Science.gov

Sample records for abstract subject matter

  1. Teaching of subject matter.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Psychology of subject matter refers to the scientific study of learning and instruction within school subjects. The growing research literature on teaching and learning of school subjects represents one of educational psychology's most productive accomplishments of the past two decades. The purpose of this chapter is to examine representative advances in the psychology of subject matter, including how people learn to read words, comprehend printed passages, write compositions, solve arithmetic word problems, and understand how scientific systems work. The introduction provides a historical overview of how to promote transfer and is followed by reviews of representative research in learning and teaching of reading fluency, reading comprehension, writing, mathematics, and science. PMID:14744232

  2. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 3 No. 4 and Index 1981-84: Subject Index, Author Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This quarterly publication contains 106 abstracts of educational materials published in Australia, covering social and educational developments, programs, and program materials. In the first two sections of the document, the abstracts are arranged in clusters according to prime subject matter. The topics covered, listed at the front of the…

  3. Subject Compatibility between "Chemical Abstracts" Subject Sections and Search Profiles Used for Computerized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of relevant answers to 41 search profiles among the 80 subject sections of Chemical Abstracts" revealed that the average profile requires 10 CA-subject sections for adequate coverage. The average printing expense could be reduced 25 percent by searching the individual profiles in the appropriate subject sections. (5…

  4. In Search of Subject Matter Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for subject-matter experts who understands that purity of content must be coupled with ensuring that the participants actually learn. Looks at ways to leverage and circulate intellectual capital within an organization. (JOW)

  5. Subject Matter Knowledge for Teaching Statistical Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the subject matter knowledge needed for teaching statistical association at the secondary level. Taking a practice-based qualitative approach, three experienced teachers were observed as they taught statistical association and interviewed immediately following each observation. Records of practice were assembled to…

  6. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  7. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  8. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  9. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  10. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  11. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  12. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent. PMID:27587443

  13. A Value Analysis of Historically Significant Forms of Subject Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presno, Vincent

    The purpose of this paper is to articulate the relative meanings and values of various forms of subject matter. The paper first constructs a synthesizing definition of subject matter. All subject matter is conceptual in nature and is composed of words or statements concerning objects and events of the world which are to be taught and learned. The…

  14. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. PMID:25890886

  15. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...) Arbitration under these provisions is limited to matters over which the STB has statutory jurisdiction and...

  16. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...) Arbitration under these provisions is limited to matters over which the STB has statutory jurisdiction and...

  17. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...) Arbitration under these provisions is limited to matters over which the STB has statutory jurisdiction and...

  18. 14 CFR 17.11 - Matters not subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matters not subject to protest. 17.11... PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Protests § 17.11 Matters not subject to protest. The following matters may not be protested before the Office of Dispute Resolution...

  19. The Representation of Abstract Words: Why Emotion Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the representation and processing of concrete concepts, knowledge of what abstract semantics might be is severely limited. In this article we first address the adequacy of the 2 dominant accounts (dual coding theory and the context availability model) put forward in order to explain representation and processing…

  20. Learning Styles, Subject Matter, and Effectiveness in Undergraduate Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Darren C.

    2014-01-01

    Are potential relationships among students' learning styles and effectiveness in online education moderated by subject matter for undergraduate students at a private higher education institution? This causal relationship correlational study evaluated the effects of subject matter as a moderating variable between students learning styles and…

  1. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation with subject matter specialists. 61.6 Section 61.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a)...

  2. 42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...

  4. 42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...

  5. 42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...

  6. 42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...

  7. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subject matter of a meeting. 791.6 Section 791.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter...

  8. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subject matter of a meeting. 791.6 Section 791.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter...

  9. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subject matter of a meeting. 791.6 Section 791.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter...

  10. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subject matter of a meeting. 791.6 Section 791.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter...

  11. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subject matter of a meeting. 791.6 Section 791.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter...

  12. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... request made pursuant to the terms set forth in § 173.4 (19 CFR 173.4). (b) Administrative decisions. CBP... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  13. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... request made pursuant to the terms set forth in § 173.4 (19 CFR 173.4). (b) Administrative decisions. CBP... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  14. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... request made pursuant to the terms set forth in § 173.4 (19 CFR 173.4). (b) Administrative decisions. CBP... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  15. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  16. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request made pursuant to the terms set forth in § 173.4 (19 CFR 173.4). (b) Administrative decisions. CBP... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  17. The Effectiveness of Subject Matter Experts as Technical Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Saundra Wall

    2001-01-01

    Subject matter experts have knowledge and experience to be technical trainers, but they may require training in adult learning theory and teaching methods. Research on trainer effectiveness is needed to identify ways to improve the use of subject matter experts as trainers. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  18. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultation with subject matter specialists. 61.6 Section 61.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a)...

  19. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consultation with subject matter specialists. 61.6 Section 61.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a)...

  20. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consultation with subject matter specialists. 61.6 Section 61.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a)...

  1. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consultation with subject matter specialists. 61.6 Section 61.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a)...

  2. Teaching Spanish Subject Matters to College Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabedo-Timmons, Guada

    This paper discusses how to teach Spanish subject matter to U.S. college students, focusing on one professor's experiences teaching an upper level Spanish class, Spanish Subject Matters, to students who plan to be K-12 or bilingual classroom teachers. The paper stresses the current need for bilingual teachers, suggesting that a teacher does not…

  3. The Use of Language in Understanding Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Anderberg, Elsie; Alvegard, Christer; Johansson, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Empirical results show that frequently the meaning of expressions used by students in expressing their understanding of subject matter does not correspond to the meaning of those expressions in the subject matter theory that the students are expected to learn. There is also often a lack of identity of meaning between the same students' use of the…

  4. Motor movement matters: the flexible abstractness of inner speech.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Gary M; Dell, Gary S

    2010-12-01

    Inner speech is typically characterized as either the activation of abstract linguistic representations or a detailed articulatory simulation that lacks only the production of sound. We present a study of the speech errors that occur during the inner recitation of tongue-twister-like phrases. Two forms of inner speech were tested: inner speech without articulatory movements and articulated (mouthed) inner speech. Although mouthing one's inner speech could reasonably be assumed to require more articulatory planning, prominent theories assume that such planning should not affect the experience of inner speech and, consequently, the errors that are "heard" during its production. The errors occurring in articulated inner speech exhibited the phonemic similarity effect and the lexical bias effect--two speech-error phenomena that, in overt speech, have been localized to an articulatory-feature-processing level and a lexical-phonological level, respectively. In contrast, errors in unarticulated inner speech did not exhibit the phonemic similarity effect--just the lexical bias effect. The results are interpreted as support for a flexible abstraction account of inner speech. This conclusion has ramifications for the embodiment of language and speech and for the theories of speech production. PMID:21156877

  5. Developing a Democratic View of Academic Subject Matters: John Dewey, William Chandler Bagley, and Boyd Henry Bode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, the ideal of democracy influenced the conceptions people had of the academic subject matters. A common criticism was that abstract academic subjects served aristocratic societies. Although most theorists considered the academic subjects to be important, they had differing views on the conception of…

  6. TOWARDS BETTER CURRICULA THROUGH COMPUTER SELECTED SEQUENCING OF SUBJECT MATTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REISMAN, ARNOLD; TAFT, MARTIN I.

    A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ESTABLISHED AND INDUSTRIALLY VALIDATED LEARNING AND FORGETTING THEORIES IS OUTLINED, AND A COMPUTER-EXECUTED HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SELECTING THE BEST SCHEDULE FOR SUBJECT PRESENTATION IS GIVEN. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF THE MODEL INCLUDE EDUCATION POTENTIAL, TYPE OF SUBJECT MATTER, TYPE OF LEARNER, TEACHING METHODS, AND…

  7. Becoming a Teacher: Balancing Conceptions of Subject Matter and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman G.; And Others

    This longitudinal investigation assessed the development and changes in preservice science teachers' conceptions of subject matter and pedagogy as they proceeded through their secondary science methods course, practicum, microteaching, and student teaching. Twelve preservice science teachers were asked, on four occasions each several weeks apart,…

  8. Forestry/Forest Products. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the forestry/forest products industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the forestry/forest products curriculum. There are six sections…

  9. Evaluating Abstract Art: Relation between Term Usage, Subjective Ratings, Image Properties and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lyssenko, Nathalie; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in experimental aesthetics is the uncertainty of the terminology used in experiments. In this study, we recorded terms that are spontaneously used by participants to describe abstract artworks and studied their relation to the second-order statistical image properties of the same artworks (Experiment 1). We found that the usage frequency of some structure-describing terms correlates with statistical image properties, such as PHOG Self-Similarity, Anisotropy and Complexity. Additionally, emotion-associated terms correlate with measured color values. Next, based on the most frequently used terms, we created five different rating scales (Experiment 2) and obtained ratings of participants for the abstract paintings on these scales. We found significant correlations between descriptive score ratings (e.g., between structure and subjective complexity), between evaluative and descriptive score ratings (e.g., between preference and subjective complexity/interest) and between descriptive score ratings and statistical image properties (e.g., between interest and PHOG Self-Similarity, Complexity and Anisotropy). Additionally, we determined the participants’ personality traits as described in the ‘Big Five Inventory’ (Goldberg, 1990; Rammstedt and John, 2005) and correlated them with the ratings and preferences of individual participants. Participants with higher scores for Neuroticism showed preferences for objectively more complex images, as well as a different notion of the term complex when compared with participants with lower scores for Neuroticism. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between objectively measured image properties and the subjective terms that participants use to describe or evaluate abstract artworks. Moreover, our results suggest that the description of abstract artworks, their evaluation and the preference of participants for their low-level statistical properties are linked to personality traits

  10. Evaluating Abstract Art: Relation between Term Usage, Subjective Ratings, Image Properties and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Lyssenko, Nathalie; Redies, Christoph; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in experimental aesthetics is the uncertainty of the terminology used in experiments. In this study, we recorded terms that are spontaneously used by participants to describe abstract artworks and studied their relation to the second-order statistical image properties of the same artworks (Experiment 1). We found that the usage frequency of some structure-describing terms correlates with statistical image properties, such as PHOG Self-Similarity, Anisotropy and Complexity. Additionally, emotion-associated terms correlate with measured color values. Next, based on the most frequently used terms, we created five different rating scales (Experiment 2) and obtained ratings of participants for the abstract paintings on these scales. We found significant correlations between descriptive score ratings (e.g., between structure and subjective complexity), between evaluative and descriptive score ratings (e.g., between preference and subjective complexity/interest) and between descriptive score ratings and statistical image properties (e.g., between interest and PHOG Self-Similarity, Complexity and Anisotropy). Additionally, we determined the participants' personality traits as described in the 'Big Five Inventory' (Goldberg, 1990; Rammstedt and John, 2005) and correlated them with the ratings and preferences of individual participants. Participants with higher scores for Neuroticism showed preferences for objectively more complex images, as well as a different notion of the term complex when compared with participants with lower scores for Neuroticism. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between objectively measured image properties and the subjective terms that participants use to describe or evaluate abstract artworks. Moreover, our results suggest that the description of abstract artworks, their evaluation and the preference of participants for their low-level statistical properties are linked to personality traits. PMID

  11. Subjective Social Status and Well-Being: The Role of Referent Abstraction.

    PubMed

    Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities. PMID:25668216

  12. A Classification of Educational Subject Matter. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chismore, W. Dale; Hill, Quentin M.

    This classification of educational subject matter encompasses subject matter in preelementary through postdoctoral levels. As opposed to instructional programs, which represent the form and style by which knowledge is transmitted (such as nursing, college preparatory, or journalism programs), educational subject matter deals with the knowledge…

  13. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and ownership of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... the subject matter of individual claims. When one or more joint inventors are named in an application... subject matter of each claim when necessary for purposes of an Office proceeding. Action by Applicant...

  14. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and ownership of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... the subject matter of individual claims. When one or more joint inventors are named in an application... subject matter of each claim when necessary for purposes of an Office proceeding. Action by Applicant...

  15. The Liberal Arts: Will More Result in Better Subject Matter Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDiarmid, G. Williamson

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Holmes Group's recommendation to abolish undergraduate degrees in education and require liberal arts majors for teachers and examines ways to teach students subject matter so they see connections between the disciplines, between the subject matter and the world, and between their lives and the subject matter. (SM)

  16. Development of a Summative Examination with Subject Matter Expert Validation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric F.; Carle, Martha H.; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation and impact of a summative examination on student learning and programmatic curricular outcomes. Methods. The summative examination was developed using a systematic approach. Item reliability was evaluated using standard psychometric analyses. Content validity was assessed using necessity scoring as determined by subject matter experts. Results. Almost 700 items written by 37 faculty members were evaluated. Passing standards increased annually (45% in 2009 to 67% in 2014) as the result of targeting item difficulty and necessity scores. The percentage of items exhibiting discrimination above 0.1 increased to 100% over the four years. Necessity scores above 2.75 out of 4 increased from 65% to 100% of items over six years of examination administration. Conclusion. This examination successfully assessed student and curricular outcomes. Faculty member engagement observed in this process supports a culture of assessment. This type of examination could be beneficial to other programs. PMID:27073282

  17. Development of a Summative Examination with Subject Matter Expert Validation.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Ashley N; Schneider, Eric F; Carle, Martha H; Stowe, Cindy D

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation and impact of a summative examination on student learning and programmatic curricular outcomes. Methods. The summative examination was developed using a systematic approach. Item reliability was evaluated using standard psychometric analyses. Content validity was assessed using necessity scoring as determined by subject matter experts. Results. Almost 700 items written by 37 faculty members were evaluated. Passing standards increased annually (45% in 2009 to 67% in 2014) as the result of targeting item difficulty and necessity scores. The percentage of items exhibiting discrimination above 0.1 increased to 100% over the four years. Necessity scores above 2.75 out of 4 increased from 65% to 100% of items over six years of examination administration. Conclusion. This examination successfully assessed student and curricular outcomes. Faculty member engagement observed in this process supports a culture of assessment. This type of examination could be beneficial to other programs. PMID:27073282

  18. 75 FR 47316 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice) The... National Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: August 12, 2010, at 3 p.m. EDT. Subject Matter: Review and Discussion of Current Mid-Scale Research Funding Support...

  19. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Applications-Classified Subject Matter. 52.227-10 Section 52.227-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject...

  20. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  1. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  3. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  4. 42 CFR 457.1130 - Program specific review process: Matters subject to review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... review process: Matters subject to review. (a) Eligibility or enrollment matter. A State must ensure that... services matter. A State must ensure that an enrollee has an opportunity for external review of a— (1... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  5. 76 FR 57036 - Notice of Change in Subject Matter of Agency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... CORPORATION Notice of Change in Subject Matter of Agency Meeting Pursuant to the provisions of subsection (e... days' notice to the public, of the following matters: Memorandum and resolution re: Final Rule on... matter of the meeting was practicable. Dated: September 13, 2011. Federal Deposit Insurance...

  6. 76 FR 2573 - Technical Corrections: Matters Subject to Protest and Various Protest Time Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...: Matters Subject to Protest and Various Protest Time Limits AGENCIES: Customs and Border Protection..., the types of matters subject to protest, the time required for allowing or denying an application for further review of a protest, and various other protest time limits. This document also makes...

  7. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  8. 10 CFR 54.30 - Matters not subject to a renewal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matters not subject to a renewal review. 54.30 Section 54.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.30 Matters not subject to a renewal review. (a)...

  9. Designing and Developing Technical Curriculum: Finding the Right Subject Matter Expert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Joseph Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Subject matter experts play an essential role in technical curriculum development by providing accurate and up-to-date information that matches education, training, and workforce needs. The Subject Matter Expert (SME) COMlist is proposed as a tool that enables instructional developers to evaluate an SME's capability and suitability to support…

  10. One Subject, Two Lands: My Journey in Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    This is an account of a professional life in the field that was generally known as solid-state physics when I started working in it; India and the United States of America are the countries in which this life was largely played out. My attempts to understand various things in condensed matter physics, and efforts to put together people and activities in India in this field, are mainly the story.

  11. From mind to matter: neural correlates of abstract and concrete mindsets

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Much work in the field of social cognition shows that adopting an abstract (vs concrete) mindset alters the way people construe the world, thereby exerting substantial effects across innumerable aspects of human behavior. In order to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of these effects, we scanned participants as they performed two widely used tasks that induce an abstracting vs concretizing mindsets. Specifically, participants: (i) indicated ‘why’ perform certain activities (a task that involves abstraction) or ‘how’ the same activities are performed (a task that involves concretization) and (ii) generated superordinate categories for certain objects (a task that involves abstraction) or subordinate exemplars for the same objects (a task that involves concretization). We conducted a conjunction analysis of the two tasks, in order to uncover the neural activity associated with abstraction and concretization. The results showed that concretization was associated with activation in fronto-parietal regions implicated in goal-directed action; abstraction was associated with activity within posterior regions implicated in visual perception. We discuss these findings in light of construal-level theory’s notion of abstraction. PMID:23482624

  12. From mind to matter: neural correlates of abstract and concrete mindsets.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2014-05-01

    Much work in the field of social cognition shows that adopting an abstract (vs concrete) mindset alters the way people construe the world, thereby exerting substantial effects across innumerable aspects of human behavior. In order to investigate the cognitive and neural basis of these effects, we scanned participants as they performed two widely used tasks that induce an abstracting vs concretizing mindsets. Specifically, participants: (i) indicated 'why' perform certain activities (a task that involves abstraction) or 'how' the same activities are performed (a task that involves concretization) and (ii) generated superordinate categories for certain objects (a task that involves abstraction) or subordinate exemplars for the same objects (a task that involves concretization). We conducted a conjunction analysis of the two tasks, in order to uncover the neural activity associated with abstraction and concretization. The results showed that concretization was associated with activation in fronto-parietal regions implicated in goal-directed action; abstraction was associated with activity within posterior regions implicated in visual perception. We discuss these findings in light of construal-level theory's notion of abstraction. PMID:23482624

  13. Does Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heukamp, Franz H.; Arino, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of individuals explain only a part of the variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between people. The country of origin of an individual accounts for a significant part of these differences. We study what drives the variations in SWB between countries after taking individual characteristics into account. We base…

  14. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As... or contracts that require security classification markings to be placed on the application. (e)...

  15. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  16. A matter of font type: The effect of serifs on the evaluation of scientific abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Wehlitz, Thea; von Knobelsdorff, Sara; Wulf, Tim; von Saldern, Marie Antoinette Oktavie

    2015-10-01

    Text-based communication is one of the substantial ways of spreading scientific information. While the content and contextual aspects of written words have been widely researched, the impact of font characteristics on text perception is an almost blank page. The following study deals with the influence of serifs on the evaluation of online-presented scientific abstracts. Yet there is only evidence for faster reading times when texts are presented in sans-serif fonts, although the opposite is stated in parts of the literature. The present work examines if the presence or absence of serifs also have an impact on the appraisal of scientific texts when all other important font characteristics do not change. For this purpose, 188 university students participated in an online experiment and rated different aspects of scientific abstracts as well as of the research outlined in the abstracts. The results show that missing serifs led to increased reading speed. However, and in contrast to the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the presence of serifs had a positive effect on all evaluation dimensions. The results of a second study with 187 participants also indicated that reading fluency counteracted the liking of texts. Implications for future studies and media production are discussed. PMID:25704872

  17. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of...

  18. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of...

  19. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of...

  20. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject...

  1. Quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields: phase diagram and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Débora P.; Pinto, Marcus B.; Providência, Constança; Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Márcio; Castro, Luis B.

    2015-07-01

    In the present work we are interested in understanding various properties of quark matter subject to strong magnetic fields described by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop. We start by analysing the differences arising from two different vector interactions in the Lagrangian densities, at zero temperature, and apply the results to stellar matter. We then investigate the position of the critical end point for different chemical potential and density scenarios.

  2. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  3. White Matter Microstructure in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subjects and Their Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O’Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD familial liability to white matter microstructure. Method We used refined DTI tractography methods to examine MD, FA, axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of the anterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, corticospinal tract, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major, forceps minor, superior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus in children and adolescents with ADHD (n = 56), unaffected siblings of ADHD probands (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 17). Results Subjects with ADHD showed significantly higher MD than controls in the anterior thalamic radiation, forceps minor, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Unaffected siblings of subjects with ADHD displayed similar differences in MD as subjects with ADHD. While none of the tested tracts showed a significant effect of FA, the tracts with elevated MD likewise displayed elevated AD in both subjects with ADHD and unaffected siblings. Differences in RD between subjects with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls were not as widespread as differences in MD and AD. Conclusion Our findings suggest that disruptions in white matter microstructure occur in several large white matter pathways in association with ADHD and indicate a familial liability for the disorder. Furthermore, MD may reflect these abnormalities more sensitively than FA. PMID:23582873

  4. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter. 27.203 Section 27.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights...

  5. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter. 52.227-10 Section 52.227-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  6. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter. 52.227-10 Section 52.227-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  7. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter. 27.203 Section 27.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights...

  8. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of In-Depth Approaches in Teaching and Understanding Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Students' experiences and perceptions of good teaching and understanding in literature and physics during one school year were investigated through in-depth interviews with students in eight Greek high school classes in the first, second and third grade. The pedagogical quality of in-depth teaching and understanding of subject matter, as described…

  9. Biology Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Structure and Its Relationship to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gess-Newsome, Julie; Lederman, Norman G.

    Current reform efforts in the teaching of high school biology demonstrate the need for a synthetic treatment of prominent concepts. There exists insufficient research that delineates the global content understandings--in this paper designated subject matter structures (SMS)--of biology teachers; or that assesses whether these SMS do, in fact,…

  10. Biology Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Structure and Its Relationship to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gess-Newsome, Julie; Lederman, Norman G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the nature of biology teachers' global content understandings, and sources and formation of subject matter structures (SMSs). Reports that the initial formation of SMSs was credited to college content courses and modified by the act of teaching. Variables that differentially affected SMS translation included teacher intentions,…

  11. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  12. Use of Agricultural Subject Matter by Secondary Students in Swaziland. Summary of Research SR 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simelane, M. Jethro; Miller, Larry E.

    A descriptive-correlational study was conducted to determine the extent to which students used the subject matter content taught in the "O" Level School Agriculture Program in Swaziland. The target population was 493 graduating "O" Level agriculture students in Swaziland. Data were collected in a school visit and through a mailed survey monitored…

  13. Subject-Matter Experts in Urban Schools: Journeys of Enacted Identities in Science and Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Varelas, Maria; Guajardo, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how two mathematics/science subject-matter experts (Fellows) conceptualized urban classrooms and the students they worked with for a year, how they negotiated academic achievement with cultural and sociopolitical competence, and how their identities as educators were co-constructed and enacted. Using grounded theory, Fellows'…

  14. The Effect of Scaffolded Vignette Instruction on Student Mastery of Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

    2009-01-01

    Vignettes have long been used as a tool to model, teach, and research behavior and understanding as well as to stimulate discussion and problem solving in learning situations. The growing body of research on vignettes as an instructional and assessment tool to enhance recognition, recall, and transfer of subject matter knowledge suggests that the…

  15. Opinion: The Two Subject Matters of Behavior Analysis and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, R. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The author argues that the field of behavior intervention has two subject matters that are distinct in several ways. Each is derived from, and contributes to, the foundation science and epistemology associated with behavior selection. The differences that the author wants to describe occurred to him as he sought to identify which of two Spanish…

  16. Program Goals and Subject Matter Taxonomies for Course Goals, K-12. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Goal Development Project, Portland, OR.

    This collection of program goals and subject matter taxonomies was produced by the Tri-County (Oregon) Goal Development Project in response to requests that the project make available in one volume those sections of the course goal collections that are most useful for broad-based planning and decision-making. Program goals and course goals differ…

  17. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  18. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  19. Subject Matter Counts: The Pre-Service Teaching and Learning of Historical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keirn, Tim; Luhr, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    The American Historical Association (AHA) and the National Council for History Education (NCHE) have recently advocated for raising the visibility of historians--and the significance of history coursework and subject matter preparation--in pre-service history teacher education. In 2006, NCHE adopted a position statement on history teacher…

  20. The Relationship between Chinese Students' Subject Matter Knowledge and Argumentation Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Science education in China is Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) oriented in that SMK understanding is the major benchmark to assess students' achievement in science learning. Such an orientation causes students to overemphasize the memorization of SMK and neglect other indispensable components of science, such as scientific attitudes and…

  1. Grading Styles and Disciplinary Expertise: The Mediating Role of the Teacher's Perception of the Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biberman-Shalev, Liat; Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Kramarski, Bracha

    2011-01-01

    Based on a sample of 312 high school teachers who participated in the Israeli PISA assessment of student academic achievement in 2002, the current study examines the mediatory role of their perception of the subject matter (as "open/flexible'" or "closed/hierarchical") in the relation between their disciplinary expertise (language, mathematics or…

  2. Subject Matter in Hong Kong Primary English Classrooms: A Critical Analysis of Teacher Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, An

    2006-01-01

    Studies of language issues in postcolonial Hong Kong are abundant. While the majority is concerned with the language policy and medium of instruction, there seems to be insufficient discussion on the subject matter of our English lessons, which, this paper argues, are ideology-ridden. Following the tradition of critical discourse analysis and…

  3. Validating Measures of Algebra Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Baker, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate inferences about scores of one task designed to measure subject matter knowledge and three tasks designed to measure aspects of pedagogical content knowledge. Evidence for the validity of inferences was based on two expectations. First, if tasks were sensitive to expertise, we would find group differences.…

  4. Teachers' Reflections on Their Subject Matter Knowledge Structures and Their Influence on Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.; Lederman, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Research has indicated that experts' subject matter knowledge structures (SMKSs) differ from those of novices in that they contain more cross-linking, interconnections, and overarching thematic elements, characteristics that are in accordance with those espoused in current reform documents. Unfortunately, teachers' SMKSs are not…

  5. Optimizing Instructional Designer--Subject Matter Expert Communication in the Design and Development of Multimedia Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a study which explored the development, trial, and implementation of the Content Production Process (CPP) which was designed to assist instructional designers in eliciting and conceptualizing unfamiliar content from subject matter experts. Highlights include advance organizers, schema theory, consultation practices, knowledge…

  6. Expert Systems and Interactive Video Tutorials: Separating Strategies from Subject Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brockenbrough S.; Carter, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines fundamental capabilities of rule-based expert systems and examines their potential for improving computer-based tutoring. Topics discussed include subject matter knowledge; instructional strategies; rule-based representation of knowledge; decision making; problem solving; authoring languages; cognitive processes; possibilities for using…

  7. 50 CFR 91.14 - Restrictions on subject matter for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to, hunting dogs, hunting scenes, use of waterfowl decoys, National Wildlife Refuges as the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on subject matter for entry. 91.14 Section 91.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 50 CFR 91.14 - Restrictions on subject matter for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on subject matter for entry. 91.14 Section 91.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Procedures for Entering the Contest §...

  9. 50 CFR 91.14 - Restrictions on subject matter for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to, hunting dogs, hunting scenes, use of waterfowl decoys, National Wildlife Refuges as the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on subject matter for entry. 91.14 Section 91.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 50 CFR 91.14 - Restrictions on subject matter for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on subject matter for entry. 91.14 Section 91.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Procedures for Entering the Contest §...

  11. 50 CFR 91.14 - Restrictions on subject matter for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to, hunting dogs, hunting scenes, use of waterfowl decoys, National Wildlife Refuges as the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on subject matter for entry. 91.14 Section 91.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 5 CFR 2638.303 - Subject matter of formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... opinions. 2638.303 Section 2638.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.303 Subject matter of formal advisory opinions. Formal advisory opinions will be...

  13. 5 CFR 2638.303 - Subject matter of formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... opinions. 2638.303 Section 2638.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.303 Subject matter of formal advisory opinions. Formal advisory opinions will be...

  14. 5 CFR 2638.303 - Subject matter of formal advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... opinions. 2638.303 Section 2638.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Formal Advisory Opinion Service § 2638.303 Subject matter of formal advisory opinions. Formal advisory opinions will be...

  15. White matter correlates of apathy in HIV-positive subjects: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Jacqueline; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Joska, John A; Schoeman, Renata; Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    Apathy is commonly reported by patients infected with HIV. No previous work has assessed the relationship between white matter and apathy in HIV. The authors aimed to determine whether apathy in HIV reflects a direct effect of the virus on subcortical brain regions or a secondary neuropsychiatric symptom. Thirteen HIV+ participants with apathy, 13 HIV+ participants with no apathy, and 10 healthy comparison subjects were examined using diffusion tensor imaging in the region of the anterior cingulate and corpus callosum. Results of the study confirmed the hypothesis which anticipated changes associated with apathy in white matter tracts that relay through the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:20686138

  16. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  17. 75 FR 43922 - Interim Guidance for Determining Subject Matter Eligibility for Process Claims in View of Bilski...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Evaluating Patent Subject Matter Eligibility, 74 FR 47780 (Sept. 11, 2009), 1347 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 110... Evaluating Patent Subject Matter Eligibility, 74 FR 52184 (Oct. 9, 2009), 1348 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 42 (Nov... a natural force or patent a scientific fact. (As an example, claiming ``the use of...

  18. Measurement and Improvement of Subject Specialists Performance Searching Chemical Abstracts Online as Available on SDC Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Richard F.; And Others

    The first phase of a project to design a prompting system to help semi-experienced end users to search Chemical Abstracts online, this study focused on the differences and similarities in the search approaches used by experienced users and those with less expertise. Four online searches on topics solicited from chemistry professors in small…

  19. 19 CFR 201.37 - Changing the time, place, subject matter, or determination to open or close a meeting following a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... Public Observation Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b § 201.37 Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... amendment to the public notice as required by § 201.35. (b) The subject matter or matters of a...

  20. 19 CFR 201.37 - Changing the time, place, subject matter, or determination to open or close a meeting following a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... Public Observation Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b § 201.37 Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... amendment to the public notice as required by § 201.35. (b) The subject matter or matters of a...

  1. 19 CFR 201.37 - Changing the time, place, subject matter, or determination to open or close a meeting following a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... Public Observation Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b § 201.37 Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... amendment to the public notice as required by § 201.35. (b) The subject matter or matters of a...

  2. 19 CFR 201.37 - Changing the time, place, subject matter, or determination to open or close a meeting following a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... Public Observation Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b § 201.37 Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... amendment to the public notice as required by § 201.35. (b) The subject matter or matters of a...

  3. 19 CFR 201.37 - Changing the time, place, subject matter, or determination to open or close a meeting following a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... Public Observation Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b § 201.37 Changing the time, place, subject matter, or... amendment to the public notice as required by § 201.35. (b) The subject matter or matters of a...

  4. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  5. Determination of Subject Matter Units Taught in Wisconsin and the Extent of Contribution Made Toward Meeting the National Objectives of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pumper, Fred John

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the subject matter units taught, ascertain the length of time allotted to teaching of the subject matter units, and ascertain the extent of contribution made by categories of subject matter toward attaining national objectives of vocational agriculture in Wisconsin. The study also included a…

  6. The effectiveness and practicality of occupational stress management interventions: a survey of subject matter expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Bellarosa, C; Chen, P Y

    1997-07-01

    Stress management (SM) subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 6 widely used occupational SM interventions (relaxation, physical fitness, cognitive restructuring, meditation, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation) on the basis of 10 practicality criteria and 7 effectiveness objectives. Relaxation was evaluated overall as the most practical intervention, while meditation and stress inoculation were judged as the least practical. Physical fitness was chosen to be the most effective intervention, while both meditation and assertiveness training were rated overall as the least effective. The findings also revealed that the SMEs considered history of success and duration of effect, rather than "relevance to program objectives," as the most important factors when selecting SM interventions. Incongruence between effectiveness ratings and actual choices of interventions are discussed. PMID:9552295

  7. Interactive segmentation of white-matter fibers using a multi-subject atlas.

    PubMed

    Labra, Nicole; Figueroa, Miguel; Guevara, Pamela; Duclap, Delphine; Houenou, Josselin; Poupon, Cyril; Mangin, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast algorithm for automatic segmentation of white matter fibers from tractography datasets based on a multi-subject bundle atlas. We describe a sequential version of the algorithm that runs on a desktop computer CPU, as well as a highly parallel version that uses a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as an accelerator. Our sequential implementation runs 270 times faster than a C++/Python implementation of a previous algorithm based on the same segmentation method, and 21 times faster than a highly optimized C version of the same previous algorithm. Our parallelized implementation exploits the multiple computation units and memory hierarchy of the GPU to further speed up the algorithm by a factor of 30 with respect to our sequential code. As a result, the time to segment a subject dataset of 800,000 fibers is reduced from more than 2.5 hours in the Python/C++ code, to less than one second in the GPU version. PMID:25570467

  8. The Representation of Abstract Words: What Matters? Reply to Paivio's (2013) Comment on Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula; Vinson, David; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (2011), we presented an embodied theory of semantic representation, which crucially included abstract concepts as internally embodied via affective states. Paivio (2013) took issue with our treatment of dual coding theory, our reliance on data from lexical decision, and our theoretical proposal.…

  9. Subjects harboring presenilin familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations exhibit diverse white matter biochemistry alterations

    PubMed Central

    Roher, Alex E; Maarouf, Chera L; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Wilson, Jeffrey; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Daugs, Ian D; Whiteside, Charisse M; Kalback, Walter M; Macias, MiMi P; Jacobson, Sandra A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Ghetti, Bernardino; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia impacts all facets of higher order cognitive function and is characterized by the presence of distinctive pathological lesions in the gray matter (GM). The profound alterations in GM structure and function have fostered the view that AD impacts are primarily a consequence of GM damage. However, the white matter (WM) represents about 50% of the cerebrum and this area of the brain is substantially atrophied and profoundly abnormal in both sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). We examined the WM biochemistry by ELISA and Western blot analyses of key proteins in 10 FAD cases harboring mutations in the presenilin genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 as well as in 4 non-demented control (NDC) individuals and 4 subjects with SAD. The molecules examined were direct substrates of PSEN1 such as Notch-1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition, apolipoproteins, axonal transport molecules, cytoskeletal and structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins were examined. PSEN-FAD subjects had, on average, higher amounts of WM amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides compared to SAD, which may play a role in the devastating dysfunction of the brain. However, the PSEN-FAD mutations we examined did not produce uniform increases in the relative proportions of Aβ42 and exhibited substantial variability in total Aβ levels. These observations suggest that neurodegeneration and dementia do not depend solely on enhanced Aβ42 levels. Our data revealed additional complexities in PSEN-FAD individuals. Some direct substrates of γ-secretase, such as Notch, N-cadherin, Erb-B4 and APP, deviated substantially from the NDC group baseline for some, but not all, mutation types. Proteins that were not direct γ-secretase substrates, but play key structural and functional roles in the WM, likewise exhibited varied concentrations in the distinct PSEN mutation backgrounds. Detailing the diverse biochemical pathology spectrum of PSEN mutations may offer valuable

  10. SYMPTOMS AND PERSONAL PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT COPD. (R827355C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    PubMed Central

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  12. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  13. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  14. The Relationship Between Chinese Students' Subject Matter Knowledge and Argumentation Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Science education in China is Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) oriented in that SMK understanding is the major benchmark to assess students' achievement in science learning. Such an orientation causes students to overemphasize the memorization of SMK and neglect other indispensable components of science, such as scientific attitudes and research skills. The central government in China launched an educational innovation known as New Curriculum Reform in 2003. Considerable progress has been made in the past 11 years in regard to theoretical understandings and administrative priorities, but little progress has been made in terms of classroom instruction and scientific literacy cultivation at the secondary level. Under the pressure of nationwide standardized exams, any educational innovations are unlikely to be accepted unless there is robust evidence suggesting their efficacy in promoting students' achievements on exams, or even attempted unless teachers are assured such attempts will not negatively impact such achievement. Argumentation-integrated curriculum is one such innovation. Scientific argumentation is an essential scientific activity that leads to the development of an explanation based on empirical evidence. An initial foundation of SMK, in terms of the necessary background knowledge, is considered by many to be a vital component of argumentation and an enhanced SMK is one of the intended products of argumentation. The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate the relationship between Chinese students' SMK levels and argumentation pedagogy and to provide insights into a possible research agenda focused on implementing argumentation in a heavily SMK-oriented context.

  15. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  16. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  17. Commenting on Writing: Typology and Perceived Helpfulness of Comments from Novice Peer Reviewers and Subject Matter Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kwangsu; Schunn, Christian D.; Charney, Davida

    2006-01-01

    How do comments on student writing from peers compare to those from subject-matter experts? This study examined the types of comments that reviewers produce as well as their perceived helpfulness. Comments on classmates' papers were collected from two undergraduate and one graduate-level psychology course. The undergraduate papers in one of the…

  18. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  19. Perceptions of Student-Teacher Relationships, Self-Efficacy, and Subject Matter Retention in a Secondary Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Michael Dean

    2012-01-01

    This was a study of students who had completed a chemistry course taught by one instructor in a large urban high school during 2009-2010. It was conducted in two phases: Phase One assessed self-efficacy, teaching practices, and subject matter retention taken 16 months after course completion. Phase Two consisted of a multiple-choice final exam…

  20. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  1. Training Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Test Development and Item Writing: Lessons from a Military Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, John V.; Nelson, Clare Cary

    Although effective and efficient assessment procedures are crucial to the success of organizational training programs, the tests used for both student and program evaluation are often developed by instructional designers (IDS) and subject matter experts (SMEs) with little formal training in test development. This paper summarizes the major…

  2. Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olowa, O. W.

    2009-01-01

    The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

  3. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  4. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  5. Development of Syntactic Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Science by a Generalist Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dayle; Clark, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The nature of knowledge needed for teaching elementary science and the development of such knowledge is a focus of ongoing research in science education. Internationally, there is a move to include scientific literacy as an aim of science education curricula. In order to teach such curricula teachers need two types of subject matter knowledge…

  6. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  7. Ultrafine and fine particulate matter inhalation decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Caviston, Renee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02-2 microm) inhalation on exercise performance in healthy subjects. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse effects to the pulmonary and muscle microcirculation. No data are available concerning air pollution and exercise performance. Fifteen healthy college-aged males performed 4 maximal effort 6-min cycle ergometer trials while breathing low or high PM1 to achieve maximal work accumulation (kJ). Low PM1 inhalation trials 1 and 2 were separated by 3 days; then after a 7 day washout, trials 3 and 4 (separated by 3 days) were done while breathing high PM1 generated from a gasoline engine; CO was kept below 10 ppm. Lung function was done after trial 1 to verify nonasthmatic status. Lung function was normal before and after low PM1 exercise. PM1 number counts were not different between high PM1 trials (336,730 +/- 149,206 and 396,200 +/- 82,564 for trial 3 and 4, respectively) and were different from low PM1 trial number counts (2,260 +/- 500) (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rate was not different between trials (189 +/- 6.0, 188 +/- 7.6, 188 +/- 7.6, 187 +/- 7.4, for low and high PM1 trials; respectively). Work accumulated was not different between low PM1 trials (96.1 +/- 9.38 versus 96.6 +/- 10.83 kJ) and the first high PM1 trial (trial 3, 96.8 +/- 10.65 kJ). Work accumulated in the second high PM1 trial 4, 91.3 +/- 10.04 kJ) was less than in low PM1 trials 1 and 2, and high PM1 trial 3 (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.0008; respectively). Acute inhalation of high (PM1) typical of many urban environments could impair exercise performance. PMID:18296948

  8. Le role du professeur de langue dans un cours de matiere academique en langue seconde (The Teacher's Role in a Subject Matter Course in a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The role of the subject matter teacher, the pedagogical and linguistic adjustments required, and the role of the language teacher in "sheltered" courses in which traditional subject matter is taught in a second language are discussed in the context of a University of Ottawa experiment. (MSE)

  9. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24742919

  10. Correlations between DTI and FLAIR images reveal the relationships of microscopic and macroscopic white matter degeneration in elderly subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, W.; Zhang, Y.; Lorenzen, P.; Mueller, S. G.; Schuff, N.; Weiner, M. W.

    2008-03-01

    Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) detects the T2 prolongation in whiter matter lesions (WML) measured on a macroscopic scale, whereas diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) more specifically detects the white matter (WM) integrity alterations as measured by water diffusion on a microscopic scale. Both techniques have been widely used to evaluate WM changes associated with aging, dementia and cerebral vascular disease, however, the relationship between white matter lesions (FLAIR) and changes of DTI remains largely unknown. We addressed this issue using a voxel based correlation analysis between DTI and FLAIR images acquired from 33 elderly subjects at 4T. The WML volume and intensity were correlated the fraction anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD) across all the subjects on a voxelwise basis. Our results revealed that significant DTI-WML correlations occur at regions overlapping the major WML distributions with moderate intensity, and that no significant correlations were detected in periventricular regions where the FLAIR intensities are particularly high. We investigated WM degeneration as a continuum from normal WM to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a two-compartment WM model. The simulation results indicated that the FLAIR intensity of WML reaches a maximum when the lesion severity is around 0.7, which is the same point where correlations between DTI and WML disappear. Based on these findings, WM degeneration in elderly subjects may be better characterized by using regional DTI-WML correlations in different stages of WM degeneration. DTI and FLAIR, taken together improve specificity for characterization of WM degeneration than each measure alone.

  11. Effect of organic matter on phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge subjected to microwave hybrid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawei; Xiao, Qingcong; Zhong, Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Microwave (MW) hybrid processes are able to disrupt the flocculent structure of complex waste activated sludge, and help promote the recovery of phosphorus as struvite. In this study, to optimize struvite yield, (1) the characteristics of matter released in MW-hybrid treatments were compared, including MW, MW-acid, MW-alkali, MW-H2O2, and MW-H2O2-alkali. The results showed that selective release of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) achieved by sludge pretreatment using MW-hybrid processes. MW-H2O2 is the recommended sludge pretreatment process for phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite. The ratio of Mg(2+):NH4(+)-N:PO4(3-)-P was 1.2:2.9:1 in the supernatant. (2) To clarify the effects of organic matter on struvite recovery, the composition and molecular weight distribution of organic matters were analyzed. Low molecular weight COD was found to facilitate the removal rate of NH4(+)-N and PO4(3)-P via crystallization, and the amorphous struvite crystals (<1kDa) from the filtered solutions had high purity. Therefore, the present study reveals the necessity of taking into consideration the interference effect of high molecular weight organic matters during struvite crystallization from sewage sludge. PMID:26899641

  12. Longitudinal measurement of the developing grey matter in preterm subjects using multi-modal MRI.

    PubMed

    Eaton-Rosen, Zach; Melbourne, Andrew; Orasanu, Eliza; Cardoso, M Jorge; Modat, Marc; Bainbridge, Alan; Kendall, Giles S; Robertson, Nicola J; Marlow, Neil; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    Preterm birth is a major public health concern, with the severity and occurrence of adverse outcome increasing with earlier delivery. Being born preterm disrupts a time of rapid brain development: in addition to volumetric growth, the cortex folds, myelination is occurring and there are changes on the cellular level. These neurological events have been imaged non-invasively using diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. In this population, there has been a focus on examining diffusion in the white matter, but the grey matter is also critically important for neurological health. We acquired multi-shell high-resolution diffusion data on 12 infants born at ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age at two time-points: once when stable after birth, and again at term-equivalent age. We used the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model (NODDI) (Zhang et al., 2012) to analyse the changes in the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, both grey matter regions. We showed region-dependent changes in NODDI parameters over the preterm period, highlighting underlying changes specific to the microstructure. This work is the first time that NODDI parameters have been evaluated in both the cortical and the thalamic grey matter as a function of age in preterm infants, offering a unique insight into neuro-development in this at-risk population. PMID:25681570

  13. Problematizing Science Subject Matter Knowledge as a Legitimate Enterprise in Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, David S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the process of how subject and pedagogic knowledge emerge through teachers' learning in science. It suggests that problematizing subject knowledge through direct experience of learning in science, particularly in those areas that are known to be difficult, constitutes a productive way of turning a deficit model of…

  14. Social comparison and subjective well-being: does the health of others matter?

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The importance of social comparison in shaping individual utility has been widely documented by subjective well-being literature. So far, income and unemployment have been the main dimensions considered in social comparison. This paper aims to investigate whether subjective well-being is influenced by inter-personal comparison with respect to health. Thus, we study the effects of the health of others and relative health hypotheses on two measures of subjective well-being: happiness and subjective health. Using data from the Italian Health Conditions survey, we show that a high incidence of chronic conditions and disability among reference groups negatively affects both happiness and subjective health. Such effects are stronger among people in the same condition. These results, robust to different econometric specifications and estimation techniques, suggest the presence of some sympathy in individual preferences with respect to health and reveal that other people's health status serves as a benchmark to assess one's own health condition. PMID:22299192

  15. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  16. NCAN Cross-Disorder Risk Variant Is Associated With Limbic Gray Matter Deficits in Healthy Subjects and Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kugel, Harald; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Suchy, Janina; Opel, Nils; Suslow, Thomas; Konrad, Carsten; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel; Jansen, Andreas; Baune, Bernhard T; Heindel, Walter; Domschke, Katharina; Forstner, Andreas J; Nöthen, Markus M; Treutlein, Jens; Arolt, Volker; Hohoff, Christa; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported an association between NCAN rs1064395 genotype and bipolar disorder. This association was later extended to schizophrenia and major depression. However, the neurobiological underpinnings of these associations are poorly understood. NCAN is implicated in neuronal plasticity and expressed in subcortical brain areas, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are critically involved in dysfunctional emotion processing and regulation across diagnostic boundaries. We hypothesized that the NCAN risk variant is associated with reduced gray matter volumes in these areas. Gray matter structure was assessed by voxel-based morphometry on structural MRI data in two independent German samples (healthy subjects, n=512; depressed inpatients, n=171). All participants were genotyped for NCAN rs1064395. Hippocampal and amygdala region-of-interest analyses were performed within each sample. In addition, whole-brain data from the combined sample were analyzed. Risk (A)-allele carriers showed reduced amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volumes in both cohorts with a remarkable spatial overlap. In the combined sample, genotype effects observed for the amygdala and hippocampus survived correction for entire brain volume. Further effects were also observed in the left orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum/fusiform gyrus. We conclude that NCAN genotype is associated with limbic gray matter alterations in healthy and depressed subjects in brain areas implicated in emotion perception and regulation. The present data suggest that NCAN forms susceptibility to neurostructural deficits in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal areas independent of disease, which might lead to disorder onset in the presence of other genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:25801500

  17. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  18. Preservice Biology Teachers' Subject Matter Structures and Their Relationship to the Act of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gess-Newsome, Julie; Lederman, Norman G.

    Ten preservice biology teachers were followed through the final year of their preservice education to assess the content and stability of their knowledge structures of biology. A questionnaire asking the subjects to list the topics which make up biology and to diagram these topics in relation to one another was completed three times during the…

  19. Change in Teachers' Knowledge of Subject Matter: A 17-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzi, Hanna J.; White, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored change in teachers' knowledge of subjects they teach from preservice training through 17 years of professional experience. It followed secondary school science teachers in Australia, through sequences of individual interviews in which change in content knowledge (mainly energy-related) was probed primarily via…

  20. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  1. The Work of the Prince's Teaching Institute--Insisting that Established Subjects Matter to All Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Prince's Teaching Institute (PTI), which has evolved out of the Summer Schools for English Literature and History which The Prince of Wales inaugurated in 2002, now provides a variety of courses in the major subjects of the secondary curriculum. In partnership with Cambridge University it enables teachers to update and extend their subject…

  2. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  3. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  4. Vocal Reaction Times of Stuttering Subjects to Tachistoscopically Presented Concrete and Abstract Words: A Closer Look at Cerebral Dominance and Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastatter, Michael P.; Dell, Carl

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated cerebral organization for visual language processing with 14 adult stutterers. Results showed the right hemisphere was superior for analyzing the concrete words while the left hemisphere was responsible for processing the abstract items suggesting some form of linguistic competition between the two hemispheres of this…

  5. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  6. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  7. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  8. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  9. Liberating Subject Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, John

    1991-01-01

    Examines the conflict between the "politically correct" movement and educational "traditionalists." Suggests that the "politically correct" view seeks to purge sexism, racism, and economic classism, whereas traditionalists desire to inject values into education. Identifies the one-sidedness of each position. Argues for bringing the controversy to…

  10. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  11. Relationships between Personality Traits, Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, and White Matter Lesion in Subjects Suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Duron, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Bounatiro, Samira; Ben Ahmed, Sana; Seux, Marie-Laure; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Viollet, Cécile; Epelbaum, Jacques; Martel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous cognitive status that can be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is particularly relevant to focus on prodromal stages of AD such as MCI, because patho-physiological abnormalities of AD start years before the dementia stage. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy resulting from AD lesions and cerebrovascular lesions [i.e., white matter lesions (WML), lacunar strokes, and strokes] are often revealed concurrently on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MCI subjects. Personality changes have been reported to be associated with MCI status and early AD. More specifically, an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness have been reported, suggesting that higher and lower scores, respectively, in neuroticism and conscientiousness are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. However, personality changes have not been studied concomitantly with pathological structural brain alterations detected on MRI in patients suffering from MCI. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between MTL atrophy, WML, lacunar strokes, and personality traits in such patients. The severity of WML was strongly associated with lower levels of conscientiousness and higher levels of neuroticism. Conversely, no association was detected between personality traits and the presence of lacunar strokes or MTL atrophy. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that personality changes occurring in a MCI population, at high risk of AD, are associated with WML, which can induce executive dysfunctions, rather than with MTL atrophy. PMID:25120483

  12. Differences in Perceptions of the Importance of Subject Matter Knowledge and How These Shaped Supervision and Assessment of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudavanhu, Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish lecturers and student teachers' perceptions of the importance of subject matter knowledge and how these views affected supervision and assessment of pre-service and in-service science teachers at University of Mashonaland (pseudonym) in Zimbabwe. The study was largely qualitative and used group…

  13. I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

  14. Middle-School Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of the Engineering Design Process: A Look at Subject Matter and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Morgan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research investigating six middle school teachers without engineering degrees as they taught an engineering unit on the engineering design process. Videotaped classroom sessions and teacher interviews were analyzed to understand the subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge the teachers used and developed as they…

  15. Dancing with Maggots and Saints: Past and Future Visions for Subject Matter Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Science Teacher Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.

    The act of exemplary teaching requires the orchestration of subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge with pedagogical content knowledge. If this last component is not sufficiently present, then we may be quite efficient in presenting students with rote information. If this last component is sufficiently present (and carried out well),…

  16. The Place of Subject Matter Knowledge in Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of South African Teachers Teaching the Amount of Substance and Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…

  17. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  18. Special Education Teacher Knowledge of Literacy: An Analysis of Two Preparation Programs' Effectiveness in Increasing Subject-Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Special educators' knowledge of reading concepts are not only influenced by their understanding of the subject matter, but also by an amalgam of content and pedagogy that enables teachers to integrate this information to meet the diverse needs of students with disabilities. This study documented the conceptual knowledge that special education…

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  1. The Potential of Interpersonal Relationships among Subject Matter Specialists for the Performance of the Integration Function on Behalf of Clients: Missouri Agricultural Extension as a Case in Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberger, Herbert F.; Cheng, Wei-Yaun

    Responses of 127 agricultural specialists concerning their information seeking and interactive contacts within the Missouri Extension Service revealed an interpersonal communicative network among subject matter specialists with a potential for performing the integration (putting together) function on behalf of farmers. This occurred in an…

  2. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  3. The Effect of Gender, Seniority and Subject Matter on the Perceptions of Organizational Justice of Teachers: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad; Karaman, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    This study reveals the results of a meta-analysis conducted with the theses and research studies published in Turkey from 2005 to 2012 regarding organizational justice. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of gender, seniority and subject matter on the perceptions of organizational justice of teachers. Specific criteria were used…

  4. Exploring the Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics and Pedagogy Class on Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored the impact of a standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class on preservice elementary teachers' beliefs and conceptual subject matter knowledge of linear functions. The framework for the standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class in this study involved the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards,…

  5. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  6. I didn't know oxygen could boil! What preservice and inservice elementary teachers' answers to `simple' science questions reveals about their subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice*, Diana C.

    2005-09-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during first-day discussions in elementary science methods courses. Both groups outperformed average citizens on the 10 survey questions. However, three other questions used to introduce discussion of why students may find learning science difficult revealed lack of conceptual understanding of basic physical and biological phenomena commonly found in most elementary science curricula. Results and implications are discussed in the context of increasing expectations for subject matter competence demanded of ‘highly qualified teachers’ under provisions of the 2001 US Elementary and Secondary Education Act (‘No Child Left Behind Act’).

  7. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  8. On the equilibrium of a extremely extended and diluted magneto-matter state subject to its weight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel

    Solutions to the force relationship between the magnetic stresses and the self-gravitational force are discussed for a simple homogeneous distribution of matter coalescent to a magnetic field in a cylindrical geometry. Consideration are given to the needed permeability of the medium to make it capable of supporting many times the mass of the Sun, on an extension of several parsecs to kiloparsec. This state of self organization of matter and magnetic field (magneto-matter state) has proven useful interpretation for the explanation of anomalous thermodynamic of the gas of electrons contained in flux-tubes with a twist, low-beta, often observed at 1 AU in the interplanetary medium, Berdichevsky and Shefers, 2015. This state of matter, which most basic property, the freezing in the magnetic field, see e.g., Chew et al, 1956, has proved to exist in the regions where robotic observations in the near and far space perform detailed observations of magnetic fields, and extreme dilute plasma (commonly about 1000 to 0.1 or less ionized particles per cubic cm). This work is in many ways an extension of Alfven work on magnetized space plasmas, Alven, 1942. Berdichevsky, D.B., and K., Schefers, ApJ, 803, 70, 2015, doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/70 Chew, G.F., M.L., Goldberger, and F.E. Low, 1956, the Royal Soc. London, section Math & Phys Sc., 236, pp. 112. Alfv'e n, H (1942). ``Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves.'' Nature 150, 405 doi:10.1038/150405d0

  9. Thalamic fractional anisotropy predicts accrual of cerebral white matter damage in older subjects with small-vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Michele; Moscufo, Nicola; Meier, Dominik; Skudlarski, Pawel; Pearlson, Godfrey D; White, William B; Wolfson, Leslie; Guttmann, Charles RG

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and lacunes are magnetic resonance imaging hallmarks of cerebral small-vessel disease, which increase the risk of stroke, cognitive, and mobility impairment. Although most studies of cerebral small-vessel disease have focused on white matter abnormalities, the gray matter (GM) is also affected, as evidenced by frequently observed lacunes in subcortical GM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle neurodegenerative changes in deep GM structures. We explored the relationship between baseline DTI characteristics of the thalamus, caudate, and putamen, and the volume and subsequent accrual of WMHs over a 4-year period in 56 community-dwelling older (⩾75 years) individuals. Baseline thalamic fractional anisotropy (FA) was an independent predictor of WMH accrual. WMH accrual also correlated with baseline lacune count and baseline WMH volume, the latter showing the strongest predictive power, explaining 27.3% of the variance. The addition of baseline thalamic FA in multivariate modeling increased this value by 70%, which explains 46.5% of the variance in WMH accrual rate. Thalamic FA might serve as a novel predictor of cerebral small-vessel disease progression in clinical settings and trials. Furthermore, our findings point to the possibility of a causal relationship between thalamic damage and the accrual of WMHs. PMID:24824915

  10. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  11. Vasomotor reactivity comparison in multiple sclerosis patients with white matter lesions and nonmultiple sclerosis subjects with white matter lesions in brain magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khorvash, Fariborz; Masaeli, Ali; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been recognized a close relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and the cerebral vasculature. In this study, we observed cerebrovascular vasomotor reactivity difference between the MS patients and the non-MS migraine individuals. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 40 patients with MS referring to Neurology Clinic of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital in 2012. The patients were compared with the same number of non-MS migraine individuals. Both groups had white matter lesions in brain magnetic resonance imaging. To evaluate the rate of cerebral artery vasomotor reactivity, transcranial Doppler device was used, and breath-holding index (BHI) was separately calculated for each middle cerebral artery. Main flow velocity (MFV) was determined by continuously recording of a period of 5 min of breathing the air in the room. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and t-test, Chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Results: The mean values of MFV at rest was not significantly different between cases and control groups (46.21 ± 4.20 vs. 44.69 ± 4.34, P = 0.115) but difference between cases and control groups in MFV apnea was significant (59.11 ± 5.10 vs. 55.35 ± 6.03, P = 0.004). BHI in the control group was 0.79 ± 0.26 and in the case group was 0.93 ± 0.20 and these differences was found to be significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The mean of BHI and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in MS patients was more than the non-MS migraine individuals, although the mechanism of this process still remains unknown. PMID:26962525

  12. Rural Health Abstracts and Citations 1980-1987. Part II: Indian Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. Center for Rural Health.

    Over 300 articles concerning rural health as it pertains to American Indians and Alaska Natives are cited in this bibliography. Most of the articles were published between 1980 and 1988. Abstracts are reprinted verbatim and the bibliography is organized into sections by subject matter. Within each section, annotated citations are listed…

  13. Elevating Instruction for Secondary-School Students with Learning Disabilities by Demystifying the Highly Qualified Subject Matter Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The highly qualified mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has created unnecessary confusion, particularly among secondary-school special educators and administrators with respect to instruction in core academic subjects. The pursuit of compliance solutions to meet this requirement has generally…

  14. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. PMID:25798554

  15. Occipital sources of resting-state alpha rhythms are related to local gray matter density in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Boccardi, Marina; Lizio, Roberta; Lopez, Susanna; Carducci, Filippo; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Prestia, Annapaola; Salinari, Serenella; Rasser, Paul E; Basar, Erol; Famà, Francesco; Nobili, Flavio; Yener, Görsev; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Gesualdo, Loreto; Mundi, Ciro; Thompson, Paul M; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-02-01

    Occipital sources of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density, estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Results showed a positive correlation between occipital gray matter density and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI, and AD subjects as a whole group (r = 0.3, p = 0.000004, N = 235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Examination score across all subjects (r = 0.38, p = 0.000001, N = 235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting-state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathologic aging. PMID:25442118

  16. Scientist engagement in NGSS-related professional development: the role of subject-matter experts in implementing the Next-Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of the Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will require a significant commitment from instructors in the K-12 arena to mastering a broad area of subject matter. In particular, this presentation focuses on weather- and climate-related areas in the NGSS, specifically fifth- and sixth-grade standards (MS-ESS5-2 and MS-ESS2-6, respectively) and the requirements of a teacher to connect both observations and model development to complex atmospheric concepts to satisfy the standards. Involving scientists as subject-matter experts in professional development modules designed to address the NGSS standards can greatly improve instructor understanding of the necessary material. Results from extant teacher development workshops developed by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University, using the Colorado fifth-grade state standards for weather and climate (which are materially similar to the NGSS standards), are demonstrated, focusing on knowledge transfer and follow-up with educators. Efforts to maintain contact and continue scientist-instructor relationship post-workshop are detailed, as well as challenges faced implementing workshops. Possible best-practices guidelines that would extend to other fields of research germane to NGSS standards are discussed as well.

  17. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. PMID:23151459

  18. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD. PMID:27255810

  19. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  20. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  1. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  2. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  3. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PERSONAL LEVELS OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN OLDER SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT COPD. (R827355C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  6. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  7. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  8. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  9. Association between short term exposure to fine particulate matter and heart rate variability in older subjects with and without heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J; Schreuder, A; Trenga, C; Liu, S; Larson, T; Koenig, J; Kaufman, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Short term increases in exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind this effect is unclear, although changes in autonomic control have been observed. It was hypothesised that increases in fine PM measured at the subjects' home in the preceding hour would be associated with decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) in individuals with pre-existing cardiac disease. Methods: Two hundred and eighty five daily 20 minute measures of HRV (including a paced breathing protocol) were made in the homes of 34 elderly individuals with (n = 21) and without (n = 13) cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a 10 day period in Seattle between February 2000 and March 2002. Fine PM was continuously measured by nephelometry at the individuals' homes. Results: The median age of the study population was 77 years (range 57–87) and 44% were male. Models that adjusted for health status, relative humidity, temperature, mean heart rate, and medication use did not find a significant association between a 10 µg/m3 increase in 1 hour mean outdoor PM2.5 before the HRV measurement and a change in HF-HRV power in individuals with CVD (3% increase in median HF-HRV (95% CI –19 to 32)) or without CVD (5% decrease in median HF-HRV (95% CI –34 to 36)). Similarly, no association was evident using 4 hour and 24 hour mean outdoor PM2.5 exposures before the HRV measurement. Conclusion: No association was found between increased residence levels of fine PM and frequency domain measures of HRV in elderly individuals. PMID:15923245

  10. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  12. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  13. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  15. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  16. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  17. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  18. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  19. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  20. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  1. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  2. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  3. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  4. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  5. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  6. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  7. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  8. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  9. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  10. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  13. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  14. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  15. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  16. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  17. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Don; Hutchinson, Wayne; Yazidjoglou, Nick; Stewart, Glen

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  19. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  20. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  1. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  2. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  3. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  4. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  5. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  6. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  8. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  9. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  11. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  12. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  13. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  14. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  15. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  16. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  17. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  18. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  19. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  20. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  1. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  2. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  3. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) using multi-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tedetti, Marc; Cuet, Pascale; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-05-01

    La Saline fringing reef is the most important coral reef complex of La Réunion Island (southwestern Indian Ocean; 21°07'S, 55°32'E). This ecosystem is subjected to anthropogenic pressures through river inputs and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The goal of this study was to characterize the pool of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in different water bodies of La Saline fringing reef ecosystem using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrofluorometry. From EEMs, we identified the different fluorophores by the peak picking technique and determined two fluorescence indices issued from the literature: the humification index (HIX) and the biological index (BIX). The main known fluorophores were present within the sample set: humic-like A, humic-like C, marine humic-like M, tryptophan-like T1 and T2, and tyrosine-like B1 and B2. In some samples, unknown fluorophores ("U") were also detected. The surface oceanic waters located beyond the reef front displayed a typical oligotrophic marine signature, with a dominance of autochthonous/biological material (presence of peaks: T1>B1>A>T2>M>C; HIX: 0.9±0.4; BIX: 2.3±1.1). In the reef waters, the autochthonous/biological fingerprint also dominated even though the content in humic substances was higher (same relative distribution of peaks; HIX: 1.6±0.6; BIX: 1.0±0.1). Sedimentary and volcanic SGD showed very different patterns with a strong terrestrial source for the former (A>T1>C>B1 and A>C>B1; HIX: 9.8±2.0; BIX: 0.8±0.0) and a weak terrestrial source for the latter (A>B1>U3>B2>C and A>U4>C; HIX: 2.4±0.3; BIX: 0.9±0.0). In the Hermitage River, both humic substances and protein-like material were abundant (T1>A>U5>B1>C>B2; HIX: 2.3; BIX: 1.4). We provide evidences for the presence of anthropogenic DOM in some of these water bodies. Some oceanic samples (presence of peaks U1 and U2) were likely contaminated by oil-derived PAHs from ships navigating around the reef front, whereas the Hermitage River was

  4. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = –0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001). The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  5. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  6. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacAlady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  13. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  14. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  15. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  16. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  17. Associations of hippocampal metabolism and regional brain grey matter in neuroleptic-naïve ultra-high-risk subjects and first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Igor; Maitra, Raka; Basu, Soumyajit; Dietzek, Maren; Schönfeld, Nils; Lorenz, Carsten; Gussew, Alexander; Amminger, G Paul; McGorry, Patrick; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian; Smesny, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Hippocampal pathology has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and a putative risk marker for developing psychosis. We applied both (1)H MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) at 3Tesla and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of high-resolution brain structural images in order to study the association of the metabolites glutamate (Glu) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the hippocampus with whole-brain morphometry in 31 persons at ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR), 18 first-episode schizophrenia patients (Sz), and 42 healthy controls (all subjects being neuroleptic-naïve). Significantly diverging associations emerged for UHR subjects hippocampal glutamate showed positive correlation with the left superior frontal cortex, not seen in Sz or controls, while in first-episode schizophrenia patients a negative correlation was significant between glutamate and a left prefrontal area. For NAA, we observed different associations for left prefrontal and caudate clusters bilaterally for both high-risk and first-episode schizophrenia subjects, diverging from the pattern seen in healthy subjects. Our results suggest that associations of hippocampal metabolites in key areas of schizophrenia might vary due to liability to or onset of the disorder. PMID:26088723

  18. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  19. Selecting Students with a General Reasoning Test (SAT I) or Tests in Academic Subjects (SAT II): Does It Matter for Non-Native Speakers of English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both the SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests researchers simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Students in each college were treated as forming the applicant pool for a more select college, and the top…

  20. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PMID:25437792

  1. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  2. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  3. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  4. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  5. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  6. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  7. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  8. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  9. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  10. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Madsen, Anne Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Massling, Andreas; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Lund, Rikke; Sigsgaard, Torben; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300 nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5 μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280 nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10 μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes. PMID:25233101

  11. Effects of Personal Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter on Acute Change in Nocturnal Heart Rate Variability in Subjects Without Overt Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Eum, Ki-Do; Rodrigues, Ema G; Magari, Shannon R; Fang, Shona C; Modest, Geoffrey A; Christiani, David C

    2016-01-01

    The immediate effect within minutes to hours of personal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on cardiac autonomic function is limited, particularly at night. Our study aimed to assess the lagged association between personal exposure to PM2.5 and nocturnal heart rate variability. Repeated measures panel study among 21 community adults recruited from a local health clinic during the period of March 1, 2004, to August 31, 2004, in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States. Ambulatory electrocardiogram and continuous monitoring of personal exposure to PM2.5 and were measured for up to 2 consecutive days. We calculated 5-minute time-specific average PM2.5 exposure for each participant. Mixed-effects models were fit for 5-minute SD of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and 5-minute heart rate in relation to 5-minute PM2.5 exposure lagged in 5-minute intervals up to 4 hours. We found an 8.4% decrease in nocturnal SDNN (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.3% to -5.5%) and a 1.9% increase in nighttime heart rate (95% CI 1.1% to 2.7%) for an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (13.6 μg/m(3)), after adjusting for confounders. Significant decreases in nocturnal SDNN associated with PM2.5 exposure occurred within 2.5 hours. The largest decrease in nocturnal SDNN of -12.8% (95% CI -16.4 to -9.1%) that was associated with PM2.5 exposure was found with a lag of 25 minutes. Rapid changes in nocturnal heart rate variability associated with personal PM2.5 exposure occurred within the previous 2.5 hours, with the largest effects at 25 minutes, suggesting immediate cardiac autonomic effects of fine particulate exposure. PMID:26552502

  12. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  13. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  14. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  16. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  17. Do CS-US Pairings Actually Matter? A Within-Subject Comparison of Instructed Fear Conditioning with and without Actual CS-US Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Brass, Marcel; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS+1, CS+2, CS−) and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS+1 and CS+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS+s but none of the CS+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS+1 than for CS+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465447

  18. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  20. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  2. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  3. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  4. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  6. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  7. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  8. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  9. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  10. Achievement as a Function of Abstractness and Cognitive Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    A multiple choice achievement test was constructed in which both cognitive level and degree of abstractness were controlled. Subjects were 75 students from a major university in the Southwest. A group of 13 judges, also university students, classified the concepts for degree of abstractness. Results indicated that both cognitive level and degree…

  11. The 2nd United Kingdom Extracellular Vesicle Forum Meeting Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Aled; Lawson, Charlotte; Gardiner, Chris; Harrison, Paul; Carter, David

    2016-01-01

    The UK Extracellular Vesicles (UKEV) Forum meetings were born of the realization that there were a number of UK laboratories studying extracellular vesicle biology and using similar techniques but without a regular national meeting dedicated to EVs at which to share their findings. This was compounded by the fact that many of these labs were working in different fields and thus networking and sharing of ideas and best practice was sometimes difficult. The first workshop was organized in 2013 by Dr Charlotte Lawson, under the auspices of the Society for Endocrinology, led to the founding of the UKEV Forum and the organization of a British Heart Foundation sponsored 1-day conference held in London in December 2014. Although growing in size every year, the central aims of these workshops have remained the same: to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas, to allow young scientists to present their data in the form of short talks and poster presentations and to discuss their work with more established scientists in the field. Here we include the presented abstracts for the 2015 1-day conference hosted by Cardiff University. This meeting was attended by approximately 130 delegates throughout the United Kingdom, but also attended by delegates from Belgium, Netherlands, France, Ireland and other nations. The day composed of plenary presentations from Prof Matthias Belting, Lund University, Sweden and Dr Guillaume van Niel, Institut Curie, Paris together with 10 short presentations from submitted abstracts. The topics covered were broad, with sessions on Mechanisms of EV production, EVs in Infection, EVs in Cancer and in Blood and Characterizing EVs in Biological fluids. This hopefully gives a reflection of the range of EV-related studies being conducted currently in the UK. There were also 33 poster presentations equally broad in subject matter. The organizers are grateful to the Life Science Research Network Wales – a Welsh government-funding scheme that

  12. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p < .0001) and post-MotScl (ES = 0.32; p < .05) scores. According to data obtained from the questionnaire, the application of the 4MAT model increases student motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  13. Preservice Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Ramakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Sixty four preservice teachers taking a mathematics methods class for middle schools were given 3 math problems: multiply a three digit number by a two digit number; divide a whole number by a fraction; and compare the volume of two cylinders made in different ways from the same rectangular sheet. They were to a) solve them, explaining their…

  14. PCK: How Teachers Transform Subject Matter Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; van Driel, Jan; Hulshof, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Review of book on the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including chapters reviewing an extensive body of research on the knowledge base for teaching, especially science, and the application of PCK to the design of elementary and secondary school science teacher-education programs. (PKP)

  15. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  16. Subject Matter: Meaningful Learning in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autio, Ossi

    2006-01-01

    In Finland teaching of technology has traveled a long road during its 140-year history. It has gradually gone from the copying of the model series dating back to the 1860s to the building of computer controlled robots. Materials, techniques and technology have developed wildly but the pedagogic contents are restricted regrettably still often only…

  17. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  18. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  19. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. Abstract concepts: data from a Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2013-02-01

    Do humans and nonhumans share the ability to form abstract concepts? Until the 1960s, many researchers questioned whether avian subjects could form categorical constructs, much less more abstract formulations, including concepts such as same-different or exact understanding of number. Although ethologists argued that nonhumans, including birds, had to have some understanding of divisions such as prey versus predator, mate versus nonmate, food versus nonfood, or basic relational concepts such as more versus less, simply in order to survive, no claims were made that these abilities reflected cognitive processes, and little formal data from psychology laboratories could initially support such claims. Researchers like Anthony Wright, however, succeeded in obtaining such data and inspired many others to pursue these topics, with the eventual result that several avian species are now considered "feathered primates" in terms of cognitive processes. Here I review research on numerical concepts in the Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), demonstrating that at least one subject, Alex, understood number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, in ways comparing favorably to those of apes and young human children. He not only understood such concepts, but also appeared to learn them in ways more similar to humans than to apes. PMID:23089384

  1. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  2. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  3. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  4. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  5. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  6. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  7. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  9. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  10. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  11. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  12. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  13. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  14. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  15. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  16. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  17. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  18. Usefulness of voxel-based lesion mapping for predicting motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Yoona; Jung, Tae-min; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Yoon Ghil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is important to estimate motor recovery in the early phase after stroke. Many studies have demonstrated that both diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are valuable predictors of motor recovery, but these modalities do not directly reflect the status of the injured gray matter. We report on 2 subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage who showed similar DTT and MEP findings, but had markedly different clinical outcomes. Specifically, Subject 1 showed no improvement in motor function, whereas Subject 2 exhibited substantial improvement 7 weeks after onset. To determine if differences in gray matter might lend insight into these different outcomes, we analyzed gray matter lesions of the 2 subjects using a novel voxel-based lesion mapping method. The lesion of Subject 1 mainly included the putamen, thalamus, and Heschl's gyri, indicating extension of the hemorrhage in the posterior direction. In contrast, the lesion of Subject 2 mainly included the putamen, insula, and pallidum, indicating that the hemorrhage extended anterior laterally. These differential findings suggest that voxel-based gray matter lesion mapping may help to predict differential motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage with similar DTT and MEP findings. PMID:27281090

  19. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  20. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  1. Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

  2. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  3. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  4. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  5. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  6. When matter matters

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-07-01

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe:Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions — to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  7. Sail-assisted commercial marine vehicles: bibliography and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shortall, J.W. III

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography that contains abstracts of 331 articles published on the subject of commercial sailing vessels and sail-assisted work boats of all kinds is presented. This is part of a continuing project supported both by the University of South Florida and the Florida Sea Grant College, and is an update of the previous publication of abstracts, Florida Sea Grant College Technical Paper No.24, May, 1982. Abstracts are compiled regularly, and subsequent reports will be issued periodically. A brief discussion of modern and historical commercial sail, the reasons for serious interest in same, and commercial sailing fishing vessels is presented.

  8. [The abstract--why and how it should be written].

    PubMed

    Kourilová, M; Hulín, I

    1989-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide stimuli for writing concise and coherent abstracts imaging the original article without loss of critical substance and clarity. The main functions of abstracts in providing quick information and reliable sources for indexing are emphasized. The purposes of the prospective reader have to be considered as they should determine the form and content of the abstract. The two main types, i.e. indicative and informative abstracts are assessed. The indicative abstract states what the full paper is about and is thus suitable only for review papers, essays, and nonexperimental studies. As its primary purpose is to help decide whether the full article should be read, it is practically useless when it accompanies a paper written in a different and not commonly accessible language (e.g. Slovak article, English abstract). The informative abstract has a high load of specified information. When concerning experimental work, it should state the aim, the material or subjects involved and methods used, the results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. The recently introduced structured abstract for clinical papers presents a comprehensive image of the full article in a format that makes explicit the elements of critical argument. A framework of useful steps for writing abstracts is provided by analyzing the three main phases of the abstracting process, i.e. 1. analytic reading, 2. extraction, organization and reduction of information, and 3. critical editing. The presented summary of hints for writing reader oriented abstracts and the list of actual examples of obfuscation should increase the awareness and commitment of authors in preparing good-quality abstracts. PMID:2819492

  9. The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking.

    PubMed

    Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4-8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages. PMID:26903834

  10. The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking

    PubMed Central

    Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4–8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages. PMID:26903834

  11. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  12. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  13. Dense neutron star matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J. R.

    2014-05-02

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics.

  14. Dense neutron star matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.

    2014-05-01

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been a subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high-density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfill basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics.

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    PubMed

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  16. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  17. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  18. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  19. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  20. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  1. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  2. Technical Subjects. Mathematics. Science. Curriculum RP-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Technical subjects and special mathematics and science courses for technical students. Technical subjects include air conditioning, auto mechanics, carpentry, drafting, applied electronics, masonry, painting, plumbing, service station operation, welding, and woodworking. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL…

  3. Particulate Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technology Laws & Regulations About EPA Contact Us Particulate Matter (PM) You are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements March 13, 2013 - An updated “Strategies ...

  4. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  5. NASA Patent Abstracts: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 54

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents and applications for patent. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period June 1998 through December 1998. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order.

  6. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography With Abstracts - Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cited are 558 references with abstracts translated from the original foreign languages, including 511 from Russian, 129 from German, and 18 from other countries. The entries are generally of a technical or advanced nature and are grouped into 13 subject areas: General, Emission Sources, Atmospheric Interaction, Measurement Methods, Control…

  7. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  8. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  9. Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…

  10. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  11. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  12. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  13. Gray Matter Involvement in Radiologically Isolated Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Labiano-Fontcuberta, Andrés; Mato-Abad, Virginia; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Ginés, Mª Luisa; Aladro, Yolanda; Ayuso, Lucía; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Benito-León, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unanticipated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection in the brain of asymptomatic subjects of white matter lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis has recently been named as radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). The pathophysiological processes of RIS remain largely unknown and questions as to whether gray matter alterations actually occur in this entity are yet to be investigated in more detail. By means of a 3 T multimodal MRI approach, we searched for cortical and deep gray matter changes in a cohort of RIS patients. Seventeen RIS patients, 17 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients (median disease duration from symptom onset = 12 months), and 17 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Normalized deep gray matter volumes and regional cortical thickness were assessed using FreeSurfer. SIENAX was used to obtain normalized global and cortical brain volumes. Voxelwise morphometry analysis was performed by using SPM8 software to localize regions of brain tissue showing significant changes of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity. Although no differences were observed between CIS and healthy controls groups, RIS patients showed significantly lower normalized cortical volume (673 ± 27.07 vs 641 ± 35.88 [cm3 × 103, Tukey P test = 0.009) and mean thalamic volume (0.0051 ± 0.4 vs 0.0046 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.014) compared with healthy controls. RIS patients also showed significant thinning in a number of cortical areas, that were primarily distributed in frontal and temporal lobes (P < 0.05, uncorrected). Strong correlations were observed between T2-white matter lesion volume and regional cortical thickness (rho spearman ranging from 0.60 to 0.80). Our data suggest that white matter lesions on T2-weighted images are not the only hallmark of RIS. Future longitudinal studies with larger samples are warranted to better clarify the effect of RIS-related white matter lesions on gray matter

  14. The Hunt for Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    These lectures, given at the 2014 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI), are an introduction to what we know at present about dark matter and the major current experimental and observational efforts to identify what it consists of. They attempt to present the complexities of the subject, making clear common simplifying assumptions, to better understand the reach of dark matter searches.

  15. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouger, H. Garland (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  16. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouger, H. Garland

    1992-11-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  17. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  18. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  19. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  20. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  1. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2010-01-08

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  2. Dark Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Silk

    2009-09-23

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  3. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  4. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  8. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  9. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  10. Dark matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    The observational evidence for dark matter in the universe is reviewed. Constraints on the baryon density from primordial nucleosynthesis are presented and compared to the dynamical estimates of the mass on various scales. Baryons can account for the observed luminous mass as well as some, perhaps most, of the 'observed' dark mass. However if, as inflation/naturalness suggest, the total density of the universe is equal to the critical density, then nonbaryonic dark matter is required. The assets and liabilities of, as well as the candidates for, hot and cold dark matter are outlined. At present, there is no completely satisfactory candidate for nonbaryonic dark matter.

  11. Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.

  12. Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

    1992-01-01

    A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts October 2006: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is an annual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA-owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included were originally published in NASA s Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2005 through September 2006. The range of subjects covered includes the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide's 10 broad subject divisions separated further into 76 specific categories. However, not all categories contain citations during the dates covered for this issue; therefore, the Table of Contents does not include all divisions and categories. This scheme was devised in 1975 and last revised in 2005 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. When available, citations contain a

  14. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  15. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear physics, August 24-30, 1980, Berkeley, California. Volume 1. Abstracts. [Berkeley, California, August 24-30, 1980 (abstracts only)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains all abstracts (931) received by the conference organizers before June 20, 1980. The abstracts are grouped according to the following topics: nucleon-nucleon interactions, free and in nuclei; distribution of matter, charge, and magnetism; exotic nuclei and exotic probes; giant resonances and other high-lying excitations; applications of nuclear science; nuclei with large angular momentum and deformation; heavy-ion reactions and relaxation phenomena; new techniques and instruments; pion absorption and scattering by nuclei; and miscellaneous. Some of these one-page abstracts contain data. A complete author index is provided. (RWR)

  16. Perception of emotion in abstract artworks: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Melcher, David; Bacci, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing and fundamental debate regarding how emotion can be expressed by fine art. Some artists and theorists have claimed that certain features of paintings, such as color, line, form, and composition, can consistently express an "objective" emotion, while others have argued that emotion perception is subjective and depends more on expertise of the observer. Here, we discuss two studies in which we have found evidence for consistency in observer ratings of emotion for abstract artworks. We have developed a stimulus set of abstract art images to test emotional priming, both between different painting images and between paintings and faces. The ratings were also used in a computational vision analysis of the visual features underlying emotion expression. Overall, these findings suggest that there is a strong bottom-up and objective aspect to perception of emotion in abstract artworks that may tap into basic visual mechanisms. PMID:24041325

  17. Abstracted publications related to the Hanford environment, 1980 to 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.; Gray, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    This abstracted bibliography provides a reference to the diverse environmental activities conducted on the Hanford Site from 1980 through 1988. It includes 500 reports and articles that were prepared largely by onsite contractors and the Department of Energy. Documents contained here were separated into eight subject areas: air and atmosphere, aquatic ecology, effluents and wastes, geology and hydrology, Hanford Site, radioactivity, terrestrial ecology, and socioeconomics. These areas form the basis of a key word index, which is intended to help the reader locate subjects of interest. An author index is also included.

  18. Experience and Abstract Reasoning in Learning Backward Induction

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Daniel R.; Vostroknutov, Alexander; Rustichini, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Backward induction is a benchmark of game theoretic rationality, yet surprisingly little is known as to how humans discover and initially learn to apply this abstract solution concept in experimental settings. We use behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the way in which subjects playing in a sequential game of perfect information learn the optimal backward induction strategy for the game. Experimental data from our two studies support two main findings: First, subjects converge to a common process of recursive inference similar to the backward induction procedure for solving the game. The process is recursive because earlier insights and conclusions are used as inputs in later steps of the inference. This process is matched by a similar pattern in brain activation, which also proceeds backward, following the prediction error: brain activity initially codes the responses to losses in final positions; in later trials this activity shifts to the starting position. Second, the learning process is not exclusively cognitive, but instead combines experience-based learning and abstract reasoning. Critical experiences leading to the adoption of an improved solution strategy appear to be stimulated by brain activity in the reward system. This indicates that the negative affect induced by initial failures facilitates the switch to a different method of solving the problem. Abstract reasoning is combined with this response, and is expressed by activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Differences in brain activation match differences in performance between subjects who show different learning speeds. PMID:22363254

  19. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  20. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  1. Urban Transportation Abstracts. Volume 7, 1988. Report for September 1988-February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Urban Transportation Abstracts is an annual publication that features abstracts and research project summaries on planning, designing, financing, constructing, operating, maintaining, managing, and marketing all modes of public transit. Some of these modes are advanced guideway systems, buses, carpools, commuter services, elderly and handicapped transport, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, paratransit, rapid transit, streetcars, taxicabs, trolley buses, and vanpools. Each issue is divided into five sections: (a) abstracts of reports and journal articles, (b) summaries of ongoing research, (c) a source index, (d) an author index, and (e) a subject index. This issue contains 712 abstracts of research reports, journal articles, and other information sources, and 105 summaries of ongoing research. Referenced documents come from both U.S. and foreign sources. The material is arranged according to the UMTRIS classification scheme; that is, abstracts and summaries are grouped by subject area, and within one subject area they are listed in ascending numerical order.

  2. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  3. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  4. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  5. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  6. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  7. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  8. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  9. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  10. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  11. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  12. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  13. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  14. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  15. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  16. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  17. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  18. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  19. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2002 through. December 2002. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included

  20. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2000 through December 2000. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in most records

  1. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2001 through December 2001. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in

  2. International Conference on Environmental Education (Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi, India, December 16-20, 1981). Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, J. L., Ed.; Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    Abstracts of papers presented at the International Conference on Environmental Education are included in this document. Although title, author(s), and abstract are provided for each of the 124 entries, a table of contents and author/subject index are not included. Topics and issues addressed focus on various aspects of environmental education…

  3. Information Science Abstracts: Tracking the Literature of Information Science. Part 1: Definition and Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the history of "Information Science Abstracts" (ISA)--the oldest abstracting and indexing publication covering the field of information science-as well as the history of attempts to define "information science." Derives a new working definition of the term for ISA and a subject mapping of the field from both this review and from current…

  4. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. PMID:25394332

  5. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  6. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  7. Writing, reviewing, and presenting an abstract.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts afford an opportunity to report data at professional meetings and, when published, in the literature. Accordingly, they should be prepared with great care. When writing an abstract, anticipate questions the reviewer will ask when judging it and provide complete answers. The presentation of an abstract should follow similar thought processes. State why a problem or question is important, how you addressed it, what you found, and how your findings can be applied to the issue at hand. Slides and text should provide coordinated visual and auditory input, respectively, to ensure complete comprehension. PMID:1816248

  8. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  9. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of current literature and research project summaries. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aquatic environment. This is...

  10. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  11. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  12. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  13. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  14. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  15. Abstract and research accomplishments of University Coal Research Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their respective projects in time for distribution at a conference on June 13--14, 1995 at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to that request. For convenience, the 70 grants reported in this book are stored into eight technical areas, Coal Science, Coal Surface Science, Reaction Chemistry, Advanced Process Concepts, Engineering Fundamentals and Thermodynamics, Environmental Science, high Temperature Phenomena, and Special topics. Indexes are provided for locating projects by subject, principal investigators, and contracting organizations. Each extended abstract describes project objectives, work accomplished, significance to the Fossil Energy Program, and plans for the next year.

  16. Changes Matter!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Kimberly; Jensen, Anitra

    2012-01-01

    Being able to distinguish between physical and chemical changes of matter is a foundational chemistry concept that at first seems like a simple elementary concept to teach, but students often have misconceptions that hinder their understanding. These misconceptions are seen among elementary students, but these ideas are perpetuated throughout…

  17. Performance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Day, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    After being told in an end-of-year job review that performances are not considered valuable research outcomes, the author argues in this essay that performance matters. This essay makes a case for recognizing performance ethnographies as research, pedagogy, and active service and concludes with guidelines for performance ethnographers who are…

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 2: Indexes (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  19. Variations in intensity statistics for representational and abstract art, and for art from the Eastern and Western hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Graham, Daniel J; Field, David J

    2008-01-01

    Two recent studies suggest that natural scenes and paintings show similar statistical properties. But does the content or region of origin of an artwork affect its statistical properties? We addressed this question by having judges place paintings from a large, diverse collection of paintings into one of three subject-matter categories using a forced-choice paradigm. Basic statistics for images whose caterogization was agreed by all judges showed no significant differences between those judged to be 'landscape' and 'portrait/still-life', but these two classes differed from paintings judged to be 'abstract'. All categories showed basic spatial statistical regularities similar to those typical of natural scenes. A test of the full painting collection (140 images) with respect to the works' place of origin (provenance) showed significant differences between Eastern works and Western ones, differences which we find are likely related to the materials and the choice of background color. Although artists deviate slightly from reproducing natural statistics in abstract art (compared to representational art), the great majority of human art likely shares basic statistical limitations. We argue that statistical regularities in art are rooted in the need to make art visible to the eye, not in the inherent aesthetic value of natural-scene statistics, and we suggest that variability in spatial statistics may be generally imposed by manufacture. PMID:18986061

  20. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given

  1. DOE workshop on computer-aided engineering. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The aims and objectives in organizing this workshop were to discuss the needs, activities, and plans for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) within the DOE Laboratories and major DOE contractors. The intent was to provide a forum for exchange of information and ideas, and to foster CAE communications among DOE Laboratories and contractors. This report abstracts each of the workshop subject areas. These areas were, CAE Overviews, Networking and Data Transfer, Integrated Circuits, Engineering Systems, Mechanical CAE and Systems, CAE Workstations and Tools, and Drafting and PCB Layouts.

  2. TQM: A bibliography with abstracts. [total quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlich, Gretchen L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is designed to function as a special resource for NASA Langley scientists, engineers, and managers during the introduction and development of total quality management (TQM) practices at the Center. It lists approximately 300 bibliographic citations for articles and reports dealing with various aspects of TQM. Abstracts are also available for the majority of the citations. Citations are organized by broad subject areas, including case studies, customer service, senior management, leadership, communication tools, TQM basics, applications, and implementation. An introduction and indexes provide additional information on arrangement and availability of these materials.

  3. Journalism Abstracts; Cumulative Index, Volumes 1 to 15; 1963-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    Arranged by subject categories and authors, the more than 4,400 abstracts in this cumulative index provide information on doctoral dissertations and master's theses in the field of journalism. The 28 subject areas are as follows: advertising; audience analysis; communication and national development; communication theory, process, and effects;…

  4. Mindset matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, John

    2011-01-01

    We all love those students who just refuse to quit. At sometime during their lives, they adopted a philosophy that they were going to do the best they could, and they recognized that accomplishing their dreams was simply a matter of doing the necessary work in order to be successful. But we also have had those students who didn't even seem to try, and there was very little we could do to get them going. They coasted along, made poor grades, and always seemed to indicate that they weren't going to try. They were "smart," they never needed to study, and they certainly weren't about to start now no matter what was said to them. Better yet, their struggles weren't their fault, but rather due to "bad teaching." I thought that was just the way it was going to be.

  5. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  6. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  7. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  8. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  9. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  10. Dark matter.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P James E

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526

  11. Dark matter

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. James E.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526

  12. Toward Generalization of Automated Temporal Abstraction to Partially Observable Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Çilden, Erkin; Polat, Faruk

    2015-08-01

    Temporal abstraction for reinforcement learning (RL) aims to decrease learning time by making use of repeated sub-policy patterns in the learning task. Automatic extraction of abstractions during RL process is difficult but has many challenges such as dealing with the curse of dimensionality. Various studies have explored the subject under the assumption that the problem domain is fully observable by the learning agent. Learning abstractions for partially observable RL is a relatively less explored area. In this paper, we adapt an existing automatic abstraction method, namely extended sequence tree, originally designed for fully observable problems. The modified method covers a certain family of model-based partially observable RL settings. We also introduce belief state discretization methods that can be used with this new abstraction mechanism. The effectiveness of the proposed abstraction method is shown empirically by experimenting on well-known benchmark problems. PMID:25216494

  13. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  14. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  15. Active matter, then and now.

    PubMed

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2016-09-01

    Historically, living was divided from dead, inert matter by its autonomous activity. Today, a number of materials not themselves alive are characterized as having inherent activity, and this activity has become the subject of a hot new field of physics, "Active Matter", or "Soft matter become alive." For active matter scientists, the relation of physics to biology is guaranteed in one direction by the assertion that the cell is a material, and hence its study can be considered a branch of material science, and in the other direction, by the claim that the physical dynamics of this material IS what brings the cell to life, and therefore its study is a proper branch of biology. I will examine these claims in relation to the concerns of nineteenth century scientists on the one hand, and on the other, in relation to future prospects of the division between animate and inanimate. PMID:27580611

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  18. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  20. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  1. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  2. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  3. The C-4 Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicalzi, Ricco M.; Collar, J. I.; Colaresi, J.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Reid, Douglas J.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wiseman, Clinton G.; Yocum, K. M.

    2013-02-18

    Abstract We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact (PPC) germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.

  4. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam H.; Carton, Amelia M.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26748236

  5. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  6. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  7. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  8. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  9. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  10. Mr. Birmingham and His New Star (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The year 2016 sees two anniversaries connected with the Irish astronomer John Birmingham (1816-1884): the 200th anniversary of his birth and the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the nova outburst in T Coronae Borealis.

  11. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of Social Work in…

  12. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  13. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  14. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  15. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  16. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  17. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  18. Static Abstractions and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    The element of static abstractions (SAs)--any pseudoheuristic listing of derived nominals whose purpose is to define good structure in prose writing--is one of the important historical components of the current traditional rhetoric inherited from the nineteenth century. SAs, of which unity, coherence, and emphasis are the best known examples, have…

  19. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  20. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  1. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  2. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  3. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  4. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  5. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  6. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  7. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry programs. (TW)

  8. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  9. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  11. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  12. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  13. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  14. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  15. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  16. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts." Each…

  17. Heat pipe technology: A biblography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe research and development projects conducted during April through June 1972, is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) test and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  18. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A cumulative bibliography on heat pipe research and development projects is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) general information, (2) heat pipe applications, (3) heat pipe theory, (4) design and fabrication, (5) testing and operation, (6) subject and author index, and (7) heat pipe related patents.

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  20. Moral Concepts Set Decision Strategies to Abstract Values

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Heim, Stefan; Lucas, Marc G.; Stephan, Egon; Fischer, Lorenz; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a “balancing and weighing” strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences applied a “fight-and-flight” strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses. PMID:21483767