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Sample records for abstract symbol theories

  1. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  2. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  3. Symbolic computation at various levels of abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Von Laven, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Symbolic computation has already become a versatile tool in many fields. The applications with the highest payoff in terms of results versus effort expended are those for which the operations to be performed are straightforward but lengthy. Three such applications are presented here as examples. In the first, a laser resonator problem, the symbols being manipulated represent physical parameters. In the second, a software design problem, the symbols are more abstract; they represent algorithm structures and transformations and computer architectures. The third application is graphics in which the symbols are anything that might be associated with a tree graph.

  4. Cross-modal integration between odors and abstract symbols.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Arshamian, Artin; Schemmer, Kerstin; Scheer, Ingeborg; Sander, Thorsten; Ritter, Guido; Hummel, Thomas

    2010-07-12

    This study aimed to investigate the cross-modal association of an "abstract symbol," designed for representation of an odor, with its corresponding odor. First, to explore the associations of abstract symbols with odors, participants were asked to match 8 odors with 19 different abstract symbols (Experiment 1). Next, we determined whether congruent symbols could modulate olfactory perception and olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiment 2). One of two odors (phenylethanol (PEA) or 1-butanol) was presented with one of three conditions (congruent or incongruent symbol, no-symbol), and participants were asked to rate odor intensity and pleasantness during olfactory ERP recordings. Experiment 1 demonstrated that certain abstract symbols could be paired with specific odors. In Experiment 2 congruent symbol enhanced the intensity of PEA compared to no-symbol presentation. In addition, the respective congruent symbol increased the pleasantness of PEA and the unpleasantness of 1-butanol. Finally, compared to the incongruent symbol, the congruent symbol produced significantly higher amplitudes and shorter latencies in the N1 peak of olfactory ERPs. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that abstract symbols may be associated with specific odors.

  5. Graphic symbols as "the mind on paper": links between children's interpretive theory of mind and symbol understanding.

    PubMed

    Myers, Lauren J; Liben, Lynn S

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)-the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their referents). Children (6-9 years; N = 80) made maps using either iconic or abstract symbols. After accounting for age, intelligence, vocabulary, and memory, iToM predicted children's success in communicating symbols' meaning to a naïve map-user when mapping tasks involved iconic (but not abstract) symbols. Findings suggest children's growing appreciation of alternative representations and of the intentional assignment of meaning, and support the contention that ToM progresses beyond mastery of false belief. PMID:22188580

  6. Symbolic LTL Compilation for Model Checking: Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2007-01-01

    In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) model checking, we check LTL formulas representing desired behaviors against a formal model of the system designed to exhibit these behaviors. To accomplish this task, the LTL formulas must be translated into automata [21]. We focus on LTL compilation by investigating LTL satisfiability checking via a reduction to model checking. Having shown that symbolic LTL compilation algorithms are superior to explicit automata construction algorithms for this task [16], we concentrate here on seeking a better symbolic algorithm.We present experimental data comparing algorithmic variations such as normal forms, encoding methods, and variable ordering and examine their effects on performance metrics including processing time and scalability. Safety critical systems, such as air traffic control, life support systems, hazardous environment controls, and automotive control systems, pervade our daily lives, yet testing and simulation alone cannot adequately verify their reliability [3]. Model checking is a promising approach to formal verification for safety critical systems which involves creating a formal mathematical model of the system and translating desired safety properties into a formal specification for this model. The complement of the specification is then checked against the system model. When the model does not satisfy the specification, model-checking tools accompany this negative answer with a counterexample, which points to an inconsistency between the system and the desired behaviors and aids debugging efforts.

  7. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  8. A Theory for Educational Research: Socialisation Theory and Symbolic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theory of socialisation based on the Chicago School of symbolic interactionism but infused with new and important insights offered by contemporary scholars and their writings on roles and relationships in the twenty first century and life in the informational, network and global world. While still rooted in the seminal…

  9. Unipacs: A Language Arts Curriculum Theory, Abstractions, Statements in Context, and Language Change; And Instructional Packets: Symbol-Referent, Denotation and Connotation, Appropriateness, Dialect, Occasion, and Form and Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Based on the belief that the most appropriate focus of a language arts curriculum is the process and content of communication, these several unipacs (instructional packets) explore some essential elements of communication which should be incorporated into a curricular theory: (1) abstraction , which is the assertion that words may be classified as…

  10. Toward a Unified Sub-symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development toward the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor

  11. Toward a Unified Sub-symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Martin V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development toward the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor

  12. Toward a Unified Sub-symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes how various disciplinary theories of cognition may be combined into a unifying, sub-symbolic, computational theory of cognition. The following theories are considered for integration: psychological theories, including the theory of event coding, event segmentation theory, the theory of anticipatory behavioral control, and concept development; artificial intelligence and machine learning theories, including reinforcement learning and generative artificial neural networks; and theories from theoretical and computational neuroscience, including predictive coding and free energy-based inference. In the light of such a potential unification, it is discussed how abstract cognitive, conceptualized knowledge and understanding may be learned from actively gathered sensorimotor experiences. The unification rests on the free energy-based inference principle, which essentially implies that the brain builds a predictive, generative model of its environment. Neural activity-oriented inference causes the continuous adaptation of the currently active predictive encodings. Neural structure-oriented inference causes the longer term adaptation of the developing generative model as a whole. Finally, active inference strives for maintaining internal homeostasis, causing goal-directed motor behavior. To learn abstract, hierarchical encodings, however, it is proposed that free energy-based inference needs to be enhanced with structural priors, which bias cognitive development toward the formation of particular, behaviorally suitable encoding structures. As a result, it is hypothesized how abstract concepts can develop from, and thus how they are structured by and grounded in, sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, it is sketched-out how symbol-like thought can be generated by a temporarily active set of predictive encodings, which constitute a distributed neural attractor in the form of an interactive free-energy minimum. The activated, interactive network attractor

  13. How neurons make meaning: brain mechanisms for embodied and abstract-symbolic semantics.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-09-01

    How brain structures and neuronal circuits mechanistically underpin symbolic meaning has recently been elucidated by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neurocomputational research. Modality-specific 'embodied' mechanisms anchored in sensorimotor systems appear to be relevant, as are 'disembodied' mechanisms in multimodal areas. In this paper, four semantic mechanisms are proposed and spelt out at the level of neuronal circuits: referential semantics, which establishes links between symbols and the objects and actions they are used to speak about; combinatorial semantics, which enables the learning of symbolic meaning from context; emotional-affective semantics, which establishes links between signs and internal states of the body; and abstraction mechanisms for generalizing over a range of instances of semantic meaning. Referential, combinatorial, emotional-affective, and abstract semantics are complementary mechanisms, each necessary for processing meaning in mind and brain.

  14. From Sailing Ships to Subtraction Symbols: Multiple Representations to Support Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are tasked with supporting students' learning of abstract mathematical concepts. Students can represent their mathematical understanding in a variety of modes, for example: manipulatives, pictures, diagrams, spoken languages, and written symbols. Although most students easily pick up rudimentary knowledge through the use of concrete…

  15. Making Sense of Mathematical Graphics: The Development of Understanding Abstract Symbolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Elizabeth; Worthington, Maulfry

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop our theory of "Bi-numeracy" and show the importance of children's own invented symbolism. Most studies to date have concentrated on the analysis of children's number representations in clinically set-up tasks (Hughes, 1986; Sinclair, 1988; Munn, 1994). These studies have added to our knowledge of and understanding of…

  16. Theories of Symbolism: A Pluralistic Approach to Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quina, James H., Jr.

    In analyzing literary works within a conceptual framework, the student needs the freedom to choose from a variety of critical standpoints and to discover for himself various approaches to the literary symbol. To illustrate the necessity of movement from one theory to another, the theories are arranged in the following order: transcendental theory…

  17. Accessing first-grade teachers' images and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students: The use of abstract symbolic drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droy, Karen A.

    The purpose of this study was to explore teacher beliefs and images of students, learning, and teaching. The study was designed to elicit images and beliefs with the use of teachers' symbolic drawing and subsequent interpretation of their drawings. Twelve first grade teachers with teaching experience ranging from 1½ to 25 years, and from a variety of educational settings (i.e., urban, suburban, traditional public schools, non-traditional public or private schools) participated. Data collection utilized two primary methods of qualitative inquiry: teacher created abstract symbolic drawings and interviewing. The combination of symbolic drawings and interviewing provided an effective means for teachers to access, reflect upon, and express their tacit images and beliefs in a cohesive and holistic manner. The twelve teachers in this study appeared on the surface to have similar images of learning and teaching. Teachers talked about learning as a process that involved images of filtering, connecting, becoming stuck, and disconnecting. One major difference emerged that separated teachers into two distinct groups. The majority of teachers, ten out of twelve, viewed learning as a fact-based associative categorization where students either made connections through associations or replaced old information with new information. Only two teachers talked about learning as theory-based, describing learning as making connection through an assimilatory categorization process or making revisions to personal theories. Teachers who viewed learning as fact based also viewed teaching as fact-based. In general, these teachers used discussion, teacher questions, and a large variety of activities to help students collect new facts and make associative connections. Teachers who viewed learning as theory-based used activities, discussion, and teacher questions to promote conversation and thinking. They expected students to use new facts to build and revise theories with the use of logical

  18. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  19. New symbolic tools for differential geometry, gravitation, and field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. M.; Torre, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    DifferentialGeometry is a Maple software package which symbolically performs fundamental operations of calculus on manifolds, differential geometry, tensor calculus, spinor calculus, Lie algebras, Lie groups, transformation groups, jet spaces, and the variational calculus. These capabilities, combined with dramatic recent improvements in symbolic approaches to solving algebraic and differential equations, have allowed for development of powerful new tools for solving research problems in gravitation and field theory. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of these new tools and present some advanced applications involving: Killing vector fields and isometry groups, Killing tensors, algebraic classification of solutions of the Einstein equations, and symmetry reduction of field equations.

  20. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  1. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  2. The symbolic computation of series solutions to ordinary differential equations using trees (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms previously developed by the author give formulas which can be used for the efficient symbolic computation of series expansions to solutions of nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. As a by product of this analysis, formulas are derived which relate to trees to the coefficients of the series expansions, similar to the work of Leroux and Viennot, and Lamnabhi, Leroux and Viennot.

  3. The Contribution of Symbolic Skills to the Development of an Explicit Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Kavanaugh, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Theorists have speculated about the symbolic underpinnings of theory of mind (ToM), but no study has examined them across the main developmental span of ToM. Here, the onset of symbolic understandings in three domains (pretend play, language, and understanding representations) and ToM was examined. Fifty-eight children were tested on batteries of…

  4. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem.

  5. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem. PMID:26913782

  6. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    PubMed

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research. PMID:26254127

  7. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    PubMed

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research.

  8. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  9. Mind-mindedness and theory of mind: mediating roles of language and perspectival symbolic play.

    PubMed

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R; de Rosnay, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Relations among indices of maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) and children's: (a) internal state vocabulary and perspectival symbolic play at 26 months (N = 206), and (b) theory of mind (ToM) at 51 months (n = 161) were investigated. Appropriate comments were positively associated with ToM, but were unrelated to internal state language and perspectival symbolic play. Nonattuned comments were negatively correlated with internal state language and perspectival symbolic play, but were unrelated to ToM. Path analyses indicated that the best fit model assumed: (a) indirect links between nonattuned comments and ToM via children's perspectival symbolic play, (b) a direct link between appropriate comments and ToM, and (c) an indirect link between appropriate comments and ToM via children's concurrent receptive verbal ability.

  10. The contribution of symbolic skills to the development of an explicit theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Kavanaugh, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Theorists have speculated about the symbolic underpinnings of theory of mind (ToM), but no study has examined them across the main developmental span of ToM. Here, the onset of symbolic understandings in three domains (pretend play, language, and understanding representations) and ToM was examined. Fifty-eight children were tested on batteries of tasks four times from ages 2.5 to 5 years. Some significant interrelations among variables were seen at each age level. Canonical correlation analysis found that a subset of the symbolic variables was significantly related to ToM at ages 4 and 5, providing the best evidence to date that ToM is undergirded by a symbolic element that also supports language, pretend play, and representational understanding.

  11. The contribution of symbolic skills to the development of an explicit theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Kavanaugh, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Theorists have speculated about the symbolic underpinnings of theory of mind (ToM), but no study has examined them across the main developmental span of ToM. Here, the onset of symbolic understandings in three domains (pretend play, language, and understanding representations) and ToM was examined. Fifty-eight children were tested on batteries of tasks four times from ages 2.5 to 5 years. Some significant interrelations among variables were seen at each age level. Canonical correlation analysis found that a subset of the symbolic variables was significantly related to ToM at ages 4 and 5, providing the best evidence to date that ToM is undergirded by a symbolic element that also supports language, pretend play, and representational understanding. PMID:24502297

  12. SymGF: A Symbolic Tool for Quantum Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zi Min

    In this thesis, I report the development and application of a symbolic derivation tool named "SymGF'' - standing for Symbolic Green's Function, that can automatically and analytically derive quantum transport expressions and the associated Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). Quantum transport happens in open systems consisting of a scattering region coupled to external electrodes. When there are strong electron-electron interactions in the scattering region, analytical derivations of the Green's functions can be very tedious and error prone. Running on a personal computer, SymGF derives the necessary analytical formulas at a level of correlation specified by the user, using the equation of motion (EOM) method. The input to SymGF are the second quantized form the device Hamiltonian, the (anti)commutators of the operators that appear in the Hamiltonian, and a truncation rule for the correlators which determines the accuracy of the final outcome. The output of SymGF are the analytical expressions of transport properties such as electric current and conductance in terms of various Green's functions; as well as the Green's functions themselves in terms of the unperturbed non-interacting Green's functions that can be obtained straightforwardly. For systems where electron-electron interaction can be neglected, the transport problems can be easily solved and SymGF is not necessary - even though SymGF gives the same answer; but for interacting systems SymGF drastically reduces the mathematical burden of analytical derivations. We have tested SymGF for several transport problems involving Kondo resonances where analytical derivations were done by humans: exactly the same results were obtained by SymGF but in a tiny fraction of time. We have applied SymGF to new and very hard problems that resist analytical derivations by hand, including quantum transport in a double quantum dot system; transport through a single quantum dot in parallel to a direct lead

  13. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge.

  14. Mind-Mindedness and Theory of Mind: Mediating Roles of Language and Perspectival Symbolic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Relations among indices of maternal mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) and children's: (a) internal state vocabulary and perspectival symbolic play at 26 months ("N" = 206), and (b) theory of mind (ToM) at 51 months ("n" = 161) were investigated. Appropriate comments were positively…

  15. Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…

  16. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  17. Ernst Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms and its impact on the theory of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Andersch, Norbert; Cutting, John

    2014-05-19

    The philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote in 1929: 'For what it [the philosophy of symbolic forms] is seeking is not so much common factors in being as common factors in meaning. Hence we must strive to bring the teachings of pathology, which cannot be ignored, into the more universal context of the philosophy of culture' (Cassirer, 1955: 275). This statement summarizes his approach in shifting the focus on psychopathological theory from the brain and its localizations to the living interaction between the self and his/her social environment. The present article looks at the impact of symbol theory on psychopathology - pre- and post-Cassirer's main oeuvre Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - and whether his concept still has a role to play in an ontology of psychopathology.

  18. Ernst Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms and its impact on the theory of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Andersch, Norbert; Cutting, John

    2014-05-19

    The philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote in 1929: 'For what it [the philosophy of symbolic forms] is seeking is not so much common factors in being as common factors in meaning. Hence we must strive to bring the teachings of pathology, which cannot be ignored, into the more universal context of the philosophy of culture' (Cassirer, 1955: 275). This statement summarizes his approach in shifting the focus on psychopathological theory from the brain and its localizations to the living interaction between the self and his/her social environment. The present article looks at the impact of symbol theory on psychopathology - pre- and post-Cassirer's main oeuvre Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - and whether his concept still has a role to play in an ontology of psychopathology. PMID:24840218

  19. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution.

  20. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  1. Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans: support for a multimodal theory of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Lyn, Heidi; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    What are the implications of similarities and differences in the gestural and symbolic development of apes and humans?This focused review uses as a starting point our recent study that provided evidence that gesture supported the symbolic development of a chimpanzee, a bonobo, and a human child reared in language-enriched environments at comparable stages of communicative development. These three species constitute a complete clade, species possessing a common immediate ancestor. Communicative behaviors observed among all species in a clade are likely to have been present in the common ancestor. Similarities in the form and function of many gestures produced by the chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child suggest that shared non-verbal skills may underlie shared symbolic capacities. Indeed, an ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol was present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence or eye-contact) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. These findings suggest that increasing multimodal expression of communicative intent may have supported the emergence of language among the ancestors of humans. Therefore, this focused review includes new studies, since our 2013 article, that support a multimodal theory of language evolution. PMID:25400607

  2. "Pedagogy, Identity and the Construction of a Theory of Symbolic Control": Basil Bernstein Questioned by Joseph Solomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Basil; Solomon, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on Basil Bernstein and his theory of symbolic control and cultural production. Presents an interview with Bernstein addressing such topics as the concept of "pedagogy" and its role in his theory, "boundaries" as a conceptual key in his theory, and transformation of his theory. (CMK)

  3. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about…

  4. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  5. Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory engine implementation using symbolic processing software.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Ilya; Wagner-Rundell, Nicola; Hore, P J

    2007-02-01

    We describe a general method for the automated symbolic processing of Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness relaxation theory equations for liquid-phase spin dynamics in the algebraically challenging case of rotationally modulated interactions. The processing typically takes no more than a few seconds (on a contemporary single-processor workstation) and yields relaxation rate expressions that are completely general with respect to the spectral density functions, relative orientations, and magnitudes of the interaction tensors, with all cross-correlations accounted for. The algorithm easily deals with fully rhombic interaction tensors, and is able, with little if any modification, to treat a large variety of the relaxation mechanisms encountered in NMR, EPR, and spin dynamics in general.

  6. Stochastic regulator theory for a class of abstract wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    A class of steady-state stochastic regulator problems for abstract wave equations in a Hilbert space - of relevance to the problem of feedback control of large space structures using co-located controls/sensors - is studied. Both the control operator, as well as the observation operator, are finite-dimensional. As a result, the usual condition of exponential stabilizability invoked for existence of solutions to the steady-state Riccati equations is not valid. Fortunately, for the problems considered it turns out that strong stabilizability suffices. In particular, a closed form expression is obtained for the minimal (asymptotic) performance criterion as the control effort is allowed to grow without bound.

  7. Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…

  8. The benefits of abstract functional analysis in theory construction: the case of interdependence theory.

    PubMed

    Holmes, John G

    2004-01-01

    In this article I argue for the benefits of an abstract functional analysis in theory construction, suggesting that an understanding of the nature of situations of interdependence will provide theoretical insights into basic processes in interpersonal relations. That is, mechanisms and basic processes such as social cognition are best understood by describing their functional relation to the social problems with which they were designed to cope, rather than studying them in their own right in isolation from the purpose they serve. I discuss the tenets of ecological psychology, the scientific philosophy underpinning this way of thought. I then link this approach to the development of my own theoretical ideas on trust in close relationships, providing a description of how a functional analysis rooted in the assumptions of interdependence theory shaped the questions I posed and the answers to which I was drawn. PMID:15223514

  9. Computer generation of symbolic network functions - A new theory and implementation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderson, G. E.; Lin, P.-M.

    1972-01-01

    A new method is presented for obtaining network functions in which some, none, or all of the network elements are represented by symbolic parameters (i.e., symbolic network functions). Unlike the topological tree enumeration or signal flow graph methods generally used to derive symbolic network functions, the proposed procedure employs fast, efficient, numerical-type algorithms to determine the contribution of those network branches that are not represented by symbolic parameters. A computer program called NAPPE (for Network Analysis Program using Parameter Extractions) and incorporating all of the concepts discussed has been written. Several examples illustrating the usefulness and efficiency of NAPPE are presented.

  10. Fifth international conference on hyperbolic problems -- theory, numerics, applications: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference demonstrated that hyperbolic problems and conservation laws play an important role in many areas including industrial applications and the studying of elasto-plastic materials. Among the various topics covered in the conference, the authors mention: the big bang theory, general relativity, critical phenomena, deformation and fracture of solids, shock wave interactions, numerical simulation in three dimensions, the level set method, multidimensional Riemann problem, application of the front tracking in petroleum reservoir simulations, global solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in high dimensions, recent progress in granular flow, and the study of elastic plastic materials. The authors believe that the new ideas, tools, methods, problems, theoretical results, numerical solutions and computational algorithms presented or discussed at the conference will benefit the participants in their current and future research.

  11. Evaluation Practice and Theory: Up and down the Ladder of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Debra Rog presented the 2014 Eleanor Chelimsky Forum address, offering ways to integrate evaluation theory and practice by abundant use of practice examples. These examples illustrate the effective use of the Ladder of Abstraction from semantics, working from the concrete to the abstract and back again.

  12. Chaos Theory: Self-Organization and Symbolic Representation in Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Michael R.; Carlson, J. Matthew; Carlson, Jon

    1998-01-01

    Proposes an integration of the use of symbols and metaphors that illustrates nonlinear dynamics through a case example weaving together contemporary science and human development in the context of family therapy. Discusses areas of future study. (Author/MKA)

  13. Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.

  14. Normal forms of an abstract Dirac operator and applications to scattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Bernd

    1988-01-01

    The unitary transformations which convert an abstract Dirac operator into an ``even'' (resp. ``odd'') operator are determined. The problem is formulated and solved completely within the general setup of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. This leads to some apparently new applications in relativistic quantum mechanics, where the transformations are known as the Foldy-Wouthuysen (resp. Cini-Touschek) transformations. The scattering theory for abstract Dirac operators is discussed and the utility of the general theory is illustrated by proving existence of relativistic Mo/ller operators for scattering from long-range magnetic fields.

  15. Dual Coding Theory, Word Abstractness, and Emotion: A Critical Review of Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of…

  16. Abstracts of Published Research Articles, Dissertations, and Masters Theses Concerning Invitational Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Paula Helen; Purkey, William Watson

    This compilation of annotated bibliographies is dedicated to invitational theory and practice. The articles, written over the last several years, are divided into three sections: published research articles, dissertations, and master's theses. Following the article citation an abstract is included describing the purpose of the paper. The articles…

  17. Tantalus, Restraint Theory, and the Low-Sacrifice Diet: The Art of Reverse Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Blair-West, George W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data – scientific findings – and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  18. Contemporary Theories of Oral Communication: A Collection of Abstracts, Critical Literature Reviews, and Experiments in the Study of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M., Ed.

    This booklet is a collection of abstracts, literature reviews, and reports on experiments in the communication field. Ninety abstracts from speech communication literature (1970-1977) are presented under the following categories: communication theory, research methodology, interpersonal communication, rhetorical theory and criticism, persuasion,…

  19. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  20. Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a series providing continuing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 23 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the rhetoric of scientific controversy; (2) Erving Goffman's interactional theory of communication conduct; (3) a phenomenology of feminism; (4) a…

  1. Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with the following topics: (1) the rhetorical theory and practice of Walter Lippmann; (2) communication, "root-metaphor" orientation, and decision making; (3) teaching as rhetoric; (4) the conditions and elements…

  2. Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) rhetorical theories for college writing teachers, (2) contemporary rhetorical criticism of literary art, (3) the rhetoric of the new religious cults, (4) Victorian argument, (5)…

  3. Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The nine titles deal with the following topics: (1) the theory and application of presumption in public debate; (2) the rhetoric of transcendentalism; (3) speechwriting in rhetorical criticism; (4) the conspiracy argument as…

  4. Braided Stories and Bricolaged Symbols: Critical Reflection and Transformative Learning Theory for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Susan Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I make the case that transformative learning theory, a specific adult learning theory, and an arts-informed research method have important value for teacher professional practice and teacher education. I refer to two phases of a study involving women who have immigrated to Maritime Canada and were teachers in their countries of…

  5. [Symbol and metaphor].

    PubMed

    Goebel, P

    1986-01-01

    Taking Jones' work--A Theory of Symbolism as a Basis--it is attempted to elaborate on the basic underlying hypotheses of his symbol concept and to show the partiality of his metaphor concept. Prominence is given the concepts of similarity, identification and structure of experience. The insufficient definition of the metaphor complicates, the understanding of the connection between symbol, symptom and language. The metaphor phenomenon is explained and its organization principles pointed out; principles which are also found in the organisation of experience formation. Freunds theses of primitive language and the use of language as a bridge to symbolism is clarified. The connection between metaphor and symbol is represented as a circular process.

  6. Jacques Lacan's theory of the subject as real, symbolic and imaginary: how can Lacanian theory be of help to mental health nursing practice?

    PubMed

    McSherry, A

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of Lacan's theory of the human subject, in particular focusing on Lacan's concepts of the real, symbolic and imaginary registers, and how an understanding of these can inform change and practice in mental health nursing. Mental health nursing is under pressure to define itself as a practice distinct from other professions in the field, and to respond in new ways to promoting mental health to the individual and a wider public. Lacan's theory of the subject is of particular relevance to mental health nurses working with mental distress but has received little attention in mental health nursing literature. Six implications for practice are outlined in terms of: against normalization, the importance of the function of the symptom, what cannot be known, meaning as ever-changing, against empathy and against holistic ideas of the self.

  7. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  8. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability. PMID:22854861

  9. Abstraction, Re-Presentation, and Reflection, an Interpretation of Experience and Piaget's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Glasersfeld, Ernst

    In this paper, Piaget's theory is analyzed using Locke's philosophy. The first part, "Mental Experiences," describes the author's view (with a tentative interpretation of Piaget's position) of reflection, abstraction, re-presentation, and the use of symbols. The second part, "Piaget's Theory of Abstraction," has four sections: (1) "Form and…

  10. ``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-01

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-à-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  11. 'Who Thinks Abstractly?': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-28

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-a-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of ''physical fact'' and of the concept of 'physical concept', in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features - 1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  12. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  13. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation.

  14. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation. PMID:27443646

  15. The theorization of social co-ordinations in differentiated societies: the theory of generalized symbolic media in Parsons, Luhmann and Habermas.

    PubMed

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The problem of the differentiation of societies is at the core of the sociological imagination about the rise of modernity. In postwar sociology, T. Parsons developed the theory of generalized symbolic media in the mid-1960s to tackle, theoretically and historically, the issue of differentiation. According to him, the interchange media are defined as resources oriented to exchange processes between the subsystems of the social system. Starting with money, Parsons argues that the remaining media (power, influence, and value-commitments) have a set of characteristics defined as common properties for all media. After this first formulation, contemporary theorists such as Niklas Luhmann and Jürgen Habermas have developed and modified the Parsonian theory: Luhmann rejects the idea of interchange and proposes the use of communication; Habermas distinguishes between steering and communication media. In all three cases, the focus of the theory is on the characterization of the strongest dynamics of social co-ordination present in differentiated societies. A major result of these developments is the inclusion of new dimensions on which to conceive the properties of media, not only those of money but also language. Beyond differences, then, it is proposed that there is only one theory of generalized symbolic media which can be understood as a progressive research programme, in Lakatos' terms. Finally, the hand-in-hand evolution between the theory of media and Habermas' and Luhmann's re-conceptualizations on societal differentiation in contemporary societies will also be revealed.

  16. Structured programming in symbolic multiprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Tseitlin, G.E.

    1984-05-01

    This article applies Glushkov's systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA) to symbolic multiprocessing. Regular schemata on abstract memory types are used to formalize the main control techniques for parallel computations in slipway and pipeline multiprocessing. The expressive power of the proposed SAA apparatus is demonstrated for the reader-writer problem, the dynamic communication problem, the firing line problem, and parallel parsing. Structured design grammars combining the SAA apparatus with formal language models are applied for direct and inverse transformation from synchronous to asynchronous regular schemata and back. It is determined that program design based on structured design grammars preserves all the advantages of structured programming and enables partial program verification using top-down, bottom-up, and mixed parsers, the optimization of programs by prespecified criteria using the apparatus of identity transformations developed within the framework of SAA theory, and the joint multilevel (top-down, bottom-up, and mixed) design of structured algorithms and programs.

  17. Symbolic clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Clustering is the problem of finding a good organization for data. Because there are many kinds of clustering problems, and because there are many possible clusterings for any data set, clustering programs use knowledge and assumptions about individual problems to make clustering tractable. Cluster-analysis techniques allow knowledge to be expressed in the choice of a pairwise distance measure and in the choice of clustering algorithm. Conceptual clustering adds knowledge and preferences about cluster descriptions. In this study the author describes symbolic clustering, which adds representation choice to the set of ways a data analyst can use problem-specific knowledge. He develops an informal model for symbolic clustering, and uses it to suggest where and how knowledge can be expressed in clustering. A language for creating symbolic clusters, based on the model, was developed and tested on three real clustering problems. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of the model and the results for clustering in general.

  18. Preface to a Theory of Human Symbolic Interchange: An Essay on Communication. Curriculum Praxis, Occasional Paper Series No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, R. Glenn

    The subjectivistic problem for knowledge and communication associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant is that everything we know may in fact be determined by the structure of our own minds and not by the actual nature of external reality. Ernst Cassirer's contribution to the solution of this problem is the notion of "symbols" produced by the knower…

  19. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  20. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures. PMID:24795662

  1. Variation of reaction dynamics for OH hydrogen abstraction from glycine between ab initio levels of theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ren-Jie; Wu, Chen-Chang; Jang, Soonmin; Li, Feng-Yin

    2010-02-01

    The variation in reaction dynamics of OH hydrogen abstraction from glycine between HF, MP2, CCSD(T), M05-2X, BHandHLYP, and B3LYP levels was demonstrated. The abstraction mode shows distinct patterns between these five levels and determines the barrier height, and the spin density transfer between OH radical and glycine. These differences are mainly resulted from the spin density distribution and geometry of the alpha carbon during the abstraction. The captodative effect which is commonly believed as one of the major factors to stabilize the caron-centered radical can only be observed in DFT levels but not in HF and MP2 levels. Difference in the abstraction energy were found in these calculation levels, by using the result of CCSD(T) as reference, B3LYP, BHandHLYP, and M05-2X underestimated the reaction barrier about 5.1, 0.1, and 2.4 kcal mol(-1), while HF and MP2 overestimated 19.1 kcal mol(-1) and 1.6 kcal mol(-1), respectively. These differences can be characterized by the vibration mode of imaginary frequency of transition states, which indicates the topology around transition states and determines reaction barrier height. In this model system, BHandHLYP provides the best prediction of the energy barrier among those tested methods.

  2. Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C; Stöver, Katharina; Kim, Do

    2011-01-01

    In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the ‘gamma-ramp study’), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the ‘spider-web study’), showed no support for the Arnheim–Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim–Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition. PMID:23145250

  3. Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Stöver, Katharina; Kim, Do

    2011-01-01

    In Art and Visual Perception, Rudolf Arnheim, following on from Denman Ross's A Theory of Pure Design, proposed a Gestalt theory of visual composition. The current paper assesses a physicalist interpretation of Arnheim's theory, calculating an image's centre of mass (CoM). Three types of data are used: a large, representative collection of art photographs of recognised quality; croppings by experts and non-experts of photographs; and Ross and Arnheim's procedure of placing a frame around objects such as Arnheim's two black disks. Compared with control images, the CoM of art photographs was closer to an axis (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal), as was the case for photographic croppings. However, stronger, within-image, paired comparison studies, comparing art photographs with the CoM moved on or off an axis (the 'gamma-ramp study'), or comparing adjacent croppings on or off an axis (the 'spider-web study'), showed no support for the Arnheim-Ross theory. Finally, studies moving a frame around two disks, of different size, greyness, or background, did not support Arnheim's Gestalt theory. Although the detailed results did not support the Arnheim-Ross theory, several significant results were found which clearly require explanation by any adequate theory of the aesthetics of visual composition.

  4. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  5. Exploring the use of artificial intelligence, logic programming, and computer-aided symbolic manipulation in computational physics. 1. The mathematical structure of phase transition theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacucci, G.; Rasetti, M.

    1987-09-10

    The solution of Ising models and other exactly solvable models in statistical mechanics reveals a close connection with such diverse mathematical fields as number theory, geometry, topology, algebra, and combinatorial group theory. It is suggested that computer-aided approaches are natural candidates to cope with the related algebraic and combinatorial complexity. It is shown how several problems in statistical mechanics which can be formulated in the language of enumerative graph theory - such as finding the generating function of closed loops on a finite lattice - or of formal logic and combinatorial group theory - such as Dehn's problem of finding all the words in a group which belong to the equivalence class of the identity-lend themselves naturally to symbolic computation. One of the advantages of these computational techniques is that their applicability is not restricted to cases where some problem-specific knowledge already exists. However, the combinatorial complexity of the problems grows extremely rapidly, so that it is essential to use intelligent knowledge-based techniques.

  6. The origins of symbolic racism.

    PubMed

    Sears, David O; Henry, P J

    2003-08-01

    The theory of symbolic racism places its origins in a blend of anti-Black affect and conservative values, particularly individualism. We clarify that hypothesis, test it directly, and report several findings consistent with it. Study 1 shows that racial prejudice and general political conservatism fall into 2 separate factors, with symbolic racism loading about equally on both. Study 2 found that the anti-Black affect and individualism significantly explain symbolic racism. The best-fitting model both fuses those 2 elements into a single construct (Black individualism) and includes them separately. The effects of Black individualism on racial policy preferences are mostly mediated by symbolic racism. Study 3 shows that Black individualism is distinctively racial, with effects distinctly different from either an analogous gender individualism or race-neutral individualism.

  7. Artificial symbols and the essence of intelligent computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Amy L.; Oxley, Mark E.

    2003-08-01

    A challenge for intelligent computing is translating the skills of innovation into mathematical theory and persistent learning algorithms. Computational intelligence differs from artificial intelligence in that artificial intelligence reasons over symbols while computational intelligence reasons over sub-symbolic data and information. Natural symbos arise from shared human experiences. The creative quality of human interaction suggests symbol generation involves a collection of cooperative agents capable of representing relative experience, negotiating innovation, and---finally---building consensus. As hybrids of sub-symbolic and symbolic reasoning become the norm, it is necessary to formalize the design and evaluation of artificial symbols. In this paper, we delineate the difference between sub-symbolic patterns and symbolic experience. Further, we propose fundamental theory supporting the autonomous construction of artificial symbols which---we assert---is the ultimate culmination of an intelligent computation. We apply this theory to model selection among neural networks.

  8. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  9. Rhetoric, Public Address, and Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 13 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a paradigm for the study of communicative style; (2) the rhetoric of conversion in Ohio's abolitionist campaign; (3) a generic approach to the rhetoric of the United States Supreme…

  10. Rhetorical and Communication Theory: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 10 titles deal with the following topics: (1) how speech acts in advertisements relate to the purpose of selling merchandise; (2) the use and evaluation of accounts in problematic episodes; (3) rhetoric as a way of knowing; (4)…

  11. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  12. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies. PMID:26983175

  13. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  14. Symbols of a cosmic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  15. Symbol Formation: Where Freud and Piaget Meet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Hans G.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to interpret Piaget's developmental theory of knowledge and Freud's metapsychology through a common focus on the human capacity for symbolic knowing. A sketch for a unified epistemological synthesis is presented.(Author/RH)

  16. Kinetics of the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Reactions from 1-Butanol by Hydroxyl Radical: Theory Matches Experiment and More

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Prasenjit; Oyedepo, Gbenga; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-17

    In the present work, we study the H atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyl radical at all five sites of 1-butanol. Multistructural variational transition state theory (MS-VTST) was employed to estimate the five thermal rate constants. MS-VTST utilizes a multifaceted dividing surface that accounts for the multiple conformational structures of the transition state, and we also include all the structures of the reactant molecule. The vibrational frequencies and minimum energy paths (MEPs) were computed using the M08-HX/MG3S electronic structure method. The required potential energy surfaces were obtained implicitly by direct dynamics employing interpolated variational transition state theory with mapping (IVTST-M) using a variational reaction path algorithm. The M08-HX/MG3S electronic model chemistry was then used to calculate multistructural torsional anharmonicity factors to complete the MS-VTST rate constant calculations. The results indicate that torsional anharmonicity is very important at higher temperatures, and neglecting it would lead to errors of 26 and 32 at 1000 and 1500 K, respectively. Our results for the sums of the site-specific rate constants agree very well with the experimental values of Hanson and co-workers at 896–1269 K and with the experimental results of Campbell et al. at 292 K, but slightly less well with the experiments of Wallington et al., Nelson et al., and Yujing and Mellouki at 253–372 K; nevertheless, the calculated rates are within a factor of 1.61 of all experimental values at all temperatures. Finally, this gives us confidence in the site-specific values, which are currently inaccessible to experiment.

  17. A Cross-Species Study of Gesture and Its Role in Symbolic Development: Implications for the Gestural Theory of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Lynch, K.; Greenfield, P. M.; Feng, Y.; Savage-Rumbaugh, S.; Lyn, H.

    2013-01-01

    Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffold the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child’s symbols were spoken words; the apes’ symbols were lexigrams – non-iconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in which gestural representation of a referent preceded symbolic representation of the same referent appeared in all three species (but was statistically significant only for the child). Nonetheless, across species, the ratio of symbol to gesture increased significantly with age. But even though their symbol production increased, the apes continued to communicate more frequently by gesture than by symbol. In contrast, by 15–18 months of age, the child used symbols more frequently than gestures. This ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol, present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape, provides support for the role of gesture in language evolution. In all three species, the overwhelming majority of gestures were communicative (i.e., paired with eye contact, vocalization, and/or persistence). However, vocalization was rare for the apes, but accompanied the majority of the child’s communicative gestures. This species difference suggests the co-evolution of speech and gesture after the evolutionary divergence of the hominid line. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence) were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. This species difference suggests that multimodal expression of communicative intent was also strengthened after hominids diverged from apes. PMID:23750140

  18. Hydrogen Abstraction Reactions from Phenolic Compounds by Peroxyl Radicals: Multireference Character and Density Functional Theory Rate Constants.

    PubMed

    Galano, Annia; Muñoz-Rugeles, Leonardo; Alvarez-Idaboy, Juan Raul; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-07-14

    An assessment of multireference character in transition states is considered to be an important component in establishing the expected reliability of various electronic structure methods. In the present work, the multireference characters of the transition states and the forming and breaking of bonds for a large set of hydrogen abstraction reactions from phenolic compounds by peroxyl radicals have been analyzed using the T1, M, B1, and GB1 diagnostics. The extent of multireference character depends on the system and on the conditions under which the reaction takes place, and some systematic trends are observed. In particular, the multireference character is found to be reduced by solvation, the size of the phenolic compound, and deprotonation in aqueous solution. However, the deviations of calculated rate constants from experimental ones are not correlated with the extent of multireference character. The performance of single-determinant density functional theory was investigated for the kinetics of these reactions by comparing calculated rate constants to experimental data; the results from these analyses showed that the M05 functional performs well for the task at hand.

  19. Sorting Symbol Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jodie D.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a variety of activities that ask students to identify, describe, compare, and classify symbol strings (algebraic expressions and equations). The activities use a collection of twelve symbol strings on cards. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  1. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics1 is the study of sequences of symbols belonging to a discrete set of elements, the most commmon example being a sequence of ones and zeroes. Often the set of symbols is derived from a timeseries of a continuous variable through the introduction of a partition function--a process called symbolization. Symbolic dynamics has been used widely in the physical sciences; a geophysical example being the application of C1 and C2 complexity2 to hourly precipitation station data3. The C1 and C2 complexities are computed by examining subsequences--or words--of fixed length L in the limit of large values of L. Recent advances in information theory have led to techniques focused on the growth rate of the Shannon entropy and its asymptotic behavior in the limit of long words--levels of entropy convergence4. The result is a set of measures one can use to quantify the amount of memory stored in the sequence, whether or not an observer is able to synchronize to the sequence, and with what confidence it may be predicted. These techniques may also be used to uncover periodic behavior in the sequence. We are currently applying complexity theory and levels of entropy convergence to gridpoint timeseries from the NCAR/NCEP 50-year reanalysis5. Topics to be discussed include: a brief introduction to symbolic dynamics; a description of the partition function/symbolization strategy; a discussion of C1 and C2 complexity and entropy convergence rates and their utility; and example applications of these techniques to NCAR/NCEP 50-reanalyses gridpoint timeseries, resulting in maps of C1 and C2 complexities and entropy convergence rates. Finally, we will discuss how these results may be used to validate climate models. 1{Hao, Bai-Lin, Elementary Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos in Dissipative Systems, Wold Scientific, Singapore (1989)} 2{d'Alessandro, G. and Politi, A., Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 1609-1612 (1990).} 3{Elsner, J. and Tsonis, A., J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 400-405 (1993).} 4

  2. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago. PMID:18293048

  3. Shanahan on symbolization.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  4. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  5. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    PubMed

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions.

  6. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    PubMed

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions. PMID:27039141

  7. Symbolic and algebraic computation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains subjects under the following headings: Foundations of symbolic computation; Computational logics; systems Algorithms on polynormal; Integrative and differential equations; and Differential equations.

  8. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  9. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  10. The Symbolic Identity Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goud, Nelson H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the role of symbols in attaining total psychic growth by applying concepts of C. Jung, R. Assagiolo, and L. Kubie. Describes a new strategy, the symbolic identity technique, which involves environmental exploration in a relaxed, receptive manner in order to discover something in the outer environment that reflects one's inner nature.…

  11. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  12. Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…

  13. Linking somatic and symbolic representation in semantic memory: the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E; Garcia, Amanda; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2016-08-01

    Biological plausibility is an essential constraint for any viable model of semantic memory. Yet, we have only the most rudimentary understanding of how the human brain conducts abstract symbolic transformations that underlie word and object meaning. Neuroscience has evolved a sophisticated arsenal of techniques for elucidating the architecture of conceptual representation. Nevertheless, theoretical convergence remains elusive. Here we describe several contrastive approaches to the organization of semantic knowledge, and in turn we offer our own perspective on two recurring questions in semantic memory research: (1) to what extent are conceptual representations mediated by sensorimotor knowledge (i.e., to what degree is semantic memory embodied)? (2) How might an embodied semantic system represent abstract concepts such as modularity, symbol, or proposition? To address these questions, we review the merits of sensorimotor (i.e., embodied) and amodal (i.e., disembodied) semantic theories and address the neurobiological constraints underlying each. We conclude that the shortcomings of both perspectives in their extreme forms necessitate a hybrid middle ground. We accordingly propose the Dynamic Multilevel Reactivation Framework-an integrative model predicated upon flexible interplay between sensorimotor and amodal symbolic representations mediated by multiple cortical hubs. We discuss applications of the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework to abstract and concrete concept representation and describe how a multidimensional conceptual topography based on emotion, sensation, and magnitude can successfully frame a semantic space containing meanings for both abstract and concrete words. The consideration of 'abstract conceptual features' does not diminish the role of logical and/or executive processing in activating, manipulating and using information stored in conceptual representations. Rather, it proposes that the materials upon which these processes operate

  14. Linking somatic and symbolic representation in semantic memory: the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E; Garcia, Amanda; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2016-08-01

    Biological plausibility is an essential constraint for any viable model of semantic memory. Yet, we have only the most rudimentary understanding of how the human brain conducts abstract symbolic transformations that underlie word and object meaning. Neuroscience has evolved a sophisticated arsenal of techniques for elucidating the architecture of conceptual representation. Nevertheless, theoretical convergence remains elusive. Here we describe several contrastive approaches to the organization of semantic knowledge, and in turn we offer our own perspective on two recurring questions in semantic memory research: (1) to what extent are conceptual representations mediated by sensorimotor knowledge (i.e., to what degree is semantic memory embodied)? (2) How might an embodied semantic system represent abstract concepts such as modularity, symbol, or proposition? To address these questions, we review the merits of sensorimotor (i.e., embodied) and amodal (i.e., disembodied) semantic theories and address the neurobiological constraints underlying each. We conclude that the shortcomings of both perspectives in their extreme forms necessitate a hybrid middle ground. We accordingly propose the Dynamic Multilevel Reactivation Framework-an integrative model predicated upon flexible interplay between sensorimotor and amodal symbolic representations mediated by multiple cortical hubs. We discuss applications of the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework to abstract and concrete concept representation and describe how a multidimensional conceptual topography based on emotion, sensation, and magnitude can successfully frame a semantic space containing meanings for both abstract and concrete words. The consideration of 'abstract conceptual features' does not diminish the role of logical and/or executive processing in activating, manipulating and using information stored in conceptual representations. Rather, it proposes that the materials upon which these processes operate

  15. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  16. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  17. Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.

  18. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  19. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract…

  20. Memoized Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces memoized symbolic execution (Memoise), a novel approach for more efficient application of forward symbolic execution, which is a well-studied technique for systematic exploration of program behaviors based on bounded execution paths. Our key insight is that application of symbolic execution often requires several successive runs of the technique on largely similar underlying problems, e.g., running it once to check a program to find a bug, fixing the bug, and running it again to check the modified program. Memoise introduces a trie-based data structure that stores the key elements of a run of symbolic execution. Maintenance of the trie during successive runs allows re-use of previously computed results of symbolic execution without the need for re-computing them as is traditionally done. Experiments using our prototype embodiment of Memoise show the benefits it holds in various standard scenarios of using symbolic execution, e.g., with iterative deepening of exploration depth, to perform regression analysis, or to enhance coverage.

  1. Effects of Non-Symbolic Approximate Number Practice on Symbolic Numerical Abilities in Pakistani Children

    PubMed Central

    Khanum, Saeeda; Hanif, Rubina; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Berteletti, Ilaria; Hyde, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments. In Experiment 1, elementary school children in Pakistan practiced either a non-symbolic numerical addition task or a line-length addition task with no numerical content, and then were tested on symbolic addition. After training, children in the numerical training group completed the symbolic addition test faster than children in the line length training group, suggesting a causal role of brief, non-symbolic numerical training on exact, symbolic addition. These findings replicate and extend the core findings of a recent U.S. laboratory-based study to non-Western children tested in a school setting, attesting to the robustness and generalizability of the observed training effects. Experiment 2 tested whether ANS training would also enhance the consistency of performance on a symbolic number line task. Over several analyses of the data there was some evidence that approximate number training enhanced symbolic number line placements relative to control conditions. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of the ANS through brief training procedures enhances children's immediate attention to number and engagement with symbolic number tasks. PMID:27764117

  2. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  3. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  4. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities.

  5. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  6. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  7. Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang; de Boer, Frank S.; Grabe, Immo

    In this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the (object-oriented) programming language. Objects which are not (yet) created never play any role, neither in the specification nor in the verification of properties. Further, we show how to symbolically execute abstract object creation.

  8. Web life: Sixty Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    So what is the site about? If you enjoyed The Periodic Table of Videos we profiled earlier this year (January p35), but found it a bit too...well...chemical, then this is the website for you. Physics does not really have a periodic table, so a handful of scientists from Nottingham University in the UK worked with video-journalist Brady Haran to create one. The result is a 6 × 10 matrix of important symbols in physics and astronomy, each linked to a 5-10 min video describing the symbol's significance.

  9. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  10. Elliptic integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C. |

    1997-12-31

    Computation of elliptic integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing elliptic integrals and other special functions, and his writings on elliptic functions and elliptic integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of elliptic integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all elliptic integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of elliptic integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.

  11. The Utility of Symbolic Logic for Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simowitz, Roslyn L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the advantages of using symbolic logic in political analyses. It can be used (1) as a tool in conceptual refinement, (2) to determine if arguments are consistent and valid, and (3) as a tool for theory development. (SR)

  12. Investigation of the Abstraction and Dissociation Mechanism in the Nitrogen Trifluoride Channels: Combined Post-Hartree-Fock and Transition State Theory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Claudino, D; Gargano, R; Carvalho-Silva, Valter H; E Silva, Geraldo M; da Cunha, W F

    2016-07-21

    The present paper concludes our series of kinetics studies on the reactions involved in the complex mechanism of nitrogen trifluoride decomposition. Two other related reactions that, along with this mechanism, take part in an efficient boron nitride growth process are also investigated. We report results concerning two abstraction reactions, namely NF2 + N ⇄ 2NF and NF3 + NF ⇄ 2NF2, and two dissociations, N2F4 ⇄ 2NF2 and N2F3 ⇄ NF2 + NF. State-of-the-art electronic structure calculations at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory were considered to determine geometries and frequencies of reactants, products, and transition states. Extrapolation of the energies to the complete basis set limit was used to obtain energies of all the species. We applied transition state theory to compute thermal rate constants including Wigner, Eckart, Bell, and deformed theory corrections in order to take tunneling effects into account. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature and are expected to provide a better phenomenological understanding of the NF3 decomposition role in the boron nitride growth for a wide range of temperature values. PMID:27355487

  13. Investigation of the Abstraction and Dissociation Mechanism in the Nitrogen Trifluoride Channels: Combined Post-Hartree-Fock and Transition State Theory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Claudino, D; Gargano, R; Carvalho-Silva, Valter H; E Silva, Geraldo M; da Cunha, W F

    2016-07-21

    The present paper concludes our series of kinetics studies on the reactions involved in the complex mechanism of nitrogen trifluoride decomposition. Two other related reactions that, along with this mechanism, take part in an efficient boron nitride growth process are also investigated. We report results concerning two abstraction reactions, namely NF2 + N ⇄ 2NF and NF3 + NF ⇄ 2NF2, and two dissociations, N2F4 ⇄ 2NF2 and N2F3 ⇄ NF2 + NF. State-of-the-art electronic structure calculations at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory were considered to determine geometries and frequencies of reactants, products, and transition states. Extrapolation of the energies to the complete basis set limit was used to obtain energies of all the species. We applied transition state theory to compute thermal rate constants including Wigner, Eckart, Bell, and deformed theory corrections in order to take tunneling effects into account. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature and are expected to provide a better phenomenological understanding of the NF3 decomposition role in the boron nitride growth for a wide range of temperature values.

  14. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  15. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  16. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  17. Symbolic play and language development.

    PubMed

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis. PMID:25658200

  18. Principal symbol of Euler-Lagrange operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler-Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  19. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  20. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal. PMID:23593360

  1. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  2. Topographic map symbols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Interpreting the colored lines, areas, and other symbols is the first step in using topographic maps. Features are shown as points, lines, or areas, depending on their size and extent. For example, individual houses may be shown as small black squares. For larger buildings, the actual shapes are mapped. In densely built-up areas, most individual buildings are omitted and an area tint is shown. On some maps, post offices, churches, city halls, and other landmark buildings are shown within the tinted area.

  3. Multistructural variational transition state theory: kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction from carbon-2 of 2-methyl-1-propanol by hydroperoxyl radical including all structures and torsional anharmonicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefei; Yu, Tao; Papajak, Ewa; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-11-01

    We calculated the forward and reverse rate constants of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from carbon-2 of 2-methyl-1-propanol by hydroperoxyl radical over the temperature range 250-2400 K by using multistructural canonical variational transition state theory (MS-CVT) including both multiple-structure and torsional potential anharmonicity effects by the multistructural torsional anharmonicity (MS-T) method. In these calculations, multidimensional tunneling (MT) probabilities used to compute the tunneling transmission coefficients were evaluated by the small-curvature tunneling (SCT) approximation. Comparison with the rate constants obtained by the single-structural harmonic oscillator (SS-HO) approximation shows that multistructural anharmonicity increases the forward rate constants for all temperatures, but the reverse rate constants are reduced for temperatures lower than 430 K and increased for higher temperatures. The neglect of multistructural torsional anharmonicity would lead to errors of factors of 1.5, 8.8, and 13 at 300, 1000, and 2400 K, respectively, for the forward reaction, and would lead to errors of factors of 0.76, 3.0, and 6.0, respectively, at these temperatures for the reverse reaction. PMID:23020791

  4. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  5. How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

  6. International Icon Symbols: How Well Are These Symbols Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; Gibbs, William J.

    There is a great reliance on symbolic messages in our society, but the success of these messages depends on how they are interpreted. The variability of subjects' interpretations of commonly used visual symbols was investigated by comparing the interpretations of a U.S. audience and a Jamaican audience. Responses of 27 executive master's in…

  7. Symbol Sourcebook; An Authoritative Guide to International Graphic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Henry

    There are today some 5,000 languages and dialects in use throughout the world; in most instances, intercommunication among them ranges from difficult to impossible. This sourcebook of graphic symbols was compiled as a first step toward a basic means of communication through a system of universally recognizable symbols. The sourcebook is limited to…

  8. Symbolic implicit Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, E.D. III )

    1989-08-01

    We introduce a new implicit Monte Carlo technique for solving time dependent radiation transport problems involving spontaneous emission. In the usual implicit Monte Carlo procedure an effective scattering term in dictated by the requirement of self-consistency between the transport and implicitly differenced atomic populations equations. The effective scattering term, a source of inefficiency for optically thick problems, becomes an impasse for problems with gain where its sign is negative. In our new technique the effective scattering term does not occur and the excecution time for the Monte Carlo portion of the algorithm is independent of opacity. We compare the performance and accuracy of the new symbolic implicit Monte Carlo technique to the usual effective scattering technique for the time dependent description of a two-level system in slab geometry. We also examine the possibility of effectively exploiting multiprocessors on the algorithm, obtaining supercomputer performance using shared memory multiprocessors based on cheap commodity microprocessor technology. {copyright} 1989 Academic Press, Inc.

  9. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    PubMed

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  10. Symbolic function network.

    PubMed

    Eskander, George S; Atiya, Amir F

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a model called symbolic function network (SFN) is introduced; that is based on using elementary functions (for example powers, the exponential function, and the logarithm) as building blocks. The proposed method uses these building blocks to synthesize a function that best fits the training data in a regression framework. The resulting network is of the form of a tree, where adding nodes horizontally means having a summation of elementary functions and adding nodes vertically means concatenating elementary functions. Several new algorithms were proposed to construct the tree based on the concepts of forward greedy search and backward greedy search, together with applying the steepest descent concept. The method is tested on a number of examples and it is shown to exhibit good performance.

  11. Documents and Symbols of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Humanities and Secondary Administration.

    A three-part handbook for Virginia K-12 social studies teachers presents methods for introducing students to documents and symbols which reflect the principles and ideals of the American democratic system. Although a portion of the material focuses on resources specific to the state of Virginia, information on national documents and symbols can be…

  12. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  13. Symbolic Mediation in Cognitive Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Alexander N.

    2011-01-01

    This article used two studies to investigate sign and symbol mediation in children aged 8-11 years. In role play, children exist at one at the same time in objective reality and their representation of reality. We cannot observe their mental representation directly, but the issue of whether signs or symbols mediate early role play is an important…

  14. Fostering Symbolic Interpretation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Wells-Jopling, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although by 11 years children demonstrate impressive performance on various tasks that assess symbolic thinking in language development, research suggests that few young adolescents demonstrate evidence of symbolic processing when reading literature. This study investigated whether the difficulty might be due to a lack of adequate exposure to…

  15. Study of the interface between numerical and symbolic computing techniques. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The basic emphasis of our research during the funding period December 1, 1980 to November 30, 1983 has been on the interface between numerical and symbolic computing techniques and on new and improved techniques in both numerical and symbolic computation. The specific research topics are: an analysis of basic iterative methods for matrix equations; the use of symbolic and numerical techniques on the conjectures of Whittaker (in function theory) and Bernstein (in approximation theory); and the integration of symbolic (exact) and numerical (approximate) computing techniques.

  16. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.

  17. Symbolic manipulation and transport benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The establishment of reliable benchmark solutions is an integral part of the development of computational algorithms to solve the Boltzmann equation of particle motion. These solutions provide standards by which code developers can assess new numerical algorithms as well as ensure proper programming. A transport benchmark solution, as defined here, is the accurate numerical evaluation (3 to 5 digits) of an analytical solution to the transport equation. The basic elements of such a solution are an analytical representation free from discretization and a numerical evaluation for which an error estimate can be obtained. Symbolic manipulation software such as REDUCE, MACSYMA, and SMP can greatly aid in the generation of benchmark solutions. The benefit of these manipulators lies both in their ability to perform lengthy algebraic calculations and to write a code that can be incorporated directly into existing programs. Using two fundamental problems from particle transport theory, the author explores the advantages and limitations of the application of the REDUCE software package in generating time dependent benchmark solutions.

  18. Fast symbolic layout translocation for custom VLSI integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenberger, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Symbolic layout tools have enormous potential for easing the task of custom integrated circuit layout by allowing the designer to work at a higher level of abstraction, hiding some of the complexity of full custom design. Unfortunately, the practicality of symbolic layout tools has been limited for several reasons. Most important, the CPU resources required to compute a full-size integrated circuit from a symbolic description are prohibitively large; this problem has been avoided either by restricting the range of applicability to a narrow class of integrated circuits, or by using a simpler translation algorithm, which reduces the quality of the output. Other problems include: producing poor quality layouts, insufficient user control of the generated output, and inability to cooperate with other layout tools. These problems make symbolic design of complete chips difficult. This thesis presents an approach to the symbolic layout problems that produces high-quality layout for an arbitrary circuit without requiring excessive CPU time. The key to this approach includes the use of hierarchy to improve CPU time, the use of wire-length minimization to improve quality, a good balance between optimization of the layout and optimization of CPU time, and a smooth transition over varying degrees of automation. The result has been a symbolic layout tool that has been successfully used to lay out several chips from a design-rule-independent input.

  19. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  20. Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-04-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science. PMID:22270145

  1. Symbolization and Fallacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    Research indicates that people have two distinct information processing modalities, one for verbal material and one for nonverbal material. The nonverbal mode is used for visual images and is characterized by creative and relatively undisciplined associations. The verbal mode deals with abstract stimuli and is restrained by logic and the need to…

  2. A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

  3. Irreversibility in physics stemming from unpredictable symbol-handling agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-05-01

    The basic equations of physics involve a time variable t and are invariant under the transformation t --> -t. This invariance at first sight appears to impose time reversibility as a principle of physics, in conflict with thermodynamics. But equations written on the blackboard are not the whole story in physics. In prior work we sharpened a distinction obscured in today's theoretical physics, the distinction between obtaining evidence from experiments on the laboratory bench and explaining that evidence in mathematical symbols on the blackboard. The sharp distinction rests on a proof within the mathematics of quantum theory that no amount of evidence, represented in quantum theory in terms of probabilities, can uniquely determine its explanation in terms of wave functions and linear operators. Building on the proof we show here a role in physics for unpredictable symbol-handling agents acting both at the blackboard and at the workbench, communicating back and forth by means of transmitted symbols. Because of their unpredictability, symbol-handling agents introduce a heretofore overlooked source of irreversibility into physics, even when the equations they write on the blackboard are invariant under t --> -t. Widening the scope of descriptions admissible to physics to include the agents and the symbols that link theory to experiments opens up a new source of time-irreversibility in physics.

  4. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  5. Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Namhee; Sage, Daniel S.

    2008-06-15

    Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols.

  6. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    PubMed

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning. PMID:24728912

  7. Biofuel combustion. Energetics and kinetics of hydrogen abstraction from carbon-1 in n-butanol by the hydroperoxyl radical calculated by coupled cluster and density functional theories and multistructural variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling.

    PubMed

    Alecu, I M; Zheng, Jingjing; Papajak, Ewa; Yu, Tao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2012-12-20

    Multistructural canonical variational transition-state theory with small-curvature multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) is employed to calculate thermal rate constants for hydrogen-atom abstraction from carbon-1 of n-butanol by the hydroperoxyl radical over the temperature range 250-2000 K. The M08-SO hybrid meta-GGA density functional was validated against CCSD(T)-F12a explicitly correlated wave function calculations with the jul-cc-pVTZ basis set. It was then used to compute the properties of all stationary points and the energies and Hessians of a few nonstationary points along the reaction path, which were then used to generate a potential energy surface by the multiconfiguration Shepard interpolation (MCSI) method. The internal rotations in the transition state for this reaction (like those in the reactant alcohol) are strongly coupled to each other and generate multiple stable conformations, which make important contributions to the partition functions. It is shown that neglecting to account for the multiple-structure effects and torsional potential anharmonicity effects that arise from the torsional modes would lead to order-of-magnitude errors in the calculated rate constants at temperatures of interest in combustion. PMID:23151032

  8. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  9. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities. PMID:26710824

  10. Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol

  11. Symbolic Representation for Introduction of Concept of Decimal System in Mexican School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solovieva, Y.; Rosas Rivera, Y.; Quintanar, L.; García, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of strategies of symbolic representation during teaching introduction of decimal system in primary school in Mexico. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method includes symbolic external…

  12. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  13. Tantalus, restraint theory, and the low-sacrifice diet: the art of reverse abstraction: 10th International Congress on Obesity; September 4, 2006; Sydney,Australia - Symposium: obesity management: adding art to the science, invited presentation.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, George W

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data - scientific findings - and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  14. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-23

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  15. Usage Of New Activation Function In Neuro-Symbolic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathasivam, Saratha

    2010-12-01

    New activation function is examined for its ability to accelerate the performance of doing logic programming in Hopfield network. This method has a higher capacity and upgrades the neuro symbolic integration. Computer simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the new activation function. Empirical results obtained support our theory.

  16. A Symbolic Model of the Nonconscious Acquisition of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Charles X.; Marinov, Marin

    1994-01-01

    Challenges Smolensky's theory that human intuitive/nonconscious cognitive processes can only be accurately explained in terms of subsymbolic computations in artificial neural networks. Symbolic learning models of two cognitive tasks involving nonconscious acquisition of information are presented: learning production rules and artificial finite…

  17. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  18. Implementing Feedback in a Digital Tool for Symbol Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research at the crossroads of on the one hand the procedural-conceptual cut in algebra in the transition from secondary education to higher education, and on the other hand the potential of ICT. Three key topics come together: algebra didactics (symbol sense), theories on tool use (instrumental genesis) and assessment…

  19. Negotiating Lesbian Family Identity via Symbols and Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.; Bergen, Karla Mason

    2008-01-01

    This study reports how lesbian families negotiate their family identities via symbols and rituals. Sixteen couple interviews were conducted with lesbian co-mothers (for a total of 32 participants) who had their children via donor insemination in the contexts of their current same-sex relationships. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory.…

  20. Semiclassical analysis of the Wigner 9j symbol with small and large angular momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Liang; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    2011-05-15

    We derive an asymptotic formula for the Wigner 9j symbol, in the limit of one small and eight large angular momenta, using a gauge-invariant factorization for the asymptotic solution of a set of coupled wave equations. Our factorization eliminates the geometric phases completely, using gauge-invariant noncanonical coordinates, parallel transports of spinors, and quantum rotation matrices. Our derivation generalizes to higher 3nj symbols. We display without proof some asymptotic formulas for the 12j symbol and the 15j symbol in the Appendices. This work contributes an asymptotic formula of the Wigner 9j symbol to the quantum theory of angular momentum and serves as an example of a general method for deriving asymptotic formulas for 3nj symbols.

  1. Unified optical symbolic substitution processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-07-01

    Symbolic substitution operations can be realized optically on a correlator. This is a very attractive and efficient architecture for symbolic substitution. It allows parallel multichannel realization with a fixed set of filters (on film or easily realized on low space bandwidth product spatial light modulators) using space and frequency-multiplexing or sequential filters. All basic logic, numeric and morphological image processing functions can be achieved by symbolic substitution. Moreover, all operations are possible on one multifunctional optical processor. Morphological operations are felt to be essential for ATR and pattern recognition preprocessing in clutter. They greatly improve the role for optics by allowing the same optical architecture to be used for low, medium and high level vision.

  2. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550758

  3. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  4. Made to Symbolize: Intentionality and Children's Early Understanding of Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    This experiment tested whether children's insight into a difficult symbolic relation could be increased by explicitly emphasizing the intentionality surrounding the artifact's creation and use. Specifically, I explicitly emphasized (a) the adult's intent to communicate information via the artifact and (b) the artifact's intentional origins and…

  5. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  6. Symbolic Heuristic Search for Factored Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor); Feng, Zheng-Zhu; Hansen, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a planning algorithm that integrates two approaches to solving Markov decision processes with large state spaces. State abstraction is used to avoid evaluating states individually. Forward search from a start state, guided by an admissible heuristic, is used to avoid evaluating all states. We combine these two approaches in a novel way that exploits symbolic model-checking techniques and demonstrates their usefulness for decision-theoretic planning.

  7. Symbolic interactionism and critical perspective: divergent or synergistic?

    PubMed

    Burbank, Patricia M; Martins, Diane C

    2010-01-01

    Throughout their history, symbolic interactionism and critical perspective have been viewed as divergent theoretical perspectives with different philosophical underpinnings. A review of their historical and philosophical origins reveals both points of divergence and areas of convergence. Their underlying philosophies of science and views of human freedom are different as is their level of focus with symbolic interactionism having a micro perspective and critical perspective using a macro perspective. This micro/macro difference is reflected in the divergence of their major concepts, goals and basic tenets. While their underlying philosophies are different, however, they are not necessarily contradictory and areas of convergence may include the concepts of reference groups and looking glass self within symbolic interactionism and ideological hegemony within critical perspective. By using a pragmatic approach and combining symbolic interactionism and critical perspectives, both micro and macro levels come into focus and strategies for change across individual and societal levels can be developed and applied. Application of both symbolic interactionism and critical perspective to nursing research and scholarship offers exciting new opportunities for theory development and research methodologies. In nursing education, these two perspectives can give students added insight into patients' and families' problems at the micro level while, at the same time, giving them a lens to see and tools to apply to problems at the macro level in health care. In nursing practice, a combined symbolic interactionism/critical perspective approach assists nurses to give high-quality care at the individual level while also working at the macro level to address the manufacturers of illness. New research questions emerge from this combination of perspectives with new possibilities for theory development, a transformation in nursing education, and the potential for new practice strategies that

  8. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  9. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  10. Organizational Commitment as Symbolic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda; Morrill, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Offers a processual (sic) approach suited to the complex nature of organizational commitment during times of radical change. Emphasizes commitment as communication processes that are integrally tied to the creation of organizational cultures, involve identification via symbolic processes, and encompass various degrees of linkages between…

  11. Allegories and Symbols in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

  12. Remote Symbolic Computation of Loci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanades, Miguel A.; Escribano, Jesus; Botana, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a web-based tool designed to compute certified equations and graphs of geometric loci specified using standard Dynamic Geometry Systems (DGS). Complementing the graphing abilities of the considered DGS, the equations of the loci produced by the application are remotely computed using symbolic algebraic techniques from the…

  13. Symbolic Power, Robotting, and Surveilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical…

  14. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  15. Trajectories of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing in the First Year of Formal Schooling.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Anna A; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to numerical magnitudes is thought to provide a foundation for higher-level mathematical skills such as calculation. It is still unclear how symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (e.g. Dots) magnitude systems develop and how the two formats relate to one another. Some theories propose that children learn the meaning of symbolic numbers by scaffolding them onto a pre-existing nonsymbolic system (Approximate Number System). Others suggest that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitudes have distinct and non-overlapping representations. In the present study, we examine the developmental trajectories of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills and how they relate to each other in the first year of formal schooling when children are becoming more fluent with symbolic numbers. Thirty Grade 1 children completed symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing tasks at three time points in Grade 1. We found that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills had distinct developmental trajectories, where symbolic magnitude processing was characterized by greater gains than nonsymbolic skills over the one-year period in Grade 1. We further found that the development of the two formats only related to one another in the first half of the school year where symbolic magnitude processing skills influenced later nonsymbolic skills. These findings indicate that symbolic and nonsymbolic abilities have different developmental trajectories and that the development of symbolic abilities is not strongly linked to nonsymbolic representations by Grade 1. These findings also suggest that the relationship between symbolic and nonsymbolic processing is not as unidirectional as previously thought.

  16. Trajectories of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing in the First Year of Formal Schooling.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Anna A; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to numerical magnitudes is thought to provide a foundation for higher-level mathematical skills such as calculation. It is still unclear how symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (e.g. Dots) magnitude systems develop and how the two formats relate to one another. Some theories propose that children learn the meaning of symbolic numbers by scaffolding them onto a pre-existing nonsymbolic system (Approximate Number System). Others suggest that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitudes have distinct and non-overlapping representations. In the present study, we examine the developmental trajectories of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills and how they relate to each other in the first year of formal schooling when children are becoming more fluent with symbolic numbers. Thirty Grade 1 children completed symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing tasks at three time points in Grade 1. We found that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills had distinct developmental trajectories, where symbolic magnitude processing was characterized by greater gains than nonsymbolic skills over the one-year period in Grade 1. We further found that the development of the two formats only related to one another in the first half of the school year where symbolic magnitude processing skills influenced later nonsymbolic skills. These findings indicate that symbolic and nonsymbolic abilities have different developmental trajectories and that the development of symbolic abilities is not strongly linked to nonsymbolic representations by Grade 1. These findings also suggest that the relationship between symbolic and nonsymbolic processing is not as unidirectional as previously thought. PMID:26930195

  17. Trajectories of Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing in the First Year of Formal Schooling

    PubMed Central

    Matejko, Anna A.; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to numerical magnitudes is thought to provide a foundation for higher-level mathematical skills such as calculation. It is still unclear how symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (e.g. Dots) magnitude systems develop and how the two formats relate to one another. Some theories propose that children learn the meaning of symbolic numbers by scaffolding them onto a pre-existing nonsymbolic system (Approximate Number System). Others suggest that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitudes have distinct and non-overlapping representations. In the present study, we examine the developmental trajectories of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills and how they relate to each other in the first year of formal schooling when children are becoming more fluent with symbolic numbers. Thirty Grade 1 children completed symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing tasks at three time points in Grade 1. We found that symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing skills had distinct developmental trajectories, where symbolic magnitude processing was characterized by greater gains than nonsymbolic skills over the one-year period in Grade 1. We further found that the development of the two formats only related to one another in the first half of the school year where symbolic magnitude processing skills influenced later nonsymbolic skills. These findings indicate that symbolic and nonsymbolic abilities have different developmental trajectories and that the development of symbolic abilities is not strongly linked to nonsymbolic representations by Grade 1. These findings also suggest that the relationship between symbolic and nonsymbolic processing is not as unidirectional as previously thought. PMID:26930195

  18. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  19. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  20. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  8. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  13. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2259 Color symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown,...

  19. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  20. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  1. Combining metric episodes with semantic event concepts within the Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Troy D.; McGhee, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) combines symbolic and sub-symbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control architecture. The new architecture leverages previous work in cognitive architectures, specifically the development of the Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Soar. This paper details current work on learning from episodes or events. The use of episodic memory as a learning mechanism has, until recently, been largely ignored by computational cognitive architectures. This paper details work on metric level episodic memory streams and methods for translating episodes into abstract schemas. The presentation will include research on learning through novelty and self generated feedback mechanisms for autonomous systems.

  2. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  3. Symbolic Execution Enhanced System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Raman, Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    We describe a testing technique that uses information computed by symbolic execution of a program unit to guide the generation of inputs to the system containing the unit, in such a way that the unit's, and hence the system's, coverage is increased. The symbolic execution computes unit constraints at run-time, along program paths obtained by system simulations. We use machine learning techniques treatment learning and function fitting to approximate the system input constraints that will lead to the satisfaction of the unit constraints. Execution of system input predictions either uncovers new code regions in the unit under analysis or provides information that can be used to improve the approximation. We have implemented the technique and we have demonstrated its effectiveness on several examples, including one from the aerospace domain.

  4. (Imegration of numeric and symbolic for scientific computation): Technical progress report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis of this research was on (1) a coupling of the construction of workable numerical algorithms, and (2) algorithms and systems for interfacing numerical and symbolic computing techniques. The specific items which were investigated were: An asymptotic analysis of basic iterative methods to matrix equations arising from finite element methods; The use of symbolic and numerical techniques on the Whittaker conjecture in function theory; and The integration of symbolic (exact) and numerical (approximate) computing techniques.

  5. C. H. McCloy Lecture: symbols, conventions, games, Eleanor Metheny, and the evolution of human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kretchmar, Scott

    2013-06-01

    In this essay I argue that Eleanor Metheny was ahead of her time when she argued that nonverbal physical activities carry symbolic meanings and are, for that reason and others, intellectually impressive. I compare her theories on the symbolic process with something that might be called the "conventional process." I will show why conventional logic rather than symbolic reasoning tells us more about the way intelligence evolved and the potentially impressive role played by games in the advance of human civilization.

  6. Symbolic dynamics for Lozi maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiurewicz, M.; Štimac, S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the family of Lozi maps {{L}a,b}:{{{R}}2}\\to {{{R}}2} , {{L}a,b}(x,y)=(1+y-a|x|,bx) , and their strange attractors {{ Λ }a,b} . We introduce the set of kneading sequences for the Lozi map and prove that it determines the symbolic dynamics for that map. We also introduce two other equivalent approaches.

  7. Selforganization of Symbols and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Werner; Feistel, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    Following the spirit of the late John Nicolis, the purpose of this paper is to develop an evolutionary approach for the basic problem of generation, storage and dissipation of information in physical and biological systems via dynamical processes. After analysing the relation of entropy and information we develop our view that information is in general a nonphysical, emergent quantity, in spite of the fact that information transfer is always connected with flows of physical energy and entropy. We argue that information can have two basic forms: free information (like that of disks, tapes, books), that is what is transferred between sender and receiver, and bound information, that is a physical non-equilibrium structure which retains potential information reflecting the history of its formation (like fossils, geological strata or galaxies). As a basic concept we consider a kinetic phase transition of the second kind, termed the ritualization transition, which leads to the self-organized emergence of symbols, the key elements of free information. Ritualization occurs only in the context of life. Hence, the simplest physical example for a ritualization process is a system that starts as a physical and ends as a biological one, in other words, the origin of life. Our interest in this transition is focussed on the self-organization of information, on the way how a physical system can be enabled to create symbols and the related symbol-processing machinery out of ordinary pre-biological roots.

  8. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  9. Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan

    2000-10-01

    This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. First-year technikon students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. Each word or symbol was used in a short sentence. For each word or symbol five possible meanings were given, of which any number could be correct. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words. It is concluded that chemistry teachers, at all levels, should be alert to the fact that students may have problems with the meaning of symbols and purposefully "teach" symbolism to ensure that their students understand it the same way that they as teachers do.

  10. Psychological Abstracts/BRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses particular problems and possible solutions in searching the Psychological Abstracts database, with special reference to its loading on BRS. Included are examples of typical searches, citations (with or without abstract/annotation), a tabulated searchguide to Psychological Abstracts on BRS and specifications for the database. (Author/JD)

  11. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  12. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  13. Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: what purely visual-attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stéphane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit strings but not for symbol strings. This finding is difficult to explain for visual-attentional theories of dyslexia which postulate identical deficits for letters, digits and symbols. Moreover, dyslexics showed normal W-shaped serial position functions for letter and digit strings, which suggests that their deficit is not due to an abnormally small attentional window. Finally, the size of the deficit was identical for letters and digits, which suggests that poor letter perception is not just a consequence of the lack of reading. Together then, our results show that symbols that map onto phonological codes are impaired (i.e. letters and digits), whereas symbols that do not map onto phonological codes are not impaired. This dissociation suggests that impaired symbol-sound mapping rather than impaired visual-attentional processing is the key to understanding dyslexia. PMID:20590718

  14. Similarity of Symbol Frequency Distributions with Heavy Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Martin; Font-Clos, Francesc; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the similarity between symbolic sequences is a traditional problem in information theory which requires comparing the frequencies of symbols in different sequences. In numerous modern applications, ranging from DNA over music to texts, the distribution of symbol frequencies is characterized by heavy-tailed distributions (e.g., Zipf's law). The large number of low-frequency symbols in these distributions poses major difficulties to the estimation of the similarity between sequences; e.g., they hinder an accurate finite-size estimation of entropies. Here, we show analytically how the systematic (bias) and statistical (fluctuations) errors in these estimations depend on the sample size N and on the exponent γ of the heavy-tailed distribution. Our results are valid for the Shannon entropy (α =1 ), its corresponding similarity measures (e.g., the Jensen-Shanon divergence), and also for measures based on the generalized entropy of order α . For small α 's, including α =1 , the errors decay slower than the 1 /N decay observed in short-tailed distributions. For α larger than a critical value α*=1 +1 /γ ≤2 , the 1 /N decay is recovered. We show the practical significance of our results by quantifying the evolution of the English language over the last two centuries using a complete α spectrum of measures. We find that frequent words change more slowly than less frequent words and that α =2 provides the most robust measure to quantify language change.

  15. Steering through the murky waters of a scientific conflict: situated and symbolic models of clinical cognition.

    PubMed

    Patel, V L; Kaufman, D R; Arocha, J F

    1995-10-01

    The situated action perspective, which embraces a diversity of views, challenges several of the fundamental assumptions of the symbolic information-processing framework underlying cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we consider the following issues; symbolic representations, plans and actions, distributed cognition, and the transfer of learning. We evaluate each of these issues in terms of research and theories in clinical cognition and examine the implications for education and training, and for the integration of intelligent systems in medical practice. We argue for a reconceptualization of the symbolic framework in terms of the way the role of internal representations and cognitive activities are perceived. However, symbolic representations are integral to medical cognition and should continue to be central in any theoretical framework. A re-examination of cognitive science in medicine in terms of the relationship among physicians, technology, and the workplace could prove to be constructive in bridging the gap between theory and practice.

  16. Steering through the murky waters of a scientific conflict: situated and symbolic models of clinical cognition.

    PubMed

    Patel, V L; Kaufman, D R; Arocha, J F

    1995-10-01

    The situated action perspective, which embraces a diversity of views, challenges several of the fundamental assumptions of the symbolic information-processing framework underlying cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we consider the following issues; symbolic representations, plans and actions, distributed cognition, and the transfer of learning. We evaluate each of these issues in terms of research and theories in clinical cognition and examine the implications for education and training, and for the integration of intelligent systems in medical practice. We argue for a reconceptualization of the symbolic framework in terms of the way the role of internal representations and cognitive activities are perceived. However, symbolic representations are integral to medical cognition and should continue to be central in any theoretical framework. A re-examination of cognitive science in medicine in terms of the relationship among physicians, technology, and the workplace could prove to be constructive in bridging the gap between theory and practice. PMID:8547966

  17. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  18. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  19. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning. PMID:24522424

  20. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  5. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices. PMID:24830225

  6. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    PubMed

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  7. Confabulation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  8. SYMBOLIC INFERENCE OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    MCSHAN, D.C.; UPDADHAYAYA, M.; SHAH, I.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new symbolic computational approach to elucidate the biochemical networks of living systems de novo and we apply it to an important biomedical problem: xenobiotic metabolism. A crucial issue in analyzing and modeling a living organism is understanding its biochemical network beyond what is already known. Our objective is to use the available metabolic information in a representational framework that enables the inference of novel biochemical knowledge and whose results can be validated experimentally. We describe a symbolic computational approach consisting of two parts. First, biotransformation rules are inferred from the molecular graphs of compounds in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Second, these rules are recursively applied to different compounds to generate novel metabolic networks, containing new biotransformations and new metabolites. Using data for 456 generic reactions and 825 generic compounds from KEGG we were able to extract 110 biotransformation rules, which generalize a subset of known biocatalytic functions. We tested our approach by applying these rules to ethanol, a common substance of abuse and to furfuryl alcohol, a xenobiotic organic solvent, which is absent in metabolic databases. In both cases our predictions on the fate of ethanol and furfuryl alcohol are consistent with the literature on the metabolism of these compounds. PMID:14992532

  9. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    PubMed

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  10. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices.

  11. Use of Symbols in Labeling. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing this final rule revising its medical device and certain biological product labeling regulations to explicitly allow for the optional inclusion of graphical representations of information, or symbols, in labeling (including labels) without adjacent explanatory text (referred to in this document as "stand-alone symbols") if certain requirements are met. The final rule also specifies that the use of symbols, accompanied by adjacent explanatory text continues to be permitted. FDA is also revising its prescription device labeling regulations to allow the use of the symbol statement "Rx only" or "[rx] only" in the labeling for prescription devices. PMID:27311137

  12. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  13. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  14. Density functional theory study of hydrogen atom abstraction from a series of para-substituted phenols: why is the Hammett σ(p)+ constant able to represent radical reaction rates?

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsusada; Hirozumi, Koji; Harada, Masataka; Hitaoka, Seiji; Chuman, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    The rate of hydrogen atom abstraction from phenolic compounds by a radical is known to be often linear with the Hammett substitution constant σ(+), defined using the S(N)1 solvolysis rates of substituted cumyl chlorides. Nevertheless, a physicochemical reason for the above "empirical fact" has not been fully revealed. The transition states of complexes between the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (dpph·) and a series of para-substituted phenols were determined by DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, and then the activation energy as well as the homolytic bond dissociation energy of the O-H bond and charge distribution in the transition state were calculated. The heterolytic bond dissociation energy of the C-Cl bond and charge distribution in the corresponding para-substituted cumyl chlorides were calculated in parallel. Excellent correlations among σ(+), charge distribution, and activation and bond dissociation energies revealed quantitatively that there is a strong similarity between the two reactions, showing that the electron-deficiency of the π-electron system conjugated with a substituent plays a crucial role in determining rates of the two reactions. The results provide a new insight into and physicochemical understanding of σ(+) in the hydrogen abstraction from substituted phenols by a radical.

  15. Accounting for conformational flexibility and torsional anharmonicity in the H + CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH hydrogen abstraction reactions: A multi-path variational transition state theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2014-05-07

    This work reports a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from ethanol by atomic hydrogen. The calculated thermal rate constants take into account torsional anharmonicity and conformational flexibility, in addition to the variational and tunneling effects. Specifically, the kinetics calculations were performed by using multi-path canonical variational transition state theory with least-action path tunneling corrections, to which we have added the two-dimensional non-separable method to take into account torsional anharmonicity. The multi-path thermal rate constant is expressed as a sum over conformational reaction channels. Each of these channels includes all the transition states that can be reached by internal rotations. The results show that, in the interval of temperatures between 250 and 2500 K, the account for multiple paths leads to higher thermal rate constants with respect to the single path approach, mainly at low and at high temperatures. In addition, torsional anharmonicity enhances the slope of the Arrhenius plot in this range of temperatures. Finally, we show that the incorporation of tunneling into the hydrogen abstraction reactions substantially changes the contribution of each of the transition states to the conformational reaction channel.

  16. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  17. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  18. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  19. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  1. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  2. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  3. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  4. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  5. Path-dependent variational effects and multidimensional tunneling in multi-path variational transition state theory: rate constants calculated for the reactions of HO2 with tert-butanol by including all 46 paths for abstraction at C and all six paths for abstraction at O.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Sripa, Pattrawan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-14

    Multi-path variational transition state theory (MP-VTST) provides a conformationally complete framework for calculating gas-phase rate constants. For reactions in which the transition state has distinguishable torsional minima (which include most reactions), there are multiple possible reaction paths. In principle MP-VTST includes the contributions from all the reaction paths, and it should explicitly treat the variational and tunneling effects of each path, but in practice one may need to truncate the number of paths included in MP-VTST calculations in order to achieve a balance between computational cost and accuracy. In this work, we present calculations including all paths for two prototype combustion reactions, namely the two hydrogen abstraction reactions from tert-butanol by HO2 radical. For both reactions we included all the reaction paths. Since abstraction at C has 46 paths, it provided a good opportunity to carry out a case study in which we investigated the errors introduced by truncating the number of paths. For the reaction studied, we found that the variational and multidimensional tunneling transmission coefficients are very different for different reaction paths, which provides new evidence that MP-VTST is necessary for treating path-dependent variational effects and multidimensional tunneling. We found that tunneling transmission coefficients can be much larger for higher-energy paths than for lower-energy ones. Interestingly, the simple hypothesis that higher barriers are narrower does not explain this finding in the present case; we found instead that the effect is due to higher-energy barriers having the possibility of tunneling at energies farther below the barrier top. We also show that a previously applied criterion for judging convergence with respect to the number of paths may not be reliable at low temperature. PMID:26658549

  6. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  7. Symbolic Quantum Computation Simulation in SymPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugini, Addison; Curry, Matt; Granger, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Quantum computing is an emerging field which aims to use quantum mechanics to solve difficult computational problems with greater efficiency than on a classical computer. There is a need to create software that i) helps newcomers to learn the field, ii) enables practitioners to design and simulate quantum circuits and iii) provides an open foundation for further research in the field. Towards these ends we have created a package, in the open-source symbolic computation library SymPy, that simulates the quantum circuit model of quantum computation using Dirac notation. This framework builds on the extant powerful symbolic capabilities of SymPy to preform its simulations in a fully symbolic manner. We use object oriented design to abstract circuits as ordered collections of quantum gate and qbit objects. The gate objects can either be applied directly to the qbit objects or be represented as matrices in different bases. The package is also capable of performing the quantum Fourier transform and Shor's algorithm. A notion of measurement is made possible through the use of a non-commutative gate object. In this talk, we describe the software and show examples of quantum circuits on single and multi qbit states that involve common algorithms, gates and measurements.

  8. Interpretation of way-finding healthcare symbols by a multicultural population: navigation signage design for global health.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Muhammad Jawad; Alkaabi, Mariam Salem Khamis Matar; Bharwani, Sulaiman

    2014-05-01

    The interpretation of way-finding symbols for healthcare facilities in a multicultural community was assessed in a cross-sectional study. One hundred participants recruited from Al Ain city in the United Arab Emirates were asked to interpret 28 healthcare symbols developed at Hablamos Juntos (such as vaccinations and laboratory) as well as 18 general-purpose symbols (such as elevators and restrooms). The mean age was 27.6 years (16-55 years) of whom 84 (84%) were females. Healthcare symbols were more difficult to comprehend than general-purpose signs. Symbols referring to abstract concepts were the most misinterpreted including oncology, diabetes education, outpatient clinic, interpretive services, pharmacy, internal medicine, registration, social services, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics and infectious diseases. Interpretation rates varied across cultural backgrounds and increased with higher education and younger age. Signage within healthcare facilities should be tested among older persons, those with limited literacy and across a wide range of cultures.

  9. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  10. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure. PMID:22203384

  11. Abstracts in Relation to Larger and Smaller Discourse Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a unified theory of discourse form to explain (1) why writing textbooks consistently recognize just two polar types of abstract; (2) why students often produce adequate descriptive abstracts but not adequate summary abstracts; and (3) how a short paraphrase differs formally and conceptually from a summary abstract. (KEH)

  12. Design tool for symbolic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathi, Ranjani; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok

    1996-11-01

    A design tool that aids in designing, evaluating, and comparing various implementations of optical symbolic substitution is presented. A hierarchical, modular approach to design similar to that used in digital electronics is supported to facilitate the design of large complex systems. This tool is composed of a schematic capture unit, a simulator unit, and an evaluation unit. Starting with the definition of certain basic or integrated optical elements performing well-defined functions, a schematic capture unit helps to design specific functions. The simulator tool helps to verify the design and the evaluation tool determines its complexity. The usefulness of this design tool is demonstrated with an example design of a simple four- function arithmetic logic unit.

  13. [The nose: representation and symbolism].

    PubMed

    Lebeau, J; Antoine, P

    1994-06-01

    The nose is a primordial element in the facial recognition among the human species. This privileged place, confirmed by experimental psychology, finds a professional application in the creation of the photofit. The physiognomonist drift, that flourished during the last century, lacked a scientific basis and gradually gave way. On the other hand, it is interesting to observe the artist's representations of the nose: except for the realistis school the nose is upsetting. It is therefore either stereotyped or deleted. As for the caricaturist, he illustrates the nose shamelessly. This representation is certainly related to the symbolic force of the nasal appendage, not only a vector of diverse and variable odours but also a passage for the spirit and to the heart. The nose is therefore a significative element of relation, of contact and of expression.

  14. Symbolic walk in regular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.

  15. Symbolic racism and Whites' attitudes towards punitive and preventive crime policies.

    PubMed

    Green, Eva G T; Staerklé, Christian; Sears, David O

    2006-08-01

    This study analyzes the determinants of Whites' support for punitive and preventive crime policies. It focuses on the predictive power of beliefs about race as described by symbolic racism theory. A dataset with 849 White respondents from three waves of the Los Angeles County Social Survey was used. In order to assess the weight of racial factors in crime policy attitudes, the effects of a range of race-neutral attitude determinants were controlled for, namely individual and structural crime attributions, perceived seriousness of crime, crime victimization, conservatism and news exposure. Results show a strong effect of symbolic racism on both types of crime policies, and in particular on punitive policies. High levels of symbolic racism are associated with support for tough, punitive crime policies and with opposition to preventive policies. Sub-dimensions of symbolic racism qualified these relationships, by showing that internal symbolic racism (assessing perceived individual deficiencies of Blacks) was most strongly predictive of punitiveness, whereas external symbolic racism (denial of institutional discrimination) predicted opposition to structural remedies. On the whole, despite the effects of race-neutral factors, the impact of symbolic racism on policy attitudes was substantial. Thus, White public opinion on both punitive and preventive crime policies is at least partially driven by racial prejudice.

  16. Trade-Offs between Grounded and Abstract Representations: Evidence from Algebra Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the complementary strengths and weaknesses of grounded and abstract representations in the domain of early algebra. Abstract representations, such as algebraic symbols, are concise and easy to manipulate but are distanced from any physical referents. Grounded representations, such as verbal descriptions of situations, are…

  17. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND... visa issued to an immigrant alien within one of the classes described below shall bear an appropriate visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law...

  18. A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Charles E.

    A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

  19. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  20. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  1. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  2. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  3. THE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IN LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFAL, JULIUS

    A TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SYMBOLISM IS PRESENTED, BASED ON THE IDEA THAT WORDS WHICH APPEAR IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION IN THE SPEECH OR WRITING OF AN INDIVIDUAL ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY CLOSELY RELATED. THE LATENT MEANING, OR SYMBOLISM, OF A WORD IS ELUCIDATED BY SHOWING HOW CLOSE IT IS, CONCEPTUALLY, TO OTHER SELECTED WORDS OR THEMES IN THE INDIVIDUAL'S…

  4. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another..., XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied nondescript,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another..., XO—oxidized lugs or cutters, BO—oxidized leaf or smoking leaf, GL—thin-bodied nondescript,...

  6. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  7. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP...

  8. Myths and Symbols of Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Roy, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Concepts and symbols of the language of information techology are examined, including the concept of a technological revolution, a literacy crisis, the presumption of a moral and ethical dilemma, orientation toward the future, the promise of productivity, the image of an elite using an unintelligible language, and the symbol of the infallible…

  9. Banking (on) Different Forms of Symbolic Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Shaw, Debora

    2002-01-01

    Successful symbolic capital formation in academia is commonly signified by the trappings of scholarly distinction or acknowledged status as a public intellectual. Compares three potential indices of symbolic capital: citation counts, Web hits, and media mentions. Findings, which are domain specific, suggest public intellectuals are notable by…

  10. Symbol of Support: The Pink Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arleen C.; Lewis, Max W.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that the 1995 American Counseling Association convention presents a moral dilemma for members who support the use of antidiscrimination legislation to protect the rights of gays, lesbians, and bisexual individuals. Uses historic metaphor, based on symbols used during Nazi extermination, to explore strategic symbolic acts in support of a…

  11. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  12. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  13. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  14. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  15. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  16. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  17. 22 CFR 41.12 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided on the visa. The following visa symbols shall be used: Nonimmigrants Symbol Class Section of law... Information Relating to a Criminal Organization or Enterprise 101(a)(15)(S)(i). S6 Certain Aliens Supplying... 214(e)(2). TD Spouse or Child of NAFTA Professional 214(e)(2). U1 Victim of criminal activity...

  18. 22 CFR 41.12 - Classification symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided on the visa. The following visa symbols shall be used: Nonimmigrants Symbol Class Section of law... Information Relating to a Criminal Organization or Enterprise 101(a)(15)(S)(i). S6 Certain Aliens Supplying... 214(e)(2). TD Spouse or Child of NAFTA Professional 214(e)(2). U1 Victim of criminal activity...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange..., GK—green variegated (may be scorched), GG—gray green, KL—variegated lemon, KF—variegated orange, KV—variegated greenish, KM—variegated (scorched) mixed, KD—variegated dark red, and LL—whitish-lemon....

  4. Symbol Character Generator Developed for Decwriter II

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, R.J.

    2001-03-15

    The versatile dot matrix printer of the DECwriter II was modified to enable printing of symbol characters., e.g., Greek letters and other symbol for mathematical expressions and units of measurement. This development involved the replacement of the read-only memory (ROM) units with erasable-programmable read-only memory (EPROM) units.

  5. A defense of the use of metaphor in analytic theory formation.

    PubMed

    Wurmser, L

    1977-01-01

    This study of psychoanalytic theory formation is based on the epistemology of Cassirer and Langer. It postulates the need of all sciences to operate with symbols of various levels of abstractions, including, in a very prominent way, metaphors. There is not just one scientific method. The current wave of criticism against psychoanalytic theory from within and without, and especially of its use of metaphor in theory formation, is based on a philosophy of radical empiricism which cannot do justice to the science of psychoanalysis.

  6. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  7. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  8. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  9. Introducing Abstract Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscell, Bob

    1973-01-01

    A functional approach involving collage, two-dimensional design, three-dimensional construction, and elements of Cubism, is used to teach abstract design in elementary and junior high school art classes. (DS)

  10. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 36 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include the Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment; organizing and retrieving images; intelligent information retrieval using natural language processing; interdisciplinarity; libraries as publishers; indexing hypermedia; cognitive aspects of classification; computer-aided…

  11. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  12. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  13. Using chaos to model random symbols for improved unsupervised information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Leung, Henry

    We present theoretical analyses that may allow strengthening the connection between chaotic dynamical system and information processing. The analytical and empirical studies prove that computing with chaos and nonlinear characterization of information improves unsupervised information processing. Traditional supervised techniques for information retrieval from noisy environment achieve optimal performance. However, the need for training symbols is an inefficient strategy. We prove that with a chaotic generator as an information source, unsupervised performance is close to that of supervised with a white Gaussian stochastic process. Analytical results show that unsupervised technique using chaotic symbolic dynamics is equivalent to that of supervised when using random symbolic information. We conclude from the concepts of measure theory and ergodic theory, that random symbolic information can be modeled by a chaotic dynamical system via symbolic dynamics. We observe that the performance of unsupervised information retrieval is equivalent to that of supervised, when random symbolic information and a dynamical representation of it are used in conjunction. This fact enables to apply nonlinear dynamics to design improved communication systems. This research is supported by Alberta Innovates Technology Futures doctoral scholarship.

  14. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  15. A human performance evaluation of graphic symbol-design features.

    PubMed

    Samet, M G; Geiselman, R E; Landee, B M

    1982-06-01

    16 subjects learned each of two tactical display symbol sets (conventional symbols and iconic symbols) in turn and were then shown a series of graphic displays containing various symbol configurations. For each display, the subject was asked questions corresponding to different behavioral processes relating to symbol use (identification, search, comparison, pattern recognition). The results indicated that: (a) conventional symbols yielded faster pattern-recognition performance than iconic symbols, and iconic symbols did not yield faster identification than conventional symbols, and (b) the portrayal of additional feature information (through the use of perimeter density or vector projection coding) slowed processing of the core symbol information in four tasks, but certain symbol-design features created less perceptual interference and had greater correspondence with the portrayal of specific tactical concepts than others. The results were discussed in terms of the complexities involved in the selection of symbol design features for use in graphic tactical displays.

  16. The two-loop symbol of all multi-Regge regions

    DOE PAGES

    Bargheer, Till; Papathanasiou, Georgios; Schomerus, Volker

    2016-05-02

    Here, we study the symbol of the two-loop n-gluon MHV amplitude for all Mandelstam regions in multi-Regge kinematics in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. While the number of distinct Mandelstam regions grows exponentially with n, the increase of independent symbols turns out to be merely quadratic. We uncover how to construct the symbols for any number of external gluons from just two building blocks which are naturally associated with the six- and seven-gluon amplitude, respectively. The second building block is entirely new, and in addition to its symbol, we also construct a prototype function that correctly reproduces all terms of maximalmore » functional transcendentality.« less

  17. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words. PMID:21954387

  18. Situation models, mental simulations, and abstract concepts in discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-08-01

    This article sets out to examine the role of symbolic and sensorimotor representations in discourse comprehension. It starts out with a review of the literature on situation models, showing how mental representations are constrained by linguistic and situational factors. These ideas are then extended to more explicitly include sensorimotor representations. Following Zwaan and Madden (2005), the author argues that sensorimotor and symbolic representations mutually constrain each other in discourse comprehension. These ideas are then developed further to propose two roles for abstract concepts in discourse comprehension. It is argued that they serve as pointers in memory, used (1) cataphorically to integrate upcoming information into a sensorimotor simulation, or (2) anaphorically integrate previously presented information into a sensorimotor simulation. In either case, the sensorimotor representation is a specific instantiation of the abstract concept.

  19. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  20. Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

  1. Reflections on the clinical implications of symbolism.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Barros, Elias M; da Rocha Barros, Elizabeth L

    2011-08-01

    We start by stressing the idea that the process itself of constructing the symbol in its different components and its vicissitudes is centrally important to contemporary psychoanalysis as symbols are essential for thinking and for storing emotional experiences in our memory and for conveying our affects to others and to ourselves. Our implicit idea is that internal attacks are not directed only at the internal objects, but also include attacks on the structure or forms of the mental representations before and while they become constituted in symbols. It is by this means that destructive impulses invade the processes of symbolic construction. Symbols can lose their plasticity and thus silence the emotions and therefore cut off the patient from their meanings. Our clinical material allows us to increase our understanding of how the formal qualities of symbols operate in mental life, and how they can interfere in the capacity to work through emotional experiences. Finally, our reflections based on the analysis of a patient with difficulty in relating with the meanings of the symbols he produced will highlight the importance of the analyst's reverie along the process of formulating an interpretation. This paper is also part of a development in the study of the process of reverie.

  2. On The Evolutionary Origin of Symbolic Communication

    PubMed Central

    Grouchy, Paul; D’Eleuterio, Gabriele M. T.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication. Robots evolve in a simulated world and are supplied with only a single channel of communication. When their ability to reproduce is motivated by the need to find a mate, robots evolve indexical communication schemes from initially noncommunicating populations in 99% of all experiments. Furthermore, 9% of the populations evolve a symbolic communication scheme allowing pairs of robots to exchange information about two independent spatial dimensions over a one-dimensional channel, thereby increasing their chance of reproduction. These results suggest that the ability for symbolic communication could have emerged spontaneously under natural selection, without requiring cognitive preadaptations or preexisting iconic communication schemes as previously conjectured. PMID:27721422

  3. The developmental onset of symbolic approximation: beyond nonsymbolic representations, the language of numbers matters.

    PubMed

    Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; Gilmore, Camilla; van der Schoot, Menno; van Lieshout, Ernest C D M

    2015-01-01

    Symbolic (i.e., with Arabic numerals) approximate arithmetic with large numerosities is an important predictor of mathematics. It was previously evidenced to onset before formal schooling at the kindergarten age (Gilmore et al., 2007) and was assumed to map onto pre-existing nonsymbolic (i.e., abstract magnitudes) representations. With a longitudinal study (Experiment 1), we show, for the first time, that nonsymbolic and symbolic arithmetic demonstrate different developmental trajectories. In contrast to Gilmore et al.'s (2007) findings, Experiment 1 showed that symbolic arithmetic onsets in grade 1, with the start of formal schooling, not earlier. Gilmore et al. (2007) had examined English-speaking children, whereas we assessed a large Dutch-speaking sample. The Dutch language for numbers can be cognitively more demanding, for example, due to the inversion property in numbers above 20. Thus, for instance, the number 48 is named in Dutch "achtenveertig" (eight and forty) instead of "forty eight." To examine the effect of the language of numbers, we conducted a cross-cultural study with English- and Dutch-speaking children that had similar SES and math achievement skills (Experiment 2). Results demonstrated that Dutch-speaking kindergarteners lagged behind English-speaking children in symbolic arithmetic, not nonsymbolic and demonstrated a working memory overload in symbolic arithmetic, not nonsymbolic. Also, we show for the first time that the ability to name two-digit numbers highly correlates with symbolic approximate arithmetic not nonsymbolic. Our experiments empirically demonstrate that the symbolic number system is modulated more by development and education than the nonsymbolic system. Also, in contrast to the nonsymbolic system, the symbolic system is modulated by language. PMID:25972822

  4. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  5. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  6. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  7. Symbolic Dynamics of Biological Feedback Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Krishna, Sandeep; Jensen, Mogens H.

    2009-02-01

    We formulate general rules for a coarse graining of the dynamics, which we term “symbolic dynamics,” of feedback networks with monotonic interactions, such as most biological modules. Networks which are more complex than simple cyclic structures can exhibit multiple different symbolic dynamics. Nevertheless, we show several examples where the symbolic dynamics is dominated by a single pattern that is very robust to changes in parameters and is consistent with the dynamics being dictated by a single feedback loop. Our analysis provides a method for extracting these dominant loops from short time series, even if they only show transient trajectories.

  8. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  9. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  10. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  11. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  13. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  14. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  16. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  17. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  18. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  19. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  20. Adaptation and Extension of the Framework of Reducing Abstraction in the Case of Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raychaudhuri, Debasree

    2014-01-01

    Although there is no consensus in regard to a unique meaning for abstraction, there is a recognition of the existence of several theories of abstraction, and that the ability to abstract is imperative to learning and doing meaningful mathematics. The theory of "reducing abstraction" maps the abstract nature of mathematics to the nature…

  1. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  2. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  3. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands.

  4. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands. PMID:20044889

  5. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  6. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  7. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  8. Crowding affects letters and symbols differently.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Isselé, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets. Interference from flankers (crowding) was significantly stronger for symbols than letters. Single flankers generated performance similar to the isolated targets when the stimuli were letters but closer to the 2-flanker condition when the stimuli were symbols. Experiment 4 confirmed this pattern using a partial-report bar probe procedure. Experiment 5 showed that another measure of crowding, critical spacing, was greater for symbols than for letters. The results support the hypothesis that letter-string processing involves a specialized system developed to limit the spatial extent of crowding for letters in words.

  9. [The wounded body, knowledge and art symbolism].

    PubMed

    Segura Jorda, Gloria

    2011-02-01

    A brief tour through all art periods, analyzing and searching, to determine the meaning and symbolism of the wound in each period. To study the relationship and symbolism art / body / wound, is a vast and complex task. Can be approached from every angle imaginable. Different disciplines such as anthropology history and philosophy medicine, and now the art, we have provided different interpretations about the meaning representation and wounded human body through the centuries.

  10. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  11. A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takaki, Mitsuo; Cavalcanti, Diego; Gheyi, Rohit; Iyoda, Juliano; dAmorim, Marcelo; Prudencio, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of constraints is a major obstacle for constraint-based software verification. Automatic constraint solvers are fundamentally incomplete: input constraints often build on some undecidable theory or some theory the solver does not support. This paper proposes and evaluates several randomized solvers to address this issue. We compare the effectiveness of a symbolic solver (CVC3), a random solver, three hybrid solvers (i.e., mix of random and symbolic), and two heuristic search solvers. We evaluate the solvers on two benchmarks: one consisting of manually generated constraints and another generated with a concolic execution of 8 subjects. In addition to fully decidable constraints, the benchmarks include constraints with non-linear integer arithmetic, integer modulo and division, bitwise arithmetic, and floating-point arithmetic. As expected symbolic solving (in particular, CVC3) subsumes the other solvers for the concolic execution of subjects that only generate decidable constraints. For the remaining subjects the solvers are complementary.

  12. Meeting Abstracts - Nexus 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Of the abstracts accepted for publication, most are presented as posters, so interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The main poster presentation is Tuesday, October 27, 2015; posters are also displayed on Wednesday, October 28, 2015. The AMCP Nexus 2015 in Orlando, Florida, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs.  Abstracts were submitted in the following categories:  Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs.Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These abstracts describe a course of events; they do not test a hypothesis, but they may include data.

  13. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory information, to investigate how sensitive Dutch speakers are to sound-symbolism in Japanese in a learning task. Participants were taught 2 sets of Japanese ideophones; 1 set with the ideophones' real meanings in Dutch, the other set with their opposite meanings. In Experiment 1, participants learned the ideophones and their real meanings much better than the ideophones with their opposite meanings. Moreover, despite the learning rounds, participants were still able to guess the real meanings of the ideophones in a 2-alternative forced-choice test after they were informed of the manipulation. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is robust beyond 2-alternative forced-choice paradigms and affects broader language processes such as word learning. In Experiment 2, participants learned regular Japanese adjectives with the same manipulation, and there was no difference between real and opposite conditions. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is especially strong in ideophones, and that people learn words better when form and meaning match. The highlights of this study are as follows: (a) Dutch speakers learn real meanings of Japanese ideophones better than opposite meanings, (b) Dutch speakers accurately guess meanings of Japanese ideophones, (c) this sensitivity happens despite learning some opposite pairings, (d) no such learning effect exists for regular Japanese adjectives, and (e) this shows the importance of sound-symbolism in scaffolding language learning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. How Do You Describe a Symbol? The Problems Involved in Retrieving Symbols from a Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Mary C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes attributes of symbols and identifies the need for a suitable management system for retrieving images from a database. A classification structure that incorporates graphic, semantic, and bibliographic dimensions is described; experiments with describing, sorting, and drawing symbols are reviewed; and future work on a database management…

  17. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  18. Rethinking Mindscapes and Symbols of Patriarchy in the Workforce to Explain Gendered Privileges and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Shakespeare, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors contend that gender inequalities in occupational divisions of labor are better understood in reference to the concept of symbolic patriarchy. The conceptual framework is informed by social constructionist theories that view gender not merely in light of sexual or biological differences but as interwoven, fluid, and…

  19. Caring Teachers and Symbolic Violence: Engaging the Productive Struggle in Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic violence may not be a desirable theory to apply to public schooling--its structuralist limitations render it deterministic, lacking in human agency, and unpalatable to researchers and educators who see schools as viable and productive sites of social transformation. Perhaps for these reasons, it seems little has been written about…

  20. Social Adaptation of New Immigrant Students: Cultural Scripts, Roles, and Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukasoanya, Grace

    2014-01-01

    It is important that counselors understand the socio-cultural dimensions of social adaptation among immigrant students. While many psychological theories could provide suitable frameworks for examining these, in this article, I argue that symbolic interactionism could provide an additional valuable framework for (a) exploring the intersections of…

  1. The Symbolic Boundary of Sports: Middle School Athletic Culture and Mexican Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents an analysis of the hidden curriculum of school sports in mediating the achievement of Mexican immigrant girls in middle schools in the southwestern United States. Using Bourdieu's theory of taste, the author shows how symbolic boundaries expressed by students and teachers legitimize cultural practices that…

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  3. Symbolic derivation of order conditions for hybrid Numerov-type methods solving y''=f(x,y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famelis, I. Th; Tsitouras, Ch

    2008-09-01

    Numerov-type ODE solvers are widely used for the numerical treatment of second-order initial value problems. In this work we present a powerful and efficient symbolic code in MATHEMATICA for the derivation of their order conditions and principal truncation error terms. The relative tree theory for such order conditions is presented along with the elements of combinatorial mathematics, partitions of integer numbers and computer algebra which are the basis of the implementation of the symbolic code.

  4. Getting symbols out of a neural architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, John E.

    2011-06-01

    Traditional connectionist networks are sharply limited as general accounts of human perception and cognition because they are unable to represent relational ideas such as loves (John, Mary) or bigger-than (Volkswagen, breadbox) in a way that allows them to be manipulated as explicitly relational structures. This paper reviews and critiques the four major responses to this problem in the modelling community: (1) reject connectionism (in any form) in favour of traditional symbolic approaches to modelling the mind; (2) reject the idea that mental representations are symbolic (i.e. reject the idea that we can represent relations); and (3) attempt to represent symbolic structures in a connectionist/neural architecture by finding a way to represent role-filler bindings. Approach (3) is further subdivided into (3a) approaches based on varieties of conjunctive coding and (3b) approaches based on dynamic role-filler binding. I will argue that (3b) is necessary to get symbolic processing out of a neural computing architecture. Specifically, I will argue that vector addition is both the best way to accomplish dynamic binding and an essential part of the proper treatment of symbols in a neural architecture.

  5. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  6. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  7. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  8. Determining A Purely Symbolic Transfer Function from Symbol Streams: Theory and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    Transfer function modeling is a \\emph{standard technique} in classical Linear Time Invariant and Statistical Process Control. The work of Box and Jenkins was seminal in developing methods for identifying parameters associated with classical $(r,s,k)$ transfer functions. Discrete event systems are often \\emph{used} for modeling hybrid control structures and high-level decision problems. \\emph{Examples include} discrete time, discrete strategy repeated games. For these games, a \\emph{discrete transfer function in the form of} an accurate hidden Markov model of input-output relations \\emph{could be used to derive optimal response strategies.} In this paper, we develop an algorithm \\emph{for} creating probabilistic \\textit{Mealy machines} that act as transfer function models for discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS). Our models are defined by three parameters, $(l_1, l_2, k)$ just as the Box-Jenkins transfer function models. Here $l_1$ is the maximal input history lengths to consider, $l_2$ is the maximal output history lengths to consider and $k$ is the response lag. Using related results, We show that our Mealy machine transfer functions are optimal in the sense that they maximize the mutual information between the current known state of the DEDS and the next observed input/output pair.

  9. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  10. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  11. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  12. Symbolic-numeric interface: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the use of a combination of symbolic and numerical calculations is presented. Symbolic calculations primarily refer to the computer processing of procedures from classical algebra, analysis, and calculus. Numerical calculations refer to both numerical mathematics research and scientific computation. This survey is intended to point out a large number of problem areas where a cooperation of symbolic and numerical methods is likely to bear many fruits. These areas include such classical operations as differentiation and integration, such diverse activities as function approximations and qualitative analysis, and such contemporary topics as finite element calculations and computation complexity. It is contended that other less obvious topics such as the fast Fourier transform, linear algebra, nonlinear analysis and error analysis would also benefit from a synergistic approach.

  13. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  14. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  15. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  16. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  17. Abstract or Concrete Examples in Learning Mathematics? A Replication and Elaboration of Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler's Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bock, Dirk; Deprez, Johan; Van Dooren, Wim; Roelens, Michel; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Kaminski, Sloutsky, and Heckler (2008a) published in "Science" a study on "The advantage of abstract examples in learning math," in which they claim that students may benefit more from learning mathematics through a single abstract, symbolic representation than from multiple concrete examples. This publication elicited both enthusiastic and…

  18. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  19. Sixty Symbols, by The University of Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIsaac, Dan

    2009-11-01

    Faculty at the University of Nottingham are continuing to develop short (5-10 minutes long) insightful video-streamed vignettes for the web. Their earlier sites: Test Tube: Behind the World of Science and the widely known Periodic Table of Videos (a video on each element in the periodic table featured in WebSights last semester) have been joined by a new effort from the faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering-Sixty Symbols: Videos about the Symbols of Physics and Astronomy. I liked the vignette on chi myself.

  20. Symbolic superalgebra manipulations using common lisp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1990-09-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie superalgebra. Using the results of our previous paper, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in the general framework of the Z 2 graded algebras. The parameters are defined as Grassmann or even and treated symbolically. It is possible to perform calculations on finite super Poisson algebras. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  1. Spatial bias in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison in neglect.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie

    2013-08-01

    When asked to bisect mentally numerical intervals, neglect patients show a displacement of the numerical midpoint similar to the one observed in physical line bisection. This spatial-numerical bias has been taken as evidence of the spatial nature of numerical magnitude representations. However, to date, neuropsychological studies in neglect patients have only used symbolic numerical material. Here, we compare the results of patients with right-hemisphere damage with and without unilateral left neglect and age-matched healthy control participants in two numerical comparison tasks using symbolic and non-symbolic materials, in order to determine whether the representation of non-symbolic numerosities was altered or not by the presence of neglect. When asked to judge if an Arabic digit or a sequence of flashed dots was smaller or larger than a reference value (i.e., 5), the responses of neglect patients to smaller magnitudes (i.e., 4) were impaired. Moreover, only neglect patients presented an asymmetrical distance effect (i.e., an enhanced effect only for stimuli of smaller numerical magnitude than the reference). These results provide the first direct evidence of a spatial bias in non-symbolic numerosity in neglect patients, and support the existence of common processing mechanisms and/or a representational system for symbolic and non-symbolic inputs. PMID:23774183

  2. The impact of symbolic and non-symbolic quantity on spatial learning.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Galamba, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An implicit mapping of number to space via a "mental number line" occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers) and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left) on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number--especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high--and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner. PMID:25748826

  3. Effects of non-symbolic numerical information suggest the existence of magnitude-space synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gertner, Limor; Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2012-08-01

    In number-space synesthesia, numbers are visualized in spatially defined arrays. In a recent study (Gertner et al. in Cortex, doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.03.019 , 2012), we found that the size congruency effect (SiCE) for physical judgments (i.e., comparing numbers' physical sizes while ignoring their numerical values, for example, 8) was modulated by the spatial position of the presented numbers. Surprisingly, we found that the neutral condition, which is comprise solely of physical sizes (e.g., 3), was affected as well. This pattern gave rise to the idea that number-space synesthesia might entail not only discrete, ordered, meaningful symbols (i.e., Arabic numbers) but also continuous non-symbolic magnitudes (i.e., sizes, length, luminance, etc.). We tested this idea by assessing the performance of two number-space synesthetes and 12 matched controls in 3 comparative judgment tasks involving symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli: (1) Arabic numbers, (2) dot clusters, and (3) sizes of squares. The spatial position of the presented stimuli was manipulated to be compatible or incompatible with respect to the synesthetic number-space perceptions. Results revealed that for synesthetes, but not for controls, non-symbolic magnitudes (dot clusters) as well as symbolic magnitudes (i.e., Arabic numbers) interacted with space. Our study suggests that number-space synesthetes might have a general magnitude-space association that is not restricted to concrete symbolic stimuli. These findings support recent theories on the perception and evaluation of sizes in numerical cognition.

  4. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  5. Entropy and long-range memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with long-range memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak long-range memory. PMID:27415245

  6. Entropy and long-range memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, S. S.; Usatenko, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with long-range memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak long-range memory.

  7. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  8. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  9. From Rational Numbers to Dirac's Bra and Ket: Symbolic Representation of Physical Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Salvo

    2002-05-01

    Beginning at least in the nineteenth century, symbols used by physicists in their equations interacted with their physical concepts. In the 1850s, Wilhelm Eduard Weber introduced a more rational order into symbolization by adopting an absolute system of units, and thus expressing electrodynamic laws in the form of algebraic equations instead of proportionality relationships, the formerly accepted representation of physical laws. In the 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell made a further advance by using dimensional quantities, and more complex symbolic forms such as gradient, convergence, rotor, and the like, in his electromagnetic and kinetic theories. In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Erwin Schrödinger, and others introduced new symbols for complex numbers, operators, and matrices, thus passing from the representation of metrical properties of physical systems to higher-level mathematical objects. This process was enhanced in modern theoretical physics through the introduction of matrices, creation and destruction operators, Paul A. M. Dirac's q and c numbers, and so on. In the 1930s, Dirac radicalized this transformation of symbols, being aware of the profound modification in the method and scope of the mathematical-physical relationship it entailed.

  10. Developmental Specialization in the Right Intraparietal Sulcus for the Abstract Representation of Numerical Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because number is an abstract quality of a set, the way in which a number is externally represented does not change its quantitative meaning. In this study, we examined the development of the brain regions that support format-independent representation of numerical magnitude. We asked children and adults to perform both symbolic (Hindu-Arabic…

  11. Abstract Models of Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, V. M.

    2001-12-01

    Probability theory presents a mathematical formalization of intuitive ideas of independent events and a probability as a measure of randomness. It is based on axioms 1-5 of A.N. Kolmogorov 1 and their generalizations 2. Different formalized refinements were proposed for such notions as events, independence, random value etc., 2,3, whereas the measure of randomness, i.e. numbers from [0,1], remained unchanged. To be precise we mention some attempts of generalization of the probability theory with negative probabilities 4. From another side the physicists tryed to use the negative and even complex values of probability to explain some paradoxes in quantum mechanics 5,6,7. Only recently, the necessity of formalization of quantum mechanics and their foundations 8 led to the construction of p-adic probabilities 9,10,11, which essentially extended our concept of probability and randomness. Therefore, a natural question arises how to describe algebraic structures whose elements can be used as a measure of randomness. As consequence, a necessity arises to define the types of randomness corresponding to every such algebraic structure. Possibly, this leads to another concept of randomness that has another nature different from combinatorical - metric conception of Kolmogorov. Apparenly, discrepancy of real type of randomness corresponding to some experimental data lead to paradoxes, if we use another model of randomness for data processing 12. Algebraic structure whose elements can be used to estimate some randomness will be called a probability set Φ. Naturally, the elements of Φ are the probabilities.

  12. Two Pieces of Wood: Symbols of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon Shockley; McKerrow, K. Kelly

    For 2 years, at least 2 days a week were spent by a researcher in observing, through the actions of the principal, the dynamics of cultural and ideologic conflict and the process of social control in an elementary school. This personal account analyzes the principal's use of corporal punishment, symbolized by the paddle, and positive…

  13. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    PubMed

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. PMID:20955247

  14. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  15. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  16. The Harp: The Symbol of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Donna Dee

    The harp as a symbol of the Irish people is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the early use of the harp in Irish society and how the magical powers of this instrument affected the natives and invaders of the small island for centuries. From the time of the Celtic occupation of Ireland in 500 BC, music played by harpers has been…

  17. Reconciling symbolic and dynamic aspects of language

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines natural language as a dynamical system. The oft-expressed view of language as “a static system of symbols” is here seen as an element of a larger system that embraces the mutuality of symbols and dynamics. Following along the lines of the theoretical biologist H.H. Pattee, the relation between symbolic and dynamic aspects of language is expressed within a more general framework that deals with the role of information in biological systems. In this framework, symbols are seen as information-bearing entities that emerge under pressures of communicative needs and that serve as concrete constraints on development and communication. In an attempt to identify relevant dynamic aspects of such a system, one has to take into account events that happen on different time scales: evolutionary language change (i.e., a diachronic aspect), processes of communication (language use) and language acquisition. Acknowledging the role of dynamic processes in shaping and sustaining the structures of natural language calls for a change in methodology. In particular, a purely synchronic analysis of a system of symbols as “meaning-containing entities” is not sufficient to obtain answers to certain recurring problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language. A more encompassing research framework may be the one designed specifically for studying informationally based coupled dynamical systems (coordination dynamics) in which processes of self-organization take place over different time scales. PMID:19173014

  18. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support...

  19. The rich detail of cultural symbol systems.

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight W

    2014-08-01

    The goal of forming a science of intentional behavior requires a more richly detailed account of symbolic systems than is assumed by the authors. Cultural systems are not simply the equivalent in the ideational domain of culture of the purported Baldwin Effect in the genetic domain. PMID:25162879

  20. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  1. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    PubMed

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor.

  2. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  3. Cartographic Symbolism and Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, E. O.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alleged special difficulties in teaching very young children how to interpret cartographic symbols. Adults too often reduce or temporarily destroy interest by introducing too many complications too fast. There is a vast difference between acceptance of a fact and understanding of the cause of the fact.…

  4. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Symbolic signs....

  5. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  6. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  7. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  8. 36 CFR 1001.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... signs. (a) The signs pictured in 36 CFR 1.10 provide general information and regulatory guidance in the area administered by the Presidio Trust. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbolic signs....

  9. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  10. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  11. Abstracts and reviews.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, G H; Wollman, L; Woltmann, A G

    1966-09-01

    Abstract Eric Berne, M.D.: Games People Play. Grove Press, New York, 1964. 192 pages. Price $5.00. Reviewed by Hugo G. Beigel Finkle, Alex M., Ph.D., M.D. and Prian, Dimitry F. Sexual Potency in Elderly Men before and after Prostatectomy. J.A.M.A., 196: 2, April, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman Calvin C. Hernton: Sex and Racism In America. Grove Press, Inc. Black Cat Edition No. 113 (Paperback), 1966, 180 pp. Price $.95. Reviewed by Gus Woltmann Hans Lehfeldt, M.D., Ernest W. Kulka, M.D., H. George Liebman, M.D.: Comparative Study of Uterine Contraceptive Devices. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26: 5, 1965, pp. 679-688. Lawrence Lipton. The Erotic Revolution. Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, 1965. 322 pp., Price $7.50. Masters, William H., M.D. and Johnson, Virginia E. Human Sexual Response. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1966. 366 pages. Price $.10.00. Reviewed by Hans Lehfeldt Douglas P. Murphy, M.D. and Editha F. Torrano, M.D. Male Fertility in 3620 Childless Couples. Fertility and Sterility, 16: 3, May-June, 1965. Reviewed by Leo Wollman, M.D. Edwin M. Schur, Editor: The Family and the Sexual Revolution, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1964. 427 pgs. Weldon, Virginia F., M.D., Blizzard, Robert M., M.D., and Migeon, Claude, M.D. Newborn Girls Misdiagnosed as Bilaterally Chryptorchid Males. The New England Journal of Medicine, April 14, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman.

  12. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  13. Brief non-symbolic, approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children

    PubMed Central

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research reveals a link between individual differences in mathematics achievement and performance on tasks that activate the approximate number system (ANS): a primitive cognitive system shared by diverse animal species and by humans of all ages. Here we used a brief experimental paradigm to test one causal hypothesis suggested by this relationship: activation of the ANS may enhance children's performance of symbolic arithmetic. Over 2 experiments, children who briefly practiced tasks that engaged primitive approximate numerical quantities performed better on subsequent exact, symbolic arithmetic problems than did children given other tasks involving comparison and manipulation of non-numerical magnitudes (brightness and length). The practice effect appeared specific to mathematics, as no differences between groups were observed on a comparable sentence completion task. These results move beyond correlational research and provide evidence that the exercise of non-symbolic numerical processes can enhance children's performance of symbolic mathematics. PMID:24462713

  14. Symbolic planning with metric time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, T. R.

    1992-03-01

    Most AI planning systems have considered time in a qualitative way only. For example, a plan may require one action to come 'before' another. Metric time enables AI planners to represent action durations and reason over quantitative temporal constraints such as windows of opportunity. This paper presents preliminary results observed while developing a theory of multi-agent adversarial planning for battle management research. Quantitative temporal reasoning seems essential in this domain. For example, Orange may plan to block Blue's attack by seizing a river ford which Blue must cross, but only if Orange can get there during the window of opportunity while Blue is approaching the ford but has not yet arrived. In nonadversarial multi-agent planning, metric time enables planners to detect windows of opportunity for agents to help or hinder each other. In single-agent planning, metric time enables planners to reason about deadlines, temporally constrained resource availability, and asynchronous processes which the agent can initiate and monitor. Perhaps surprisingly, metric time increases the computational complexity of planning less than might be expected, because it reduces the computational complexity of modal truth criteria. To make this observation precise, we review Chapman's analysis to modal truth criteria and describe a tractable heuristic criterion, 'worst case necessarily true.' Deciding if a proposition is worst case necessarily true, in a single-agent plan with n steps, requires O(n) computations only if qualitative temporal information is used. We show how it can be decided in O(log n) using metric time.

  15. Contrasting methods for symbolic analysis of biological regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilds, Roy; Glass, Leon

    2009-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics offers a powerful technique to relate the structure and dynamics of complex networks. We contrast the predictions of two methods of symbolic dynamics for the analysis of monotonic networks suggested by models of genetic control systems.

  16. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  17. Turning Symbolic: The Representation of Motion Direction in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Seidel Malkinson, Tal; Pertzov, Yoni; Zohary, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM)? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features. To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwise∖counter-clockwise judgment). First, we show that a change in the dots’ contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, strongly biases performance toward the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer). These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM could be independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position) and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analog representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock. PMID:26909059

  18. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  19. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  20. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  1. From the Origins of Life to Intelligence: The Emergence of Symbolic Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be understood - and cannot be 'artificially recreated' - without also understanding how it fits as a phenomenon in the evolution of matter. I say 'matter' instead of 'life' because my thesis is that the distinction between matter, with its associated interactions, and life, is simply in the complexity of these interactions and in the number of 'symbolic levels' that are defined by these interactions. Most of us think of symbols only in the context of language. This is understandable, since it is at this level where it is easiest to draw a distinction between natural objects and their 'names', i.e., the different sets of 'abstract' objects that can be manipulated to produce models of the 'real' world. Of course sets of abstract objects can also acquire names and be manipulated at higher and higher conceptual levels. When we use the words 'philosophy' or 'the Declaration of Independence' we use abstract constructs that will only make sense in other specific abstract contexts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  3. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the symbol is printed on the box or package from which the commercial container is removed upon... REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions. (a) Each commercial container of... § 1308.31 of this chapter) shall have printed on the label the symbol designating the schedule in...

  4. [Significance of symbolism in analytic and analytically oriented psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Köpp, W

    1995-01-01

    Since the very beginning of psychoanalysis there has been a long lasting discussion about the definition and the role of symbols and symbolization within the theoretical framework of psychoanalysis. The discussion has been summarized by Orban (1976) and Speidel (1978). In this paper a psychoanalytic understanding of creative processes and the relevance of symbolization for the course of treatment is presented.

  5. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The research broadly concerned the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and data base computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. It was determined that trees can be used to compute symbolically series which approximate solutions to differential equations.

  6. Gibberish or What? Use of Symbolic Language in Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinnell, Lorna; Carter, Merilyn

    2013-01-01

    Lorna Quinnell and Merrilyn Carter examine the use of symbols in teaching mathematics and outline the difficulties students experience in "reading symbols and abbreviations." We are sure teachers will appreciate the way the authors have examined the use of symbols and abbreviations in NAPLAN testing and organized them into five distinct…

  7. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  12. Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1979-01-01

    The failure of research on media to deal with media's symbol systems is discussed. Nature of symbol systems is described and related to cognition and learning. Symbolic elements used by media can facilitate the cultivation of mental skills in interaction with individual differences and depth of processing. (Author/RD)

  13. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  14. Emotion Management of Teaching: Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwok Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, studies have found that more and more teachers in Hong Kong express negative feelings toward their work, such as feelings of dissatisfaction, exhaustion, meaningless and powerless. These negative emotional experiences may affect both their well-being and the quality of their teaching. In order to have a better understanding…

  15. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  16. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  17. SYMBMAT: Symbolic computation of quantum transition matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Kirchner, T.

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a set of Mathematica notebooks to compute symbolically quantum transition matrices relevant for atomic ionization processes. The utilization of a symbolic language allows us to obtain analytical expressions for the transition matrix elements required in charged-particle and laser induced ionization of atoms. Additionally, by using a few simple commands, it is possible to export these symbolic expressions to standard programming languages, such as Fortran or C, for the subsequent computation of differential cross sections or other observables. One of the main drawbacks in the calculation of transition matrices is the tedious algebraic work required when initial states other than the simple hydrogenic 1s state need to be considered. Using these notebooks the work is dramatically reduced and it is possible to generate exact expressions for a large set of bound states. We present explicit examples of atomic collisions (in First Born Approximation and Distorted Wave Theory) and laser-matter interactions (within the Dipole and Strong Field Approximations and different gauges) using both hydrogenic wavefunctions and Slater-Type Orbitals with arbitrary nlm quantum numbers as initial states. Catalogue identifier: AEMI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71 628 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 444 195 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: Single machines using Linux or Windows (with cores with any clock speed, cache memory and bits in a word) Operating system: Any OS that supports Mathematica. The notebooks have been tested under Windows and Linux and with versions 6.x, 7.x and 8.x Classification: 2.6 Nature of problem

  18. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  19. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  20. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people.

  1. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  2. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  3. Symbols and ethics: integrity and the discipline of nursing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2005-07-01

    Symbols give meaning to phenomena coconstituted in the human-universe-health process. There are many common symbols of ethics found in the discipline of nursing. Symbols of ethics may take the form of codes, oaths, pledges, resolutions, or position statements that represent notions of what one ought to do in a discipline or profession. Ethical symbols are intended to guide a particular discipline in practice, research, and education. What is their importance to the discipline of nursing? What are the possible implications of integrity for nursing when viewing the application of ethical symbols from a nursing theoretical perspective? PMID:15976042

  4. Multifunctional optical processor based on symbolic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.; Botha, E.C. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors propose an optical multifunctional processor that can perform logic, numeric, pattern recognition, morphological, and inference operations. The ability to perform such diverse functions on one optical processor architecture is unique. The processor uses the technique of symbolic substitution and is based on an optical correlator architecture. Several inputs can be operated on in parallel, and different functions can be performed at one time, making it a multiple-instruction multiple-data processor.

  5. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, E.

    1985-10-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

  6. Another look at children's symbol reversals.

    PubMed

    Patton, J E; Yarbrough, D B; Thursby, D

    2000-04-01

    In a previously reported longitudinal study of reversal errors for static and kinetic written symbols we found no compelling support for their academic importance in kindergarten (n = 201), Grade 1 (n = 156), or Grade 2 (n = 129); however, for Grade 3 (n = 105), kinetic reversals became a significant predictor of tested reading achievement. If reliable, this finding might have implications for the identification of children with long-term reading impairment. PMID:10833756

  7. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    PubMed

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s. PMID:26806075

  8. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    PubMed

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s.

  9. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  10. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  11. Fusing Symbolic and Numerical Diagnostic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    X-2000 Anomaly Detection Language denotes a developmental computing language, and the software that establishes and utilizes the language, for fusing two diagnostic computer programs, one implementing a numerical analysis method, the other implementing a symbolic analysis method into a unified event-based decision analysis software system for realtime detection of events (e.g., failures) in a spacecraft, aircraft, or other complex engineering system. The numerical analysis method is performed by beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAMs), which has been discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The symbolic analysis method is, more specifically, an artificial-intelligence method of the knowledge-based, inference engine type, and its implementation is exemplified by the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) software. The goal in developing the capability to fuse numerical and symbolic diagnostic components is to increase the depth of analysis beyond that previously attainable, thereby increasing the degree of confidence in the computed results. In practical terms, the sought improvement is to enable detection of all or most events, with no or few false alarms.

  12. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field.

  13. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy (SAS-83): abstracts and program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Abstracts of papers given at the symposium are presented. Session topics include: Rydbergs, optical radiators, and planetary atoms; highly ionized atoms; ultraviolet radiation; theory, ion traps, and laser cooling; beam foil; and astronomy. (GHT)

  14. Learning with LOGO: Abstracts from the LOGO '84 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Yvonne

    1984-01-01

    Presents abstracts of three papers given at the first national LOGO conference. They are: "LOGO as an Empirical Window" (Sylvia Weir); "Quasi-Piagetian Learning in LOGO" (Uri Leron); and "Theories of LOGO" (Guy Groen). (JN)

  15. Trade-offs between grounded and abstract representations: evidence from algebra problem solving.

    PubMed

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Alibali, Martha W; Nathan, Mitchell J

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the complementary strengths and weaknesses of grounded and abstract representations in the domain of early algebra. Abstract representations, such as algebraic symbols, are concise and easy to manipulate but are distanced from any physical referents. Grounded representations, such as verbal descriptions of situations, are more concrete and familiar, and they are more similar to physical objects and everyday experience. The complementary computational characteristics of grounded and abstract representations lead to trade-offs in problem-solving performance. In prior research with high school students solving relatively simple problems, Koedinger and Nathan (2004) demonstrated performance benefits of grounded representations over abstract representations-students were better at solving simple story problems than the analogous equations. This article extends this prior work to examine both simple and more complex problems in two samples of college students. On complex problems with two references to the unknown, a "symbolic advantage" emerged, such that students were better at solving equations than analogous story problems. Furthermore, the previously observed "verbal advantage" on simple problems was replicated. We thus provide empirical support for a trade-off between grounded, verbal representations, which show advantages on simpler problems, and abstract, symbolic representations, which show advantages on more complex problems.

  16. Abstract shape analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract shape analysis abstract shape analysis is a method to learn more about the complete Boltzmann ensemble of the secondary structures of a single RNA molecule. Abstract shapes classify competing secondary structures into classes that are defined by their arrangement of helices. It allows us to compute, in addition to the structure of minimal free energy, a set of structures that represents relevant and interesting structural alternatives. Furthermore, it allows to compute probabilities of all structures within a shape class. This allows to ensure that our representative subset covers the complete Boltzmann ensemble, except for a portion of negligible probability. This chapter explains the main functions of abstract shape analysis, as implemented in the tool RNA shapes. RNA shapes It reports on some other types of analysis that are based on the abstract shapes idea and shows how you can solve novel problems by creating your own shape abstractions.

  17. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  18. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 11, Numbers 1-10, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D. Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 11 for 1998 contains the following 10 abstracts: (1) "What If They Learn Differently: Applying Multiple Intelligences Theory in the Community College" (Rene…

  19. Contextualizing Action for the Abstraction of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, abstraction is associated with an activity in the sense of activity theory by Vygotsky. To him, participation in social activities is a fundamental act for the child in order to achieve higher mental functions. The present paper aimed to experimentally investigate the abstraction process and illustrate how meaning emerges on social…

  20. Development of the Angle Concept by Abstraction from Situated Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; White, Paul

    This paper explores a framework for research on the development of the angle concept based on theories of abstraction. The framework suggests that children initially acquire a body of disconnected angle knowledge situated in everyday experiences, group the situations to form angle contexts, and then form an abstract angle concept. The framework is…

  1. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra

    PubMed Central

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students’ first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students’ ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16–17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15–16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students’ transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition. PMID:25228874

  2. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra.

    PubMed

    Susac, Ana; Bubic, Andreja; Vrbanc, Andrija; Planinic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Algebra typically represents the students' first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students' ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 13 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters), and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols) than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16-17 years), suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15-16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students' transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition.

  3. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  4. Symbolic Derivation of Order Conditions for Runge-Kutta-Nyström Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2007-09-01

    The theory of bi-coloured trees and some special properties of Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods are used to construct a simple algorithm for the symbolic derivation of the order conditions. The basic assumption is that there is a certain connection between the elementary weights of trees with black and white roots, which reduces the number of conditions only to those that are derived from trees with white roots. This connection is compatible with symplecticity.

  5. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  7. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  8. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  9. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  10. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  11. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  12. Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Gandelman, Kuan; Lamson, Michael; Bramson, Candace; Matschke, Kyle; Salageanu, Joanne; Malhotra, Bimal

    2015-09-01

    ALO-02 capsules (ALO-02) contain pellets that consist of extended-release oxycodone that surrounds sequestered naltrexone. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose oral administration of ALO-02 40 mg BID in healthy volunteers. Secondary objectives were to characterize (1) the PK of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose administration of a comparator OxyContin (OXY-ER) 40 mg BID as well as an alternate regimen of ALO-02 80 mg QD, and (2) the safety and tolerability assessments. Healthy volunteers received three treatments on a background of oral naltrexone (50 mg). Noncompartmental PK parameters were calculated for oxycodone. All 12 subjects were male with a mean age (SD, range) of 44.6 years (7.6, 25-55). Single-dose PK results for ALO-02 indicate that median peak plasma oxycodone concentrations were reached by 12 hours compared to 4 hours for OXY-ER. Compared to OXY-ER, mean dose-normalized, single-dose Cmax values were approximately 27% and 23% lower for ALO-02 40 mg BID and ALO-02 80 mg QD treatments, respectively. Following multiple doses all treatments reached steady state by 3 days. At steady state, oxycodone peak-to-trough fluctuation was significantly lower for ALO-02 BID versus OXY-ER. Adverse events were consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 40 mg BID treatment provided a PK profile appropriate for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27137145

  13. The New Algorithm for Symbolic Network Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, John Tsai-Chiang

    A new and highly efficient tree identification algorithm is derived here for obtaining the determinant and the cofactors of a circuit's node admittance matrix, and hence, for obtaining various symbolic network functions for one-port and two-port reciprocal and nonreciprocal networks, with the network's topological description as its input. The algorithm is so devised that it is practically memory-storage free, and it is simple enough that even a microcomputer can obtain symbolic network functions for a fairly large circuit in a reasonably short time. It is worth noting that the algorithm can handle topological branches with infinite admittance values. Making use of this special feature, we have derived a simple topological model for the ideal operational amplifier, hence providing the ability to obtain various topological formulas of operational amplifier circuits in a reasonable time. By choosing appropriate symbolic network functions, along with some measured transfer function data, the circuit's nominal element values, and a nonlinear-equation solving subroutine, we have constructed a computer program to perform analog circuit fault diagnosis. This program can identify which of a circuit's elements are faulty or out of design tolerances. In the course of this research we have also identified an application to a biological problem, one in which the resistor values of an electrical model of the guinea-pig cochlea can easily be deduced even when some nodes are inaccessible for measurements. All these features have been implemented on a very modest microcomputer, the Apple II. Obviously, a larger computer will not only accomplish the same result faster but also it will be capable of analyzing much larger circuits.

  14. Networks of motifs from sequences of symbols.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

    2010-10-22

    We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

  15. Deformation of vect(1)-modules of symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdouri, Imed; Ben Ammar, Mabrouk; Dali, Béchir; Omri, Salem

    2010-03-01

    We consider the action of the Lie algebra of polynomial vector fields, vect(1), by the Lie derivative on the space of symbols Sβn=⨁j=0nF. We study the deformations of this action. We exhibit explicit expressions of some 2-cocycles generating the second cohomology space Hdiff2(vect(1),D) where D is the space of differential operators from Fν to Fμ. Necessary second-order integrability conditions of any infinitesimal deformations of Sβn are given. We describe completely the formal deformations for some spaces Sβn and we give concrete examples of nontrivial deformations.

  16. Networks of Motifs from Sequences of Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

  17. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. Bringing the Best of Two Worlds Together for Social Capital Research in Education: Social Network Analysis and Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…

  19. A Conformance Testing Relation for Symbolic Timed Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Styp, Sabrina; Bohnenkamp, Henrik; Schmaltz, Julien

    We introduce Symbolic Timed Automata, an amalgamation of symbolic transition systems and timed automata, which allows to express nondeterministic data-dependent control flow with inputs and outputs and real-time behaviour. In particular, input data can influence the timing behaviour. We define two semantics for STA, a concrete one as timed labelled transition systems and another one on a symbolic level. We show that the symbolic semantics is complete and correct w.r.t. the concrete one. Finally, we introduce symbolic conformance relation stioco , which is an extension of the well-known ioco conformance relation. Relation stioco is defined using FO-logic on a purely symbolic level. We show that stioco corresponds on the concrete semantic level to Krichen and Tripakis' implementation relation tioco for timed labelled transition systems.

  20. The role of sound symbolism in language learning.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning.

  1. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  2. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  3. Symbolic Models for Single-Conclusion Proof Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupski, Vladimir N.

    Symbolic semantics for logics of proofs based on Mkrtychev models covers the the case of multi-conclusion proof logics. We propose symbolic models for single-conclusion proof logics (FLP and its extensions). The corresponding soundness and completeness theorems are proven. The developed symbolic model technique is used to establish the consistency of contexts required for proof internalization. In particular, we construct an extension of FLP that enjoys the strong proof internalization property with empty context.

  4. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  5. Priming of abstract letter representations may be universal: the case of Arabic.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem

    2012-08-01

    Recent research on the Roman alphabet has demonstrated that the magnitudes of masked repetition priming are equivalent for letter pairs that have similar visual features across cases (e.g., c-C) and for letter pairs with dissimilar features (e.g., g-G). Here, we examined whether priming of abstract letter representations occurs in an orthographic system, Arabic, in which the letters show an intricate number of contextual forms. Arabic does not have a lowercase/uppercase distinction, but the letters exhibit different forms that depend on their position (initial, medial, final, or isolated) and their connectivity. Importantly, some letters look quite different across positions (e.g., (symbol in text) and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter 'ayn), whereas others look very similar (e.g. (symbol in text), and (symbol in text), which correspond to the letter fā'). We employed a masked priming same-different task, in which native speakers of Arabic decided whether a target letter was the same as or different from a reference letter presented in a different position (middle vs. isolated). The results showed masked repetition priming effects of the same magnitude for letter pairs with similar and with dissimilar visual features across letter positions. These data support the view that priming of abstract letter representations is a universal phenomenon. PMID:22569990

  6. Prediction of dynamical systems by symbolic regression.

    PubMed

    Quade, Markus; Abel, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K; Noack, Bernd R

    2016-07-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting an arriving front in an excitable system, and as a real-world application, the prediction of solar power production based on energy production observations at a given site together with the weather forecast. PMID:27575130

  7. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  8. Prediction of dynamical systems by symbolic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Markus; Abel, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K.; Noack, Bernd R.

    2016-07-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting an arriving front in an excitable system, and as a real-world application, the prediction of solar power production based on energy production observations at a given site together with the weather forecast.

  9. Prediction of dynamical systems by symbolic regression.

    PubMed

    Quade, Markus; Abel, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K; Noack, Bernd R

    2016-07-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting an arriving front in an excitable system, and as a real-world application, the prediction of solar power production based on energy production observations at a given site together with the weather forecast.

  10. The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut.

    PubMed

    Pattee, H H

    2001-01-01

    Evolution requires the genotype-phenotype distinction, a primeval epistemic cut that separates energy-degenerate, rate-independent genetic symbols from the rate-dependent dynamics of construction that they control. This symbol-matter or subject-object distinction occurs at all higher levels where symbols are related to a referent by an arbitrary code. The converse of control is measurement in which a rate-dependent dynamical state is coded into quiescent symbols. Non-integrable constraints are one necessary condition for bridging the epistemic cut by measurement, control, and coding. Additional properties of heteropolymer constraints are necessary for biological evolution.

  11. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine.

  12. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    PubMed

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine. PMID:20039773

  13. Two-year-olds' understanding of self-symbols.

    PubMed

    Herold, Katherine; Akhtar, Nameera

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated 48 2.5-year-olds' ability to map from their own body to a two-dimensional self-representation and also examined relations between parents' talk about body representations and their children's understanding of self-symbols. Children participated in two dual-representation tasks in which they were asked to match body parts between a symbol and its referent. In one task, they used a self-symbol and in the other they used a symbol for a doll. Participants were also read a book about body parts by a parent. As a group, children found the self-symbol task more difficult than the doll-task; however, those whose parents explicitly pointed out the relation between their children's bodies and the symbols in the book performed better on the self-symbol task. The findings demonstrate that 2-year-old children have difficulty comprehending a self-symbol, even when it is two-dimensional and approximately the same size as them, and suggest that parents' talk about self-symbols may facilitate their understanding. PMID:24588085

  14. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  15. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  16. How Would Theory of Mind Play a Role in Comprehending Art?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, B.

    2009-01-01

    The way theory of mind takes part in comprehension of art is examined in this article. Because theory of mind and understanding of artwork involves some symbolic competency, the link between comprehending art (i.e., drawing, painting, sculpture, and music) and theory of mind is explained through symbolism. To understand a piece of symbolic…

  17. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  18. Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

  19. Fusion Energy Division Annual Information Meeting. Agenda and abstracts, April 8-9, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of the presentations are included. The general topics covered included the following: (1) development and technology, and (2) plasma confinement, theory, and FEDC. In addition, abstracts are also given for various invited talks. (MOW)

  20. Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1990-01-01

    In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.