers and employees…

  5. Research Based Learning Approach: Students Perspective of Skills Obtained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazura, Kerry; Tuttle, Harlee

    2010-01-01

    This study describes undergraduate students' evaluation of skills gained from two different research experiences (observation vs. interview) while enrolled in a child development course (N=83). At the end of the semester students were asked to complete a skills questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three themes that were used to create the…

  6. Learning by Doing: Introducing Research Skills to Geography Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Niamh

    2009-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive economy, the capacity for self-motivation, problem-solving skills and an ability to think critically are core graduate attributes. However, the capacity to create an educational environment that develops and harnesses such skills is a distinct challenge as resources become increasingly restricted. Geographical Skills…

  7. Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

  8. Teaching Skills for Facilitating Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Derek R.

    2008-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is a unique student-centered instructional strategy that emphasizes learning to use concepts rather than merely learning about them. As such, TBL requires students to become active participants who are accountable and responsible for their learning. This does not occur, however, unless teachers transform their primary…

  9. Movement Skill Learning through Repetition, Variety and an Explicit Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2009-01-01

    Lots of learning takes place in gymnasiums. A teacher's job is to direct that learning and funnel it toward what the profession deems important. This requires teachers to have a sound understanding of what constitutes learning and how learning is observable beyond the movement product. This article aims to make research-based best practices…

  10. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  11. Birth of an Abstraction: A Dynamical Systems Account of the Discovery of an Elsewhere Principle in a Category Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Whitney; Cho, Pyeong W.; Dankowicz, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Human participants and recurrent ("connectionist") neural networks were both trained on a categorization system abstractly similar to natural language systems involving irregular ("strong") classes and a default class. Both the humans and the networks exhibited staged learning and a generalization pattern reminiscent of the…

  12. Unravelling the Lifelong Learning Process for Canadian Workers and Adult Learners Acquiring Higher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…

  13. Strengthening Parenting Skills: School Age. Secondary Learning Guide 2. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on strengthening parenting skills is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems;…

  14. Blind Evaluation of Body Reflexes and Motor Skills in Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freides, David; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Twelve 6 to 10 year old boys with learning disability were blindly compared with paired controls on measures of postural and equilibrium reflexes as well as skills. Learning disabled children as a group showed significant deficits on all measures; a few, however, were totally without deficit. (Author/SBH)

  15. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  16. The Effects of Collectivism-Individualism on the Cooperative Learning of Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…

  17. Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children are often diagnosed with language impairment, although they may simply have fewer opportunities to learn English than English-speaking monolingual children. This study examined whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning skills is an effective method for identifying bilingual children with primary language…

  18. Knowledge Transfer and Information Skills for Student-Centered Learning in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Pinto; Sales, Dora

    2008-01-01

    Knowing how to select, organize, and use information in order to solve problems, handle new situations, and continue learning are key issues in the teaching and learning scenario in contemporary society. Teaching these skills is particularly critical for European universities and is currently recognized as vital in the context of the European…

  19. Teaching, Learning, and the Development of Leadership Skills through Constructive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Aaron; Scharoun, Kourtney; Rotarius, Timothy; Fottler, Myron; Dziuban, Charles; Moskal, Patsy

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the level of acceptance of the Constructive Engagement Method (CEM) as a teaching, learning, and leadership skills development model. Employing a modified debate format, constructive engagement requires active student participation, even among the most introverted of students, and it fosters a learning environment…

  20. Supporting Students to Develop Collaborative Learning Skills in Technology-Based Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevgi, Anne; Virtanen, Paivi; Niemi, Hannele

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on the question of how to advance collaboration through the Web and support lifelong learning. First, the theoretical framework and architecture of a new web-based tool, the "IQ Team," is introduced. IQ Team is an interactive online assessment and support system to learn social skills needed in cooperative work, and belongs in an…

  1. Microsituations as an Active-Learning Tool To Teach Endocrine Pharmacology and Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Barbara F.; Lubawy, William C.

    1998-01-01

    Microsituations teaching is a case-based, active learning tool developed from cognitive learning theory to teach problem-solving skills to large classes while conserving faculty and other resources. Since implementing this method in an endocrine pharmacology course at the University of Kentucky, student performance on problem-solving examinations…

  2. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  3. Teaching Critical Management Skills: The Role of Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joham, Carmen; Clarke, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores problem-based learning (PBL) as a vehicle for developing critical management skills and preparing students for their future careers. Using student reflections and facilitator observations the paper presents the nature of individuals' experiences with learning and teaching in a PBL setting in the management discipline. The study…

  4. The Learning Gains of Male Inmates Participating in a Basic Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messemer, Jonathan E.; Valentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the learning gains for a group of male inmates (n = 124) participating in an adult basic education program in a closed security prison within the southeastern region of the United States. Learning gains were measured for the basic skill areas of reading, math, and language. The number of hours of…

  5. Social Skills Deficits as Primary Learning Disabilities: A Note on Problems with the ICLD Diagnostic Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities' definition of learning disabilities implies that the presence of social skills deficits alone suffices for diagnosis, even in the absence of academic difficulties. Overlaps between this criterion and eligibility criteria for emotional disturbance are discussed along with implications for…

  6. Crosswalk Analysis of Deeper Learning Skills to Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted a crosswalk between the Deeper Learning Skills (DLS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The purpose of the crosswalk was to understand the ways in which strategies for deeper learning relate to the CCSS. This comparison was not solely or simply an alignment study, although some…

  7. Digital Learning: Strengthening and Assessing 21st Century Skills, Grades 5-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serim, Ferdi

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a practical pathway for developing twenty-first-century skills while simultaneously strengthening content-area learning. "Digital Learning" contains a wealth of research-based practices to integrate the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for both…

  8. The Effect of Virtual versus Traditional Learning in Achieving Competency-Based Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Shahsavari, Sakine; Sobhanian, Saeed; Dastpak, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: By rapid developing of the network technology, the internet-based learning methods are substituting the traditional classrooms making them expand to the virtual network learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virtual systems on competency-based skills of first-year nursing students.…

  9. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  10. Strengthening Parenting Skills: Teenagers. Secondary Learning Guide 3. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on strengthening parenting skills is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems;…

  11. Evaluating Listening and Speaking Skills in a Mobile Game-Based Learning Environment with Situational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shih, Timothy K.; Ma, Zhao-Heng; Shadiev, Rustam; Chen, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Game-based learning activities that facilitate students' listening and speaking skills were designed in this study. To participate in learning activities, students in the control group used traditional methods, while students in the experimental group used a mobile system. In our study, we looked into the feasibility of mobile game-based learning…

  12. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  13. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  14. A Delphi Study on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Applied on Computer Science (CS) Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porta, Marcela; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Martinez-Costa, Carme; Maillet, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a new pedagogical domain aiming to study the usage of information and communication technologies to support teaching and learning. The following study investigated how this domain is used to increase technical skills in Computer Science (CS). A Delphi method was applied, using three-rounds of online survey…

  15. Cognitively Demanding Learning Materials with Texts and Instructional Pictures: Teachers' Diagnostic Skills, Pedagogical Beliefs and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigated…

  16. Leadership Styles and Management Skills of Learning Assistance/Developmental Education Program Directors/Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marie-Elaine Burns

    Leadership styles and management skills needed by directors and coordinators of learning assistance and developmental education were assessed. Based on a literature review, a questionnaire was constructed and then validated by a panel of experts in the field. The questionnaire was sent to 45 selected learning assistance/developmental education…

  17. Cultivating Student Skills in Self-Regulated Learning through Evaluation of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belski, Regina; Belski, Iouri

    2014-01-01

    In order to self-regulate, students need to honestly reflect on their learning and to take appropriate corrective action. A simple procedure to cultivate student skills in self-regulated learning, known as the Task Evaluation and Reflection Instrument for Student Self-Assessment (TERISSA) is discussed in this paper. TERISSA guides students through…

  18. Teaching Community Ecology as a Jigsaw: A Collaborative Learning Activity Fostering Library Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia I.; Lena Chang

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative learning activity that helps in developing library research skills is presented to help students get acquainted with librarians, used to the physical layout of the library resources, and develop an awareness of the information contained in the different library resources. The collaborative learning exercise introduces the students…

  19. Facilitating the Development of Study Skills through a Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian; Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Barber, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a Blended Learning (BL) environment designed to facilitate the learning of study skills with a large (over 200) and diverse undergraduate student cohort in a Higher Education (HE) institution in the UK. A BL environment was designed using the model provided by Kerres & De Witt (2003), and was also…

  20. Perceptions of Skill Development in a Living-Learning First-Year Experience Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerri Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of students and faculty involved in a living-learning first-year experience program at a small, liberal arts institution about developing skills for life-long learning including critical thinking, written communication, and reflection and engagement across disciplines. The researcher…

  1. Skills, Standards, and Disabilities: How Youth with Learning Disabilities Fare in High School and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are "more" likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate from high…

  2. The Effect of Blended Learning and Social Media-Supported Learning on the Students' Attitude and Self-Directed Learning Skills in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgunduz, Devrim; Akinoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blended learning and social media supported learning on the students' attitude and self-directed learning skills in Science Education. This research took place with the 7th grade 74 students attending to a primary school in Kadikoy, Istanbul and carried out "Our Body Systems"…

  3. Strengthening the case for stimulus-specificity in artificial grammar learning: no evidence for abstract representations with extended exposure.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Different theories have been proposed regarding the nature of the mental representations formed as a result of implicit learning of sequential regularities. Some theories postulate abstract surface-independent representations, while other theories postulate stimulus-specific representations. This article reports three experiments investigating the development of abstract representations in artificial grammar learning (AGL), using a methodological approach developed by Conway and Christiansen (2006). In all the experiments, the number of blocks during the exposure phase was manipulated (6 blocks vs. 18 blocks of exposure to sequences). Experiments 1 and 2 investigated both visual and auditory learning where sequences were presented element-by-element. Experiment 3 investigated visual learning using a sequence-by-sequence presentation technique more commonly used in visual AGL studies. Extending previous research (Conway & Christiansen, 2006) and in support of stimulus-specific accounts, the results of the experiments showed that extended observational learning results in increased stimulus-specific knowledge rather than abstraction towards surface-independent representations. PMID:19289361

  4. Systematic modeling versus the learning cycle: Comparative effects on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rochelle L.; Norman, John T.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the systematic modeling teaching strategy on integrated science process skills and formal reasoning ability. Urban middle school students received a three-month process skill intervention treatment from teachers trained in either the use of systematic modeling or the learning-cycle model. A third, control group received traditional science instruction. The analysis of data revealed that (a) students receiving modeled instruction demonstrated a significant difference in their achievement of process skills when compared to either of the control groups. (b) Students taught by teachers who had received special process skill and strategy training demonstrated a significant difference in their process skill achievement when compared with the control group. (c) Students at different cognitive reasoning levels demonstrated significantly different process skill ability.

  5. Separate neural substrates for skill learning and performance in the ventral and dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Hisham E; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Rudy, Jerry W; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the striatum of the basal ganglia is a primary substrate for the learning and performance of skills. We provide evidence that two regions of the rat striatum, ventral and dorsal, play distinct roles in instrumental conditioning (skill learning), with the ventral striatum being critical for learning and the dorsal striatum being important for performance but, notably, not for learning. This implies an actor (dorsal) versus director (ventral) division of labor, which is a new variant of the widely discussed actor-critic architecture. Our results also imply that the successful performance of a skill can ultimately result in its establishment as a habit outside the basal ganglia. PMID:17187065

  6. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean

    2016-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  7. Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study seeks to test the causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemologies on student conceptual learning in physics. A causal model, integrating multiple variables that were investigated separately in the prior literature, is proposed and tested through path analysis. These variables include student preinstructional reasoning skills measured by the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, pre- and postepistemological views measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, and pre- and postperformance on Newtonian concepts measured by the Force Concept Inventory. Students from a traditionally taught calculus-based introductory mechanics course at a research university participated in the study. Results largely support the postulated causal model and reveal strong influences of reasoning skills and preinstructional epistemology on student conceptual learning gains. Interestingly enough, postinstructional epistemology does not appear to have a significant influence on student learning gains. Moreover, pre- and postinstructional epistemology, although barely different from each other on average, have little causal connection between them.

  8. Minority Languages Learned Informally: The Social Construction of Language Skills through the Discourse of Ontario Employers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David

    Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…

  9. Social Skills in the Context of Learning Disability Definitions: A Reply to Gresham and Elliott and Directions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Richard; Andrews, Jac

    1993-01-01

    In response to Gresham and Elliott (1989), who concluded that a social skills deficit should not constitute a learning disability, this paper claims that current definitions allow for including social skills deficits. They propose limiting the definition of learning disabilities to intentional learning contexts, thus excluding social skills…

  10. College Experiences and Student Inputs: Factors That Promote the Development of Skills and Attributes that Enhance Learning among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemosit, Caroline Chepkurui

    2012-01-01

    The study involved an exploration of factors that promoted the development of skills and attributes that enhanced learning among college students. The factors explored in this study were, active learning, student-teacher interaction, time on tasks, institutional expectations, student inputs, and skills and attributes that enhance learning. This…

  11. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  12. Technologies That Capitalize on Study Skills with Learning Style Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dusti D.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the tools available in the rapidly changing digital learning environment and offers a variety of approaches for how they can assist students with visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learning strengths. Teachers can use visual, auditory, and kinesthetic assessment tests to identify learning preferences and then recommend…

  13. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  14. A Case Study Approach to the Sources of Slumps in Skill Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Takeba, Chie

    Many studies on skill acquisition have claimed that improvements in performance follow the power law of practice. However, it is also well-known that during long-term practice there are fluctuations such as plateaus, regressions, and spurts. In order to objectively examine the fluctuations in learning process, we analyzed a long-term learning process in a simple assembly task. We applied a time-series analysis based on the state space method to the task completion time. The analysis revealed that the power law of practice provided only a first approximation, and that fluctuations around the power law line reflected long-term trends. Next, we focused on one of the fluctuations, and carried out cognitive analysis to find what produced the fluctuation. We found that, contrary to the dominant skill acquisition model, the slump was attributable to the mismatch between the level of skills and the environment that the skills are demonstrated in. This analysis suggests that, in order to fully elucidate the processes and mechanisms of skill acquisition, attention should be paid not only to the internal mechanisms, but also to the external environment that the skills are demonstrated in. We discussed the above results in terms of the essential role of fluctuations and environment in skill learning as well as the nature of the data obtained from a single subject.

  15. Degradation of learned skills. Effectiveness of practice methods on simulated space flight skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.; Berge, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Manual flight control and emergency procedure task skill degradation was evaluated after time intervals of from 1 to 6 months. The tasks were associated with a simulated launch through the orbit insertion flight phase of a space vehicle. The results showed that acceptable flight control performance was retained for 2 months, rapidly deteriorating thereafter by a factor of 1.7 to 3.1 depending on the performance measure used. Procedural task performance showed unacceptable degradation after only 1 month, and exceeded an order of magnitude after 4 months. The effectiveness of static rehearsal (checklists and briefings) and dynamic warmup (simulator practice) retraining methods were compared for the two tasks. Static rehearsal effectively countered procedural skill degradation, while some combination of dynamic warmup appeared necessary for flight control skill retention. It was apparent that these differences between methods were not solely a function of task type or retraining method, but were a function of the performance measures used for each task.

  16. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  17. Impact of Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting: Student Perception and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better…

  18. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease. PMID:25938462

  19. Lexical distributional cues, but not situational cues, are readily used to learn abstract locative verb-structure associations.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Children must learn the structural biases of locative verbs in order to avoid making overgeneralisation errors (e.g., (∗)I filled water into the glass). It is thought that they use linguistic and situational information to learn verb classes that encode structural biases. In addition to situational cues, we examined whether children and adults could use the lexical distribution of nouns in the post-verbal noun phrase of transitive utterances to assign novel verbs to locative classes. In Experiment 1, children and adults used lexical distributional cues to assign verb classes, but were unable to use situational cues appropriately. In Experiment 2, adults generalised distributionally-learned classes to novel verb arguments, demonstrating that distributional information can cue abstract verb classes. Taken together, these studies show that human language learners can use a lexical distributional mechanism that is similar to that used by computational linguistic systems that use large unlabelled corpora to learn verb meaning. PMID:27183399

  20. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality, Attitudes, and Study Skills on the Learning Curve within a Team-based Learning Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Teague; Campbell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine factors that determine the interindividual variability of learning within a team-based learning environment. Methods. Students in a pharmacokinetics course were given 4 interim, low-stakes cumulative assessments throughout the semester and a cumulative final examination. Students’ Myers-Briggs personality type was assessed, as well as their study skills, motivations, and attitudes towards team-learning. A latent curve model (LCM) was applied and various covariates were assessed to improve the regression model. Results. A quadratic LCM was applied for the first 4 assessments to predict final examination performance. None of the covariates examined significantly impacted the regression model fit except metacognitive self-regulation, which explained some of the variability in the rate of learning. There were some correlations between personality type and attitudes towards team learning, with introverts having a lower opinion of team-learning than extroverts. Conclusion. The LCM could readily describe the learning curve. Extroverted and introverted personality types had the same learning performance even though preference for team-learning was lower in introverts. Other personality traits, study skills, or practice did not significantly contribute to the learning variability in this course. PMID:25861101

  1. Teaching Communication Skills to Medical and Pharmacy Students Through a Blended Learning Course.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rick; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction. PMID:27293231

  2. Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

    Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

  3. Teaching Communication Skills to Medical and Pharmacy Students Through a Blended Learning Course

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E.; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction. PMID:27293231

  4. Procedural learning, consolidation, and transfer of a new skill in Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Caroline; Wansard, Murielle; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the differences in procedural learning abilities between children with DCD and typically developing children by investigating the steps that lead to skill automatization (i.e., the stages of fast learning, consolidation, and slow learning). Transfer of the skill to a new situation was also assessed. We tested 34 children aged 6-12 years with and without DCD on a perceptuomotor adaptation task, a form of procedural learning that is thought to involve the cerebellum and the basal ganglia (regions whose impairment has been associated with DCD) but also other brain areas including frontal regions. The results showed similar rates of learning, consolidation, and transfer in DCD and control children. However, the DCD children's performance remained slower than that of controls throughout the procedural task and they reached a lower asymptotic performance level; the difficulties observed at the outset did not diminish with practice. PMID:25562710

  5. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. PMID:26010383

  6. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  7. Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Helen; Oprescu, Florin I; Downer, Terri; Phillips, Nicole M; McTier, Lauren; Lord, Bill; Barr, Nigel; Alla, Kristel; Bright, Peter; Dayton, Jeanne; Simbag, Vilma; Visser, Irene

    2016-07-01

    Information and communications technology is influencing the delivery of education in tertiary institutions. In particular, the increased use of videos for teaching and learning clinical skills in nursing may be a promising direction to pursue, yet we need to better document the current research in this area of inquiry. The aim of this paper was to explore and document the current areas of research into the use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education. The four main areas of current and future research are effectiveness, efficiency, usage, and quality of videos as teaching and learning materials. While there is a clear need for additional research in the area, the use of videos seems to be a promising, relevant, and increasingly used instructional strategy that could enhance the quality of clinical skills education. PMID:27237353

  8. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  9. Educators' Social and Emotional Skills Vital to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.; Weissbourd, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' social and emotional competencies are very important to their overall effectiveness, but such skills are frequently overlooked. Social and emotional competencies like managing emotions and stress are needed more today than ever before. More practices and policies to support and foster educators' social and emotional…

  10. Enacting Viewing Skills with Apps to Promote Collaborative Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Kay Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper comprises discussion on the research findings of this study into how apps can be used in the classroom to collaboratively promote construction of mathematical knowledge in children in ways that fundamentally transform the instructional environment. The study results identify how children enact viewing skills through digital texts to…

  11. Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

  12. Cooperative Learning in Reservoir Simulation Classes: Overcoming Disparate Entry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Mariyamni

    2006-01-01

    Reservoir simulation is one of the core courses in the petroleum engineering curriculum and it requires knowledge and skills in three major disciplines, namely programming, numerical methods and reservoir engineering. However, there were often gaps in the students' readiness to undertake the course, even after completing the necessary…

  13. Improving Students' Social Skills and Achievement through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caparos, Jennifer; Cetera, Colleen; Ogden, Lynn; Rossett, Kathryn

    This action research project evaluated a program designed to increase the use of appropriate social skills and improve academic achievement. The targeted population was comprised of first through third graders in four separate communities located in northeast Illinois. Evidence of the problem included teacher observational checklists denoting…

  14. Learning Through Listening: Applying Listening Skills to the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Georgie L.; And Others

    Four papers and reports of six demonstrations given at a 5-day institute for 60 teachers of handicapped children on the topic of listening skills in the curriculum are presented. Teachers are said to have been encouraged to make optimum use of technology to improve the educational program. Ursula Hogan discusses the nature of listening as related…

  15. Reclaiming Basic Skills: In Defence of Long-Life Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The author draws upon recent experience of providing consultancy services to a working group established by the European Commission in 2001 to facilitate the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy for economic, social, and environmental renewal in the European Union. The article begins with a critique of the "new basic skills" identified at the…

  16. The Skills Audit Approach To Facilitate Undergraduate Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Carl

    Changes in the United Kingdom higher education system have resulted in a lack of formative (i.e., student feedback) assessment: increased student numbers and reduced funding resulting in bigger classes with less tutor contact, as well as a more diverse set of student entrants with a wider set of skills resulting in a greater need for formative…

  17. Women Match Men when Learning a Spatial Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a…

  18. Workplace Literacy: Critical Perspectives on Learning Basic Skills at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Tom

    Material from academic journals, the ERIC database, and the mass media regarding workplace literacy was reviewed. Among the review's major conclusions were the following: (1) the growing complexities of the workplace and society have contributed to evolving definitions of workplace literacy that include development skills generally associated with…

  19. Facilitating Experiential Learning of Study Skills in Sports Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Smith, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the student population in the UK has grown considerably, and students are entering higher education with a more diverse range of qualifications and skills. This is particularly the case in post-1992 universities with a widening participation agenda, as these institutions have a larger share of students from non-traditional…

  20. Prerequisite Skills That Support Learning through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Dickson, Chata A.; Martineau, Meaghan; Ahearn, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tasks that require delayed discriminations such as delayed imitation and delayed matching to sample on acquisition of skills using video modeling. Twenty-nine participants with an ASD diagnosis were assessed on a battery of tasks including both immediate and delayed imitation and…

  1. One Dozen Ways to Expand Your Adult Learning Skills!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricard, Virginia B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents 12 practical ways of learning as adults at cognitive, affective, and performance levels. Focused on four areas of active engagement, learners are encouraged to trust themselves in formal as well as informal settings with their variety of learning styles, intelligences, and degrees of self-direction. The importance of…

  2. Smart Learning: A Study Skills Guide for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, William; Murphy, Thomas

    This book is designed to help teenagers make the most of their study time and learn how to take good notes, how to plan writing projects, and how to prepare for tests. Chapters in the book are: What It Takes; Active Learning; Writing; PREPsteps; Take Note; Making Time for Time; The Real Test; and Going for the Gold. (RS)

  3. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  4. Configural Response Learning: The Acquisition of a Nonpredictive Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Aparicio, Paul; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the representational nature of configural response learning using a task that required simultaneous keypresses with 2 or 3 fingers, similar to the production of chords on the piano. If the benefits of learning are related to the retrieval of individual stimulus-response mappings, performance should depend on the frequencies of…

  5. Learning Strategies Used while Developing Motor Skill Assessment Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Bishop, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a web-based assessment training program and whether explicitly guiding the participants toward the recommended learning sequence would improve their performance on assessing the underhand roll compared to participants that were given free choice of their learning sequence. Participants were 48 volunteer…

  6. Learning Style: Cognitive and Thinking Skills. Instructional Leadership Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.

    Learning style is the foundation of successful teaching and teaching for thinking. The recent conceptualization of the brain as a complex system for processing and storing information can be meaningful to educators. Too many schools, however, rely on a rather mechanistic approach to learning. Future school administrators must be taught to…

  7. Distributed Practice and Procedural Memory Consolidation in Musicians' Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to determine whether musicians' learning is affected by the time intervals interposed between practice sessions. Twenty-nine non-pianist musicians learned a 9-note sequence on a piano keyboard in three practice sessions that were separated by 5 min, 6 hr, or 24 hr. Significant improvements in performance accuracy were…

  8. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  9. Multiple Intelligences in Virtual and Traditional Skill Instructional Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKethan, Robert; Rabinowitz, Erik; Kernodle, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) how Multiple Intelligence (MI) strengths correlate to learning in virtual and traditional environments and (b) the effectiveness of learning with and without an authority figure in attendance. Participants (N=69) were randomly assigned to four groups, administered the Multiple Intelligences…

  10. An Examination of Strategy Implementation during Abstract Nonlinguistic Category Learning in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study strategy use during nonlinguistic category learning in aphasia. Method: Twelve control participants without aphasia and 53 participants with aphasia (PWA) completed a computerized feedback-based category learning task consisting of training and testing phases. Accuracy rates of categorization in testing phases…

  11. Meaningful Cultural Learning by Imitative Participation: The Case of Abstract Thinking in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called "developmental education" that is implemented in the Netherlands in many primary schools. In this approach,…

  12. Learning of Abstract Concepts through Full-Body Interaction: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinverni, Laura; Pares, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years several learning environments based on novel interaction modalities have been developed. Within this field, Full-body Interaction Learning Environments open promising possibilities given their capacity to involve the users at different levels, such as sensorimotor experience, cognitive aspects and affective factors.…

  13. Explicating a Mechanism for Conceptual Learning: Elaborating the Construct of Reflective Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Tzur, Ron; Heinz, Karen; Kinzel, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    We articulate and explicate a mechanism for mathematics conceptual learning that can serve as a basis for the design of mathematics lessons. The mechanism, reflection on activity-effect relationships, addresses the learning paradox (Pascual-Leone, 1976), a paradox that derives from careful attention to the construct of assimilation (Piaget, 1970).…

  14. The Distributed Learning Effect for Children's Acquisition of an Abstract Syntactic Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In many cognitive domains, learning is more effective when exemplars are distributed over a number of sessions than when they are all presented within one session. The present study investigated this "distributed learning effect" with respect to English-speaking children's acquisition of a complex grammatical construction. Forty-eight children…

  15. Degradation of learned skills: Effectiveness of practice methods on visual approach and landing skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.; Zaitzeff, L. P.; Berge, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Flight control and procedural task skill degradation, and the effectiveness of retraining methods were evaluated for a simulated space vehicle approach and landing under instrument and visual flight conditions. Fifteen experienced pilots were trained and then tested after 4 months either without the benefits of practice or with static rehearsal, dynamic rehearsal or with dynamic warmup practice. Performance on both the flight control and procedure tasks degraded significantly after 4 months. The rehearsal methods effectively countered procedure task skill degradation, while dynamic rehearsal or a combination of static rehearsal and dynamic warmup practice was required for the flight control tasks. The quality of the retraining methods appeared to be primarily dependent on the efficiency of visual cue reinforcement.

  16. I-NET: interactive neuro-educational technology to accelerate skill learning.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Giby; Berka, Chris; Popovic, Djordje; Chung, Gregory K W K; Nagashima, Sam O; Behneman, Adrienne; Davis, Gene; Johnson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The learning of a novel task currently rely heavily on conventional classroom instruction with qualitative assessment and observation. Introduction of individualized tutorials with integrated neuroscience-based evaluation techniques could significantly accelerate skill acquisition and provide quantitative evidence of successful training. We have created a suite of adaptive and interactive neuro-educational technologies (I-NET) to increase the pace and efficiency of skill learning. It covers four major themes: 1) Integration of brain monitoring into paced instructional tutorials, 2) Identifying psychophysiological characteristics of expertise using a model population, 3) Developing sensor-based feedback to accelerate novice-to-expert transition, 4) Identifying neurocognitive factors that are predictive of skill acquisition to allow early triage and interventions. We selected rifle marksmanship training as the field of application. Rifle marksmanship is a core skill for the Army and Marine Corps and it involves a combination of classroom instructional learning and field practice involving instantiation of a well-defined set of sensory, motor and cognitive skills. The instrumentation that incorporates the I-NET technologies is called the Adaptive Peak Performance Trainer (APPT). Preliminary analysis of pilot study data for performance data from a novice population that used this device revealed an improved learning trajectory. PMID:19963623

  17. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  18. Enabling Active Learning. Conference Programme and Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (1st, Hull, England, United Kingdom, September 19-21, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Simon, Ed.

    This program for the 1994 Association for Learning Technology Conference provides a conference schedule and summarizes the presentations of the discussion workshops, hands-on workshops, live demonstrations, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "The Conceptualisation Cycle" (J. Mayes & L.…

  19. Skills learned through professional internships can contribute to higher confidence in students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.

    2014-12-01

    Through completing an internship, a student has the opportunity to learn skills that may not be typically emphasized in the classroom. Students can create a unique professional identity by participating in internships that may be relevant to their career path. The diversity of internships can also allow a student to try an experience in a job that may be away from their assumed career trajectory, contributing to students finding where their skills could fit best. I have learned a core set of skills that have supported my transition from an undergraduate degree through two internships in both a non-profit organization and an oil and gas company. This presentation will include an analysis of the project management and communication skills that have given me "real-world" experience to understand what skills could be useful in pursuing a career in the Earth sciences. I believed that participation in clubs, mentoring assignments, and classes abroad during my undergraduate were fully providing me with the fundamental skills to enter the professional job market. Although I did learn time management, facilitation and collaboration, I did not fully gauge the necessity of a crucial understanding of these skills in the workplace. My skills using collaborative work have strengthened most since finishing my undergraduate degree. Through group work at each of my internships, I learned clear communication, management, respect, financial responsibility and how to fulfill an obligation towards a common goal. Without strengthening those skills, I do not think I would be pursuing a graduate degree in the Earth sciences with confidence. The essential skills I have learned have furthered my assurance to approach a problem with certainty when developing a hypothesis, seeking help from others, and developing a solution. This presentation will suggest further research and how specific feedback can be gathered from other Earth science students who have completed internships. With further

  20. Beyond learning fixed rules and social cues: abstraction in the social arena.

    PubMed

    Call, Joseph

    2003-07-29

    Abstraction is a central idea in many areas of physical comparative cognition such as categorization, numerical competence or problem solving. This idea, however, has rarely been applied to comparative social cognition. In this paper, I propose that the notion of abstraction can be applied to the social arena and become an important tool to investigate the social cognition and behaviour processes in animals. To make this point, I present recent evidence showing that chimpanzees know about what others can see and about what others intend. These data do not fit either low-level mechanisms based on stimulus-response associations or high-level explanations based on metarepresentational mechanisms such as false belief attribution. Instead, I argue that social abstraction, in particular the development of concepts such as seeing in others, is key to explaining the behaviour of our closest relative in a variety of situations. PMID:12903652

  1. Evidence for learned skill during cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Barker, David J.; Ma, Sisi; Coffey, Kevin R.; West, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale It has been proposed that cocaine abuse results in skilled or “automatic” drug-taking behaviors. Brain regions important for skill learning are implicated in cocaine self-administration. However, the development of skill during self-administration has not been investigated. Objectives The present experiment investigated the development of skilled self-administration over extended drug use by employing a novel operant vertical head movement under discriminative stimulus (SD) control. In addition, the capacity of the head movement to serve as an operant was tested by manipulating drug levels above or below satiety drug levels via frequent microinfusions (0.2 sec) of cocaine delivered noncontingently. Results Animals acquired the vertical head movement operant, which increased in number over days. Task learning was demonstrated by reduced reaction time in response to the SD, increased propensity to self-administer upon SD presentation, and escalated drug consumption over days. Skill learning was demonstrated by 1) an increase over days in the velocity of operant vertical head movements, as a function of shorter duration but not altered distance, and 2) an increase over days in the probability of initiating the operant at the optimal starting position. Evidence that responding was specific to self-administration was revealed during periods of experimenter-manipulation of drug level: maintaining drug levels above satiety decreased responding while maintaining drug levels below satiety increased responding. Conclusions These results provide evidence that under the specific set of circumstances tested herein, cocaine self-administration becomes skilled over days of extended drug use. In addition, the vertical head movement can be used as an operant comparable to lever pressing with the additional benefit of quantifying skill learning. PMID:21455708

  2. Cultivating ICT Students' Interpersonal Soft Skills in Online Learning Environments Using Traditional Active Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Trina S.; Blackman, Anna; Andersen, Trevor; Hay, Rachel; Lee, Ickjai; Gray, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Flexible online delivery of tertiary ICT programs is experiencing rapid growth. Creating an online environment that develops team building and interpersonal skills is difficult due to factors such as student isolation and the individual-centric model of online learning that encourages discrete study rather than teamwork. Incorporating teamwork…

  3. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  4. Using CD ROM and Learning Materials To Structure Learning Experiences for Students with Basic Skills Need in Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanowitz, Dylan; Horsburgh, David

    1999-01-01

    A European project developed guidelines for use of multimedia in adult basic education, reviewed existing multimedia resources, and developed strategies for teaching literacy using multimedia. Individual learning styles and processes can be accommodated with the media, but teachers need new skills to plan and monitor individually based multimedia…

  5. The Transfer of Reading Skills From First to Second Language: The Report of an Experiment with Spanish Speakers Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Holly Beth

    Certain aspects of the reading process have suggested that second language reading skills are determined to some extent by native language reading skills. Some of this research is reviewed here and an experiment is described in which the reading skills in Spanish and English of three groups of Spanish speakers learning English are compared.…

  6. Teaching and Learning Reflexive Skills in Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research: A Framework and Its Application in Environmental Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, K. P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial skill for researchers in inter- and transdisciplinary environmental projects is the ability to be reflexive about knowledge and knowledge production. Few studies exist on the operationalization of reflexive skills and teaching and learning strategies that help students master these skills. This research aims to contribute in this…

  7. The effects of metacognitive instruction embedded within an asynchronous learning network on scientific inquiry skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zion, Michal; Michalsky, Tova; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2005-08-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the effects of four learning methods on students’ scientific inquiry skills. The four learning methods are: (a) metacognitive-guided inquiry within asynchronous learning networked technology (MINT); (b) an asynchronous learning network (ALN) with no metacognitive guidance; (c) metacognitive-guided inquiry embedded within face-to-face (F2F) interaction; and (d) F2F interaction with no metacognitive guidance. The study examined general scientific ability and domain-specific inquiry skills in microbiology. Participants were 407 10th-grade students (15 years old). The MINT research group significantly outperformed all other research groups, and F2F (group d) acquired the lowest mean scores. No significant differences were found between research groups (b) and (c). MINT makes significant contributions to students’ achievements in designing experiments and drawing conclusions. The novel use of metacognitive training within an ALN environment demonstrates the advantage of enhancing the effects of ALN on students’ achievements in science.

  8. Degradation of learned skills. Static practice effectiveness for visual approach and landing skill retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitterley, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    The effectivess of an improved static retraining method was evaluated for a simulated space vehicle approach and landing under instrument and visual flight conditions. Experienced pilots were trained and then tested after 4 months without flying to compare their performance using the improved method with three methods previously evaluated. Use of the improved static retraining method resulted in no practical or significant skill degradation and was found to be even more effective than methods using a dynamic presentation of visual cues. The results suggested that properly structured open loop methods of flight control task retraining are feasible.

  9. Rhythms of Learning: Creative Tools for Developing Lifelong Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris; Campbell, Don G.

    This document contends that there is a meaningful connection between artistic abilities and academic abilities, notably in the relationship between musical and mathematical/scientific abilities. Based on the premise that music makes it possible to master difficult abstract concepts faster and with greater retention, this handbook encourages…

  10. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage. PMID:27018936

  11. The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Todd L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition

  12. Abstract Rule Learning for Visual Sequences in 8- and 11-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Fernandes, Keith J.; Frank, Michael C.; Kirkham, Natasha; Marcus, Gary; Rabagliati, Hugh; Slemmer, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the development of a fundamental component of cognition: to recognize and generalize abstract relations. Infants were presented with simple rule-governed patterned sequences of visual shapes (ABB, AAB, and ABA) that could be discriminated from differences in the position of the repeated element (late,…

  13. How to Integrate Cooperative Skills Training into Learning Tasks: An Illustration with Young Pupils' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehraus, Katia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how to integrate cooperative skills training into learning tasks in the area of writing. Cooperative learning sessions, aimed at developing both cooperative and cognitive skills, were created and conducted in two elementary school classes (Grade 2, age 7-8). Pupils' teamwork interactions were videotaped and analysed.…

  14. The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

  15. The Relationship between Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Regulated Learning through Homework Behaviours, Motivation, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…

  16. The Impact of Kindergarten Learning-Related Skills on Academic Trajectories at the End of Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research indicates that children's learning-related skills (including self-regulation and social competence) contribute to early school success. The present study investigated the relation of kindergarten learning-related skills to reading and math trajectories in 538 children between kindergarten and sixth grade, and examined how children…

  17. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  18. Design Principles for Support in Developing Students' Transformative Inquiry Skills in Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedaste, Margus; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this explorative study was to find the factors limiting sixth-grade learners' outcomes in acquiring skills related to the transformative inquiry learning processes as well as to analyse the interrelations between inquiry skills in order to develop an optimal support system for designing Web-based inquiry learning environments. A…

  19. The Effects of Metacognitive Instruction Embedded within an Asynchronous Learning Network on Scientific Inquiry Skills. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Michalsky, Tova; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2005-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the effects of four learning methods on students' scientific inquiry skills. The four learning methods are: (a) metacognitive-guided inquiry within asynchronous learning networked technology (MINT); (b) an asynchronous learning network (ALN) with no metacognitive guidance; (c) metacognitive-guided inquiry…

  20. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  1. Choosing to Learn or Chosen to Learn: The Experience of "Skills for Life" Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Anne; Atkin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that as many as one in five adults in England have difficulties with literacy or numeracy skills. Raising the standards of language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) skills amongst all adults of working age in England has become one of the government's highest priorities. Following the launch of the "Skills for Life" strategy in…

  2. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Skill Deficit: The Role of Open Distance Learning (ODL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Mamta; Jena, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Skills acquisition is vital for any economic growth, particularly in an era of economic and technological changes. The need for skill development is a vital challenge, foremost for a developing nation, such as India. Therefore, vocational education and training (VET) is a direct means of providing workers with skills more relevant to their…

  3. Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…

  4. Use of Social Emotional Learning Skills to Predict Future Academic Success and Progress toward Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  6. Basic Skills Learning Centers Evaluation. Final Report 1 October 1976 - 30 September 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    Detailed program descriptions and discussion of research methodology are included in this independent evaluation of the Basic Skills Learning Centers (BSLC) Projects implemented by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) and Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and designed to improve basic reading and math instruction in nonurban…

  7. Basic Skills Learning Centers Evaluation. Appendices for the Final Report: 11 October 1976 - 30 September 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    Tabular data, computer printouts, survey forms, and field notes are included in these appendices to an independent evaluation of the Basic Skills Learning Centers (BSLC) Projects implemented by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) and Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL). The wide range of supporting data focus on project…

  8. Do Youth Learn Life Skills through Their Involvement in High School Sport? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Tink, Lisa N.; Mandigo, James L.; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined whether and how youth learned life skills through their involvement on a high school soccer team. We collected data from fieldwork and interviews with 12 male student-athletes and the head coach from one team. Results showed that the coach's philosophy involved building relationships and involving student-athletes in…

  9. Math Learning Model That Accommodates Cognitive Style to Build Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…

  10. Job Training Programs in the USA Demonstrate Ability of Older Adults to Learn New Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dorothy

    1985-01-01

    This article describes two employment and training programs for older people funded by the government of the United States and carried out by a variety of agencies: the Senior Community Services Employment Program and the Job Training Partnership Act. The examples demonstrate the ability of older adults to learn new skills and perform new jobs.…

  11. "Modernisation" and the Role of Policy Levers in the Learning and Skills Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Richard; Spours, Ken; Hodgson, Ann; Finlay, Ian; Coffield, Frank; Edward, Sheila; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the changing use of policy levers in the English postcompulsory education and training system, often referred to as the learning and skills sector (LSS). Policy steering by governments has increased significantly in recent years, bringing with it the development of new forms of arms-length regulation. In the English context,…

  12. Digital Stories Targeting Social Skills for Children with Disabilities: Multidimensional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori

    2008-01-01

    Many children learn easily by watching others, imitating actions, and cuing into subtle social cues. However, some students with disabilities have trouble acquiring these social skills. These children require a more intensive intervention to make gains in the social area. For students who have difficulties initiating and maintaining interactions,…

  13. Using the Jazz Metaphor to Enhance Student Learning and Skill Development in the Marketing Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The marketing research course is often a very challenging one both for students and instructors. This article discusses how the jazz metaphor can aid the instructor in both facilitating students' learning of the more basic as well as the more specific skills that make up the course, in addition to contributing more to student enjoyment of the…

  14. Understanding Core Skills and Influences in Primary School Science Learning: Taking a Scientific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolmie, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial improvements in the teaching of reading and early arithmetic based on rigorous analysis of the component learning skills involved in these areas and of the ways they are developed. Despite the importance attached to science, there has been very little comparable work that might provide a steer to primary school…

  15. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    PubMed

    Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e., motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli) play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a kinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show (a) that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and (b) that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance. PMID:24273511

  16. Patterns for Success: Organization and Learning Skills, Part II (P12). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on organization and learning skills is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the…

  17. Patterns for Success: Organization and Learning Skills, Part I (P11). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on organization and learning skills is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the…

  18. Blended Learning Model: Development and Implementation in a Computer Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshuma, N.

    2012-01-01

    South Africa's higher education policies have opened up access to university for students from diverse backgrounds, with different learning styles, levels of motivation and levels of preparedness. This has necessitated a move from the lecture style of teaching to innovative teaching styles that engage the learners and equip them with skills to…

  19. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  20. Endless Change in the Learning and Skills Sector: The Impact on Teaching Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, Sheila; Coffield, Frank; Steer, Richard; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of change on tutors and managers in 24 learning sites in England, in vocational courses at Level 1 or Level 2 in further education (FE) colleges and in basic skills provision in adult community education and workplaces. We discuss the views of these participants in the research project, "The Impact of Policy on…

  1. Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To address the need to connect Americans with learning opportunities, the Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education released the present report. Grounded in evidence and informed by effective and emerging practices, "Making Skills Everyone's Business" offers seven strategies that hold great promise for improving the conditions…

  2. Undergraduate Social Work Students: Learning Interviewing Skills in a Hybrid Practice Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This action research case study explored undergraduate social work students' perceived learning of interviewing skills in a hybrid environment course delivery. The single case study consisted of 19 students enrolled in a practice course blending web-based and face-to-face (f2f) meetings (4 of 15 f2f) within a large urban college. As part of…

  3. Training of Self-Regulated Learning Skills on a Social Network System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kwangsu; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-regulated learning (SRL) skills trained using a social network system (SNS) may be generalized outside the training session. A total of 29 undergraduate students participated in the study. During the training session, students in the experimental group were trained to practice…

  4. Using Reflection to Assess Students Ability to Learn and Develop Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather M.; Burk, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Leadership skill development has been identified as an important element of future leisure service professionals academic preparation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to utilize in-depth course reflection and service-learning to assess whether undergraduate students enrolled in a leadership course were meeting the leadership objectives set…

  5. Workplace Learning Curriculum Guides. Volume VII: Enhanced Basic Skills--Decisions, Teams, Problem Solving, Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This volume, one of a series of curriculum guides compiled by the Colorado Workplace Learning Initiative: 1991-92, contains seven workplace literacy courses on enhanced basic skills involving decisions, teams, problem solving, and critical thinking. Introductory materials include a table of contents and a list of the curriculum topics covered by…

  6. Affections in Learning Situations: A Study of an Entrepreneurship Skills Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondim, Sonia Maria Guedes; Mutti, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in…

  7. Everyday Scholars: Framing Informal Learning in Terms of Academic Disciplines and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses shopping, especially critical shopping, as a process of informal and incidental adult learning about the intersecting politics of globalization and consumption. The author uses academic skills and disciplines as a metaphor to respond to an emerging conceptual question: To what extent can formality, informality, and…

  8. Technological Change and Skills Development. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Elaine

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the relationship between technological change and skills development. The following topics are discussed: the new technological…

  9. Learning, Skills and Employability: A Review of Good Practice in Scottish Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Research demonstrates that when ex-offenders gain employment the risk of their re-offending reduces by between a third and a half. However, many prisoners have few qualifications and low levels of literacy, and many have never held a proper job. Learning, Skills and Employability (LSE) aims to provide appropriate education and training so that…

  10. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  11. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  12. Project RAILS: Lessons Learned about Rubric Assessment of Information Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jackie; Zou, Ning; Mills, Jenny Rushing; Holmes, Claire; Oakleaf, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Rubric assessment of information literacy is an important tool for librarians seeking to show evidence of student learning. The authors, who collaborated on the Rubric Assessment of Informational Literacy Skills (RAILS) research project, draw from their shared experience to present practical recommendations for implementing rubric assessment in a…

  13. Classroom Quality and Academic Skills: Approaches to Learning as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether approaches to learning moderated the association between child care classroom environment and Head Start children's academic skills. The data came from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES-2003 Cohort). The dataset is a nationally representative longitudinal study of Head Start…

  14. The Effect of Using Laptops on the Spelling Skills of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Sigal; Shamir, Adina; Fershtman, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of using laptops on the spelling skills of students with learning disabilities (LD). It was conducted as part of the Israeli "Katom" (A Computer for Every Class, Student, and Teacher) Program. Participants included 93 Hebrew-speaking students with LD aged 13-16, who attend 10 special education classes in a…

  15. The ASE Improving Practical Work in Triple Science Learning Skills Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul; Chapman, Georgina; Ellis-Sackey, Cecilia; Grainger, Beth; Jones, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, the Association for Science Education won a bid to run a "Sharing innovation network" for the Triple Science Support Programme, which is delivered by the Learning Skills Network on behalf of the Department for Education. The network involves schools from the London boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Greenwich. In this article, the…

  16. Formative Evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the formative evaluation of the Adult Learning, Literacy and Essential Skills Program (ALLESP). Data collection related to this evaluation took place between November 2008 and May 2009. The evaluation resulted in the following four recommendations: (1) It is recommended that Program objectives and activities…

  17. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  18. Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism through Video Modeling: Small Group Arrangement and Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Batu, Sema; Birkan, Binyamin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if video modeling was an effective way of teaching sociodramatic play skills to individuals with autism in a small group arrangement. Besides maintenance, observational learning and social validation data were collected. Three 9 year old boys with autism participated in the study. Multiple probe…

  19. PILOT PROJECT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE TO FACILITATE LEARNING OF BASIC MUSICAL SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LABACH, PARKER

    UTILIZING TAPE RECORDERS AS MAJOR COMPONENTS, THE INVESTIGATOR DEVELOPED A DEVICE TO FACILITATE LEARNING OF BASIC MUSICAL SKILLS BY PROVIDING FOR REPLAY OF RECORDED SEGMENTS OF PRACTICE FOLLOWING THE "LIVE" PERFORMANCE AND BY PROVIDING A MODEL PERFORMANCE FOR COMPARISON. STUDENT USE OF THE DEVICE DURING THE LIMITED PILOT PROJECT INDICATED THAT…

  20. The Impact of Performance Skills on Students' Attitudes towards the Learning Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    One way to assist in transforming a lecture experience into an occasion that can attract and engage students is via the use of performance techniques. Investigating the impact of certain types of performance skills on students' attitudes towards the learning experience can help better understand the relevance of such techniques in face to face and…