Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.
The details of abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively solve the problem of data transfer across incompatible host environments are presented, and a compiler that was built to automate their use is described. Experiences with this compiler are also discussed which provide a quantitative analysis of the performance costs associated with the application of these standards. An evaluation is offered as to how well suited ASN.1 and BER are in solving the common data representation problem.
Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.
The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.
The author has worked for three days on a range of mathematical tasks in order to gain a deeper understanding of the role of notation in mathematics education. The general conclusions were that while mathematical notation can be powerful it can also be obstructive. In this article, the author explores the importance on notation in supporting…
Syntax is the cognitive capacity of human beings that allows us to connect linguistic meaning with linguistic form. The study of syntax is a huge field that has generated a great deal of empirical and theoretical work over the decades. This article outlines why understanding our syntactic capacity is important to cognitive science in general and why the data of syntactic research is to be taken seriously. It then provides an overview of a number of broad findings about the character of the syntax of human language, including evidence for abstract constituent structure, core properties of constituents, the importance of functional categories, the link between syntactic structure and meaning, and the range of types of syntactic dependencies, including dependencies of form, dependencies of position, and dependencies that create new meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2015, 6:131–147. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1332 PMID:25815105
Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno
Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…
Rios, Joseph L.
Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.
Holloway, C. Michael
Several different ways to add linguistic support for object-oriented programming to the Ada programming language have been proposed and developed in recent years. The Distributable Reusable Ada Generated from an Object-Oriented Notation (DRAGOON) language is one such Ada extension. The DRAGOON syntax is described for classes, objects, and inheritance, and the syntax is evaluated against the following five criteria: readability, writeability, lack of ambiguity, ease of translation, and consistency with existing Ada syntax. The evaluation reveals several deficiencies in the notation. A revised syntax that corrects these deficiencies is proposed.
Homer, R Webster; Swanson, Jon; Jilek, Robert J; Hurst, Tad; Clark, Robert D
SYBYL line notation (SLN) is a powerful way to represent molecular structures, reactions, libraries of structures, molecular fragments, formulations, molecular queries, and reaction queries. Nearly any chemical structure imaginable, including macromolecules, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, and even combinatorial libraries can be represented as an SLN string. The language provides a rich syntax for database queries comparable to SMARTS. It provides full Markush, R-Group, reaction, and macro atom capabilities in a single unified notation. It includes the ability to specify 3D conformations and 2D depictions. All the information necessary to recreate the structure in a modeling or drawing package is present in a single, concise string of ASCII characters. This makes SLN ideal for structure communication over global computer networks between applications sitting at remote sites. Unlike SMILES and its derivatives, SLN accomplishes this within a single unified syntax. Structures, queries, compounds, reactions, and virtual libraries can all be represented in a single notation.
Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy
(Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…
American Biology Teacher, 1977
Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)
Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan
Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition, it has often been assumed that skilled users of these formalisms treat situations in terms of semantic properties encoded in an abstract syntax that governs the use of notation without particular regard to the details of the physical structure of the equation itself (Anderson, 2005; Hegarty, Mayer, & Monk, 1995). We explore how the notational structure of verbal descriptions or algebraic equations (e.g., the spatial proximity of certain words or the visual alignment of numbers and symbols in an equation) plays a role in the process of interpreting or constructing symbolic equations. We propose in particular that construction processes involve an alignment of notational structures across representation systems, biasing reasoners toward the selection of formal notations that maintain the visuospatial structure of source representations. For example, in the statement "There are 5 elephants for every 3 rhinoceroses," the spatial proximity of 5 and elephants and 3 and rhinoceroses will bias reasoners to write the incorrect expression 5E = 3R, because that expression maintains the spatial relationships encoded in the source representation. In 3 experiments, participants constructed equations with given structure, based on story problems with a variety of phrasings. We demonstrate how the notational alignment approach accounts naturally for a variety of previously reported phenomena in equation construction and successfully predicts error patterns that are not accounted for by prior explanations, such as the left to right transcription heuristic.
Brodsky, Warren; Kessler, Yoav; Rubinstein, Bat-Sheva; Ginsborg, Jane; Henik, Avishai
This study investigated the mental representation of music notation. Notational audiation is the ability to internally "hear" the music one is reading before physically hearing it performed on an instrument. In earlier studies, the authors claimed that this process engages music imagery contingent on subvocal silent singing. This study refines the…
Brizuela, Barbara M.
This paper focuses on the kinds of notations young children make for fractional numbers. The extant literature in the area of fractional numbers acknowledges children's difficulties in conceptualizing fractional numbers. Some of the research suggests possibly delaying an introduction to conventional notations for algorithms and fractions until…
A definition of the positive contributions of functionalism in the polemic against phonetics and traditional, generative and transformational grammars. Three themes are discussed: synchronic analysis, the dynamics of the development of linguistics, and the role of syntax in language facts. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart
The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.
Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The formalism of quantum mechanics includes a rich collection of representations for describing quantum systems, including functions, graphs, matrices, histograms of probabilities, and Dirac notation. The varied features of these representations affect how computations are performed. For example, identifying probabilities of measurement outcomes for a state described in Dirac notation may involve identifying expansion coefficients by inspection, but if the state is described as a function, identifying those expansion coefficients often involves performing integrals. In this study, we focus on three notational systems: Dirac notation, algebraic wave-function notation, and matrix notation. These quantum notations must include information about basis states and their associated complex probability amplitudes. In this theory paper, we identify four structural features of quantum notations, which we term individuation, degree of externalization, compactness, and symbolic support for computational rules. We illustrate how student reasoning interacts with these structural features with episodes from interviews with advanced undergraduate physics majors reasoning about a superposition state of an infinite square well system. We find evidence of the students coordinating different notations through the use of Dirac notation, using an expression in Dirac notation to guide their work in another notation. These uses are supported by the high degree of individuation, compactness, and symbolic support for computation and the moderate degree of externalization provided by Dirac notation.
r - ..’ -rI- x- - r ,11 V~ The Expressional Metaphor 2- Waters i "The Expressional Metaphor ’lhe key property of expressions which makes them...development of a notation which has the property of decomposability. Viewing Loops as Expressions Involving Sequences In order to represent loops as...a DEFUNS or LETS. For example, the function EPLIST takes in a discnbodied plist and returns two values: a sequence of the property names. and a
The purpose of this monograph is to provide a basic discussion of the general nature of syntactic complexity. The monograph describes how the rules of language produce syntax and raises some questions about reading difficulty. The contents include: "Arrangement," which discusses 12 basic sentence types, noun determiners, verb expansions, negative…
Structured programs are best represented using a notation which gives a clear representation of the block encapsulation. In this report, a set of symbols which can be used until binding directives are republished is suggested. Structured programming also allows a new method of procedure for design and testing. Programs can be designed top down, that is, they can start at the highest program plane and can penetrate to the lowest plane by step-wise refinements. The testing methodology also is adapted to this procedure. First, the highest program plane is tested, and the programs which are not yet finished in the next lower plane are represented by so-called dummies. They are gradually replaced by the real programs.
A means is presented for using William Moon's embossed symbols to represent musical notation for blind individuals, as an alternative to braille notation. The proposed system includes pitch symbols, octave indicators, duration symbols, accidentals, key signatures, rests, stress symbols, ornaments, and other symbols. (Author/JDD)
... Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety... review of the draft skin notations and supporting technical documents entitled, Skin Notations Profiles, for 25 chemicals. NIOSH is requesting technical reviews of the draft Skin Notation Profiles....
... Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety... public review of the draft skin notations and support technical documents entitled ``Skin Notations Profiles, for 22 chemicals.'' NIOSH is requesting technical reviews of the draft Skin Notation Profiles....
A study of the relationship of morphology and syntax to the communication process from the functionalist viewpoint. Topics considered are: morphological processes, that is the distinction between functional and contingent language facts; the degree of necessity of syntax; the difference between functionalism and traditional grammar. (Text is in…
Touzeau, O; Gaujoux, T; Costantini, E; Borderie, V; Laroche, L
Refraction can be expressed by four polar notations which correspond to four different combinations of spherical or cylindrical lenses. Conventional expressions of refraction (plus and minus cylinder notation) are described by sphere, cylinder, and axis. In the plus cylinder notation, the axis visualizes the most powerful meridian. The axis usually corresponds to the bow tie axis in curvature maps. Plus cylinder notation is also valuable for all relaxing procedures (i.e., selective suture ablation, arcuate keratotomy, etc.). In the cross-cylinder notation, two orthogonal cylinders can describe (without the sphere component) the actual refraction of both the principal meridians. This notation must be made before performing the vertex calculation. Using an association of a Jackson cross-cylinder and a spherical equivalent, refraction can be broken down into two pure components: astigmatism and sphere. All polar notations of refraction may perfectly characterize a single refraction but are not suitable for statistical analysis, which requires nonpolar expression. After doubling the axis, a rectangular projection breaks down the Jackson cross-cylinder, which has a polar axis, into two Jackson cross-cylinders on the 0 degrees /90 degrees and 45 degrees /135 degrees axis. This procedure results in the loss of the directional nature of the data. Refraction can be written in a nonpolar notation by three rectangular coordinates (x,y,z), which can also represent the spherocylinder by one point in a dioptric space. These three independent (orthogonal) variables have a concrete optical significance: a spherical component, a direct/inverse (WTR/ATR) component, and an oblique component of the astigmatism. Finally, nonpolar notations are useful for statistical analysis and graphical representation of refraction.
Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco
Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.
Pasterczyk, Catherine E.
Discusses ways in which using mathematical symbols to search online bibliographic databases in scientific and technical areas can improve search results. The representations used for Greek letters, relations, binary operators, arrows, and miscellaneous special symbols in the MathSci, Inspec, Compendex, and Chemical Abstracts databases are…
Ferrari, Pier Luigi
Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…
Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.
This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…
Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward
The formalism of quantum mechanics includes a rich collection of representations for describing quantum systems, including functions, graphs, matrices, histograms of probabilities, and Dirac notation. The varied features of these representations affect how computations are performed. For example, identifying probabilities of measurement outcomes…
... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...
... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...
... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...
By starting with a foundation of sound before sight, we can help our students learn notation organically in a way that honors the natural process. This article describes five organic approaches to learning notation in beginning band: (1) iconic notation, (2) point and play, (3) student lead-sheet, (4) modeling, and (5) kid dictation. While…
Coady, James; Baldwin, Scott
Discusses a study which focused on how well elementary children supply appropriate intonation to written sentences and which found that many intonation patterns predictable by syntax had not been mastered even by children who were reading on fourth and fifth grade levels. (JM)
Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D.
Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal. PMID:19478999
Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W
The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.
Much of his work was based on research by Bruce J. MacLennan of the Naval Postgraduate School (Ref 9) and two of Mister MacLennan’s former thesis...of Defense. Requirement for ADA Programming Suport | .:Environments - Stoneman. Washington, D.C. 1980. • .,6. Feiler , Peter H. and Raul Medina-Mora...1982. (AD-A053032). 9. MacLennan, Bruce J. The Automatic Generation of Syntax-Directed Editors. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., 1981. 10
Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco
AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.
A method for flowchart formalization and nonclassical structurization called DRAGON is suggested. The family of DRAGON visual programming languages is presented. The visual language syntax is described.
... COMMISSION Syntax Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 18, 2013. AGENCY... the Act for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: Syntax Analytics... application may be obtained via the Commission's Web site by searching for the file number, or for...
This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…
Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna
Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…
We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.
dos Reis, Jorge; Hazan, Valerie
This paper introduces a new vowel notation system aimed at aiding the teaching of English pronunciation. This notation system, designed as an enhancement to orthographic text, was designed to use concepts borrowed from the representation of musical notes and is also linked to the acoustic characteristics of vowel sounds. Vowel timbre is…
Lee, Sang Yun
This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…
Saxe, Geoffrey B.; Taylor, Edd V.; McIntosh, Clifton; Gearhart, Maryl
This study had two purposes: (a) to investigate the developmental relationship between students' uses of fractions notation and their understandings of part-whole relations; and (b) to produce an analysis of the role of fractions instruction in students' use of notation to represent parts of an area. Elementary students (n = 384) in 19 classes…
Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.
Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…
Heiland, Teresa L.
Four undergraduate dance majors learned Motif Notation and Labanotation using a second-language acquisition, playful, constructivist approach to learning notation literacy in order to learn and dance the "Parsons Etude." Qualitative outcomes were gathered from student journals and pre- and post-tests that assessed for levels of improved…
This essay provides language-centered principles, guidelines and tools for writing student learning outcome statements. It is focused on syntax and semantics, and takes considerable issue with both the lack of such guidance in earlier literature and specific words, phrases, tenses, voices, and abstraction in diction levels, along with ellipses and…
Zhogolev, E.A.; Kuz`menkova, E.A.; Mailingova, O.L.; Poprygaev, E.V.
The main operations of a syntax-directed editor are considered. The requirements to the standard syntax-directed editor are stated. The structure of the standard syntax-directed editor and the functions of its components are discussed. The language base properties needed for syntax-directed editor development are described. Methods for transforming the standard syntax-directed editor into a specialized one are carried out.
Paśnicka, M.; Szafranek, K.; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, A.
International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), as a practical realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), is based on long-term observations of four techniques: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), DORIS. As a consequence contribution to ITRF of each of the mentioned techniques is different (e.g. origin of ITRF2008 was determined basing on SLR, scale using SLR and VLBI, and orientation was the result of all four techniques). ITRF is updated regularly with the most recent versions being ITRF97, ITRF2000, ITRF2005, ITRF2008. ITRF2008 is based on reprocessed solutions (time series of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters) of all four techniques. The paper presents procedure of determining ITRF2008 using UML (Unified Modeling Language) - one of the graphical notations commonly used for information modeling. Concepts are represented as classes with their names, attributes, and different kinds of links between them. The main purpose of this paper is a comprehensive description of relationships between basic terms related to ITRF.
Holloway, C. M.
This working paper presents preliminary ideas of five possible text-based notations for representing safety cases, which may be easier for non-graphically inclined people to use and understand than the currently popular graphics-based representations.
Lucian, M. L.
If a constructibly countable ordinal alpha is a gap ordinal, then the order type of the set of index ordinals smaller than alpha is exactly alpha. The gap ordinals are the only points of discontinuity of a certain ordinal-valued function. The notion of gap minimality for well ordered systems of notations is defined, and the existence of gap-minimal systems of notations of arbitrarily large constructibly countable length is established.
AKRAM, ASHFAQ; FUADFUAD, MAHER D; MALIK, ARSHAD MAHMOOD; NASIR ALZURFI, BALSAM MAHDI; CHANGMAI, MANAH CHANDRA; MADLENA, MELINDA
Introduction: MICAP is a new notation in which the teeth are indicated by letters (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar) and numbers [1,2,3] which are written superscript and subscript on the relevant letters. FDI tooth notation is a two digit system where one digit shows quadrant and the second one shows the tooth of the quadrant. This study aimed to compare the short term retention of knowledge of two notation systems (FDI two digit system and MICAP notation) by lecture method. Methods: Undergraduate students [N=80] of three schools participated in a cross-over study. Two theory-driven classroom based lectures on MICAP notation and FDI notation were delivered separately. Data were collected using eight randomly selected permanent teeth to be written in MICAP format and FDI format at pretest (before the lecture), post-test I (immediately after lecture) and post-test II (one week after the lecture). Analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 using repeated measures ANCOVA and independent t-test. Results: The results of pre-test and post-test I were similar for FDI education. Similar results were found between post-test I and post-test II for MICAP and FDI notations. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the two notations (FDI and MICAP) were equally mind cognitive. However, the sample size used in this study may not reflect the global scenario. Therefore, we suggest more studies to be performed for prospective adaptation of MICAP in dental curriculum. PMID:28367462
Kreiner, Hamutal; Eviatar, Zohar
Neurolinguistic theories are challenged by the amodal abstract representations assumed by linguists. Embodied linguistics offers a conceptualization of the relationship between linguistic representation, experience, and the brain. Findings correlating brain activation patterns with referential features of words (e.g., body parts), suggest that the mechanism underlying linguistic embodiment is an "action-perception simulation". This mechanism accounts for embodied representation of words, but is harder to adapt to syntactic abstractions. We suggest that prosody is the missing link. Prosody is a sensory-motor phenomenon that can evoke an "action-perception simulation" that underpins the syntax-experience-brain association. Our review discusses different embodiment models and then integrates psycholinguistic and neurocognitive studies into a new approach to linguistic embodiment. We propose a novel implementation of the syntax-experience-brain relationship via the mapping between the temporo-spectral aspects of speech prosody and temporo-spectral patterns of synchronized behavior of neural populations. We discuss the potential implications for psycho- and neuro-linguistic research.
Kelly, Justin Robert
Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz 1993; Marantz 1997) is founded on the premise that the syntax is the only computational component of the grammar. Much research focuses on how this premise is relevant to the syntax-morphology interface in DM. In this dissertation, I examine theory-internal issues related to the syntax-semantics…
Bruni, Roberto; Gadducci, Fabio; Lafuente, Alberto Lluch
We propose a class of hierarchical graphs equipped with a simple algebraic syntax as a convenient way to describe configurations in languages with inherently hierarchical features such as sessions, fault- handling scopes or transactions. The graph syntax can be seen as an intermediate representation language, that facilitates the encoding of structured specifications and, in particular, of process calculi, since it provides primitives for nesting, name restriction and parallel composition. The syntax is based on an algebraic presentation that faithfully characterises families of hierarchical graphs, meaning that each term of the language uniquely identifies an equivalence class of graphs (modulo graph isomorphism). Proving soundness and completeness of an encoding (i.e. proving that structurally equivalent processes are mapped to isomorphic graphs) is then facilitated and can be done by structural induction. Summing up, the graph syntax facilitates the definition of faithful encodings, yet allowing a precise visual representation. We illustrate our work with an application to a workflow language and a service-oriented calculus.
Argues that an adequate theory of codeswitching syntax is one that holds that the actual nature of the switching is relative not only to the language pairs, but also to other situational factors. Suggests that congruence of categories is constructed by bilinguals in a given situation with four alternative outcomes for the given candidate switch:…
Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.
Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…
Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)
The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the nature of word order variation in declarative and interrogative clauses in Turkish within the framework of the generative syntax. The specific issue that will be examined in this dissertation concerns the role of discourse-pragmatics in word order variation. I will argue that all movement…
Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.
The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.
Corominas, L L; Rieger, L; Takács, I; Ekama, G; Hauduc, H; Vanrolleghem, P A; Oehmen, A; Gernaey, K V; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Comeau, Y
Many unit process models are available in the field of wastewater treatment. All of these models use their own notation, causing problems for documentation, implementation and connection of different models (using different sets of state variables). The main goal of this paper is to propose a new notational framework which allows unique and systematic naming of state variables and parameters of biokinetic models in the wastewater treatment field. The symbols are based on one main letter that gives a general description of the state variable or parameter and several subscript levels that provide greater specification. Only those levels that make the name unique within the model context are needed in creating the symbol. The paper describes specific problems encountered with the currently used notation, presents the proposed framework and provides additional practical examples. The overall result is a framework that can be used in whole plant modelling, which consists of different fields such as activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, sidestream treatment, membrane bioreactors, metabolic approaches, fate of micropollutants and biofilm processes. The main objective of this consensus building paper is to establish a consistent set of rules that can be applied to existing and most importantly, future models. Applying the proposed notation should make it easier for everyone active in the wastewater treatment field to read, write and review documents describing modelling projects.
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…
Nordquist, Alice L.
The natural musicality so often present in children's singing can begin to fade as the focus of a lesson shifts to the process of reading and writing conventional notation symbols. Approaching the study of music from a linguistic perspective preserves the pace and flow that is inherent in spoken language and song. SongWorks teaching practices…
This guide for music teachers in Spanish/English bilingual education is an attempt at gathering the basic musical vocabulary and presenting it in English and Spanish, and is adaptable to all levels. The units cover: forming an estudiantina, including cost ssand method of instruction; symbols of musical notation and definition of musical terms, in…
Tillema, Erik; Hackenberg, Amy
In this paper, we engage in a thought experiment about how students might notate their reasoning for composing fractions multiplicatively (taking a fraction of a fraction and determining its size in relation to the whole). In the thought experiment we differentiate between two levels of a fraction composition scheme, which have been identified in…
Belloli, Robert C.
Discusses the confusion and erroneous conclusions that can result from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Includes nature of the problem, textbook treatment, and a possible compromise method of representation. (Author/JN)
Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro
In the present work, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the processing stages required to name numerals presented in different notations. To this end, we used the semantic blocking paradigm previously used in psycholinguist studies. We found a facilitative effect of the semantic blocked context relative to the mixed context for Arabic…
Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel
Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification markings and special notations. 3a.31 Section 3a.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Confidential will be stamped in red ink, printed, or written in letters considerably larger than those used...
This study guide was designed to help high school students learn the basic skills in classical guitar playing, technique, fingerboard knowledge, and musicianship. The introduction describes how to read the music notation that is presented in traditional music form and also in tablature diagrams showing finger positioning in the guitar neck.…
Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841
Fitch, W. Tecumseh
The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca’s area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses. PMID
Saadawi, Gilan; Harrison, James H
We have developed a document type description (DTD) in Extensable Markup Language (XML) for clinical laboratory procedures. Our XML syntax can adequately structure a variety of procedure types across different laboratories and is compatible with current procedure standards. The combination of this format with an XML content management system and appropriate style sheets will allow efficient procedure maintenance, distributed access, customized display and effective searching across a large body of test information.
Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara
During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174
von Oertzen, Timo; Brick, Timothy R
This article proposes a new, more efficient method to compute the minus two log likelihood, its gradient, and the Hessian for structural equation models (SEMs) in reticular action model (RAM) notation. The method exploits the beneficial aspect of RAM notation that the matrix derivatives used in RAM are sparse. For an SEM with K variables, P parameters, and P' entries in the symmetrical or asymmetrical matrix of the RAM notation filled with parameters, the asymptotical run time of the algorithm is O(P ' K (2) + P (2) K (2) + K (3)). The naive implementation and numerical implementations are both O(P (2) K (3)), so that for typical applications of SEM, the proposed algorithm is asymptotically K times faster than the best previously known algorithm. A simulation comparison with a numerical algorithm shows that the asymptotical efficiency is transferred to an applied computational advantage that is crucial for the application of maximum likelihood estimation, even in small, but especially in moderate or large, SEMs.
Hankamer, Jorge, Ed.; Aissen, Judith, Ed.
The following articles on syntax and semantics were researched at the Harvard Syntax Workshop: (1) "Clause Reduction in Spanish," by Judith Aissen and David Perlmutter; (2) "Reduced WH-Questions," by Robin Bechhofer; (3) "Reduction in Conjoined WH-Questions," by Robin Bechhofer; (4) "On Subject-to-Object Raising…
Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter
In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan
The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…
This study explores the influences that the Izon language manifests in the syntax of the English of Izon (Nigerian) speakers and makes a clear distinction between the influences that result in errors and those that result in permissible local variations, which indicates that the idea of treating all variations in the syntax of Nigerian English as…
Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Okumura, Motoki; Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Gohara, Kazutoshi
Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts, requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles. We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax. Linear functions on return maps identified two attractors as well as the transitions between them. The effects of skill differences were evident in the second- and third-order state-transition diagrams for these two attractors. Our results suggest that abrupt switching between attractors is related to the diverse continuous movements resulting from quick responses to sudden changes in the environment. This abrupt-switching-quick-response behavior is characterized by a joint action syntax. The resulting hybrid dynamical system is composed of a higher module with discrete dynamics and a lower module with continuous dynamics. Our results suggest that intelligent human behavior and robust autonomy in real-life scenarios are based on this hybrid dynamical system, which connects interpersonal coordination and competition.
Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…
Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…
Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)
Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias
In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…
Alden, Kieran; Andrews, Paul S; Polack, Fiona A C; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Coles, Mark C; Timmis, Jon
The application of computational and mathematical modelling to explore the mechanics of biological systems is becoming prevalent. To significantly impact biological research, notably in developing novel therapeutics, it is critical that the model adequately represents the captured system. Confidence in adopting in silico approaches can be improved by applying a structured argumentation approach, alongside model development and results analysis. We propose an approach based on argumentation from safety-critical systems engineering, where a system is subjected to a stringent analysis of compliance against identified criteria. We show its use in examining the biological information upon which a model is based, identifying model strengths, highlighting areas requiring additional biological experimentation and providing documentation to support model publication. We demonstrate our use of structured argumentation in the development of a model of lymphoid tissue formation, specifically Peyer's Patches. The argumentation structure is captured using Artoo (www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software/artoo), our Web-based tool for constructing fitness-for-purpose arguments, using a notation based on the safety-critical goal structuring notation. We show how argumentation helps in making the design and structured analysis of a model transparent, capturing the reasoning behind the inclusion or exclusion of each biological feature and recording assumptions, as well as pointing to evidence supporting model-derived conclusions.
Alden, Kieran; Andrews, Paul S.; Polack, Fiona A. C.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Coles, Mark C.; Timmis, Jon
The application of computational and mathematical modelling to explore the mechanics of biological systems is becoming prevalent. To significantly impact biological research, notably in developing novel therapeutics, it is critical that the model adequately represents the captured system. Confidence in adopting in silico approaches can be improved by applying a structured argumentation approach, alongside model development and results analysis. We propose an approach based on argumentation from safety-critical systems engineering, where a system is subjected to a stringent analysis of compliance against identified criteria. We show its use in examining the biological information upon which a model is based, identifying model strengths, highlighting areas requiring additional biological experimentation and providing documentation to support model publication. We demonstrate our use of structured argumentation in the development of a model of lymphoid tissue formation, specifically Peyer's Patches. The argumentation structure is captured using Artoo (www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software/artoo), our Web-based tool for constructing fitness-for-purpose arguments, using a notation based on the safety-critical goal structuring notation. We show how argumentation helps in making the design and structured analysis of a model transparent, capturing the reasoning behind the inclusion or exclusion of each biological feature and recording assumptions, as well as pointing to evidence supporting model-derived conclusions. PMID:25589574
Spadaccini, Nick; Hall, Sydney R
The STAR File [Hall J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1991, 31, 326-333; Hall and Spadaccini J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1994, 34, 505-508] format represents a universal language adopted for electronic data and metadata exchange in the molecular-structure sciences [Hall et al. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 1991, 47, 655-685; International Tables for International Tables for Crystallography. Vol. G: Definition and exchange of crystallographic data; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005; Allen et al. J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1995, 35, 412-427] and used by the International Union for Crystallography for publication submissions and database depositions. This paper describes an extended STAR syntax that facilitates richer and more specific data definition and typing and a commensurate improvement in precise data description.
Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J
Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution.
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Wedan, Bruce; Hauser, Thomas; Poinot, Marc
The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) - a general, portable, and extensible standard for the storage and retrieval of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis data has been in existence for more than a decade (Version 1.0 was released in May 1998). Both structured and unstructured CFD data are covered by the standard, and CGNS can be easily extended to cover any sort of data imaginable, while retaining backward compatibility with existing CGNS data files and software. Although originally designed for CFD, it is readily extendable to any field of computational analysis. In early 2011, CGNS Version 3.1 was released, which added significant capabilities. This paper describes these recent enhancements and highlights the continued usefulness of the CGNS methodology.
Hochgesang, Julie A.
Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread influence (e.g., Siedlecki and Bonvillian, 2000). With the emergence of newer notation systems, the field will benefit from a discussion…
Eskritt, Michelle; Olson, David
The purpose of the present study was to explore children's understanding of external symbols by examining the relationship between children's production and comprehension of graphic notations and verbal messages. Fifty-six children between the ages of 5 and 7 years were asked to produce both notations and a spoken message relaying to their…
This article analyzes the use of the software Grid Algebra with a mixed ability class of 21 nine-to-ten-year-old students who worked with complex formal notation involving all four arithmetic operations. Unlike many other models to support learning, Grid Algebra has formal notation ever present and allows students to "look through" that…
Kuo, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Ming-Chuen
Music teachers often encounter obstructions in teaching beginners in music reading. Conventional notational symbols require beginners to spend significant amount of time in memorizing, which discourages learning at early stage. This article proposes a newly-developed color music notation system that may improve the recognition of the staff and the…
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...
Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael
Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from 'ABC' (scan for danger) and 'D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from 'ABC-D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed ('D-ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission.
Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael
Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from ‘ABC' (scan for danger) and ‘D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from ‘ABC–D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed (‘D–ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097
Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter
The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty.
Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter
In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial grammar learning paradigm in 32 healthy Dutch university students (natural language FMRI data were already acquired for these participants). We predicted that artificial syntax processing would engage the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) and that this activation would overlap with syntax-related variability observed in the natural language experiment. The main findings of this study show that the left inferior frontal region centered on BA 44/45 is active during artificial syntax processing of well-formed (grammatical) sequence independent of local subsequence familiarity. The same region is engaged to a greater extent when a syntactic violation is present and structural unification becomes difficult or impossible. The effects related to artificial syntax in the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) were essentially identical when we masked these with activity related to natural syntax in the same subjects. Finally, the medial temporal lobe was deactivated during this operation, consistent with the view that implicit processing does not rely on declarative memory mechanisms that engage the medial temporal lobe. In the context of recent FMRI findings, we raise the question whether Broca's region (or subregions) is specifically related to syntactic movement operations or the processing of hierarchically nested non-adjacent dependencies in the discussion section. We conclude that this is not the case. Instead, we argue that the left inferior frontal region is a generic on-line sequence processor that unifies information from various sources in an incremental and recursive manner, independent of whether there are any
The Mulliken convention has become the standard notation for symmetry species (irreducible representations) of point groups for quasi-rigid molecules. No such convention exists for symmetry species of symmetry groups for semi-rigid or non-rigid molecules with large amplitude internal motions (LAMs). As a result, we have a situation where we create notations in a do-it-yourself fashion or adopt them from the literature, sometimes even without proper reference to its derivation or to the character table on which it is based. This may be just a nuisance for those who are comfortable enough with group theory and molecular symmetry groups to figure "it" out, but it represents a real problem for everybody else. The notation confusion is illustrated with examples from the literature (both old and new) on molecules with two or more LAMs. Most authors use the notation introduced by Myers and Wilson for molecules such as acetone or propane. No universal notation is in use for molecules with two methyl groups but lower overall symmetry. For example, the notation G_1_8 is used for one of these groups. As it turns out, different people use the same notation for different groups. This presentation is an attempt to bring some light into the dark and to combat confusion with a call for an anti-confusion convention. R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. 43, 279 (1933). R. J. Myers, E. B. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 186 (1960).
Goto, D.; Gotoh, T.; Minamikawa-Tachino, R.; Tamura, N.
The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.
Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche
Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical
Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S.; Loui, Psyche
Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated—linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical
Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.
The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties. PMID:24385957
Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L
The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.
Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.
Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…
... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202-1 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. (a) Mine maps shall be revised and supplemented...
... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202-1 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. (a) Mine maps shall be revised and supplemented...
... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202-1 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. (a) Mine maps shall be revised and supplemented...
Lupo, Corrado; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; King, Barry; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura
Women's water polo is a relatively recent addition to the program of the Olympic Games, making its debut in 2000. Although technical and tactical aspects of men's water polo performance have been studied, there is a paucity of information on the women's competition. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of 12 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's water polo matches in relation to 3 playing situations (Even, Counterattack, Power Play) and match outcome (winning and losing teams). The notational analysis included the following indicators: frequency of occurrence of the offensive actions, duration, players, passes, turnovers, exclusion and penalty achievement, goal, and origin and type of shot. Differences between winning and losing teams emerged for duration of actions (p = 0.024), number of players (p = 0.033), passes (p < 0.0001), exclusions and penalties achieved (p = 0.026), shots originating inside (p = 0.002) and outside (p = 0.002) the 5-m area, and occurrence of goals (p < 0.0001) during the Even situation; exclusions and penalties achieved (p = 0.029), shots following up fake (p = 0.049), and goals (p = 0.021) during the Counterattacks; and passes (p = 0.02), and goals (p = 0.003) during the Power-Play actions. In conclusion, winners showed a better ability to perform faster actions, with more effective passes leading to goals. Thus, women's water polo NCAA coaches and conditioners are encouraged to evaluate the studied technical and tactical parameters when analyzing game performances of their teams.
Zhang, Yu; You, Xuqun; Zhu, Rongjuan
Previous studies suggested that there are interconnections between two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation (array of dots), differences and similarities of the processing, and representation of the two modalities have both been found in previous research. However, whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation is still uninvestigated. The present study aims to examine whether there are differences between the spatial representation and numeral-space mapping of the two numeral modalities of symbolic notation and nonsymbolic notation; especially how zero, as both a symbolic magnitude numeral and a nonsymbolic conceptual numeral, mapping onto space; and if the mapping happens automatically at an early stage of the numeral information processing. Results of the two experiments demonstrate that the low-level processing of symbolic numerals including zero and nonsymbolic numerals except zero can mapping onto space, whereas the low-level processing of nonsymbolic zero as a semantic conceptual numeral cannot mapping onto space, which indicating the specialty of zero in the numeral domain. The present study indicates that the processing of non-semantic numerals can mapping onto space, whereas semantic conceptual numerals cannot mapping onto space.
Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir
The European Union has published a list of dangerous chemicals, along with classification and labeling; in 1997 the list was adapted to the requirements of Polish regulations and has been continuously updated since then. We have decided to adopt data on dangerous chemicals classification in the list referring to their dermal absorption to assess whether the skin notation is required in the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) list. In Poland, the Group of Experts for Chemical Agents (GECA) decides on assigning the skin absorption notation (symbol Sk) when analyzing the literature data collected in order to prepare occupational exposure limits documentation. The LD50s value serves as the main criterion for assigning the notation. The limit value of 1000 mg/kg has been set as the criterion for applying the skin notation. Documented results of animal and human research, which point to systemic effects resulting from dermal exposure and physicochemical characteristics enabling calculation of the dermal absorption rate may also be used as the basis for assigning the skin notation. Chemicals for which GECA recommended using the skin notation in the 2004 MAC list have been analyzed. It was concluded that information on the classification of chemicals in the list of dangerous chemicals is useful for assessing the skin absorption, but quantitative assessment of absorption rate compared to "safe" levels, using the available theoretical models, should also be attempted.
Qvistgaard, Jacques, Ed.; And Others
This volume contains abstracts of the 239 papers given at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics. The volume contains a topical and author index arranged alphabetically. Topics include applied linguistics, quantitative linguistics, contrastive linguistics, application of grammar models, the syntax of spoken language, applied…
Chou, Chun-Hui; Bartz, Kevin
This paper evaluates the effect of Chinese non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) on Chinese ESL students' struggles with English syntax. The paper first classifies Chinese learners' syntactic errors into 10 common types. It demonstrates how each type of error results from an internal attempt to translate a common Chinese construction into…
Stevenson, Paul Spencer
The prosody of the stanzaic poems called madrasê, written in Syriac by Ephrem of Nisibis in the fourth century, has long been studied by scholars. Until now, these studies have focused on meter, but this has left many questions unanswered. The present study examines the interclausal syntax of individual stanzas of madrasê V and VI of the cycle on…
University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993
Four papers on syntax and morphology are presented. "Clitics in Slavic" (Mila Dimitrova-Vulchanova) discusses the syntactic relevance of clitic placement across Slavic languages, and the functional categories that are or might be instrumental in determining placement of clitics and clitic clusters. In "A Promotion Analysis of…
Bates, Elizabeth; And Others
This study compared the production of complex syntax by 16 older adults diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease and 25 age-matched control subjects. It found that although individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease did not produce frank lexical or grammatical errors, they did find it difficult to access the "best fit" between meaning and…
Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.
Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…
Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne
Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…
The goal of this dissertation is to explore Hindi verbal complex predicates at the syntax/semantics interface using the lexicalist framework of HPSG. The enduring theoretical interest in complex predicates is undoubtedly due to the fact that in some aspects they pattern with prototypical words, whereas in other aspects they pattern with…
This dissertation investigates the syntax and semantics of nine Chinese "measures for verbs" (Chao 1968:615), which are words used with numerals to form event quantifiers counting the eventualities denoted by the predicate of a sentence. Based on their syntactic behavior, I argue that the nine words can be divided into two groups. The…
Soja, Nancy N.
A study tested the validity of a theory of count/mass syntax in word learning. The theory proposes that children infer one of two procedures, depending on whether the referent is an object or a non-solid substance. Subjects were 36 2-year-olds, divided according to three experimental conditions. All were taught a novel word with reference to…
Examines knowledge of semantics-syntax correspondences in second-language acquisition (SLA) within the Principles and Parameters framework. A parameter of semantic structure is used to investigate change of state locatives and "psychological" verbs. Results indicate that for some learners, first-language influence persists until advanced stages of…
Broselow, Ellen; Finer, Daniel
Investigation of native Hindi, Japanese, and Korean speakers' acquisition of English phonology and syntax found that, at a certain stage of acquisition, learners arrived at a parameter setting that was midway between the native and target language settings, occurring when the target language employed either a more or less marked setting than the…
Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael
This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…
Kathol, Andreas, Ed.; Pollard, Carl, Ed.
This collection of working papers in syntax includes: "Null Objects in Mandarin Chinese" (Christie Block); "Toward a Linearization-Based Approach to Word Order Variation in Japanese" (Mike Calcagno); "A Lexical Approach to Inalienable Possession Constructions in Korean" (Chung, Chan); "Chinese NP Structure"…
It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…
This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…
Herbert, Ruth; Anderson, Elizabeth; Best, Wendy; Gregory, Emma
Theories of spoken word production agree that semantic and phonological representations are activated in spoken word production. There is less agreement concerning the role of syntax. In this study we investigated noun syntax activation in English bare noun naming, using mass and count nouns. Fourteen healthy controls and 13 speakers with aphasia took part. Participants named mass and count nouns, and completed a related noun syntax judgement task. We analysed speakers' noun syntax knowledge when naming accurately, and when making errors in production. Healthy speakers' noun syntax judgement was accurate for words they named correctly, but this did not correlate with naming accuracy. Speakers with aphasia varied in their noun syntax judgement, and this also did not correlate with naming accuracy. Healthy speakers' syntax for semantic errors was less accurate, as was that for speakers with aphasia. For phonological errors half the participants with aphasia could access syntax, half could not, indicating two types of phonological error. Individual differences were found in no responses. Finally, we found no effect of frequency for any of the above. The lack of a relationship between syntax and naming accuracy suggests that syntax is available, but access is not obligatory. This finding supports theories incorporating non-obligatory syntactic processing, which is independent of phonological access. The semantic error data are best explained within such a theory where there is damage to phonological access and hence to independent syntax. For the aphasia group we identify two types of phonological error, one implicating syntax and phonology, and one implicating phonology only, again supporting independent access to these systems. Overall the data support a model within which syntax is independent of phonology, and activation of syntax operates flexibly dependent on task demands and integrity of other processing routines.
Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) , we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.
Siminiceanu, Radu I.
We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.
J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin
We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper , we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________
Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Cooper, Larry
The Space Place is a NASA educational outreach program open to all NASA missions, studies, and instruments. It uses diverse media (web, print, displays, hands-on activities) to deliver high-quality products through a highly leveraged infrastructure. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Mertz, Susan L.; Ash, Stephen R.; Farrell, Joan
An extended trial of two months was instituted utilizing the CNS as a bedside nursing notation system in an intensive care unit. Analysis of data was based on content analysis of the notes, training time, subjective data and quantitative content of the notes. It is possible to totally replace other written forms of notation in the paper record with a computer printed note. Such a system is well accepted by staff, easy to implement, and results in timely notes of better organization and content without increase in time involved.
Cremmins, Edward T.
A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…
Cretsna*refr a+b+cde ftth I / \\ ,:I \\ I’\\ / , I \\ b- ’ I I € d Figure 4-3: Correct syntax tree for"a + (b + c" d" e) ftgth" The tokens between, the...Schwartz. The Design of a Language-Directed Editor for Block-Structured Languages. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN SIGOA Symposium on Text Manipulation
Hochgesang, Julie A.
In my dissertation, I examine four notation systems used to represent hand configurations in child acquisition of signed languages. Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread…
This eight-year study represents a pioneering effort to investigate color expression in children's graphic notations at two stages of development: "Pre-literate" (age: 7.0-8.5), before students received school music instruction, and "Post-literate" (age: 14.0-15.5), three years after students acquired Standard Notation in…
Bentley, Prudence A.
The objective of this paper is to explain the need for and defend the sufficiency of the child's-play method of teaching the place value notation concept to preschool and elementary school children. Discussion first illustrates error patterns of school children in the use and interpretation of place value notation, arguing that the errors reflect…
Polton, D. J.
Computer programs have been written which enable substructure searches to be carried out on a file of compounds ciphered using a modified version of the IUPAC (Dyson) notation. The search system outlined is to be linked with one which uses input from the chemical structure typewriter. (3 references) (Author)
Martin, Stephen P.
These notes, based on work with Herbi Dreiner and Howie Haber, discuss how to do practical calculations of cross sections and decay rates using two-component fermion notation, as appropriate for supersymmetry and other beyond-the-Standard-Model theories. Included are a list of two-component fermion Feynman rules for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and some example calculations.
... being entered. Except when invoice line data are linked to an entry summary line and transmitted to CBP... notations in blue or black ink. Except when invoice line data are linked to an entry summary line and... include on the invoice or with the invoice data the appropriate subheading under the provisions of...
Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Reed, Robert; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Sierawski, Brian; Evans, John; LaBel, Ken
A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structured Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.
Sherin, Bruce L.
Considers some of the implications of replacing, for the purposes of physics instruction, algebraic notation with programming language. Introduces a framework based on two theoretical constructs. Concludes that algebra-physics can be characterized as the physics of balance and equilibrium and programming-physics as the physics of processes and…
This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…
Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Blanton, Maria; Sawrey, Katharine; Newman-Owens, Ashley; Murphy Gardiner, Angela
In this article, we analyze a first grade classroom episode and individual interviews with students who participated in that classroom event to provide evidence of the variety of understandings about variable and variable notation held by first grade children approximately six years of age. Our findings illustrate that given the opportunity,…
Leyva, Diana; Hopson, Sarah; Nichols, Ashley
Are children's understanding of mental states (understanding of mind) related to their notating skills, that is, their ability to produce and read written marks to convey information about objects and number? Fifty-three preschoolers and kindergarteners were presented with a dictation task where they produced some written marks and were later…
This study concerns children's representational knowledge, more specifically, their "invented notations" of music. A small-scale empirical study of four 5-year-old children and their teachers working on the representation of music is reported. The challenges posed by the teachers and how the children respond to these challenges are analysed. The…
Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat
The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…
Baker, David; Green, Lucy
This article discusses findings on schooling, pedagogy and notation in the life-experiences of amateur and professional visually-impaired musicians/music teachers, and the professional experiences of sighted music teachers who work with visually-impaired learners. The study formed part of a broader UK Arts and Humanities Research Council funded…
This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…
Tan, Siu-Lan; Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; Jeffries, Paul W.
Fifty participants who had never learned how to read music completed a questionnaire about their interpretations of standard western musical notation. Some common assumptions were that a note must consist of a circle plus a line, symbols with unfilled spaces denote silence, the value of notes and rests increases with the size and number of…
Kuhn, R A; Reider, R S
When developing a clinical decision support system that uses knowledge expressed in Arden Syntax, the availability of a robust means of translating Arden Syntax into an executable module becomes critical. This paper describes an approach where Arden Syntax is translated into an intermediate pseudo-Arden language that is in turn compiled and linked to create the executable module. The pseudo-Arden language is defined in C++ using specialized class libraries and preprocessor macros. This approach provides an alternative means of developing the code generator for an Arden Syntax compiler.
Bilingual, Bicultural, and Bidialectal Studies Related to Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. Among the topics covered in the 31 titles are the following: the oral English syntax of bilingual Indian children in Manitoba, Canada; linguistic style shifting in black English; oral language assessment by sentence repetition;…
Weinrich, M; Steele, R D; Carlson, G S; Kleczewska, M; Wertz, R T; Baker, E
A globally aphasic patient was trained on a computerized visual communication system. His ability to comprehend reversible locative prepositional phrases after training was studied and compared with the performance of Broca's aphasics on a similar task. This patient's ability to generalize symbols for actions was also investigated. The results demonstrate our patient's capacity to master a formal visual syntax in the absence of natural language and illustrate how this capacity may be used successfully in a visual communication system. A problem in generalizing symbols for actions is demonstrated, suggesting that certain heuristic and cueing capabilities in the approach may be helpful.
This study investigates if negotiation can affect syntacticization in the learning of second language (L2) syntax. Evidence from a number of studies has suggested that linguistic modification occurs during negotiation, but no research has examined if such modifications assist the learning of syntax in a second language. This study examined to what…
Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.
Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…
Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta; Lemcke, Sanne; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Krøjgaard, Peter
The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with…
Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih
What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…
Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih
The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…
Kapalova, Nursulu; Dyusenbayev, Dilmukhanbet
The aim of the research was to conduct a cryptographic analysis of an encryption scheme developed on the basis of nonpositional polynomial notations to estimate the algorithm strength. Nonpositional polynomial notations (NPNs) are residue number systems (RNSs) based on irreducible polynomials over GF(2). To evaluate if the algorithms developed on the basis of NPNs are secure, mathematical models of cryptanalysis involving algebraic, linear and differential methods have been designed. The cryptanalysis is as follows. A system of nonlinear equations is obtained from a function transforming plaintext into ciphertext with a key. Next, a possibility of transition of the nonlinear system to a linear one is considered. The cryptanalysis was conducted for the cases with known: 1) ciphertext; 2) plaintext and the related ciphertext; 3) plaintext file format; and 4) ASCII-encoded plaintext.
Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Peng, Cynthia; Fratus, Kristyn N.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Gauthier, Isabel
Most theories of visual processing propose that object recognition is achieved in higher visual cortex. However, we show that category selectivity for musical notation can be observed in the first event-related potential component called the C1 (measured 40-60ms after stimulus onset) with music-reading expertise. Moreover, the C1 note selectivity was observed only when the stimulus category was blocked but not when the stimulus category was randomized. Under blocking, the C1 activity for notes predicted individual music reading ability, and behavioral judgments of musical stimuli reflected music-reading skill. Our results challenge current theories of object recognition, indicating that the primary visual cortex can be selective for musical notation within the initial feedforward sweep of activity with perceptual expertise and with a testing context that is consistent with the expertise training, such as blocking the stimulus category for music reading. PMID:24666163
Wahyuni, Tutik; Suwandi, Sarwiji; Slamet, St. Y.; Andayani
This study aims to: (1) assess the charge textbooks Syntax: "Sentence" bahasa Indonesia is based on a needs analysis; (2) analyzing the breakdown of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with contextual approach; (3) test the effectiveness of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with kontekstua approach.…
Maurits, Luke; Griffiths, Thomas L
The ordering of subject, verb, and object is one of the fundamental components of the syntax of natural languages. The distribution of basic word orders across the world's languages is highly nonuniform, with the majority of languages being either subject-object-verb (SOV) or subject-verb-object (SVO). Explaining this fact using psychological accounts of language acquisition or processing requires understanding how the present distribution has resulted from ancestral distributions and the rates of change between orders. We show that Bayesian phylogenetics can provide quantitative answers to three important questions: how word orders are likely to change over time, which word orders were dominant historically, and whether strong inferences about the origins of syntax can be drawn from modern languages. We find that SOV to SVO change is more common than the reverse and VSO to SVO change is more common than VSO to SOV, and that if the seven language families we consider share a common ancestor then that common ancestor likely had SOV word order, but also that there are limits on how confidently we can make inferences about ancestral word order based on modern-day observations. These results shed new light on old questions from historical linguistics and provide clear targets for psychological explanations of word-order distributions.
In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are
Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Evans, John; Mahadevan, Nag; Karsai, Gabor; Sierawski, Brian; LaBel, Ken; Reed, Robert; Schrimpf, Ron
A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.
Witulski, A.; Austin, R.; Evans, J.; Mahadevan, N.; Karsai, G.; Sierawski, B.; LaBel, K.; Reed, R.; Schrimpf, R.
A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat in January 2017. A custom software language for development of a GSN assurance case is under development at Vanderbilt. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.
Rojo, Marcial García; Rolón, Elvira; Calahorra, Luis; García, Felix Óscar; Sánchez, Rosario Paloma; Ruiz, Francisco; Ballester, Nieves; Armenteros, María; Rodríguez, Teresa; Espartero, Rafael Martín
Background Process orientation is one of the essential elements of quality management systems, including those in use in healthcare. Business processes in hospitals are very complex and variable. BPMN (Business Process Modelling Notation) is a user-oriented language specifically designed for the modelling of business (organizational) processes. Previous experiences of the use of this notation in the processes modelling within the Pathology in Spain or another country are not known. We present our experience in the elaboration of the conceptual models of Pathology processes, as part of a global programmed surgical patient process, using BPMN. Methods With the objective of analyzing the use of BPMN notation in real cases, a multidisciplinary work group was created, including software engineers from the Dep. of Technologies and Information Systems from the University of Castilla-La Mancha and health professionals and administrative staff from the Hospital General de Ciudad Real. The work in collaboration was carried out in six phases: informative meetings, intensive training, process selection, definition of the work method, process describing by hospital experts, and process modelling. Results The modelling of the processes of Anatomic Pathology is presented using BPMN. The presented subprocesses are those corresponding to the surgical pathology examination of the samples coming from operating theatre, including the planning and realization of frozen studies. Conclusion The modelling of Anatomic Pathology subprocesses has allowed the creation of an understandable graphical model, where management and improvements are more easily implemented by health professionals. PMID:18673511
Stepien, Bernard; Felty, Amy; Matwin, Stan
Ideally, access control to resources in complex IT systems ought to be handled by business decision makers who own a given resource (e.g., the pay and benefits section of an organization should decide and manage the access rules to the payroll system). To make this happen, the security and database communities need to develop vendor-independent access management tools, useable by decision makers, rather than technical personnel detached from a given business function. We have developed and implemented such tool, based on XACML. The XACML is an important emerging tool for managing complex access control applications. As a formal notation, based on an XML schema representing the grammar of a given application, XACML is precise and non-ambiguous. But this very property puts it out of reach of non-technical users. We propose a new notation for displaying and editing XACML rules that is independent of XML, and we develop an editor for it. Our notation combines a tree representation of logical expressions with an accessible natural language layer. Our early experience indicates that such rules can be grasped by non-technical users wishing to develop and control rules for accessing their own resources.
Peh, W C G; Ng, K H
The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.
Samwald, Matthias; Fehre, Karsten; de Bruin, Jeroen; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter
Arden Syntax is a widely recognized standard for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format. It has a history that reaches back until 1989 and is currently maintained by the Health Level 7 (HL7) organization. We created a production-ready development environment, compiler, rule engine and application server for Arden Syntax. Over the course of several years, we have applied this Arden - Syntax - based CDS system in a wide variety of clinical problem domains, such as hepatitis serology interpretation, monitoring of nosocomial infections or the prediction of metastatic events in melanoma patients. We found the Arden Syntax standard to be very suitable for the practical implementation of CDS systems. Among the advantages of Arden Syntax are its status as an actively developed HL7 standard, the readability of the syntax, and various syntactic features such as flexible list handling. A major challenge we encountered was the technical integration of our CDS systems in existing, heterogeneous health information systems. To address this issue, we are currently working on incorporating the HL7 standard GELLO, which provides a standardized interface and query language for accessing data in health information systems. We hope that these planned extensions of the Arden Syntax might eventually help in realizing the vision of a global, interoperable and shared library of clinical decision support knowledge.
Crow, Timothy J
A theory of the evolutionary origins of language is built around: (1) the notion that language is a sapiens-specific capacity that arose in the speciation event that separated modern Homo sapiens from a prior hominid species, and (2) Broca's concept of asymmetry (subsequently recognised as a "torque" from right frontal to left occipital cortices) as the defining characteristic of the human brain. The four chambers of human association cortex thus created allow the separation of "thought" from the speech output and "meaning" from the speech input, these abstractions representing the associations in the nondominant hemisphere of the motor and sensory phonological representations in the dominant hemisphere. The nuclear symptoms of schizophrenia are conceived as manifestations of the breakdown of the boundaries between these four compartments, and as indicating the necessity of the separation of motor and sensory speech engrams as the basis for the speaker-hearer distinction. They further illustrate a requirement for a "deictic core" to the cerebral organisation of language as Mueller and Buehler proposed. In this sense the nuclear symptoms are disorders of the syntax of universal grammar.
Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F
Complex acoustic signals in many animal species are characterized by a syntax that governs how different notes are combined, but the importance of syntax to the communicative function of signals is not well understood. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, produce coordinated vocal duets that are used for territory maintenance and defense. These duets follow rules that specify the ordering of notes within duets, such as a strict alternation of sex-specific notes and a defined progression of note types through each duet. These syntactical rules may function to define sex-specific roles, improve coordination, and allow individuals to combine calls into meaningful sequences. As a first step toward understanding the functional significance of syntax, we conducted two separate audio playback experiments in which we presented nesting pairs with normal duets and duets with broken syntax (i.e., one of the syntactic rules was broken). In Experiment One, we reversed the order of female and male notes within note pairs while retaining the typical progression of note types through a duet. In Experiment Two we reversed the order of note types across a whole duet while retaining the typical female-male ordering within note pairs. We hypothesized that duets with broken syntax would be less-effective signals than duets with normal syntax and predicted that pairs would respond less to broken syntax than to normal duets. Contrary to predictions, we did not observe differences in response between treatments for any variables except latency to approach the speaker. After we combined data across experiments post hoc, we observed longer latencies to approach the speakers after playbacks of broken syntax duets, suggesting that pairs could differentiate between playbacks. These responses suggest that breaking one rule of duet syntax at a time does not result in detectable loss of signal efficacy in the context of territorial intrusions.
This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.
Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…
Milliron, Mark D., Ed.
The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…
For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…
Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard
Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…
Johnson, Larry, Ed.
The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…
Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others
This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…
Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco
Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.
Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan
PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.
Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.
Kerbel, Sandra Sandor
Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)
Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982
Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)
Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997
Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…
Bucher, P.; Bairoch, A.
A general syntax for expressing bimolecular sequence motifs is described, which will be used in future releases of the PROSITE data bank and in a similar collection of nucleic acid sequence motifs currently under development. The central part of the syntax is a regular structure which can be viewed as a generalization of the profiles introduced by Gribskov and coworkers. Accessory features implement specific motif search strategies and provide information helpful for the interpretation of predicted matches. Two contrasting examples, representing E. coli promoters and SH3 domains respectively, are shown to demonstrate the versatility of the syntax, and its compatibility with diverse motif search methods. It is argued, that a comprehensive machine-readable motif collection based on the new syntax, in conjunction with a standard search program, can serve as a general-purpose sequence interpretation and function prediction tool.
This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.
Background Ambiscript is a graphically-designed nucleic acid notation that uses symbol symmetries to support sequence complementation, highlight biologically-relevant palindromes, and facilitate the analysis of consensus sequences. Although the original Ambiscript notation was designed to easily represent consensus sequences for multiple sequence alignments, the notation’s black-on-white ambiguity characters are unable to reflect the statistical distribution of nucleotides found at each position. We now propose a color-augmented ambigraphic notation to encode the frequency of positional polymorphisms in these consensus sequences. Results We have implemented this color-coding approach by creating an Adobe Flash® application ( http://www.ambiscript.org) that shades and colors modified Ambiscript characters according to the prevalence of the encoded nucleotide at each position in the alignment. The resulting graphic helps viewers perceive biologically-relevant patterns in multiple sequence alignments by uniquely combining color, shading, and character symmetries to highlight palindromes and inverted repeats in conserved DNA motifs. Conclusion Juxtaposing an intuitive color scheme over the deliberate character symmetries of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation yields a highly-functional nucleic acid notation that maximizes information content and successfully embodies key principles of graphic excellence put forth by the statistician and graphic design theorist, Edward Tufte. PMID:24447494
Doğramac, Sera N; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J
Subjective notational analysis can be used to track players and analyse movement patterns during match-play of team sports such as futsal. The purpose of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Event Recorder for subjective notational analysis. A course was designed, replicating ten minutes of futsal match-play movement patterns, where ten participants undertook the course. The course allowed a comparison of data derived from subjective notational analysis, to the known distances of the course, and to GPS data. The study analysed six locomotor activity categories, focusing on total distance covered, total duration of activities and total frequency of activities. The values between the known measurements and the Event Recorder were similar, whereas the majority of significant differences were found between the Event Recorder and GPS values. The reliability of subjective notational analysis was established with all ten participants being analysed on two occasions, as well as analysing five random futsal players twice during match-play. Subjective notational analysis is a valid and reliable method of tracking player movements, and may be a preferred and more effective method than GPS, particularly for indoor sports such as futsal, and field sports where short distances and changes in direction are observed.
Prather, Jf; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S
Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This "broken syntax" has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow's brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This "flickering" auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax.
García-Orza, Javier; Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Carreiras, Manuel
Numerical quantity seems to affect the response in any task that involves numbers, even in tasks that do not demand access to quantity (e.g., perceptual tasks). That is, readers seem to activate quantity representations upon the mere presentation of integers. One important piece of evidence in favor of this view comes from the finding of a distance effect in perceptual tasks: When one compares two numbers, response times (RTs) are a function of the numerical distance between them. However, recent studies have suggested that the physical similarity between Arabic numbers is strongly correlated with their numerical distance, and that the former could be a better predictor of RT data in perceptual tasks in which magnitude processing is not required (Cohen, 2009a). The present study explored the Persian and Arabic versions of Indian numbers (Exps. 1 and 2, respectively). Naïve participants (speakers of Spanish) and users of these notations (Pakistanis and Jordanians) participated in a physical same-different matching task. The RTs of users of the Indian notations were regressed on perceptual similarity (estimated from the Spanish participants' RTs) and numerical distance. The results showed that, regardless of the degree of correlation between the perceptual similarity function and the numerical distance function, the critical predictor for RTs was perceptual similarity. Thus, participants do not automatically activate Indian integers' quantity representations, at least not when these numbers are presented in simple perceptual tasks.
Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie
The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.
Sheridan, Susan Rich
A model of human language requires a theory of meaningful marks. Humans are the only species who use marks to think. A theory of marks identifies children's scribbles as significant behavior, while hypothesizing the importance of rotational systems to hominid brain evolution. By recognizing the importance of children's scribbles and drawings in developmental terms as well as in evolutionary terms, a marks-based rather than a predominantly speech-based theory of the human brain, language, and consciousness emerges. Combined research in anthropology, primatology, art history, neurology, child development (including research with deaf and blind children), gender studies and literacy suggests the importance of notational systems to human language, revealing the importance of mother/child interactions around marks and sounds to the development of an expressive, communicative, symbolic human brain. An understanding of human language is enriched by identifying marks carved on bone 1.9 million years ago as observational lunar calendar-keeping, pushing proto-literacy back dramatically. Neurologically, children recapitulate the meaningful marks of early hominins when they scribble and draw, reminding us that literacy belongs to humankind's earliest history. Even more than speech, such meaningful marks played - and continue to play - decisive roles in human brain evolution. The hominid brain required a model for integrative, transformative neural transfer. The research strongly suggests that humankind's multiple literacies (art, literature, scientific writing, mathematics and music) depended upon dyadic exchanges between hominid mothers and children, and that this exchange and sharing of visuo-spatial information drove the elaboration of human speech in terms of syntax, grammar and vocabulary. The human brain was spatial before it was linguistic. The child scribbles and draws before it speaks or writes. Children babble and scribble within the first two years of life. Hands
Tao, Cui; Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Chute, Christopher G.
Terminologies and ontologies are increasingly prevalent in health-care and biomedicine. However they suffer from inconsistent renderings, distribution formats, and syntax that make applications through common terminologies services challenging. To address the problem, one could posit a shared representation syntax, associated schema, and tags. We identified a set of commonly-used elements in biomedical ontologies and terminologies based on our experience with the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) Specification as well as the Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project. We propose guidelines for precisely such a shared terminology model, and recommend tags assembled from SKOS, OWL, Dublin Core, RDF Schema, and DCMI meta-terms. We divide these guidelines into lexical information (e.g. synonyms, and definitions) and semantic information (e.g. hierarchies.) The latter we distinguish for use by informal terminologies vs. formal ontologies. We then evaluate the guidelines with a spectrum of widely used terminologies and ontologies to examine how the lexical guidelines are implemented, and whether our proposed guidelines would enhance interoperability. PMID:23026232
Tao, Cui; Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Wei, Wei-Qi; Chute, Christopher G
Terminologies and ontologies are increasingly prevalent in healthcare and biomedicine. However they suffer from inconsistent renderings, distribution formats, and syntax that make applications through common terminologies services challenging. To address the problem, one could posit a shared representation syntax, associated schema, and tags. We identified a set of commonly-used elements in biomedical ontologies and terminologies based on our experience with the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) Specification as well as the Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project. We propose guidelines for precisely such a shared terminology model, and recommend tags assembled from SKOS, OWL, Dublin Core, RDF Schema, and DCMI meta-terms. We divide these guidelines into lexical information (e.g. synonyms, and definitions) and semantic information (e.g. hierarchies). The latter we distinguish for use by informal terminologies vs. formal ontologies. We then evaluate the guidelines with a spectrum of widely used terminologies and ontologies to examine how the lexical guidelines are implemented, and whether our proposed guidelines would enhance interoperability.
Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Szathmáry, Eörs
Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by means of artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, during which participants have to infer the rule from a set of artificial sentences. One of the surprising results of previous AGL experiments is that learning CER is not as easy as had been thought. We hypothesized that because artificial sentences lack semantic content, semantics could help humans learn the syntax of center-embedded sentences. To test this, we composed sentences from 4 vocabularies of different degrees of semantic content due to 3 factors (familiarity, meaning of words, and semantic relationship between words). According to our results, these factors have no effect one by one but they make learning significantly faster when combined. This leads to the assumption that there were different mechanisms at work when CER was parsed in natural and in artificial languages. This finding questions the suitability of AGL tasks with artificial vocabularies for studying the learning and processing of linguistic CER.
Deslandes, Viviane; Faria, Luiz R R; Borges, Marcelo E; Pie, Marcio R
A common result in recent linguistic studies on word association networks is that their topology can often be described by Zipf's law, in which most words have few associations, whereas a few words are highly connected. However, little is known about syntactic networks in more rudimentary communication systems, which could represent a window into the early stages of language evolution. In this study, we investigate the syntactic network formed by syllable associations in the song of the oscine bird Troglodytes musculus. We use methods recently developed in the context of the study of complex networks to assess topological characteristics in the syntactic networks of T. musculus. We found statistically significant evidence for nestedness in the syllable association network of T. musculus, indicating network organization around a core of commonly used notes, small-world features, and a non-random degree distribution. Our analyses suggest the possibility of a balance between the maintenance of core notes and the acquisition/loss of rare notes through both cultural drift and improvisation. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating communication networks of other animal species in uncovering the initial steps in the evolution of complex syntax networks.
Roy, Alice C; Curie, Aurore; Nazir, Tatjana; Paulignan, Yves; des Portes, Vincent; Fourneret, Pierre; Deprez, Viviane
Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax.
Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.
This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…
Le Grice, Malcolm
A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…
Doucette, Don, Ed.
This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…
Leadership Abstracts, 1999
This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…
Nwabueze, Kenneth K.
The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…
Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002
Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…
Clement, B.; Barrett, A.
r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.
Baird, William E.
The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…
Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.
This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…
In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659
Journal of Engineering Education, 1972
Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…
Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994
Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…
COLETTE, SISTER M.
THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…
League for Innovation in the Community Coll.
This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…
Engineering Education, 1976
Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)
Potter, Lee Ann
President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…
Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995
Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…
The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 188.8.131.52.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).
Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha
This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…
The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other
This article reports on a study to determine the role of intonation in language acquisition. Related studies are mentioned. Research methods for the study are outlined and two case studies are reviewed. Conclusions show that adult-child interaction influences not only the child's use of intonation but also his acquisition of syntax. (Text is in…
Duygu, Hamza; Gulsen, Kamil; Kemal, Hatice S; Ozcem, Barcın; Balcioglu, Ozlem; Gunsel, Aziz; Tosun, Ozgur; Emren, Volkan
Background and Objectives The relationship of synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between the SYNTAX score and development of AF after CABG (POAF). Subjects and Methods The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent CABG surgery from January 2013 to September 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for the development of AF in the postoperative period. SYNTAX score, clinical and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated. The independent variables for the development of POAF were defined and their predictive values were measured. Results The study group consisted of 106 patients, of which 36 (34%) developed POAF. Age, hypertension, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure (HF), diabetes mellitus (DM), left atrial diameter, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet large cell ratio, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and SYNTAX score were identified as important variables for the development of POAF. However, in logistic regression analysis COPD (OR=19.313, 95% CI=2.416-154.407, p=0.005), HF (OR=28.362, 95% CI=2.034-395.515, p=0.013), SYNTAX score (OR=0.863, 95% CI=0.757-0.983, p=0.026), and DM (OR=20.770, 95% CI=3.791-113.799, p<0.001) appeared as independent variables predicting the development of POAF. In receiver operation characteristic analysis, SYNTAX score (≥22.25) (AUC=0.777, 95% CI=0.676-0.877, p<0.001) was one of the strongest predictors for the development of POAF. Conclusion The SYNTAX score level was independently associated with the development of AF after CABG. PMID:27826338
Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.
Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.
In this paper, computer symbolic algebra based algorithms written to take advantage of engineering vector notation, as applied to hybrid parameter mechanical systems, are demonstrated. The symbolic manipulation tools are utilized to implement a hybrid parameter system modeling algorithm previously developed by the author. The modeling algorithm produces minimal holonomic and nonholonomic equations of motion for hybrid systems of any continuum dimension and kinematic topology. Boundary conditions are rigorously supplied by the modeling method. The system model presented as an example is a hybrid parameter planar two link model of a robot manipulator. A complete analysis from model to simulation and animation in a Mathematica notebook is presented. The modeling tools presented herein are applicable for researchers, practicing engineers, and students in advanced dynamic system modeling and control courses.
Basu, Srijita; Sengupta, Anirban; Mazumdar, Chandan
Enterprises are increasingly using cloud computing for hosting their applications. Availability of fast Internet and cheap bandwidth are causing greater number of people to use cloud-based services. This has the advantage of lower cost and minimum maintenance. However, ensuring security of user data and proper management of cloud infrastructure remain major areas of concern. Existing techniques are either too complex, or fail to properly represent the actual cloud scenario. This article presents a formal cloud model using the constructs of Z-notation. Principles of the Chinese Wall security policy have been applied to design secure cloud-specific operations. The proposed methodology will enable users to safely host their services, as well as process sensitive data, on cloud.
Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant
High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.
Dodel, Silke; Golestani, Narly; Pallier, Christophe; ElKouby, Vincent; Le Bihan, Denis; Poline, Jean-Baptiste
This paper introduces a method to study the variation of brain functional connectivity networks with respect to experimental conditions in fMRI data. It is related to the psychophysiological interaction technique introduced by Friston et al. and extends to networks of correlation modulation (CM networks). Extended networks containing several dozens of nodes are determined in which the links correspond to consistent correlation modulation across subjects. In addition, we assess inter-subject variability and determine networks in which the condition-dependent functional interactions can be explained by a subject-dependent variable. We applied the technique to data from a study on syntactical production in bilinguals and analysed functional interactions differentially across tasks (word reading or sentence production) and across languages. We find an extended network of consistent functional interaction modulation across tasks, whereas the network comparing languages shows fewer links. Interestingly, there is evidence for a specific network in which the differences in functional interaction across subjects can be explained by differences in the subjects' syntactical proficiency. Specifically, we find that regions, including ones that have previously been shown to be involved in syntax and in language production, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus, putamen, insula, precentral gyrus, as well as the supplementary motor area, are more functionally linked during sentence production in the second, compared with the first, language in syntactically more proficient bilinguals than in syntactically less proficient ones. Our approach extends conventional activation analyses to the notion of networks, emphasizing functional interactions between regions independently of whether or not they are activated. On the one hand, it gives rise to testable hypotheses and allows an interpretation of the results in terms of the previous literature, and on the other hand, it provides a
Gropen, J; Pinker, S; Hollander, M; Goldberg, R
Children between the ages of three and seven occasionally make errors with locative verbs like pour and fill, such as *I filled water into the glass and *I poured the glass with water (Bowerman, 1982). To account for this pattern of errors, and for how they are eventually unlearned, we propose that children use a universal linking rule called object affectedness: the direct object corresponds to the argument that is specified as 'affected' in some particular way in the semantic representation of a verb. However, children must learn which verbs specify which of their arguments as being affected; specifically, whether it is the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of location, such as the content argument of pour, or the argument whose referent is undergoing a change of state, such as the container argument of fill. This predicts that syntactic errors should be associated with specific kinds of misinterpretations of verb meaning. Two experiments were performed on the ability of children and adults to understand and produce locative verbs. The results confirm that children tend to make syntactic errors with sentences containing fill and empty, encoding the content argument as direct object (e.g. fill the water). As predicted, children also misinterpreted the meanings of fill and empty as requiring not only that the container be brought into a full or empty state, but also that the content move in some specific manner (by pouring, or by dumping). Furthermore, children who misinterpreted the verbs' meanings were more likely to make syntactic errors with them. These findings support the hypothesis that verb meaning and syntax are linked in precise ways in the lexicons of language learners.
Songbird is ``the hydrogen atom'' of the neuroscience of complex, learned vocalizations such as human speech. Songs of Bengalese finch consist of sequences of syllables. While syllables are temporally stereotypical, syllable sequences can vary and follow complex, probabilistic syntactic rules, which are rudimentarily similar to grammars in human language. Songbird brain is accessible to experimental probes, and is understood well enough to construct biologically constrained, predictive computational models. In this talk, I will discuss the structure and dynamics of neural networks underlying the stereotypy of the birdsong syllables and the flexibility of syllable sequences. Recent experiments and computational models suggest that a syllable is encoded in a chain network of projection neurons in premotor nucleus HVC (proper name). Precisely timed spikes propagate along the chain, driving vocalization of the syllable through downstream nuclei. Through a computational model, I show that that variable syllable sequences can be generated through spike propagations in a network in HVC in which the syllable-encoding chain networks are connected into a branching chain pattern. The neurons mutually inhibit each other through the inhibitory HVC interneurons, and are driven by external inputs from nuclei upstream of HVC. At a branching point that connects the final group of a chain to the first groups of several chains, the spike activity selects one branch to continue the propagation. The selection is probabilistic, and is due to the winner-take-all mechanism mediated by the inhibition and noise. The model predicts that the syllable sequences statistically follow partially observable Markov models. Experimental results supporting this and other predictions of the model will be presented. We suggest that the syntax of birdsong syllable sequences is embedded in the connection patterns of HVC projection neurons.
Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S
Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787
Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric
It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental "syntax." Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between "language syntax" and "music syntax" can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology ("phonological syntax"), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called "syntax" can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals.
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport
The objective of this study is to present "The Spiral Model for the Development of Coordination" (SMDC), a learning model that reflects the complexity and possibilities embodied in the learning of movement notation Eshkol-Wachman (EWMN), an Israeli invention. This model constituted the infrastructure for a comprehensive study that examined the…
Watson, Kevin E.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the…
Kell, Clare; Sweet, John
This paper shows how peer observation of learning and teaching (POLT) discussions can be augmented through the use of a dynamic visual notation that makes visible for interpretation, elements of teacher-learner and learner-earner nonverbal interactions. Making visible the nonverbal, physical, spatial and kinesics (eye-based) elements of…
Fredrick, Wayne C.; And Others
Seventy-two grade 8 students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups. One group studied five programed lessons in structural grammar, written without use of symbols or diagrams. A second group studied the same content presented with a symbolic notation to represent the grammar concepts. A third group studied the same content…
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García-Vílchez, Fernando; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan
In 2005, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) approved a new Recommendation (CCSDS 122.0-B-1) for Image Data Compression. This Recommendation defines a coding system for image-data compression applicable to digital data from payload instruments, specifying both a file syntax to allow the transmission of the data in multiple packets and techniques to control the compression ratio. In this paper we propose a new file syntax that provides scalability by quality, spatial location, resolution and component. The main advantages of the proposed file syntax for the Recommendation are: 1) the definition of multiple types of progression order, which enhances abilities in transmission scenarios, and 2) the support for the extraction and decoding of specific windows of interest without needing to decode the complete code-stream. This will enable the use of the Recommendation in interactive transmission scenarios.
Zhan, Qingming; Zhou, Jingnan; Sliuzas, Richard
This research analyzes the spatial pattern of large-scale stores based on space syntax theory and explores the correlation between the variations in syntax accessibility and the spatial pattern of large-scale stores. This research develops a framework of spatial topology analysis based on the space syntax theory, which includes the following modifications: the trail to break the traditional long axial line network of space syntax and apply this partitioned network in the topological analysis; the trail to analyze the bus route network; By taking both the syntax accessibility of road and bus network into consideration, we produce the scopes of urban syntax centers of city level, local level and sub local level respectively. In the analysis of the retail distribution pattern, the city level, local level and sub local level urban retail centers are suggested respectively according to the spatial distributions of the quantity and scale of the retail stores. The spatial distribution pattern of each retail format is studied as spatial correlations between the retail locations and the urban space syntax centers based on a case study in Wuhan, China. The Space Syntax can be a useful tool to explain the allocation logic of urban retail space in large cities. We suggest to apply the partitioned transportation network instead of the traditional long axial line network.
The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers
Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea
This study's objective is to develop and use a scalable genuine technology platform for clinical decision support based on Arden Syntax, which was extended by fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Arden Syntax is a widely recognized formal language for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format, and is maintained by Health Level Seven (HL7) International and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Fuzzy set theory and logic permit the representation of knowledge and automated reasoning under linguistic and propositional uncertainty. These forms of uncertainty are a common feature of patients' medical data, the body of medical knowledge, and deductive clinical reasoning.
Malaia, Evguenia; Newman, Sharlene
The binding problem-question of how information between the modules of the linguistic system is integrated during language processing-is as yet unresolved. The remarkable speed of language processing and comprehension (Pulvermüller et al. 2009) suggests that at least coarse semantic information (e.g. noun animacy) and syntactically-relevant information (e.g. verbal template) are integrated rapidly to allow for coarse comprehension. This EEG study investigated syntax-semantics interface processing during word-by-word sentence reading. As alpha-band neural activity serves as an inhibition mechanism for local networks, we used topographical distribution of alpha power to help identify the timecourse of the binding process. We manipulated the syntactic parameter of verbal event structure, and semantic parameter of noun animacy in reduced relative clauses (RRCs, e.g. "The witness/mansion seized/protected by the agent was in danger"), to investigate the neural bases of interaction between syntactic and semantic networks during sentence processing. The word-by-word stimulus presentation method in the present experiment required manipulation of both syntactic structure and semantic features in the working memory. The results demonstrated a gradient distribution of early components (biphasic posterior P1-N2 and anterior N1-P2) over function words "by" and "the", and the verb, corresponding to facilitation or conflict resulting from the syntactic (telicity) and semantic (animacy) cues in the preceding portion of the sentence. This was followed by assimilation of power distribution in the α band at the second noun. The flattened distribution of α power during the mental manipulation with high demand on working memory-thematic role re-assignment-demonstrates a state of α equilibrium with strong functional coupling between posterior and anterior regions. These results demonstrate that the processing of semantic and syntactic features during sentence comprehension proceeds
Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah
-based neglect dyslexia, suggesting that the best stimuli to diagnose mild text-based neglect dyslexia are sentences in which the leftmost constituent is optional, and not required by syntax. Another finding of this study is dissociation between neglect dyslexia at the text and at the word levels. Two of the participants had neglect dyslexia at the text level, manifested in omissions of words on the left side of text, without neglect dyslexia at the word level (namely, without omissions, substitutions, or additions of letters on the left side of words).
Samu, Dávid; Davis, Simon W.; Geerligs, Linda; Mustafa, Abdur; Tyler, Lorraine K.
Brain function is thought to become less specialized with age. However, this view is largely based on findings of increased activation during tasks that fail to separate task-related processes (e.g., attention, decision making) from the cognitive process under examination. Here we take a systems-level approach to separate processes specific to language comprehension from those related to general task demands and to examine age differences in functional connectivity both within and between those systems. A large population-based sample (N = 111; 22–87 years) from the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) was scanned using functional MRI during two versions of an experiment: a natural listening version in which participants simply listened to spoken sentences and an explicit task version in which they rated the acceptability of the same sentences. Independent components analysis across the combined data from both versions showed that although task-free language comprehension activates only the auditory and frontotemporal (FTN) syntax networks, performing a simple task with the same sentences recruits several additional networks. Remarkably, functionality of the critical FTN is maintained across age groups, showing no difference in within-network connectivity or responsivity to syntactic processing demands despite gray matter loss and reduced connectivity to task-related networks. We found no evidence for reduced specialization or compensation with age. Overt task performance was maintained across the lifespan and performance in older, but not younger, adults related to crystallized knowledge, suggesting that decreased between-network connectivity may be compensated for by older adults' richer knowledge base. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding spoken language requires the rapid integration of information at many different levels of analysis. Given the complexity and speed of this process, it is remarkably well preserved with age. Although previous
Bliss, Donna Z
Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.
Chandler, Jerry LR
Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to extend the Birkhoff-von Neumann criterion for quantum systems to complex natural objects. The C* hypothesis is being constructed to be consistent with algebraic category theory (Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1987, 1997, Chandler, 1990, 1991, Chandler, Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1996). Five aspects of closure will be used to construct a framework for categories of complex systems: 1. Truth functions in mathematics and the natural sciences 2. Systematic descriptions in the mks and O° notations 3. Organizational structures in hierarchical scientific languages 4. Transitive organizational pathways in the causal structures of complex behaviors 5. Composing additive, multiplicative and exponential operations in complex systems Truth functions can be formal or objective or subjective, depending on the complexity of the system and on our capability to represent the fine structure of the system symbolically, observationally or descriptively. "Complete" material representations of the fine structure of a system may allow truth functions to be created over sets of one to one correspondences. Less complete descriptions can support less stringent truth functions based on coherence or subjective judgments. The role of human values in creating and perpetuating truth functions can be placed in context of the degree of fine structure in the system's description. The organization of complex systems are hypothesized to be categorizable into degrees relative to one another, thereby creating an ordering relationship. This ordering relationship is denoted by the symbols: O°1, O°2,O°3
Post, R. S.
(Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.
(Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.
(Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.
Peres Penteado, A; Molina Cohrs, F; Diniz Hummel, A; Erbs, J; Maciel, R F; Feijó Ortolani, C L; de Aguiar Roza, B; Torres Pisa, I
Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for people with chronic kidney failure, because it improves the patients' quality of life and increases their length of survival compared with patients undergoing dialysis. The kidney transplantation process in Brazil is defined through laws, decrees, ordinances, and resolutions, but there is no visual representation of this process. The aim of this study was to analyze official documents to construct a representation of the kidney transplantation process in Brazil with the use of business process modeling notation (BPMN). The methodology for this study was based on an exploratory observational study, document analysis, and construction of process diagrams with the use of BPMN. Two rounds of validations by specialists were conducted. The result includes the kidney transplantation process in Brazil representation with the use of BPMN. We analyzed 2 digital documents that resulted in 2 processes with 45 total of activities and events, 6 organizations involved, and 6 different stages of the process. The constructed representation makes it easier to understand the rules for the business of kidney transplantation and can be used by the health care professionals involved in the various activities within this process. Construction of a representation with language appropriate for the Brazilian lay public is underway.
Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Centelles, Arnau; Jiménez, María
How does the cognitive system encode the location of objects in a visual scene? In the past decade, this question has attracted much attention in the field of visual-word recognition (e.g., "jugde" is perceptually very close to "judge"). Letter transposition effects have been explained in terms of perceptual uncertainty or shared "open bigrams". In the present study, we focus on note position coding in music reading (i.e., a 2D scenario). The usual way to display music is the staff (i.e., a set of 5 horizontal lines and their resultant 4 spaces). When reading musical notation, it is critical to identify not only each note (temporal duration), but also its pitch (y-axis) and its temporal sequence (x-axis). To examine note position coding, we employed a same-different task in which two briefly and consecutively presented staves contained four notes. The experiment was conducted with experts (musicians) and non-experts (non-musicians). For the "different" trials, the critical conditions involved staves in which two internal notes that were switched vertically, horizontally, or fully transposed--as well as the appropriate control conditions. Results revealed that note position coding was only approximate at the early stages of processing and that this encoding process was modulated by expertise. We examine the implications of these findings for models of object position encoding.
Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel
Holistic processing (i.e., the tendency to process objects as wholes) is associated with face perception and also with expertise individuating novel objects. Surprisingly, recent work also reveals holistic effects in novice observers. It is unclear whether the same mechanisms support holistic effects in experts and in novices. In the present study, we measured holistic processing of music sequences using a selective attention task in participants who vary in music-reading expertise. We found that holistic effects were strategic in novices but were relatively automatic in experts. Correlational analyses revealed that individual holistic effects were predicted by both individual music-reading ability and neural responses for musical notation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA), but in opposite directions for experts and novices, suggesting that holistic effects in the two groups may be of different natures. To characterize expert perception, it is important not only to measure the tendency to process objects as wholes, but also to test whether this effect is dependent on task constraints.
Teitelbaum, Osnat; Benton, Tom; Shah, Prithvi K; Prince, Andrea; Kelly, Joseph L; Teitelbaum, Philip
The diagnostic criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), considered a part of the autistic spectrum disorder, are still unclear. A critical marker, which distinguishes AS from autism, is the presence of language. The ability of a child with AS to acquire and use language early results in the fact that AS usually is diagnosed much later than autism. Autism is not usually diagnosed until around the age of 3, whereas AS usually is not diagnosed until the child is 6 or 7 years of age. In the present article, using Eshkol-Wachman movement notation, we present evidence that abnormal movement patterns can be detected in AS in infancy. This finding suggests that AS can be diagnosed very early, independent of the presence of language. As shown earlier by us, almost all of the movement disturbances in autism can be interpreted as infantile reflexes "gone astray"; i.e., some reflexes are not inhibited at the appropriate age in development, whereas others fail to appear when they should. This phenomenon appears to apply to AS as well. Based on preliminary results, a simple test using one such reflex is proposed for the early detection of a subgroup of children with AS or autism.
Tzelgov, Joseph; Ganor-Stern, Dana; Maymon-Schreiber, Keren
The representation of negative numbers was explored during intentional processing (i.e., when participants performed a numerical comparison task) and during automatic processing (i.e., when participants performed a physical comparison task). Performance in both cases suggested that negative numbers were not represented as a whole but rather their polarity and numerical magnitudes were represented separately. To explore whether this was due to the fact that polarity and magnitude are marked by two spatially separated symbols, participants were trained to mark polarity by colour. In this case there was still evidence for a separate representation of polarity and magnitude. However, when a different set of stimuli was used to refer to positive and negative numbers, and polarity was not marked separately, participants were able to represent polarity and magnitude together when numerical processing was performed intentionally but not when it was conducted automatically. These results suggest that notation is only partly responsible for the components representation of negative numbers and that the concept of negative numbers can be grasped only through that of positive numbers.
Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice
The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.
Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice
The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.
Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice
The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.
This study investigates the issue of crosslinguistic influence in the domain of subject realization in Turkish in simultaneous acquisition of Turkish and English. The use of subjects in a null subject language like Turkish is a phenomenon linked to the pragmatics-syntax interface of the grammar and, thus, is a domain where crosslinguistic…
A longitudinal study compared the effects of distributed and massed practice schedules on the learning of second language English syntax. Participants were taught distinctions in the tense and aspect systems of English at short and long practice intervals. They were then tested at short and long intervals. The results showed that distributed…
Humans are remarkably sensitive to the statistical structure of language. However, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for such statistical sensitivities. The present study compared adult learning of syntax and the ability of two models of statistical learning to simulate human performance: Simple Recurrent Networks, which learn by…
Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine
Background: The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for…
Kimura, Eizen; Ishihara, Ken
We demonstrate the concept of Arden Syntax, which is like Domain Specific Language (DSL), for describing decision support rules that take advantage of modern programming language concepts. Using object relational mapper and meta programming enables the conceptualization of FHIR resources from various data sources, and reduces the complexity of knowledge retrieval in decision rules.
Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Dunson, David B.; Jarvis, Erich D.
In 2005, Holy and Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other) and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for. PMID:25883559
Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert
A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…
Messenger, Katherine; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Sorace, Antonella
Previous research suggests that English-speaking children comprehend agent-patient verb passives earlier than experiencer-theme verb passives (Maratsos, Fox, Becker, & Chalkley, 1985). We report three experiments examining whether such effects reflect delayed acquisition of the passive syntax or instead are an artifact of the experimental task,…
This dissertation investigates typological patterns of syntax and morphosyntax, and the role that learning biases play in constraining them. A link between learning biases and typology is integral to generative linguistics, however evidence for this connection remains minimal. Using experimental, theoretical, and mathematical tools, I provide…
This study examines aspects of the syntax-discourse interface in near-native French. Two cleft structures--"c'est" clefts and "avoir" clefts--are examined in experimental and spontaneous conversational data from 10 adult Anglophone learners of French and ten native speakers of French. "C'est" clefts mark focus, and…
Tsao, Nai-Lung; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Wible, David; Hung, Tsung-Fu
In this paper, we propose a syntax-based text retrieval system for on-line language learning and use a fast regular expression search engine as its main component. Regular expression searches provide more scalable querying and search results than keyword-based searches. However, without a well-designed index scheme, the execution time of regular…
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
The "meaning through syntax" framework proposes lexical, decompositional representations of verb meaning. For several classes of verbs, the proposed representations have successfully predicted 2 types of data that pattern differently: the syntactic structures of sentences that are naturally produced by speakers and writers and the comprehension…
Grimm, Hannelore; Weinert, Sabine
Comparison of dysphasic children (N=8) with control children found that the dysphasic children's language development was both delayed and deviant, and that the children's deviant syntax structures were the result of insufficient language processing and could not be traced back to structural characteristics of the sentences used by their mothers.…
Maletti, Andreas; Tîrnăucă, Cătălin Ionuţ
Quasi-alphabetic tree bimorphisms [ Steinby, Tîrnă ucă: Defining syntax-directed translations by tree bimorphisms. Theor. Comput. Sci., to appear.
Keddington, Holly B.
The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…
Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao
Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…
Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.; Hartfield, Lekeitha R.; Wynn, Christy G.; Pruitt, Sonja L.; Garrity, April W.
Purpose: The validity of the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990) for children who speak African American English (AAE) was evaluated by conducting an item analysis and a comparison of the children's scores as a function of their maternal education level, nonmainstream dialect density, age, and clinical status. Method: The data…
Anderson, Peggy L.
The study compared the written expression of 56 fourth to fifth grade remedial readers and achieving readers. Significant differences favoring the achieving readers were found in three areas: productivity, syntax, and level of ideation. Remedial readers tended toward the same kinds of errors as achieving readers but with an increased frequency.…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Mansfield, Tracy C.; Billow, Jesse L.
Purpose: Expository discourse, the use of language to convey information, requires facility with complex syntax. Although expository discourse is often employed in school and work settings, little is known about its development in children, adolescents, and adults. Hence, it is difficult to evaluate this genre in students who have language…
Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela
Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection.
This article reports on an individual differences study that investigated the role of implicit statistical learning in the acquisition of syntax in children. One hundred children ages 4 years 5 months through 6 years 11 months completed a test of implicit statistical learning, a test of explicit declarative learning, and standardized tests of…
Brustad, Kristen E.
This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…
This dissertation examines the cross-linguistic behavior of Thematic Resultative Expressions in English and Japanese from the viewpoint of syntax-semantics mappings of event aspects, and discusses the source of some of their well-recognized syntactic and syntactico-semantic properties. Thematic Resultative Expressions (e.g. "John smashed the…
Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne
Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…
Gray, Joshua C; Amlung, Michael T; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James
The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards. Numerous studies have implicated these measures in addiction and other health behaviors. Unlike typical self-report measures, the MCQ and PDQ generate inferred hyperbolic temporal and probability discounting functions by comparing choice preferences to arrays of functions to which the individual items are preconfigured. This article provides R and SPSS syntax for processing the MCQ and PDQ. Specifically, for the MCQ, the syntax generates k values, consistency of the inferred k, and immediate choice ratios; for the PDQ, the syntax generates h indices, consistency of the inferred h, and risky choice ratios. The syntax is intended to increase the accessibility of these measures, expedite the data processing, and reduce risk for error.
Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis
This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…
Yuan, Boping; Dugarova, Esuna
Although "wh"-words generally stay in situ in Chinese "wh"-questions, they can be topicalized. However, the "wh"-topicalization is determined at the syntax-discourse interface and has to be governed by discourse conditions; only discourse-linked (D-linked) "wh"-words can be topicalized, but non-D-linked ones cannot. This article reports on an…
Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. Cognition93, 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar implicatures: Experiments at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Cognition, 86, 253-282; Hurewitz, F., Papafragou, A., Gleitman, L., Gelman, R. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of numbers and quantifiers. Language Learning and Development, 2, 76-97; Huang, Y. T., Snedeker, J., Spelke, L. (submitted for publication). What exactly do numbers mean?]. Specifically, these studies have shown that data from experimental investigations of child language can be used to illuminate core theoretical issues in the semantic and pragmatic analysis of number terms. In this article, I extend this approach to the logico-syntactic properties of number words, focusing on the way numerals interact with each other (e.g. Three boys are holding two balloons) as well as with other quantified expressions (e.g. Three boys are holding each balloon). On the basis of their intuitions, linguists have claimed that such sentences give rise to at least four different interpretations, reflecting the complexity of the linguistic structure and syntactic operations involved. Using psycholinguistic experimentation with preschoolers (n=32) and adult speakers of English (n=32), I show that (a) for adults, the intuitions of linguists can be verified experimentally, (b) by the age of 5, children have knowledge of the core aspects of the logical syntax of number words, (c) in spite of this knowledge, children nevertheless differ from adults in systematic ways, (d) the differences observed between children and adults can be accounted for on the basis of an independently motivated, linguistically-based processing model [Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language
This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 184.108.40.206)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.
Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun
THE STEVENS CLASSIFICATION OF LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT INVOLVES FOUR TYPES OF SCALE: "Nominal", "Ordinal", "Interval" and "Ratio". This classification has been used widely in medical fields and has accomplished an important role in composition and interpretation of scale. With this classification, levels of measurements appear organized and validated. However, a group theory-like systematization beckons as an alternative because of its logical consistency and unexceptional applicability in the natural sciences but which may offer great advantages in clinical medicine. According to this viewpoint, the Stevens classification is reformulated within an abstract algebra-like scheme; 'Abelian modulo additive group' for "Ordinal scale" accompanied with 'zero', 'Abelian additive group' for "Interval scale", and 'field' for "Ratio scale". Furthermore, a vector-like display arranges a mixture of schemes describing the assessment of patient states. With this vector-like notation, data-mining and data-set combination is possible on a higher abstract structure level based upon a hierarchical-cluster form. Using simple examples, we show that operations acting on the corresponding mixed schemes of this display allow for a sophisticated means of classifying, updating, monitoring, and prognosis, where better data mining/data usage and efficacy is expected.
Allen, Kachina; Ibara, Steven; Seymour, Amy; Cordova, Natalia; Botvinick, Matthew
Linguistic theory holds that the structure of a sentence can be described in abstract syntactic terms, independent of the specific words the sentence contains. Nonlinguistic behavior, including goal-directed action, is also theorized to have an underlying structural, or "syntactic," organization. We propose that purposive action sequences are represented cognitively in terms of a means-ends parse, which is a formal specification of how actions fit together to accomplish desired outcomes. To test this theory, we leveraged the phenomenon of structural priming in two experiments. As predicted, participants read sentences describing action sequences faster when these sentences were presented amid other sentences sharing the same parse. Results from a second experiment indicate that the underlying representations relevant to observed action sequences are not strictly tied to language processing. Our results suggest that the structure of goal-directed behavior may be represented abstractly, independently of specific actions and goals, just as linguistic syntax is thought to stand independent of other levels of representation.
Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert
Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.
Lakin, Matthew R; Youssef, Simon; Cardelli, Luca; Phillips, Andrew
DNA strand displacement techniques have been used to implement a broad range of information processing devices, from logic gates, to chemical reaction networks, to architectures for universal computation. Strand displacement techniques enable computational devices to be implemented in DNA without the need for additional components, allowing computation to be programmed solely in terms of nucleotide sequences. A major challenge in the design of strand displacement devices has been to enable rapid analysis of high-level designs while also supporting detailed simulations that include known forms of interference. Another challenge has been to design devices capable of sustaining precise reaction kinetics over long periods, without relying on complex experimental equipment to continually replenish depleted species over time. In this paper, we present a programming language for designing DNA strand displacement devices, which supports progressively increasing levels of molecular detail. The language allows device designs to be programmed using a common syntax and then analysed at varying levels of detail, with or without interference, without needing to modify the program. This allows a trade-off to be made between the level of molecular detail and the computational cost of analysis. We use the language to design a buffered architecture for DNA devices, capable of maintaining precise reaction kinetics for a potentially unbounded period. We test the effectiveness of buffered gates to support long-running computation by designing a DNA strand displacement system capable of sustained oscillations.
Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.
Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563
The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.
The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.
Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Yanamala, Chandra Mouli; Huang, Feng
The SYNTAX [Synergy Between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) With Taxus and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)] score is a decision-making tool in interventional cardiology. However, several facts still remain to be addressed: What about PCI or CABG with a low versus a high score respectively? And what about PCI with a low score versus CABG with a high score? Electronic databases were carefully searched for relevant publications. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the analysis was carried out by RevMan 5.3. Eleven studies with a total number of 11,037 patients were included. In terms of clinical outcomes, this analysis showed PCI to have significantly favored patients with a low versus a high SYNTAX score. In patients who were re-vascularized by CABG, mortality and major adverse cardiac events were significantly lower with a low SYNTAX score. However, when PCI with a low SYNTAX score was compared with CABG with a high SYNTAX score, no significant difference in mortality and combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction were observed. In conclusion, the SYNTAX score might be considered useful in interventional cardiology. Nevertheless, the fact that it has limitations when compared to newer tools should also not be ignored. PMID:28252019
Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta; Lemcke, Sanne; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Krøjgaard, Peter
The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with significant within-group heterogeneity; furthermore, syntactic and morphological measures were impaired even for subgroups matched on vocabulary. Children in the ASD group without early language delay showed syntactic and morphological impairment, with intact performance on vocabulary and sentence repetition. Findings indicate that syntactic and morphological impairments are a significant concern for high-functioning children with ASD, and may be overlooked if language evaluation focuses exclusively on vocabulary.
34•"tutttion Unlimited 17 i Deborah Dahi, John Dowding, Lynette Hirschman, Franpois Lang, Marcia Linebarger, Martha Palmer, Rebecca Passonneau, Leslie Riley...Linebarger, Martha Palmer, Rebecca Passonneau, Leslie Riley May 14, 1987 w Eflaa®«K®fflJffl5MMßSöföföÄ©^^ INTEGRATING SYNTAX, SEMANTICS, AND...Franpois Lang, Marcia Linebarger, Martha Palmer, Rebecca Passonneau, Leslie Rilev ARPA ORDER NUMBER: 5262 PROGRAM CODE NO. NR Ü49-602 dated 10 August
SPECIFICATION A language’s syntax (or grammar ) precisely defines the rules which govein the structure of programs written in the language. Several... grammar is producible from the original grammar . This property determines the type of syntactic elements, discussed below, that may be removed to produce...a subset grammar . Conditional elements (options and repeaters) represent syntactic units that may be omitted while still producing a syntactically
Lupo, Corrado; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio
The present study aimed to analyze the water polo matches of the men's World Championships, comparing technical and tactical aspects of winning and losing teams, during closed (≤ 3 goals of margin of victory at the end of the 4(th) quarter; winning, W; losing, L) and unbalanced (>3 goals; winning, MW; losing, ML) games. Therefore, 42 of the 48 (6 were draw at end of the 4(th) quarter) matches were considered. According to each game situation (i.e., even, counterattack, power-play, transition), a notational analysis was performed in relation to the following aspects: occurrence of actions, action outcome, execution and origin of shots, and mean duration. In addition, the occurrence of the offensive (and role) and defensive arrangements of even and power-play were analyzed. To show differences (p < 0.05) in terms of margin of victory, an analysis of variance was applied. Although ML (74 ± 11%) performed more even actions than W (68 ± 7%) and MW (69 ± 6%), the latter teams (W = 9 ± 6%; MW = 13 ± 6%) performed more counterattacks than L (3 ± 2%) and ML (5 ± 5%). Power-play is more played during closed (W = 20 ± 3%; L = 22 ± 3%) than unbalanced games (MW = 17 ± 4%; ML = 16 ± 7%). Moreover, differences in terms of margin of victory emerged for mean duration (even, power-play, transition), action outcome (even, power-play), zone origin (even, counterattack, power-play) and technical execution (even, power-play) of shots, and even and power-play offensive (and role) and defensive arrangements. Divergences mainly emerged between closed and unbalanced games, highlighting that the water polo matches of the men's World Championships need to be analyzed either considering the winning and losing outcome of match and specific margins of victory. Thus, coaches can advance their knowledge, considering that closed and unbalanced games are largely characterized by the opponent's exclusion fouls to perform power-play actions, and by a divergent grade of defensive skills
Jin, Dezhe Z.; Kozhevnikov, Alexay A.
Songs of many songbird species consist of variable sequences of a finite number of syllables. A common approach for characterizing the syntax of these complex syllable sequences is to use transition probabilities between the syllables. This is equivalent to the Markov model, in which each syllable is associated with one state, and the transition probabilities between the states do not depend on the state transition history. Here we analyze the song syntax in Bengalese finch. We show that the Markov model fails to capture the statistical properties of the syllable sequences. Instead, a state transition model that accurately describes the statistics of the syllable sequences includes adaptation of the self-transition probabilities when states are revisited consecutively, and allows associations of more than one state to a given syllable. Such a model does not increase the model complexity significantly. Mathematically, the model is a partially observable Markov model with adaptation (POMMA). The success of the POMMA supports the branching chain network model of how syntax is controlled within the premotor song nucleus HVC, but also suggests that adaptation and many-to-one mapping from the syllable-encoding chain networks in HVC to syllables should be included in the network model. PMID:21445230
Garcia Quiroz, Felipe
"Smart" polymers that sense stimuli in aqueous environments and that respond with a pronounced change in their solvation are of great utility in biotechnology and medicine. Currently, however, only few peptide polymers are known to display this behavior. Here, we uncover the syntax -- defined as the arrangement of amino acids (letters) into repeat units (words) that have a functional behavior of interest -- of a novel and extensive family of genetically encoded "smart" peptide polymers, termed syntactomers, that dictates their ability to undergo a soluble to insoluble phase transition at temperatures above a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or below an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). We show that this syntax ranges from phase transition polymers composed of simple repeats of a few amino acids to polymers whose syntax resembles the complex sequence of peptide drugs and protein domains that exhibit dual levels of function, as seen by their stimulus responsiveness and biological activity. This seamless fusion of materials and protein design embodied by syntactomers promises, we hope, a new generation of designer polymers with multiple levels of embedded functionality that should lead to new functional materials of broad interest
Chase, Philip N; Ellenwood, David W; Madden, Gregory
Matching-to-sample and sequence training procedures were used to develop responding to stimulus classes that were considered analogous to 3 aspects of verbal behavior: identifying synonyms and parts of speech, and using syntax. Matching-to-sample procedures were used to train 12 paired associates from among 24 stimuli. These pairs were analogous to synonyms. Then, sequence characteristics were trained to 6 of the stimuli. The result was the formation of 3 classes of 4 stimuli, with the classes controlling a sequence response analogous to a simple ordering syntax: first, second, and third. Matching-to-sample procedures were then used to add 4 stimuli to each class. These stimuli, without explicit sequence training, also began to control the same sequence responding as the other members of their class. Thus, three 8-member functionally equivalent sequence classes were formed. These classes were considered to be analogous to parts of speech. Further testing revealed three 8-member equivalence classes and 512 different sequences of first, second, and third. The study indicated that behavior analytic procedures may be used to produce some generative aspects of verbal behavior related to simple syntax and semantics. PMID:22477402
Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.
Purpose We examined which cognitive, environmental, and speech/language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), and typical development (TD), and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method We obtained Index of Productive Syntax scores for 18 boys with FXS only, 20 boys with both FXS and autism spectrum disorder, 27 boys with DS, and 25 younger TD boys of similar nonverbal mental age (MA). Predictors included group (diagnosis), nonverbal cognition, phonological working memory (PWM), maternal education, speech intelligibility, and expressive vocabulary. We addressed the research questions via hierarchical linear regression. Results Diagnostic group, nonverbal cognition, and PWM predicted 56% of the variance in syntactic ability, with approximately three-fourths of the predicted variance explained by group membership alone. The other factors did not contribute any additional significant variance in this final model. There was no evidence that predictor effects differed by group. Conclusions Nonverbal cognition and PWM have an effect on expressive syntax beyond that of diagnostic group. These effects are estimated to be the same in FXS, DS, and TD. We discuss explanations for residual variance and the relative role of different predictors. PMID:22473836
Doucette, Don, Ed.
"Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…
Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.
This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…
This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…
This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.
Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)
Parsegian, V. L., Ed.
Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)
Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette
Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.
Numbers are ubiquitous in life. At the same time, the symbols for numbers are highly abstract and their visual appearance does not carry any direct relation to their magnitude. This poses an important question for researchers interested in how numbers are mentally processed. Whereas research on numeric cognition suggests that culturally based…
Lupo, Corrado; Condello, Giancarlo; Tessitore, Antonio
The present study aimed to analyze the water polo matches of the men’s World Championships, comparing technical and tactical aspects of winning and losing teams, during closed (≤ 3 goals of margin of victory at the end of the 4th quarter; winning, W; losing, L) and unbalanced (>3 goals; winning, MW; losing, ML) games. Therefore, 42 of the 48 (6 were draw at end of the 4th quarter) matches were considered. According to each game situation (i.e., even, counterattack, power-play, transition), a notational analysis was performed in relation to the following aspects: occurrence of actions, action outcome, execution and origin of shots, and mean duration. In addition, the occurrence of the offensive (and role) and defensive arrangements of even and power-play were analyzed. To show differences (p < 0.05) in terms of margin of victory, an analysis of variance was applied. Although ML (74 ± 11%) performed more even actions than W (68 ± 7%) and MW (69 ± 6%), the latter teams (W = 9 ± 6%; MW = 13 ± 6%) performed more counterattacks than L (3 ± 2%) and ML (5 ± 5%). Power-play is more played during closed (W = 20 ± 3%; L = 22 ± 3%) than unbalanced games (MW = 17 ± 4%; ML = 16 ± 7%). Moreover, differences in terms of margin of victory emerged for mean duration (even, power-play, transition), action outcome (even, power-play), zone origin (even, counterattack, power-play) and technical execution (even, power-play) of shots, and even and power-play offensive (and role) and defensive arrangements. Divergences mainly emerged between closed and unbalanced games, highlighting that the water polo matches of the men’s World Championships need to be analyzed either considering the winning and losing outcome of match and specific margins of victory. Thus, coaches can advance their knowledge, considering that closed and unbalanced games are largely characterized by the opponent’s exclusion fouls to perform power-play actions, and by a divergent grade of defensive skills
Yong, Chin W
DL_F Notation is an easy-to-understand, standardized atom typesetting expression for molecular simulations for a range of organic force field (FF) schemes such as OPLSAA, PCFF, and CVFF. It is implemented within DL_FIELD, a software program that facilitates the setting up of molecular FF models for DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation software. By making use of the Notation, a single core conversion module (the DL_F conversion Engine) implemented within DL_FIELD can be used to analyze a molecular structure and determine the types of atoms for a given FF scheme. Users only need to provide the molecular input structure in a simple xyz format and DL_FIELD can produce the necessary force field file for DL_POLY automatically. In commensurate with the development concept of DL_FIELD, which placed emphasis on robustness and user friendliness, the Engine provides a single-step solution to setup complex FF models. This allows users to switch from one of the above-mentioned FF seamlessly to another while at the same time provides a consistent atom typing that is expressed in a natural chemical sense.
Froom, P; Froom, J
This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.
Castro-de la Torre, Tatiana Chantal; Amador-Licona, Norma; Bernal-Ruíz, Enrique
Introducción: la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (VFC) es un valor pronóstico de riesgo cardiovascular. Se desconoce su correlación con la severidad de la cardiopatía isquémica estable. El objetivo fue conocer la correlación de la VFC con la puntuación SYNTAX II en angina crónica. Métodos: estudio transversal en pacientes mayores de 18 años con angina estable e indicación de coronariografía diagnóstica que asistieron a un centro de tercer nivel. Mediante coronariografía se estableció la puntuación SYNTAX II y se obtuvo la VFC por Holter de 24 horas. La correlación de las mediciones se obtuvo con la prueba de Pearson. Un valor de SDNN < 100 ms y de RMSSD < 15 ms se consideró de riesgo. Resultados: se incluyeron 61 pacientes. De ellos, 45 tenían disminución de los valores de SDNN (73.77%) y solo 8 tenían disminución de los valores RMSSD (13.11%). No hubo correlación de ningún parámetro de VFC con SYNTAX II. Hubo mayor frecuencia de taquicardia ventricular en el grupo SDNN bajo en comparación con SDNN normal (15.5 frente a 0.0%; p = 0.04). Conclusiones: no identificamos correlación de parámetros de VFC con la severidad de cardiopatía isquémica crónica. Sin embargo, aquellos pacientes con menor VFC presentaron mayor proporción de taquicardia ventricular.
Liang, Yan-Ching; Chang, Polun
The Arden Syntax standard has been utilized in the medical informatics community in several countries during the past decade. It is never used in nursing in Taiwan. We try to develop a system that acquire medical expert knowledge in Chinese and translates data and logic slot into TSQL Language. The system implements TSQL translator interpreting database queries referred to in the knowledge modules. The decision-support systems in medicine are data driven system where TSQL triggers as inference engine can be used to facilitate linking to a database. PMID:14728414
Dixon, Kevin R.
This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.
Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene
Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.
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Zhang, Yisi S; Wittenbach, Jason D; Jin, Dezhe Z; Kozhevnikov, Alexay A
Variable motor sequences of animals are often structured and can be described by probabilistic transition rules between action elements. Examples include the songs of many songbird species such as the Bengalese finch, which consist of stereotypical syllables sequenced according to probabilistic rules (song syntax). The neural mechanisms behind such rules are poorly understood. Here, we investigate where the song syntax is encoded in the brain of the Bengalese finch by rapidly and reversibly manipulating the temperature in the song production pathway. Cooling the premotor nucleus HVC (proper name) slows down the song tempo, consistent with the idea that HVC controls moment-to-moment timings of acoustic features in the syllables. More importantly, cooling HVC alters the transition probabilities between syllables. Cooling HVC reduces the number of repetitions of long-repeated syllables and increases the randomness of syllable sequences. In contrast, cooling the downstream motor area RA (robust nucleus of the acropallium), which is critical for singing, does not affect the song syntax. Unilateral cooling of HVC shows that control of syllables is mostly lateralized to the left HVC, whereas transition probabilities between the syllables can be affected by cooling HVC in either hemisphere to varying degrees. These results show that HVC is a key site for encoding song syntax in the Bengalese finch. HVC is thus involved both in encoding timings within syllables and in sequencing probabilistic transitions between syllables. Our finding suggests that probabilistic selections and fine-grained timings of action elements can be integrated within the same neural circuits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many animal behaviors such as birdsong consist of variable sequences of discrete actions. Where and how the probabilistic rules of such sequences are encoded in the brain is poorly understood. We locally and reversibly cooled brain areas in songbirds during singing. Mild cooling of area HVC
The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.
The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These
According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662
Lind, Sophie E; Bowler, Dermot M
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and traditional location change and unexpected contents false belief tasks. Consistent with predictions, the correlation between complement syntax score and location change task performance was significantly stronger within the ASD group than within the comparison group. However, contrary to predictions, complement syntax score was not significantly correlated with unexpected contents task performance within either group. Possible explanations for this pattern of results are considered.
Hedley, Richard W.
Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin’s Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity–zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models–and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher’s exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537
Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.
A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).
Klein, Hans-Joachim; Liebau, Friedrich
The computer program CRYSTANA is described which implements a method for the crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials. This method is mainly based upon the topological structure of the connected units of a compound and can be applied when the units are built from tetrahedra as coordination polyhedra. The classification parameters and the rules which have to be applied for their determination are summarized and a formalization of the method is provided based upon a finite graph representation of the units. A description of how CRYSTANA can be used and which kind of output it produces is included. From this output crystal-chemical formulas can be derived, which differ slightly from an existing notation in order to meet recommendations of the International Union of Crystallography.
Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…
Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.
Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.
Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.
IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…
Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.
Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…
Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)
Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania
Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…
Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.
The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…
The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…
Dehnee, Abed; Gerula, Christine; Mazza, Victor; Maher, James; Dhruvakumar, Sandiya; Kaluski, Edo
In a recent manuscript in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, the newly introduced "functional SYNTAX score" (FSS) was found to be a better tool to assess the extent and severity of coronary artery disease than the SYNTAX score (SS) and has reclassified 1/3 of the studied cohort into lower-risk categories. Besides being more invasive, costly, and time consuming, FSS still suffers from inherent deficiencies of its own. Like SS, FSS does not incorporate clinical risk predictors and consequently is a suboptimal tool for predicting PCI risk. FSS is not supported by a wealth of contemporary outcome data in a wide range of patient and lesions subsets. Key unanswered questions are whether PCI of hemodynamically significant lesions (FFR <0.80) is superior to optimal medical therapy (OMT) and whether complete revascularization yields considerably better outcomes than partial revascularization. Since partial revascularization is still an option, operational FSS (taking into account only the FSS of lesions subject to PCI) combined with a clinical risk score will probably better predict the procedural risk of the planned PCI.
Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter
Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.
Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R; Hewitt, Kenneth
Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift.
Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R.; Hewitt, Kenneth
Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift. PMID:20212156
Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd; Whipp, David
Syntaxes are short, convex bends in the otherwise slightly concave plate boundaries of subduction zones. These regions are of scientific interest because some syntaxes (e.g., the Himalaya or St. Elias region in Alaska) exhibit exceptionally rapid, focused rock uplift. These areas have led to a hypothesized connection between erosional and tectonic processes (top-down control), but have so far neglected the unique 3D geometry of the subducting plates at these locations. In this study, we contribute to this discussion by exploring the idea that subduction geometry may be sufficient to trigger focused tectonic uplift in the overriding plate (a bottom-up control). For this, we use a fully coupled 3D thermomechanical model that includes thermochronometric age prediction. The downgoing plate is approximated as spherical indenter of high rigidity, whereas both viscous and visco-plastic material properties are used to model deformation in the overriding plate. We also consider the influence of the curvature of the subduction zone and the ratio of subduction velocity to subduction zone advance. We evaluate these models with respect to their effect on the upper plate exhumation rates and localization. Results indicate that increasing curvature of the indenter and a stronger upper crust lead to more focused tectonic uplift, whereas slab advance causes the uplift focus to migrate and thus may hinder the emergence of a positive feedback.
Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter
Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026
Zhao, Zhehuan; Yang, Zhihao; Luo, Ling; Lin, Hongfei; Wang, Jian
Motivation: Detecting drug-drug interaction (DDI) has become a vital part of public health safety. Therefore, using text mining techniques to extract DDIs from biomedical literature has received great attentions. However, this research is still at an early stage and its performance has much room to improve. Results: In this article, we present a syntax convolutional neural network (SCNN) based DDI extraction method. In this method, a novel word embedding, syntax word embedding, is proposed to employ the syntactic information of a sentence. Then the position and part of speech features are introduced to extend the embedding of each word. Later, auto-encoder is introduced to encode the traditional bag-of-words feature (sparse 0–1 vector) as the dense real value vector. Finally, a combination of embedding-based convolutional features and traditional features are fed to the softmax classifier to extract DDIs from biomedical literature. Experimental results on the DDIExtraction 2013 corpus show that SCNN obtains a better performance (an F-score of 0.686) than other state-of-the-art methods. Availability and Implementation: The source code is available for academic use at http://220.127.116.11:8080/DDI/SCNN-DDI.zip. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27466626
Sheridan, Susan Rich
A model of human language requires a theory of meaningful marks. Humans are the only species who use marks to think. A theory of marks identifies children's scribbles as significant behavior, while hypothesizing the importance of notational systems to hominid brain evolution. By recognizing the importance of children's scribbles and drawings in…
Ruder, Suzanne M.; Straumanis, Andrei R.
A critical stage in the process of developing a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry is learning to use curved arrow notation. From this stems the ability to predict reaction products and mechanisms beyond the realm of memorization. Since evaluation (i.e., testing) is known to be a key driver of student learning, it follows that a new…
Higgins, William R.
Reviews a dissertation in which the problems of real-time pitch detection by computer were studied in an attempt to develop a learning tool for sightsinging students. Specialized hardware and software were developed to discriminate aural pitches and to display them in real-time using standard notation. (BSR)
Goetz, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm
Since it is becoming increasingly laborious to manually extract useful information embedded in the ever-growing volumes of literature, automated intelligent text analysis tools are becoming more and more essential to assist in this task. PubFinder (www.glycosciences.de/tools/PubFinder) is a publicly available web tool designed to improve the retrieval rate of scientific abstracts relevant for a specific scientific topic. Only the selection of a representative set of abstracts is required, which are central for a scientific topic. No special knowledge concerning the query-syntax is necessary. Based on the selected abstracts, a list of discriminating words is automatically calculated, which is subsequently used for scoring all defined PubMed abstracts for their probability of belonging to the defined scientific topic. This results in a hit-list of references in the descending order of their likelihood score. The algorithms and procedures implemented in PubFinder facilitate the perpetual task for every scientist of staying up-to-date with current publications dealing with a specific subject in biomedicine.
Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.
This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.
Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre
We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.
difference, consider an example frequently discussed in the history of science, namely the Ptolemaic system in which the planet earth is surrounded by...tend to imagine systems with the human observer in the center. While a Ptolemaic viewpoint is known to be wrong (or, more precisely, infeasible) in...physics, it naturally appears in the systems we construct. Consequently, the Ptolemaic viewpoint yields a natural abstraction principle for computer
Williamson, F. R.
A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.
Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P
A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.
PRED). The cells of such a chart would contain two numbers - an Arabic numeral for the surface pattern and a Roman num4ral for the deep relationship... Roman ) of a particular deep-structure relationship. In the figure labelled i , we take all the lines which have in their headings a V dual symbol with X...joogtid baa camalkeeda !a yeeshaa. time - (indef, particle) - place/the - you - be located - custom/its - one - owns .hen in Rome, do as Romans do
Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind
Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several studies of child language that have been conducted with the goal of helping to adjudicate between the alternative approaches to language development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:185-203. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Chilosi, A; And Others
Discusses research that gathered language samples via videotape recordings from 2 Italian children (one upper class, the other lower class) from the age of 18 months to 36 months, and then analyzes the data to determine the development of morphology and syntax in these children. (19 references) (CFM)
Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.
The sixth volume of this series contains eight contrastive studies in the syntax and semantics of English and Romanian. They are: "Criteria for the Contrastive Analysis of English Nouns," by Andrei Bantas; "Adjectives as Noun Modifiers in Post-Verbal Position," by Ioana Poenaru; "Towards a Semantic Description of 'Tense' and 'Aspect' in English…
Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Gonzalez, Lori; Schuster, John W.; Huebner, Ruth
The ability to make choices, plan, and self-evaluate are among the primary skills included in the development of self-determination. This study was designed to determine if a teaching paradigm, which incorporates key elements of self-determination, is as effective and more efficient in teaching syntax than a traditional, clinician-directed…
Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason
This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…
Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva
This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…
Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk
Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.
Walters, Lynne Masel; Walters, T. N.
Examines the relationship between public relations practitioner and journalist in the transmission of the language of science to the public. The grammatical structure of original press releases was compared with the resulting newspaper stories for both science and nonscience releases to determine differences in syntax and editing. (Author/LRW)
Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and…
Yanchik, Nicholas J.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.
M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho
A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.
Song, Yi-Zhe; Pickup, David; Li, Chuan; Rosin, Paul; Hall, Peter
This paper shows that classifying shapes is a tool useful in nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) from photographs. Our classifier inputs regions from an image segmentation hierarchy and outputs the "best" fitting simple shape such as a circle, square, or triangle. Other approaches to NPR have recognized the benefits of segmentation, but none have classified the shape of segments. By doing so, we can create artwork of a more abstract nature, emulating the style of modern artists such as Matisse and other artists who favored shape simplification in their artwork. The classifier chooses the shape that "best" represents the region. Since the classifier is trained by a user, the "best shape" has a subjective quality that can over-ride measurements such as minimum error and more importantly captures user preferences. Once trained, the system is fully automatic, although simple user interaction is also possible to allow for differences in individual tastes. A gallery of results shows how this classifier contributes to NPR from images by producing abstract artwork.
Katahira, Kentaro; Suzuki, Kenta; Kagawa, Hiroko; Okanoya, Kazuo
The songs of Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) have complex syntax and provide an opportunity to investigate how complex sequential behaviour emerges via the evolutionary process. In this study, we suggest that a simple mechanism, i.e. many-to-one mapping from internal states onto syllables, may underlie the emergence of apparent complex syllable sequences that have higher order history dependencies. We analysed the songs of Bengalese finches and of their wild ancestor, the white-rumped munia (L. striata), whose songs are more stereotypical and simpler compared with those of Bengalese finches. The many-to-one mapping mechanism sufficiently accounted for the differences in the complexity of song syllable sequences of these two strains. PMID:24284561
Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos
In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing children in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of (morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics.
Karlsson, D; Ekdahl, C; Wigertz, O; Shahsavar, N; Gill, H; Forsum, U
There is an obvious need for geographic distribution of expert knowledge among several health care units without increasing the cost of on-site expertise in locations where health care is provided. This paper describes the design of a knowledge-based decision-support system for extended consultation in clinical medicine. The system is based on Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules and hypertext using World Wide Web technology. It provides advice and explanations regarding the given advice. The explanations are presented in a hypertext format allowing the user to browse related information and to verify the relevance of the given advice. The system is intended to be used in a closed local network. With special precautions regarding issues of safety and patient security, the system can be used over wider areas such as in rural medicine. A prototype has been developed in the field of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases regarding infective endocarditis.
Jenders, R. A.; Hripcsak, G.; Sideli, R. V.; DuMouchel, W.; Zhang, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Johnson, S. B.; Sherman, E. H.; Clayton, P. D.
We began implementation of a medical decision support system (MDSS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) using the Arden Syntax in 1992. The Clinical Event Monitor which executes the Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) runs on a mainframe computer. Data are stored in a relational database and accessed via PL/I programs known as Data Access Modules (DAMs). Currently we have 18 clinical, 12 research and 10 administrative MLMs. On average, the clinical MLMs generate 50357 simple interpretations of laboratory data and 1080 alerts each month. The number of alerts actually read varies by subject of the MLM from 32.4% to 73.5%. Most simple interpretations are not read at all. A significant problem of MLMs is maintenance, and changes in laboratory testing and message output can impair MLM execution significantly. We are now using relational database technology and coded MLM output to study the process outcome of our MDSS. PMID:8563259
Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim
Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.
Minati, Ludovico; Rosazza, Cristina; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Pietrocini, Emanuela; Valentini, Laura; Scaioli, Vidmer; Loveday, Catherine; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia
To date, the neural correlates of musical syntax processing have been investigated mainly by means of paradigms in which isolated chords are made incongruent with the harmonic context. Here, we present results obtained contrasting unfamiliar one-part piano melodies with unstructured note sequences, comparable in pitch and rhythm but devoid of any syntactic structure. This paradigm indexes a superset of the cognitive functions involved in processing of harmonic rules. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, differential activation of a bilateral cortical network comprising the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex was found. Using event-related potentials, the N2 evoked by each note in melodies was found to have longer latency and a more frontal distribution than that evoked in unstructured sequences.
Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.
A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.
Ueki, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Motoki, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Sekimura, Noriyuki; Morita, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi
The Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is effective in predicting clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its prediction ability is low because it reflects only the coronary characterization. We assessed the predictive value of combining the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and SYNTAX score to predict clinical outcomes after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated for 1,197 patients recruited from the Shinshu Prospective Multi-center Analysis for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SHINANO) registry, a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in Japan. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in the first year after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated by categorizing and summing up the ABI and SYNTAX scores. ABI ≤ 0.49 was defined as 4, 0.5 to 0.69 as 3, 0.7 to 0.89 as 2, 0.9 to 1.09 as 1, and 1.1 to 1.5 as 0; an SYNTAX score ≤ 22 was defined as 0, 23 to 32 as 1, and ≥ 33 as 2. Patients were divided into low (0), moderate (1 to 2), and high (3 to 6) groups. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the high ABI-SYNTAX score group than in the lower 2 groups (low: 4.6% vs moderate: 7.0% vs high: 13.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis found that ABI-SYNTAX score independently predicted MACE (hazards ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52, p = 0.029). The respective C-statistic for the ABI-SYNTAX and SYNTAX score for 1-year MACE was 0.60 and 0.55, respectively. In conclusion, combining the ABI and SYNTAX scores improved the prediction of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with the SYNTAX score alone.
Goyal, Nikhil; Apolo, Andrea B; Berman, Eliana D; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Levine, Jason E; Glod, John W; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Machado, Laura B; Folio, Les R
Oncologists evaluate therapeutic response in cancer trials based on tumor quantification following selected "target" lesions over time. At our cancer center, a majority of oncologists use Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 quantifying tumor progression based on lesion measurements on imaging. Currently, our oncologists handwrite tumor measurements, followed by multiple manual data transfers; however, our Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) (Carestream Health, Rochester, NY) has the ability to export tumor measurements, making it possible to manage tumor metadata digitally. We developed an interface, "Exportable Notation and Bookmark List Engine" (ENABLE), which produces prepopulated RECIST v1.1 worksheets and compiles cohort data and data models from PACS measurement data, thus eliminating handwriting and manual data transcription. We compared RECIST v1.1 data from eight patients (16 computed tomography exams) enrolled in an IRB-approved therapeutic trial with ENABLE outputs: 10 data fields with a total of 194 data points. All data in ENABLE's output matched with the existing data. Seven staff were taught how to use the interface with a 5-min explanatory instructional video. All were able to use ENABLE successfully without additional guidance. We additionally assessed 42 metastatic genitourinary cancer patients with available RECIST data within PACS to produce a best response waterfall plot. ENABLE manages tumor measurements and associated metadata exported from PACS, producing forms and data models compatible with cancer databases, obviating handwriting and the manual re-entry of data. Automation should reduce transcription errors and improve efficiency and the auditing process.
Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).
Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.
Small, J. S.
(Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!
Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.
In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.
Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania
Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways.
A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.
Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q
This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.
Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.
This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653
Hripcsak, G; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Clayton, P D
Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center is implementing a decision-support system based on the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLM's). The system uses a compiler-interpreter pair. MLM's are first compiled into pseudo-codes, which are instructions for a virtual machine. The MLM's are then executed using an interpreter that emulates the virtual machine. This design has resulted in increased portability, easier debugging and verification, and more compact compiled MLM's. The time spent interpreting the MLM pseudo-codes has been found to be insignificant compared to database accesses. The compiler, which is written using the tools "lex" and "yacc," optimizes MLM's by minimizing the number of database accesses. The interpreter emulates a stack-oriented machine. A phased implementation of the syntax was used to speed the development of the system.
Hripcsak, G.; Cimino, J. J.; Johnson, S. B.; Clayton, P. D.
Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center is implementing a decision-support system based on the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLM's). The system uses a compiler-interpreter pair. MLM's are first compiled into pseudo-codes, which are instructions for a virtual machine. The MLM's are then executed using an interpreter that emulates the virtual machine. This design has resulted in increased portability, easier debugging and verification, and more compact compiled MLM's. The time spent interpreting the MLM pseudo-codes has been found to be insignificant compared to database accesses. The compiler, which is written using the tools "lex" and "yacc," optimizes MLM's by minimizing the number of database accesses. The interpreter emulates a stack-oriented machine. A phased implementation of the syntax was used to speed the development of the system. PMID:1807598
Dillon, Moira R; Huang, Yi; Spelke, Elizabeth S
Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children's use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Children's navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, children's analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, children's performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, children's use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.
A novel ordered notation is introduced that allows description and calculation of the probability of any nuclear-pedigree configuration of disease status and marker-allele information. Algorithms are given that allow for complex models of disease predisposition, a highly polymorphic or less polymorphic marker locus, gametic disequilibrium between the marker and disease loci (marker association with disease), recombination between the marker and disease loci, and different ascertainment schemes. The theoretical foundation is presented for a series of new tests to identify modes of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity. These use marker-locus data in nuclear families from four ascertainment schemes: simplex (S), multiplex parent-child (MPC), multiplex sibs (MS),and multiplex parent-sibs (MPS). The tests are (1) extension of the antigen-genotype-frequencies-among-patients method to MPC, MS,and MPS pedigrees; (2) determination of the expected rates of transmission, or not, of marker alleles from parents to an affected child, for all pedigree types; (3) determination of expected identity by descent (IBD) values for affected sib pairs when a parent is affected (MPS pedigrees); and (4) determination of the expected marker-allele frequencies in affected-sib-pair IBD categories (MS and MPS pedigrees). A sampling strategy that includes the four pedigree types S, MPC, MS, and MPS is recommended for complex diseases once linkage and/or association of a marker with disease has been established. The full array of new and old tests that can be applied to these pedigrees provides a complementary suite of methods that can facilitate the mapping and characterization of complex human genetic traits. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan
Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition,…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...
HYER, ANNA L.
THIS PROJECT PROVIDED ABSTRACTING COVERAGE OF 33 FINAL REPORTS OF U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION FINANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS IN EDUCATIONAL MEDIA. AN ABSTRACTOR, DR. WILLIAM ALLEN, WAS HIRED TO EVALUATE AND EDIT OR REWRITE ABSTRACTS SUBMITTED BY RESEARCHERS, AND TO PREPARE ABSTRACTS IF NECESSARY. TWO ANALYTICAL REVIEWS ON SELECTED AREAS OF MEDIA RESEARCH…
This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…
Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...
Viau, Joshua; Lidz, Jeffrey; Musolino, Julien
Though preschoolers in certain experimental contexts strongly prefer to interpret ambiguous sentences containing quantified NPs and negation on the basis of surface syntax (e.g., Musolino's 1998 "observation of isomorphism"), contextual manipulations can lead to more adult-like behavior. But is isomorphism a "purely" pragmatic phenomenon, as…
Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the
Lesmo, L.; Torasso, P.
In this paper the authors present a parser which allows to make explicit the interconnections between syntax and semantics, to analyze the sentences in a quasi-deterministic fashion and, in many cases, to identify the roles of the various constituents even if the sentence is ill-formed. The main feature of the approach on which the parser is based consists in a two-level representation of the syntactic knowledge: a first set of rules emits hypotheses about the constituents of the sentence and their functional role and another set of rules verifies whether a hypothesis satisfies the constraints about the well-formedness of sentences. However, the application of the second set of rules is delayed until the semantic knowledge confirms the acceptability of the hypothesis. If the semantics reject it, a new hypothesis is obtained by applying a simple and relatively inexpensive natural modification; a set of these modifications is predefined and only when none of them is applicable a real backup is performed: in most cases this situation corresponds to a case where people would normally garden path. 19 references.
Bowden, Harriet Wood; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the neurocognition of late-learned second language (L2) Spanish in two groups of typical university foreign-language learners (as compared to native (L1) speakers): one group with only one year of college classroom experience, and low-intermediate proficiency (L2 Low), and another group with over three years of college classroom experience as well as 1-2 semesters of immersion experience abroad, and advanced proficiency (L2 Advanced). Semantic violations elicited N400s in all three groups, whereas syntactic word-order violations elicited LAN/P600 responses in the L1 and L2 Advanced groups, but not the L2 Low group. Indeed, the LAN and P600 responses were statistically indistinguishable between the L1 and L2 Advanced groups. The results support and extend previous findings. Consistent with previous research, the results suggest that L2 semantic processing always depends on L1-like neurocognitive mechanisms, whereas L2 syntactic processing initially differs from L1, but can shift to native-like processes with sufficient proficiency or exposure, and perhaps with immersion experience in particular. The findings further demonstrate that substantial native-like brain processing of syntax can be achieved even by typical university foreign-language learners.
Kim, Chan Hee; Lee, Sojin; Kim, June Sic; Seol, Jaeho; Yi, Suk Won; Chung, Chun Kee
Recent studies have reported that early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and its magnetic counterpart (ERANm) are evoked by harmonic irregularity in Western tonal music; however, those studies did not control for differences of melody. Because melody and harmony have an interdependent relationship and because melody (in this study melody is represented by the highest voice part) in a chord sequence may dominate, there is controversy over whether ERAN (or ERANm) changes arise from melody or harmony differences. To separate the effects of melody differences and harmonic irregularity on ERANm responses, we designed two magnetoencephalography experiments and behavioral test. Participants were presented with three types of chord progression sequences (Expected, Intermediate, and Unexpected) with different harmonic regularities in which melody differences were or were not controlled. In the uncontrolled melody difference experiment, the unexpected chord elicited a significantly largest ERANm, but in the controlled melody difference experiment, the amplitude of the ERANm peak did not differ among the three conditions. However, ERANm peak latency was delayed more than that in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. The behavioral results show the difference between the two experiments even if harmonic irregularity was discriminated in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that there is a relationship between the effects of harmony and melody on ERANm. Hence, we suggest that a melody difference in a chord progression is largely responsible for the observed changes in ERANm, reaffirming that melody plays an important role in the processing of musical syntax.
Aradhye, Hrishikesh; Herson, James A.; Myers, Gregory
Video is an increasingly important and ever-growing source of information to the intelligence and homeland defense analyst. A capability to automatically identify the contents of video imagery would enable the analyst to index relevant foreign and domestic news videos in a convenient and meaningful way. To this end, the proposed system aims to help determine the geographic focus of a news story directly from video imagery by detecting and geographically localizing political maps from news broadcasts, using the results of videotext recognition in lieu of a computationally expensive, scale-independent shape recognizer. Our novel method for the geographic localization of a map is based on the premise that the relative placement of text superimposed on a map roughly corresponds to the geographic coordinates of the locations the text represents. Our scheme extracts and recognizes videotext, and iteratively identifies the geographic area, while allowing for OCR errors and artistic freedom. The fast and reliable recognition of such maps by our system may provide valuable context and supporting evidence for other sources, such as speech recognition transcripts. The concepts of syntax-directed content analysis of videotext presented here can be extended to other content analysis systems.
von Stülpnagel, Rul; Frankenstein, Julia
We conducted a visibility graph analysis (a Space Syntax method) of a virtual environment to examine how the configurational salience of global and local landmarks (i.e., their relative positions in the environment) as compared to their visual salience affects the probability of their depiction on sketch maps. Participants of two experimental conditions produced sketch maps from memory after exploration with a layout map or without a map, respectively. Participants of a third condition produced sketch maps in parallel to exploration. More detailed sketch maps were produced in the third condition, but landmarks with higher configurational salience were depicted more frequently across all experimental conditions. Whereas the inclusion of global landmarks onto sketch maps was best predicted by their size, both visual salience and isovist size (i.e., the area a landmark was visible from) predicted the frequency of depiction for local landmarks. Our findings imply that people determine the relevance of landmarks not only by their visual, but even more by their configurational salience.
Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P
The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org , is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org ; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops.
Strickland, Brent; Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank; Knobe, Joshua
Three studies provided evidence that syntax influences intentionality judgments. In Experiment 1, participants made either speeded or unspeeded intentionality judgments about ambiguously intentional subjects or objects. Participants were more likely to judge grammatical subjects as acting intentionally in the speeded relative to the reflective condition (thus showing an intentionality bias), but grammatical objects revealed the opposite pattern of results (thus showing an unintentionality bias). In Experiment 2, participants made an intentionality judgment about one of the two actors in a partially symmetric sentence (e.g., "John exchanged products with Susan"). The results revealed a tendency to treat the grammatical subject as acting more intentionally than the grammatical object. In Experiment 3 participants were encouraged to think about the events that such sentences typically refer to, and the tendency was significantly reduced. These results suggest a privileged relationship between language and central theory-of-mind concepts. More specifically, there may be two ways of determining intentionality judgments: (1) an automatic verbal bias to treat grammatical subjects (but not objects) as intentional (2) a deeper, more careful consideration of the events typically described by a sentence.
Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Santaera, Omar; Antoniucci, David
In recent years an angiographic score was introduced in clinical practice to stratified different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with drug eluting stents. The SYNTAX score (SS) classified patients in three different risk levels and was included in revascularization guidelines that patients allocated with low SS could be equally treated with either PCI or CABG, whereas those with intermediate or high SS were better off with CABG. However, using original SS each coronary lesion with a diameter stenosis ≥50% in vessels ≥1.5 mm was scored. In ERACI IV registry we used a revascularization strategy during PCI where operators were advised to only treat lesions≥than 70% in a≥2.0 mm reference vessel; therefore, no intermediate lesions should be treated, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm was discouraged as well. If we recalculated SS using the above-mentioned operators' advices all intermediate lesions were not scored, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm were excluded for the analysis, including bifurcations, trifurcations and chronic total occlusions; after this new scoring, the original SS dropped significantly which is in accordance with the goal of complete functional revascularization strategy of the ERACI IV study and the low one year adverse events of such study. In conclusion, if we performed an SS scoring, only severe stenosis in vessels with a reference diameter ≥2.0 mm would allow a more rational assessment of coronary anatomy, and the use of a more conservative PCI strategy.
In languages with flexible constituent order (so-called free word order languages), available orders are used to encode given/new distinctions; they therefore differ not only syntactically, but also in their context requirements. In Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading task, we compared Russian S V IO DO (canonical), DO S V IO and DO IO V S constructions in appropriate vs. inappropriate contexts (those that violated their context requirements). The context factor was significant, while the syntax factor was not. The less pronounced context effect evidenced in previous studies (e.g., Kaiser and Trueswell in Cognitioin 94:113-147, 2004) might be due to the use of shorter target sentences and less extensive contexts. We also demonstrated that the slow-down starts at the first contextually inappropriate constituent, which shows that the information about context requirements is taken into account immediately, but that it develops faster on preverbal subjects and postverbal indirect objects (occupying their canonical positions) than on preverbal indirect objects (occupying a noncanonical position, or scrambled). In Experiment 2, these findings were replicated for IO S V DO and IO DO V S orders. S V IO DO orders with a continuation were used to show that there is no additional effect of inappropriate context at the end of the sentence.
Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Özlem; Szolovits, Peter
Research on extracting biomedical relations has received growing attention recently, with numerous biological and clinical applications including those in pharmacogenomics, clinical trial screening and adverse drug reaction detection. The ability to accurately capture both semantic and syntactic structures in text expressing these relations becomes increasingly critical to enable deep understanding of scientific papers and clinical narratives. Shared task challenges have been organized by both bioinformatics and clinical informatics communities to assess and advance the state-of-the-art research. Significant progress has been made in algorithm development and resource construction. In particular, graph-based approaches bridge semantics and syntax, often achieving the best performance in shared tasks. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical relation extraction continue to pose interesting challenges and present opportunities for great improvement and fruitful research. In this article, we place biomedical relation extraction against the backdrop of its versatile applications, present a gentle introduction to its general pipeline and shared resources, review the current state-of-the-art in methodology advancement, discuss limitations and point out several promising future directions.
Brod, Garvin; Opitz, Bertram
The possible transfer of musical expertise to the acquisition of syntactical structures in first and second language has emerged recently as an intriguing topic in the research of cognitive processes. However, it is unlikely that the benefits of musical training extend equally to the acquisition of all syntactical structures. As cognitive transfer presumably requires overlapping processing components and brain regions involved in these processing components, one can surmise that transfer between musical ability and syntax acquisition would be limited to structural elements that are shared between the two. We propose that musical expertise transfers only to the processing of recursive long-distance dependencies inherent in hierarchical syntactic structures. In this study, we taught fifty-six participants with widely varying degrees of musical expertise the artificial language BROCANTO, which allows the direct comparison of long-distance and local dependencies. We found that the quantity of musical training (measured in accumulated hours of practice and instruction) explained unique variance in performance in the long-distance dependency condition only. These data suggest that musical training facilitates the acquisition specifically of hierarchical syntactic structures.
Hara, Hironori; Aoki, Jiro; Tanabe, Kengo; Nishi, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Nakajima, Yoshifumi; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Nakashima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takuya; Asami, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mika; Yoshida, Eri; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro
The SYNTAX score stratifies risk among drug-eluting stent-treated patients and is based on lesion characteristics alone. The Clinical SYNTAX Score (CSS) combines the SYNTAX score with age, ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance. We assessed its ability to stratify long-term outcomes in sirolimus-eluting stents (SES)-treated patients. Between August 2004 and March 2005, 249 patients were treated with SES. Clinical follow-up was evaluated at more than 5 years. The CSS was available for 206 patients. More than 5-year clinical follow-up data (mean 2114 ± 107 days) and CSS (range 1-322, mean 35.3 ± 49.9, median 17.5) were available for 201 patients. We divided these scores into tertiles: CSS-LOW ≤ 9.5, 9.5 < CSS-MID ≤ 28, and CSS-HIGH > 28. CSS-HIGH was associated with a higher death rate (CSS-LOW 9.0 %, CSS-MID 11.9 %, CSS-HIGH 41.8 %; log-rank p < 0.001) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (CSS-LOW 29.8 %, CSS-MID 35.8 %, CSS-HIGH 61.2 %; log-rank p = 0.004). Independent predictors for death were hemodialysis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.82; p < 0.001], age (HR 1.67; p = 0.003), ejection fraction (HR 0.98, p = 0.012) and CSS (HR 1.73, p = 0.028), and those for MACE were hemodialysis (HR 2.53, p = 0.002) and CSS (HR 1.40, p = 0.028). Areas under the curve for the SYNTAX score and CSS for death were 0.60 and 0.78 (p < 0.001), whereas those for MACE were 0.58 and 0.68 (p < 0.001), respectively. The CSS predicts long-term outcomes among SES-treated patients better than the SYNTAX score.
Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L
Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.
Scherzer, B P; Charbonneau, S; Solomon, C R; Lepore, F
Abstract abilities were studied in a sample of 34 individuals with severe TBI and a control group. The results indicate that TBI interferes with performance on tests requiring individuals to process information into new categories. There appears to be a dissociation between verbal abstract abilities and visual-perceptual abstract abilities. There is evidence that Goldstein and Sheerer's  postulate of a general 'abstract attitude' was at least partially correct. This attitude does not appear to be related to a general verbal ideational process, as dysphasic subjects were only deficient on a purely verbal abstract task.
SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and
Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D
For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.
Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald
This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.
Gambescia, Stephen F
The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.
Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara
Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.
Hegde, Madhav; Rajendran, Ravindran
Objectives: To study the conventional coronary angiogram ( CA) findings in patients with high coronary calcium on multidetector computed tomogram. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with coronary calcium high enough in its extent and location to interfere with the interpretation of a contrast-filled coronary artery for a significant lesion were studied with conventional CA. Framingham risk score (FRS), computed tomography (CT) coronary calcium score (CCS), and SYNTAX score (SS) from the CA were calculated by separate investigators who were blinded to other scores. Effectively, 250 coronary arteries (left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery and posterior descending artery in each subject) with calcium scores were studied for lesions on CA. Results: Thirty-five subjects had high FRS, 10 had intermediate FRS, and 5 had low FRS. Eight subjects of 25 (32%) with CCS between 350 and 1000 had no significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Overall, the CCS and the SS had a strong agreement with each other (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) that persisted in those with very high scores >1000 (r = 0.55, P < 0.01, n = 30), but only a nonsignificant weak correlation with scores between 350 and 1000 (r = 0.1, P = 0.62, n = 20). Individual vessel calcium scores correlated strongly for the presence of any lesion (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) in the same artery but only weakly for a significant lesion (r = 0.29, P = 0.05). Conclusion: High CT CCS in this cohort of intermediate to high (Framingham score) risk patients correlated strongly with the subject's global burden of the CAD as derived by the SS, more so for subjects with very high scores. Similarly, CCS correlated strongly with the presence of any lesion but only weakly for a significant stenosis; also, about one-third of patients with CCS between 350 and 1000 may not have significant disease on conventional CA. PMID:28028450
Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R. O.
Some of the highest and most localized rates of lithospheric deformation in the world are observed at the transition between adjacent plate boundary subduction segments (syntaxes). The initiating perturbation of this deformation has long been attributed to vigorous, climate driven, erosional processes as observed at Nanga Parbat and Namche Barwa in the Himalaya and at Mt. St. Elias in Alaska. However, an erosion-dominated mechanism ignores the 3D geometry of curved subducting plates and changes in paleoclimate. Here we present an alternative explanation for rapid exhumation at these locations based on the 3D thermo-mechanical evolution of collisions between plates with nonplanar geometries. A set of numerical solutions and thermochronometer observations are presented for the interaction between a rigid indenter between subduction segments with an overriding viscous material. The model setup is intentionally simplified to identify how the 3D geometry of a subducting plate influences upper plate deformation, and therefore omits many of the complexities of collision interfaces, such as the transfer of mass between the downgoing and overriding plates. Temperatures are calculated using the 3D advection diffusion equation with radiogenic heat production and shear heating. The thermal and Stokes flow solutions are fully coupled and evolve throughout the simulation. Model predicted cooling ages are compared to observed cooling ages from published bedrock and detrital thermochronometer studies by calculating cooling rate dependent thermochronometer ages. Comparison of model predictions with existing thermochronometer data reproduces the defining characteristics of these mountains such as a localized "bulls-eye" pattern of rapid exhumation and young cooling ages above the rigid indenter between subduction segments. These results demonstrate a 'bottom up' tectonic rather than 'top down' erosional initiation of feedbacks between erosion and tectonic deformation. While the role
Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric
It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental “syntax.” Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between “language syntax” and “music syntax” can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology (“phonological syntax”), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called “syntax” can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals. PMID:26191034
Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara
Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833
Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth
Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.
Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur
A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for
Song, Ke; Li, Manchun; Shao, Yixi; Liu, Yongxue
Studies on economic geography assume that the space accessibility, which means the connectivity of one location with the others, can be considered as the crucial factor determining the land price in case that we can not take account of all factors. Space syntax was widely developed to study the accessibility of urban system recently. The traditional lines-based space syntax theory is not so in reason that every single point along each line has the same syntactical attributes, so it is more logical to use characteristic points to represent the urban system instead. This paper tries to analyze the space accessibility of urban system with point-based space syntax, and then find the inherent relationship between space accessibility and urban land price. The approach of this paper was to get the sample points of land price, calculate the syntactical variables of the sample points depend on interpolation with characteristic points, and find the relationship between space accessibility and urban land price from correlation analysis. The test area is Luqiao, Zhejiang Province, a developed area close to the East Sea of China. The result showed that the total integration and land price had rather strong correlation. It can be concluded that the space accessibility is one of the fatal factor influencing the urban land price, and the integration is the direct variable to describe it. However, more issues have to be discussed: the definition of characteristic points was not so clear and some preferences were factitious, etc. They need to be implemented in the wider context of accessibility covering both geographic and geometric elements through further researches.
Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)
This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.
Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.
The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.
Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…
Miller, Lorna M., Ed.
The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…
Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)
Intended for evaluators--whether trainers, psychologists, management consultants or professors--this bibliography samples findings in management training evaluation between 1953 and 1975. It contains 28 abstracts of representative articles from journals in applied psychology and personnel management. Each abstract is a one-half to one-page…
Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek
This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…
Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby
Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.
Liddy, Elizabeth D.
An investigation was undertaken into the possibility of automatically detecting how concepts exist in relation to each other in abstracts, a text-type commonly used in free-text retrieval. The end goal of this research is to capture these relationships in structured representations of abstracts' contents so that users can require not only that the…
Hampton, James A
This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660
Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.
The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…
Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore
We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.
Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985
This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…
To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)
Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Demonet, Jean-François; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine
Declarative memory is a long-term store for facts, concepts and words. Procedural memory subserves the learning and control of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, including the mental grammar. In this study, we report a single-case study of a mild aphasic patient who showed procedural deficits in the presence of preserved declarative memory abilities. We administered several experiments to explore rule application in morphology, syntax and number processing. Results partly support the differentiation between declarative and procedural memory. Moreover, the patient's performance varied according to the domain in which rules were to be applied, which underlines the need for more fine-grained distinctions in cognition between procedural rules.
Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian
Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.
Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.
The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962
Gietzelt, Matthias; Goltz, Ursula; Grunwald, Daniel; Lochau, Malte; Marschollek, Michael; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik
Patient empowerment might be one key to reduce the pressure on health care systems challenged by the expected demographic changes. Knowledge based systems can, in combination with automated sensor measurements, improve the patients' ability to review their state of health and make informed decisions. The Arden Syntax as a standardized language to represent medical knowledge can be used to express the corresponding decision rules. In this paper we introduce ARDEN2BYTECODE, a newly developed open source compiler for the Arden Syntax. ARDEN2BYTECODE runs on Java Virtual Machines (JVM) and translates Arden Syntax directly to Java Bytecode (JBC) executable on JVMs. ARDEN2BYTECODE easily integrates into service oriented architectures, like the Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) platform. Apart from an evaluation of compilation performance and execution times, ARDEN2BYTECODE was integrated into an existing knowledge supported exercise training system and recorded training sessions have been used to check the implementation.
Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie
Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…
Falk, Joy Wollin
The purpose of this investigation was to examine syntax comprehension by poor and average prereaders in first grade and poor and average readers in second grade, to determine whether a relationship exists between reading ability or reading readiness and comprehension of syntax. Subjects were 55 first-grade children and 56 second-grade children of…
Kato, Shingo; Saito, Naka; Kirigaya, Hidekuni; Gyotoku, Daiki; Iinuma, Naoki; Kusakawa, Yuka; Iguchi, Kohei; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Futaki, Masaaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Taguri, Masataka; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi
The prognostic significance of the SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and cardiac surgery) score has recently been demonstrated in patients with stable multivessel or left main coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study determines whether adding the SYNTAX score to Framingham risk score (FRS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and presence of myocardial infarction (MI) by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging can improve the risk stratification in patients with stable CAD. We calculated the SYNTAX score in 161 patients with stable CAD (mean age: 66 ± 10 years old). During a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, 56 (35 %) of 161 patients developed cardiovascular events defined as cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, cerebral infarction, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization due to heart failure and revascularization. Multivariate Cox regression analysis selected triglycerides [hazard ratio (HR): 1.005 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.008), p < 0.008], presence of LGE [HR: 6.329 (95 % CI: 2.662-15.05), p < 0.001] and the SYNTAX score [HR: 1.085 (95 % CI: 1.044-1.127), p < 0.001] as risk factors for future cardiovascular events. Adding the SYNTAX score to FRS, EF and LGE significantly improved the net reclassification index (NRI) [40.4 % (95 % CI: 18.1-54.8 %), p < 0.05] with an increase in C-statistics of 0.089 (from 0.707 to 0.796). An increase in C-statistics and significant improvement of NRI showed that adding the SYNTAX score to the FRS, LVEF and LGE incrementally improved risk stratification in patient with stable CAD.
Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615
Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao
Purpose The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Methods Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD. Participants read a passage aloud two times. Utterance length, location of breath pauses relative to punctuation and syntax, and number of disfluencies and mazes were measured. Results Older adults produced shorter utterances, a smaller percentage of breaths at major boundaries, and a greater percentage of breaths at minor boundaries than young adults, but there was no significant difference between older adults and individuals with PD on these measures. Individuals with PD took a greater percentage of breaths at locations unrelated to a syntactic boundary than control participants. Individuals with PD produced more mazes than control participants. Breaths were significantly correlated with punctuation for all groups. Conclusions Changes in breath pausing patterns in older adults are likely due to changes in respiratory physiology. However, in individuals with PD, such changes appear to result from a combination of changes to respiratory physiology and cognition. PMID:22846880
This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.
When authors of empirical science articles write abstracts, they employ a wide variety of distinct linguistic operations which interact to condense and rephrase a subset of sentences from the source text. An on-going comparison of biological and biomedical journal articles with their author-written abstracts is providing a basis for a more linguistically detailed model of abstract derivation using syntactic representations of selected source sentences. The description makes use of rich dictionary information to formulate paraphrasing rules of differing degrees of generality, including some which are sublanguage-specific, and others which appear valid in several languages when formulated using "lexical functions" to express important semantic relationships between lexical items. Some paraphrase operations may use both lexical functions and rhetorical relations between sentences to reformulate larger chunks of text in a concise abstract sentence. The descriptive framework is computable and utilizes existing linguistic resources.
Chemical and Engineering News, 1977
Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)
Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith
When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.
Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)
Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.
Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)
Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K
Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.
Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong
Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.
Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.
We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008
Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH
Information Technology Division (ITD), one of the largest research and development collectives at the Naval Research Laboratory. The abstracts are organized into sections that represent the six branches with ITD: the Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Communications Systems, the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems, Transmission Technology, Advanced Information Technology , and the Center for Computational Science. Within each section, a list of branch papers published in 1993 and 1994 has also been included; abstracts
Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.
Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.
linguistics , 09 02 dictionary, features, lexical semantics, lexicon, natural language. subcategorization, syntax, text generation 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on...Christian Matthiessen, who has done his best to educate me in a number of areas of general linguistics and text generation where I am deficient. Any...lexical representation in linguistic theory is not just an artifact of notational differences; it in turn stems at least partly from the fact that the
Neuroscience has greatly improved our understanding of the brain basis of abstract lexical and semantic processes. The neuronal devices underlying words and concepts are distributed neuronal assemblies reaching into sensory and motor systems of the cortex and, at the cognitive level, information binding in such widely dispersed circuits is…
Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.; McDonnel, Samantha J.
Two experiments examined English speakers' choices of count or mass compatible frames for nouns varying in imageability (concrete, abstract) and noun class (count, mass). Pairing preferences with equative ("much/many") and non-equative ("less/fewer") constructions were compared for groups of teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Deviations…
Slabakova, Roumyana; Kempchinsky, Paula; Rothman, Jason
This experimental study tests the Interface Hypothesis by looking into processes at the syntax-discourse interface, teasing apart acquisition of syntactic, semantic and discourse knowledge. Adopting Lopez's (2009) pragmatic features [[plus or minus]a(naphor)] and [[plus or minus]c(ontrast)], which in combination account for the constructions of…
Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.
This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…
The current study was carried out to compare the skills of understanding complex syntax at children attending to preschool education institutions. In the current study, relational screening model, a model providing to determine the current study, was used. The working group of the study was made up of 224 children at the age of 4-5 attending to a…
Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.
This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…
Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.
This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…
Saktanli, S. Cem
This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…
Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik
on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.
When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.
Grant, C. Stern; Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.
One year after its initial release the ADS Abstract Service has become quite widely used. More than 1000 different people use it per month, making about 20,000 queries and obtaining a couple of hundred thousand pieces of bibliographic information. In February a WWW connection was released, it has been heavily used. The collaboration with SIMBAD, released in January, allows one to make complex queries about work on particular objects. For example one may search for all papers which SIMBAD says are about M87, and which contain the words ``globular cluster'' in the abstract, thus getting the 65 papers on the M87 globular cluster system. One can also look for papers which have the words ``M87 globular clusters'' in the abstract, but are not listed in SIMBAD; this obtains another 19 papers, mostly conference procedings, about the M87 globular cluster system. The figure shows the list of non-SIMBAD papers.
Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C
This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children's language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child's own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at age 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the 2 groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the 2 groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive.
Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.
This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input––talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized––in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children’s language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child’s own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the two groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756
Krisanda, Joseph M.
The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.
Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.
Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.
Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.
This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.
Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Perez-Rey, David; Bucur, Anca; Claerhout, Brecht; Alonso-Calvo, Raul
Advances in the use of omic data and other biomarkers are increasing the number of variables in clinical research. Additional data have stratified the population of patients and require that current studies be performed among multiple institutions. Semantic interoperability and standardized data representation are a crucial task in the management of modern clinical trials. In the past few years, different efforts have focused on integrating biomedical information. Due to the complexity of this domain and the specific requirements of clinical research, the majority of data integration tasks are still performed manually. This paper presents a semantic normalization process and a query abstraction mechanism to facilitate data integration and retrieval. A process based on well-established standards from the biomedical domain and the latest semantic web technologies has been developed. Methods proposed in this paper have been tested within the EURECA EU research project, where clinical scenarios require the extraction of semantic knowledge from biomedical vocabularies. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel method to abstract from the data model and query syntax. The proposed approach has been compared with other initiatives in the field by storing the same dataset with each of those solutions. Results show an extended functionality and query capabilities at the cost of slightly worse performance in query execution. Implementations in real settings have shown that following this approach, usable interfaces can be developed to exploit clinical trial data outcomes.
This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.
This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.
This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.
This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.
Conti, D. M.
(Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.
Warrington, Gregory S.
We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)
Grant, Lyle K.
In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…
Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher
This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.
Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 62 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; computer facilities; information analysis; linguistics analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical technigues; systems programming;…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.
Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…
(Abstract only) I will present the evidence and discovery stories of three cataclysmic variables who appear to be members of the Z Cam class of dwarf novae. One discovered by a lone visual observer and his unwavering patience and persistence, one through the directed effort of the ongoing Z CamPaign and one via survey data from the Gaia satellite.
Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.
Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)
Littman, Richard A.
R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…
Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.
This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…
Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen
This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…
Cooper, Anna Grossman
Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…
The author of this article is continually trying to come up with interesting ways for beginning art students to put color theory into practice. This article describes a project that integrates new learning about color schemes with previously learned concepts such as observational contour drawing and abstraction and converting two-dimensional shape…
Robertson, Craig A.
This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts."…
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)