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Sample records for abstract syntax notation

  1. An implementation and analysis of the Abstract Syntax Notation One and the basic encoding rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively solve the problem of data transfer across incompatible host environments are presented, and a compiler that was built to automate their use is described. Experiences with this compiler are also discussed which provide a quantitative analysis of the performance costs associated with the application of these standards. An evaluation is offered as to how well suited ASN.1 and BER are in solving the common data representation problem.

  2. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  3. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  4. Syntax

    PubMed Central

    Adger, David

    2015-01-01

    Syntax is the cognitive capacity of human beings that allows us to connect linguistic meaning with linguistic form. The study of syntax is a huge field that has generated a great deal of empirical and theoretical work over the decades. This article outlines why understanding our syntactic capacity is important to cognitive science in general and why the data of syntactic research is to be taken seriously. It then provides an overview of a number of broad findings about the character of the syntax of human language, including evidence for abstract constituent structure, core properties of constituents, the importance of functional categories, the link between syntactic structure and meaning, and the range of types of syntactic dependencies, including dependencies of form, dependencies of position, and dependencies that create new meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2015, 6:131–147. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1332 PMID:25815105

  5. Harder Words: Learning Abstract Verbs with Opaque Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Misha; Estigarribia, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Highly abstract predicates (e.g. "think") present a number of difficulties for language learners (Gleitman et al., 2005). A partial solution to learning these verbs is that learners exploit regularities in the syntactic frames in which these verbs occur. While agreeing with this general approach to learning verbs, we caution that this…

  6. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  7. The syntax of DRAGOON: Evaluation and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1992-01-01

    Several different ways to add linguistic support for object-oriented programming to the Ada programming language have been proposed and developed in recent years. The Distributable Reusable Ada Generated from an Object-Oriented Notation (DRAGOON) language is one such Ada extension. The DRAGOON syntax is described for classes, objects, and inheritance, and the syntax is evaluated against the following five criteria: readability, writeability, lack of ambiguity, ease of translation, and consistency with existing Ada syntax. The evaluation reveals several deficiencies in the notation. A revised syntax that corrects these deficiencies is proposed.

  8. SMILES (SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND LINE ENTRY SYSTEM): A LINE NOTATION AND COMPUTERIZED INTERPRETER FOR CHEMICAL STRUCTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A line notation syntax and software interpreter for specifying chemical structures on small and large computers is presented. The Simplified Molecular Identification and Line Entry System, SMILES, contains the advantages of line notations for specifying structures but avoids the ...

  9. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  10. Dyslexia and Musical Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granschow, Lenore; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Case studies are presented of musicians with dyslexia who experienced difficulties in the study of musical notation. The studies focus on their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. Suggestions are offered on using multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. (Author/JDD)

  11. Dyslexia and musical notation.

    PubMed

    Ganschow, L; Lloyd-Jones, J; Miles, T R

    1994-01-01

    The authors examine the difficulties experienced by dyslexic musicians in the formalized study of music, in particular, musical notation. They describe case studies from the literature and from personal interviews they conducted with musicians about their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. The authors make instructional suggestions for educators and musicians with dyslexia on how to use multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. PMID:24234052

  12. The Syntax of Hungarian. Cambridge Syntax Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, Katalin E.

    This book presents a guide to syntax in the Hungarian language. It is intended for students and researchers working on syntax and those interested in Finno-Ugric languages. It describes the key grammatical features of the language, focusing on the phenomena that have proven to be theoretically the most relevant and that have attracted the most…

  13. A Universal Syntax Checker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, John Francis, III

    A universal syntax checker was constructed to be utilized with a text editor in a time-sharing environment. This syntax checker is a top-down, left-right, slow-back parser that will provide, when supplied the syntax of any language in the Backus-normal form, a syntax check for any string written in a language described. The procedure is capable of…

  14. Abstract numeric relations and the visual structure of algebra.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition, it has often been assumed that skilled users of these formalisms treat situations in terms of semantic properties encoded in an abstract syntax that governs the use of notation without particular regard to the details of the physical structure of the equation itself (Anderson, 2005; Hegarty, Mayer, & Monk, 1995). We explore how the notational structure of verbal descriptions or algebraic equations (e.g., the spatial proximity of certain words or the visual alignment of numbers and symbols in an equation) plays a role in the process of interpreting or constructing symbolic equations. We propose in particular that construction processes involve an alignment of notational structures across representation systems, biasing reasoners toward the selection of formal notations that maintain the visuospatial structure of source representations. For example, in the statement "There are 5 elephants for every 3 rhinoceroses," the spatial proximity of 5 and elephants and 3 and rhinoceroses will bias reasoners to write the incorrect expression 5E = 3R, because that expression maintains the spatial relationships encoded in the source representation. In 3 experiments, participants constructed equations with given structure, based on story problems with a variety of phrasings. We demonstrate how the notational alignment approach accounts naturally for a variety of previously reported phenomena in equation construction and successfully predicts error patterns that are not accounted for by prior explanations, such as the left to right transcription heuristic. PMID:24820674

  15. The Mental Representation of Music Notation: Notational Audiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Warren; Kessler, Yoav; Rubinstein, Bat-Sheva; Ginsborg, Jane; Henik, Avishai

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the mental representation of music notation. Notational audiation is the ability to internally "hear" the music one is reading before physically hearing it performed on an instrument. In earlier studies, the authors claimed that this process engages music imagery contingent on subvocal silent singing. This study refines the…

  16. Le fonctionnalisme en syntaxe (Functionalism in Syntax)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, Frederic

    1977-01-01

    A definition of the positive contributions of functionalism in the polemic against phonetics and traditional, generative and transformational grammars. Three themes are discussed: synchronic analysis, the dynamics of the development of linguistics, and the role of syntax in language facts. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  17. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Symmetry Notations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Compares Schoenflies and Hermann-Mauguin notations of symmetry. Although the former (used by spectroscopists) and latter (used by crystallographers) both describe the same symmetry, there are distinct differences in the manner of description which may lead to confusion in correlating the two notations. (Author/JN)

  18. Wiswesser Line Notation: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Wiswesser Line Notation, a system for representing structural formulas by a single line of common symbols (numerals, capital letters, and three punctuation marks), is gaining acceptance as an effective indexing tool. The resulting notations, denoting specific structural fragments of a molecule, can be retrieved by humans or computer. (Author/JN)

  19. Memory for syntax despite amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Bock, Kathryn; Wilson, Michael P.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Syntactic persistence is a tendency for speakers to reproduce sentence structures independently of accompanying meanings, words, or sounds. The memory mechanisms behind syntactic persistence are not fully understood. Though some properties of syntactic persistence suggest a role for procedural memory, current evidence suggests that procedural memory (unlike declarative memory) does not maintain the abstract, relational features that are inherent to syntactic structures. To evaluate the contribution of procedural memory to syntactic persistence, patients with anterograde amnesia and matched control speakers (a) reproduced prime sentences with different syntactic structures; (b) reproduced 0, 1, 6, or 10 neutral sentences; (c) described pictures that elicited the primed structures spontaneously; and (d) made recognition judgments for the prime sentences. Amnesic and control speakers showed significant and equivalent syntactic persistence, despite the amnesic speakers’ profoundly impaired recognition memory for primes. Syntax is thus maintained by procedural memory mechanisms, revealing that procedural memory is capable of supporting abstract, relational knowledge. PMID:18947361

  20. Syntax and Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, John

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide a basic discussion of the general nature of syntactic complexity. The monograph describes how the rules of language produce syntax and raises some questions about reading difficulty. The contents include: "Arrangement," which discusses 12 basic sentence types, noun determiners, verb expansions, negative…

  1. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  2. Structural features of algebraic quantum notations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The formalism of quantum mechanics includes a rich collection of representations for describing quantum systems, including functions, graphs, matrices, histograms of probabilities, and Dirac notation. The varied features of these representations affect how computations are performed. For example, identifying probabilities of measurement outcomes for a state described in Dirac notation may involve identifying expansion coefficients by inspection, but if the state is described as a function, identifying those expansion coefficients often involves performing integrals. In this study, we focus on three notational systems: Dirac notation, algebraic wave-function notation, and matrix notation. These quantum notations must include information about basis states and their associated complex probability amplitudes. In this theory paper, we identify four structural features of quantum notations, which we term individuation, degree of externalization, compactness, and symbolic support for computational rules. We illustrate how student reasoning interacts with these structural features with episodes from interviews with advanced undergraduate physics majors reasoning about a superposition state of an infinite square well system. We find evidence of the students coordinating different notations through the use of Dirac notation, using an expression in Dirac notation to guide their work in another notation. These uses are supported by the high degree of individuation, compactness, and symbolic support for computation and the moderate degree of externalization provided by Dirac notation.

  3. 39 CFR 6.7 - Notation voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notation voting. 6.7 Section 6.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.7 Notation voting. (a) General. Notation voting consists of the circulation of written memoranda...

  4. 39 CFR 6.7 - Notation voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notation voting. 6.7 Section 6.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.7 Notation voting. (a) General. Notation voting consists of the circulation of written memoranda...

  5. 39 CFR 6.7 - Notation voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notation voting. 6.7 Section 6.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.7 Notation voting. (a) General. Notation voting consists of the circulation of written memoranda...

  6. Language evolution: syntax before phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

  7. Morphologie et syntaxe du francais (French Morphology and Syntax)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourdot, Marc

    1977-01-01

    A study of the relationship of morphology and syntax to the communication process from the functionalist viewpoint. Topics considered are: morphological processes, that is the distinction between functional and contingent language facts; the degree of necessity of syntax; the difference between functionalism and traditional grammar. (Text is in…

  8. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  9. Music-Notation Searching and Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Donald

    Almost all work on music information retrieval to date has concentrated on music in the audio and event (normally MIDI) domains. However, music in the form of notation, especially Conventional Music Notation (CMN), is of much interest to musically trained persons, both amateurs and professionals, and searching CMN has great value for digital music…

  10. The Moon System Adapted for Musical Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A means is presented for using William Moon's embossed symbols to represent musical notation for blind individuals, as an alternative to braille notation. The proposed system includes pitch symbols, octave indicators, duration symbols, accidentals, key signatures, rests, stress symbols, ornaments, and other symbols. (Author/JDD)

  11. Structured programming: Principles, notation, procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JOST

    1978-01-01

    Structured programs are best represented using a notation which gives a clear representation of the block encapsulation. In this report, a set of symbols which can be used until binding directives are republished is suggested. Structured programming also allows a new method of procedure for design and testing. Programs can be designed top down, that is, they can start at the highest program plane and can penetrate to the lowest plane by step-wise refinements. The testing methodology also is adapted to this procedure. First, the highest program plane is tested, and the programs which are not yet finished in the next lower plane are represented by so-called dummies. They are gradually replaced by the real programs.

  12. Engineered DNA sequence syntax inspector.

    PubMed

    Hsiau, Timothy Hwei-Chung; Anderson, J Christopher

    2014-02-21

    DNAs encoding polypeptides often contain design errors that cause experiments to prematurely fail. One class of design errors is incorrect or missing elements in the DNA, here termed syntax errors. We have identified three major causes of syntax errors: point mutations from sequencing or manual data entry, gene structure misannotation, and unintended open reading frames (ORFs). The Engineered DNA Sequence Syntax Inspector (EDSSI) is an online bioinformatics pipeline that checks for syntax errors through three steps. First, ORF prediction in input DNA sequences is done by GeneMark; next, homologous sequences are retrieved by BLAST, and finally, syntax errors in the protein sequence are predicted by using the SIFT algorithm. We show that the EDSSI is able to identify previously published examples of syntactical errors and also show that our indel addition to the SIFT program is 97% accurate on a test set of Escherichia coli proteins. The EDSSI is available at http://andersonlab.qb3.berkeley.edu/Software/EDSSI/ . PMID:24364864

  13. Aztec arithmetic: positional notation and area calculation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H R; Williams, B J

    1980-10-31

    Texcocan-Aztec peoples in the Valley of Mexico used both picture symbols and lines and dots for numerical notation. Decipherment and analysis of mid-16th-century native pictorial land documents from the Texcocan region indicate that the line-and-dot system incorporated a symbol for zero and used position to ascribe values. Positional line-and-dot notation was used to record areas of agricultural fields, and analysis of the documentary data suggests that areas were calculated arithmetically. These findings demonstrate that neither positional notation nor the zero were unique to the Maya area, and they imply an equally sophisticated mathematical development among the Aztecs. PMID:17841389

  14. Anomalous transfer of syntax between languages.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Evans, Awel; Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume; Jones, Manon W

    2014-06-11

    Each human language possesses a set of distinctive syntactic rules. Here, we show that balanced Welsh-English bilinguals reading in English unconsciously apply a morphosyntactic rule that only exists in Welsh. The Welsh soft mutation rule determines whether the initial consonant of a noun changes based on the grammatical context (e.g., the feminine noun cath--"cat" mutates into gath in the phrase y gath--"the cat"). Using event-related brain potentials, we establish that English nouns artificially mutated according to the Welsh mutation rule (e.g., "goncert" instead of "concert") require significantly less processing effort than the same nouns implicitly violating Welsh syntax. Crucially, this effect is found whether or not the mutation affects the same initial consonant in English and Welsh, showing that Welsh syntax is applied to English regardless of phonological overlap between the two languages. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that abstract syntactic rules transfer anomalously from one language to the other, even when such rules exist only in one language. PMID:24920636

  15. Developing and Measuring Mature Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Straehley, Marcia

    Students' abilities in manipulation and control of syntax may be increased through a sequence of instruction involving the use of exercises termed "Non-Sentence Practice,""Nonsense-Sentences Practice," and "Syntactic Patterning Practice." The final step in the instruction sequence is to make the syntactic exercises pertinent to students' writing…

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO HINDI SYNTAX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KACHRU, YAMUNA

    AN INTRODUCTION TO HINDI SYNTAX IS PRESENTED FOR TEACHING THE SENTENCE STRUCTURE OF HINDI TO NON-HINDI SPEAKING LEARNERS OF THE LANGUAGE. THE ANALYSIS OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE HINDI SENTENCE AND OF SENTENCE TYPES WAS MADE BY USE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMATICAL THEORY. THE MANUAL IS INTENDED FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS WHO ARE ACQUAINTED…

  17. Compositional Strategies and Musical Creativity When Composing with Staff Notations versus Graphic Notations among Korean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auh, Myung-Sook; Walker, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Examines compositional strategies and musical creativity of 38 seventh-grade students in junior high schools in Seoul (Korea) when composing with staff notations (traditional group) versus graphic notations (non-traditional group). Finds that musical creativity levels were judged to be significantly higher in the non-traditional compositions. (CMK)

  18. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Tyagi, Vaibhav; Singh, Nandini C.

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, twenty four adult binumerates, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral Intra-parietal Sulcus (IPS), Inferior and Mid Frontal Gyri, Fusiform Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (FDR p < 0.005). Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Nagari to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of left IPS in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight the role of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates. PMID:24904366

  19. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  20. Structural Features of Algebraic Quantum Notations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The formalism of quantum mechanics includes a rich collection of representations for describing quantum systems, including functions, graphs, matrices, histograms of probabilities, and Dirac notation. The varied features of these representations affect how computations are performed. For example, identifying probabilities of measurement outcomes…

  1. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  2. Understanding Algebraic Notation from the Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzel, Margaret Tatem

    1999-01-01

    Explores how students interpret algebraic notation and what teachers can do to support appropriate interpretations. Presents two research-based strategies and concludes that in the face of reform and technological advances, finding a definition for symbol sense takes on added significance. Contains 22 references. (ASK)

  3. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score. PMID:25595855

  4. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  9. Sound Foundations: Organic Approaches to Learning Notation in Beginning Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2016-01-01

    By starting with a foundation of sound before sight, we can help our students learn notation organically in a way that honors the natural process. This article describes five organic approaches to learning notation in beginning band: (1) iconic notation, (2) point and play, (3) student lead-sheet, (4) modeling, and (5) kid dictation. While…

  10. How Abstract is a Young Child's Knowledge of Syntax?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Barbara A.

    1975-01-01

    Tested the comprehension of 3- and 4-year-old children with probable and improbable sentences in active and passive voice in order to evaluate the importance of semantic support for comprehension of passive sentences. (Author/SDH)

  11. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  12. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  13. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  14. Archaism and Orality in Homeric Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleps, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The paratactic and appositional nature of Homeric Greek syntax, as compared with Classical Greek syntax, is currently explained in two different ways. According to the archaism theory, originally proposed in the context of late 19th and early 20th century research into comparative-historical grammar, Homeric language preserves features of an early…

  15. Encoding individuals in language using syntax, words, and pragmatic inference.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Barner, David

    2016-09-01

    How does linguistic structure relate to how we construe reality? In many languages, countable individuals like objects are typically labeled by count nouns (e.g., two rabbits, every truck, etc.), while unindividuated masses like substances are typically labeled by mass nouns (e.g., much mud, barrel of oil, etc.) (Quine WVO. Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1960). These facts have led researchers to propose that learning mass-count syntax affects how speakers perceive objects and substances or alternatively that an understanding of this distinction-or one between individuals and nonindividuals-scaffolds the acquisition of mass and count nouns. Here, we evaluate these ideas and describe how recent developments in the literature have fundamentally changed our understanding of the mass-count distinction and how it relates to individuation. Across three sections, we show that a simple distinction between countable individuals and nonindividuals cannot provide a foundation for the mass-count distinction (e.g., because many mass nouns like furniture and luggage can denote individuals). Furthermore, we show that mass-count syntax does not shape whether items are construed as individuals or not, but instead allows speakers to select from a set of universally available meanings (e.g., because speakers of all languages quantify objects and substances similarly). We argue that a complete understanding of how mass-count syntax encodes reality requires understanding how different aspects of language-syntax, lexical roots, word meanings, and pragmatic inference-interact to encode abstract, countable individuals. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:341-353. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1396 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27306281

  16. The Role of Number Notation: Sign-Value Notation Number Processing is Easier than Place-Value.

    PubMed

    Krajcsi, Attila; Szabó, Eszter

    2012-01-01

    Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbers. However, sign-value notation might have sufficient efficiency; for example, sign-value notations were common in flourishing cultures, such as in ancient Egypt. Herein we compared artificial sign-value and place-value notations in simple numerical tasks. We found that, contrary to the dominant view, sign-value notation can be applied more easily than place-value notation for multi-power comparison and addition tasks. Our results are consistent with the popularity of sign-value notations that prevailed for centuries. To explain the notation effect, we propose a natural multi-power number representation based on the numerical representation of objects. PMID:23181035

  17. To Imagine a Verb: The Language and Syntax of Learning Outcomes Statements. Occasional Paper #24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    This essay provides language-centered principles, guidelines and tools for writing student learning outcome statements. It is focused on syntax and semantics, and takes considerable issue with both the lack of such guidance in earlier literature and specific words, phrases, tenses, voices, and abstraction in diction levels, along with ellipses and…

  18. Students' Understanding of Algebraic Notation: 11-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Mollie; Stacey, Kaye

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the cognitive and linguistic demands of learning algebra and explores students' understanding of algebraic notation. Findings indicate specific origins of misinterpretation that include intuitive assumptions and pragmatic reasoning about a new notation, analogies with familiar symbol systems, interference from new learning in…

  19. Design Languages, Notation Systems, and Instructional Technology: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…

  20. 18 CFR 3a.31 - Classification markings and special notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification markings... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification Markings and Special Notations § 3a.31 Classification markings and special notations. (a) After...

  1. Self-Invented Notation Systems Created by Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pyng-Na

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated self-invented notation systems created by young children aged four to six. The researcher showed the children how to feel various pitches and rhythms through singing, eurhythmy, instrumental playing, rhymes and music appreciation. The children were then provided with opportunities to create music notations and…

  2. Dyslexia and Learning Musical Notation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, B. S.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.; Van den Broeck, W.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of a new intervention paradigm on learning musical notation for five Dutch students with dyslexia and four typical students. Results found that the dyslexic children needed more time to learn musical notation, made more mistakes, and produced more "third transpositions." Implications for teaching are outlined.…

  3. Speechant: A Vowel Notation System to Teach English Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Reis, Jorge; Hazan, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new vowel notation system aimed at aiding the teaching of English pronunciation. This notation system, designed as an enhancement to orthographic text, was designed to use concepts borrowed from the representation of musical notes and is also linked to the acoustic characteristics of vowel sounds. Vowel timbre is…

  4. 7 CFR 27.69 - Classification review; notations on certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification review; notations on certificate. 27.69 Section 27.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... Reviews and Micronaire Determinations § 27.69 Classification review; notations on certificate. When...

  5. A Notation for Rapid Specification of Information Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Yun

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a notation for rapid specification of information visualization, which can be used as a theoretical framework of integrating various types of information visualization, and its applications at a conceptual level. The notation is devised to codify the major characteristics of data/visual structures in conventionally-used…

  6. Representing Fractions with Standard Notation: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Geoffrey B.; Taylor, Edd V.; McIntosh, Clifton; Gearhart, Maryl

    2005-01-01

    This study had two purposes: (a) to investigate the developmental relationship between students' uses of fractions notation and their understandings of part-whole relations; and (b) to produce an analysis of the role of fractions instruction in students' use of notation to represent parts of an area. Elementary students (n = 384) in 19 classes…

  7. Suggested notation conventions for rotational seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.

  8. Pedagogy of Notation: Learning Styles Using a Constructivist, Second-Language Acquisition Approach to Dance Notation Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiland, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Four undergraduate dance majors learned Motif Notation and Labanotation using a second-language acquisition, playful, constructivist approach to learning notation literacy in order to learn and dance the "Parsons Etude." Qualitative outcomes were gathered from student journals and pre- and post-tests that assessed for levels of improved…

  9. The Syntax-Semantics Interface in Distributed Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Justin Robert

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz 1993; Marantz 1997) is founded on the premise that the syntax is the only computational component of the grammar. Much research focuses on how this premise is relevant to the syntax-morphology interface in DM. In this dissertation, I examine theory-internal issues related to the syntax-semantics…

  10. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  11. Communicating Correct Syntax through Translation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastos, Perry

    1979-01-01

    Audiolingual and translation exercises are presented that were designed to correct syntax of junior high school French language students. The exercises were given to eliminate translating the present progressive and the imperfect word for word, and to develop more awareness of reflexive construction and the imperfect tense. (SW)

  12. A Congruence Approach to Syntax and Codeswitching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebba, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Argues that an adequate theory of codeswitching syntax is one that holds that the actual nature of the switching is relative not only to the language pairs, but also to other situational factors. Suggests that congruence of categories is constructed by bilinguals in a given situation with four alternative outcomes for the given candidate switch:…

  13. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  14. Some Thoughts on Visual Notation and Visual Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Robert O.

    1980-01-01

    Presents student exercises in visual notation (doodles, maps, sketches) and visual ideation sketching. A large portion of this article consists of a classroom poster explaining these two concepts. (SJL)

  15. Safety Case Notations: Alternatives for the Non-Graphically Inclined?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper presents preliminary ideas of five possible text-based notations for representing safety cases, which may be easier for non-graphically inclined people to use and understand than the currently popular graphics-based representations.

  16. Gap-minimal systems of notations and the constructible hierarchy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucian, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    If a constructibly countable ordinal alpha is a gap ordinal, then the order type of the set of index ordinals smaller than alpha is exactly alpha. The gap ordinals are the only points of discontinuity of a certain ordinal-valued function. The notion of gap minimality for well ordered systems of notations is defined, and the existence of gap-minimal systems of notations of arbitrarily large constructibly countable length is established.

  17. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton SignWriting, are described. PMID:22477294

  18. Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841

  19. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca’s area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses. PMID

  20. Functional and structural syntax networks in aging.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Daria; Brauer, Jens; Meinzer, Marcus; Fengler, Anja; Kerti, Lucia; Friederici, Angela D; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-12-01

    Language abilities are known to deteriorate in aging, possibly related to decreased functional and structural connectivity within specialized brain networks. Here, we investigated syntactic ability in healthy young and older adults using a comprehensive assessment of behavioral performance, task-independent functional (FC) and structural brain connectivity (SC). Seed-based FC originating from left pars opercularis (part of Broca's area) known to support syntactic processes was assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and SC using fractional anisotropy from diffusion weighted imaging, in the dorsally located superior longitudinal and the ventrally located uncinate fasciculi (SLF, UF) and forceps minor. Young compared to older adults exhibited superior syntactic performance and stronger FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network, which was beneficial for performance. In contrast, in older adults, FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network was reduced and did not correlate with performance; inter-hemispheric FC to right inferior frontal and angular gyri was detrimental for performance. In both groups, performance was positively correlated with inter-hemispheric SC. For intra-hemispheric SC, performance correlated with structural integrity of SLF in young adults and with integrity of UF in older adults. Our data show that reduced syntactic ability in older adults is associated with decreased FC within dedicated syntax networks. Moreover, young adults showed an association of syntactic ability with structural integrity of the dorsal tract, while older adults rely more on ventral fibers. In sum, our study provided novel insight into the relationship between connectivity and syntactic performance in young and older adults. In addition to elucidating age-related changes in syntax networks and their behavioral relevance, our results contribute to a better understanding of age-related changes in functional and structural brain

  1. Evolution of birdsong syntax by interjection communication.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Ikegami, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Animals use diverse forms of communication, from sound signals to body postures. Recent ethological studies have reported a unique syntactic communication of a songbird, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Male Bengalese finches sing complex courtship songs, which can be reconstructed by finite automata, and female Bengalese finches prefer complex songs, as opposed to monotonous or random ones. These facts suggest that the song syntaxes of male birds may have evolved as a result of sexual selection by female birds. Inspired by this hypothesis, we developed a communication model that is a system coupling different types of automaton, one for song production by males and another for song evaluation by females. We applied this model to study the evolution of syntactic animal communication in terms of the self-organization of coevolving automata. Three types of courting strategies as well as a relationship between the song syntax and female preference emerged. We argue that despite the simple communication involved, the complexity and diversity of song syntaxes can evolve via diverse female preferences. PMID:17567245

  2. The Neural Development of an Abstract Concept of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    As literate adults, we appreciate numerical values as abstract entities that can be represented by a numeral, a word, a number of lines on a scorecard, or a sequence of chimes from a clock. This abstract, notation-independent appreciation of numbers develops gradually over the first several years of life. Here, using functional magnetic resonance…

  3. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  4. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  5. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  6. Une Analyse automatique en syntaxe textuelle (An Automated Analysis of Textual Syntax). Publication K-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Jacques

    This study reports the use of automated textual analysis on a French novel. An introductory section chronicles the history of artificial intelligence, focusing on its use with natural languages, and discusses its application to textual syntax. The first chapter examines computational linguistics in greater detail, looking at its relationship to…

  7. 18 CFR 3a.31 - Classification markings and special notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification markings and special notations. 3a.31 Section 3a.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

  8. The Misuse of the Circle Notation to Represent Aromatic Rings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the confusion and erroneous conclusions that can result from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Includes nature of the problem, textbook treatment, and a possible compromise method of representation. (Author/JN)

  9. Developing Systems of Notation as a Trace of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Erik; Hackenberg, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we engage in a thought experiment about how students might notate their reasoning for composing fractions multiplicatively (taking a fraction of a fraction and determining its size in relation to the whole). In the thought experiment we differentiate between two levels of a fraction composition scheme, which have been identified in…

  10. Semantic Processing in the Production of Numerals across Notations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the processing stages required to name numerals presented in different notations. To this end, we used the semantic blocking paradigm previously used in psycholinguist studies. We found a facilitative effect of the semantic blocked context relative to the mixed context for Arabic…

  11. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District,…

  12. Guitar Scales in Music Notation and Tablature Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Petra

    This study guide was designed to help high school students learn the basic skills in classical guitar playing, technique, fingerboard knowledge, and musicianship. The introduction describes how to read the music notation that is presented in traditional music form and also in tablature diagrams showing finger positioning in the guitar neck.…

  13. 40 CFR 60.431 - Definitions and notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and notations. 60.431 Section 60.431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Graphic...

  14. Examining the Evidence: Reflection and Notation in Network Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Carol C.

    Reflection and notation in communications in the School Renewal Network, a national collegium of practitioners engaged in school reform activities, are examined in this paper. The network was designed to create an interactive knowledge base for school restructuring that would link educators in meaningful dialogue based on research and current…

  15. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  16. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  17. Izon Syntax and the English of Izon-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunrinmeta, Uriel

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the influences that the Izon language manifests in the syntax of the English of Izon (Nigerian) speakers and makes a clear distinction between the influences that result in errors and those that result in permissible local variations, which indicates that the idea of treating all variations in the syntax of Nigerian English as…

  18. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  19. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  20. Teaching Syntax in Elementary and Intermediate Russian Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Launer, Michael K.

    Most Russian courses suffer from an inadequate approach to the presentation of syntax even though continued emphasis on syntax from the beginning would help to remove the trial and error syndrome inherent in purely audiolingual methods and would channel the student's efforts to internalize and make automatic his answers in a relevant context, thus…

  1. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  2. Effect of Color-Coded Notation on Music Achievement of Elementary Instrumental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study of color-coded notation to teach music reading to instrumental students. Finds no clear evidence that color-coded notation enhances achievement on performing by memory, sight-reading, or note naming. Suggests that some students depended on the color-coding and were unable to read uncolored notation well. (DK)

  3. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  4. Dermal absorption potential of industrial chemicals: Criteria for skin notation

    SciTech Connect

    Fiserova-Bergerova, V.; Pierce, J.T.; Droz, P.O. )

    1990-01-01

    A dermal penetration rate (flux), predicted from physical properties of 132 chemicals, is suggested as an index of the dermal absorption potential of industrial chemicals. The prediction is designed for organic nonelectrolytes. Two reference values are recommended as criteria for skin notation: (1) dermal absorption potential, which relates to dermal absorption raising the dose of nonvolatile chemicals or biological levels of volatile chemicals 30% above those observed during inhalation exposure to TLV-TWA only--dermal absorption of chemicals belonging to this category should be considered when data obtained by biological monitoring are interpreted; and (2) dermal toxicity potential, which relates to dermal absorption that triples biological levels as compared with levels observed during inhalation exposure to TLV-TWA only. Chemicals belonging in this category should carry a skin notation. The toxicity criteria may not be valid for chemicals whose TLVs are based on preventing irritation and discomfort.

  5. The Astronomy Workshop: Scientific Notation and Solar System Visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Grace; Hamilton, D.; Hayes-Gehrke, M.

    2008-09-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes and by the general public. The philosophy of the site is to foster student interest in astronomy by exploiting their fascination with computers and the internet. We have expanded the "Scientific Notation” tool from simply converting decimal numbers into and out of scientific notation to adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing numbers expressed in scientific notation. Students practice these skills and when confident they may complete a quiz. In addition, there are suggestions on how instructors may use the site to encourage students to practice these basic skills. The Solar System Visualizer animates orbits of planets, moons, and rings to scale. Extrasolar planetary systems are also featured. This research was sponsored by NASA EPO grant NNG06GGF99G.

  6. The emergence of complexity in prosody and syntax

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Irit; Dachkovsky, Svetlana; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The relation between prosody and syntax is investigated here by tracing the emergence of each in a new language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language. We analyze the structure of narratives of four signers of this language: two older second generation signers, and two about 15 years younger. We find that younger signers produce prosodic cues to dependency between semantically related constituents, e.g., the two clauses of conditionals, revealing a type and degree of complexity in their language that is not frequent in that of the older pair. In these younger signers, several rhythmic and (facial) intonational cues are aligned at constituent boundaries, indicating the emergence of a grammatical system. There are no overt syntactic markers (such as complementizers) to relate clauses; prosody is the only clue. But this prosodic complexity is matched by syntactic complexity inside propositions in the younger signers, who are more likely to use pronouns as abstract grammatical markers of arguments, and to combine predicates with their arguments within in a constituent. As the prosodic means emerge for identifying constituent types and signaling dependency relations between them, the constituents themselves become increasingly complex. Finally, our study shows that the emergence of grammatical complexity is gradual. PMID:23087486

  7. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from 'ABC' (scan for danger) and 'D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from 'ABC-D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed ('D-ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  8. A Conformance Test Suite for Arden Syntax Compilers and Interpreters.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Klimek, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standardized and well-established programming language to represent medical knowledge. To test the compliance level of existing compilers and interpreters no public test suite exists. This paper presents the research to transform the specification into a set of unit tests, represented in JUnit. It further reports on the utilization of the test suite testing four different Arden Syntax processors. The presented and compared results reveal the status conformance of the tested processors. How test driven development of Arden Syntax processors can help increasing the compliance with the standard is described with two examples. In the end some considerations how an open source test suite can improve the development and distribution of the Arden Syntax are presented. PMID:27577408

  9. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from ‘ABC' (scan for danger) and ‘D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from ‘ABC–D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed (‘D–ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  10. Syntax Editing for Mark 4-A System Performance Test Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, G. N.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes the syntax editing concepts used by the Operations Sustaining Engineering Section in implementing System Performance Test software for the Mark 4-A era. The processing functions are discussed, as well as the necessary data structures and table generation macros used in implementing those functions. In addition, the procedural and software interfaces which have been developed for users of the syntax editor are described, including the forms required for establishing directive and parameter characteristics.

  11. Semantic processing in the production of numerals across notations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the processing stages required to name numerals presented in different notations. To this end, we used the semantic blocking paradigm previously used in psycholinguist studies. We found a facilitative effect of the semantic blocked context relative to the mixed context for Arabic digits and number words. However, the blocked context produced an interference effect for physical numerosity and Roman numbers. Our results provided further evidence to models suggesting that Arabic digits may be named through an asemantic route similar to that of number words, whereas a semantic route is mandatory to name physical numerosity and Roman numerals. PMID:21823811

  12. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  13. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S.; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated—linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  14. Using argument notation to engineer biological simulations with increased confidence

    PubMed Central

    Alden, Kieran; Andrews, Paul S.; Polack, Fiona A. C.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Coles, Mark C.; Timmis, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The application of computational and mathematical modelling to explore the mechanics of biological systems is becoming prevalent. To significantly impact biological research, notably in developing novel therapeutics, it is critical that the model adequately represents the captured system. Confidence in adopting in silico approaches can be improved by applying a structured argumentation approach, alongside model development and results analysis. We propose an approach based on argumentation from safety-critical systems engineering, where a system is subjected to a stringent analysis of compliance against identified criteria. We show its use in examining the biological information upon which a model is based, identifying model strengths, highlighting areas requiring additional biological experimentation and providing documentation to support model publication. We demonstrate our use of structured argumentation in the development of a model of lymphoid tissue formation, specifically Peyer's Patches. The argumentation structure is captured using Artoo (www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software/artoo), our Web-based tool for constructing fitness-for-purpose arguments, using a notation based on the safety-critical goal structuring notation. We show how argumentation helps in making the design and structured analysis of a model transparent, capturing the reasoning behind the inclusion or exclusion of each biological feature and recording assumptions, as well as pointing to evidence supporting model-derived conclusions. PMID:25589574

  15. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  16. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties. PMID:24385957

  17. Using Design Principles to Consider Representation of the Hand in Some Notation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochgesang, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread influence (e.g., Siedlecki and Bonvillian, 2000). With the emergence of newer notation systems, the field will benefit from a discussion…

  18. Linking Different Cultures by Computers: A Study of Computer-Assisted Music Notation Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Steve Shihong; Dennis, J. Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the feasibility of using computers to teach music notation systems to Chinese students, as well as to help Western educators study Chinese music and its number notation system. Topics discussed include students' learning sequences; HyperCard software; hypermedia and graphic hypertext indexing; and the…

  19. Children's Developing Numerical Notations: The Impact of Input Display, Numerical Size and Operational Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teubal, E.; Dockrell, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of children's early use of numerical notation. Children's notations for different forms of numerical input were investigated and the development of these forms is described. Eighty children, 3.0-5.8, recorded the results of a throw of a die in a game. Numerosities were represented with digits or dots on the die.…

  20. Using Graphical Notations to Assess Children's Experiencing of Simple and Complex Musical Fragments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Reybrouck, Mark; Janssens, Marjan; Van Dooren, Wim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze children's graphical notations as external representations of their experiencing when listening to simple sonic stimuli and complex musical fragments. More specifically, we assessed the impact of four factors on children's notations: age, musical background, complexity of the fragment, and most salient…

  1. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  2. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  3. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  4. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  5. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  6. 21 CFR 21.53 - Notation and disclosure of disputed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notation and disclosure of disputed records. 21.53 Section 21.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records § 21.53 Notation and disclosure...

  7. 21 CFR 21.53 - Notation and disclosure of disputed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notation and disclosure of disputed records. 21.53 Section 21.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records § 21.53 Notation and disclosure...

  8. 21 CFR 21.53 - Notation and disclosure of disputed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notation and disclosure of disputed records. 21.53 Section 21.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records § 21.53 Notation and disclosure...

  9. 21 CFR 21.53 - Notation and disclosure of disputed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notation and disclosure of disputed records. 21.53 Section 21.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records § 21.53 Notation and disclosure...

  10. 21 CFR 21.53 - Notation and disclosure of disputed records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notation and disclosure of disputed records. 21.53 Section 21.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Procedures for Requests for Amendment of Records § 21.53 Notation and disclosure...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1202-1 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. 75.1202-1 Section 75.1202-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202-1 Temporary notations, revisions, and...

  12. From Depiction to Notation: How Children Use Symbols to Represent Objects and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskritt, Michelle; Olson, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore children's understanding of external symbols by examining the relationship between children's production and comprehension of graphic notations and verbal messages. Fifty-six children between the ages of 5 and 7 years were asked to produce both notations and a spoken message relaying to their…

  13. A Symbolic Dance: The Interplay between Movement, Notation, and Mathematics on a Journey toward Solving Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of the software Grid Algebra with a mixed ability class of 21 nine-to-ten-year-old students who worked with complex formal notation involving all four arithmetic operations. Unlike many other models to support learning, Grid Algebra has formal notation ever present and allows students to "look through" that…

  14. A Proposal of a Color Music Notation System on a Single Melody for Music Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Ming-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Music teachers often encounter obstructions in teaching beginners in music reading. Conventional notational symbols require beginners to spend significant amount of time in memorizing, which discourages learning at early stage. This article proposes a newly-developed color music notation system that may improve the recognition of the staff and the…

  15. Recent Updates to the CFD General Notation System (CGNS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Wedan, Bruce; Hauser, Thomas; Poinot, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) - a general, portable, and extensible standard for the storage and retrieval of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis data has been in existence for more than a decade (Version 1.0 was released in May 1998). Both structured and unstructured CFD data are covered by the standard, and CGNS can be easily extended to cover any sort of data imaginable, while retaining backward compatibility with existing CGNS data files and software. Although originally designed for CFD, it is readily extendable to any field of computational analysis. In early 2011, CGNS Version 3.1 was released, which added significant capabilities. This paper describes these recent enhancements and highlights the continued usefulness of the CGNS methodology.

  16. Brain embodiment of syntax and grammar: discrete combinatorial mechanisms spelt out in neuronal circuits.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2010-03-01

    Neuroscience has greatly improved our understanding of the brain basis of abstract lexical and semantic processes. The neuronal devices underlying words and concepts are distributed neuronal assemblies reaching into sensory and motor systems of the cortex and, at the cognitive level, information binding in such widely dispersed circuits is mirrored by the sensorimotor grounding of form and meaning of symbols. Recent years have seen the emergence of evidence for similar brain embodiment of syntax. Neurophysiological studies have accumulated support for the linguistic notion of abstract combinatorial rules manifest as functionally discrete neuronal assemblies. Concepts immanent to the theory of abstract automata could be grounded in observations from modern neuroscience, so that it became possible to model abstract pushdown storage - which is critical for building linguistic tree structure representations - as ordered dynamics of memory circuits in the brain. At the same time, neurocomputational research showed how sequence detectors already known from animal brains can be neuronally linked so that they merge into larger functionally discrete units, thereby underpinning abstract rule representations that syntactically bind lexicosemantic classes of morphemes and words into larger meaningful constituents. Specific predictions of brain-based grammar models could be confirmed by neurophysiological and brain imaging experiments using MEG, EEG and fMRI. Neuroscience and neurocomputational research offering perspectives on understanding abstract linguistic mechanisms in terms of neuronal circuits and their interactions therefore point programmatic new ways to future theory-guided experimental investigation of the brain basis of grammar. PMID:20132977

  17. The Development of Music Syntax: Some Observations of Music Babble in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, John M.

    Using the analogy of language syntax, this paper describes the development of music syntax in children ages 5 months to 5 years. It is suggested that music syntax enables the child to comprehend familiar and unfamiliar music and to reproduce familiar music and create novel music. Observations were made in a day care center and a nursery school of…

  18. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  19. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  20. Abstract Syntax in Sentence Production: Evidence from Stem-Exchange Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Liane Wardlow; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments tested theories of syntactic representation by assessing "stem-exchange" errors ("hates the record"[right arrow]"records the hate"). Previous research has shown that in stem exchanges, speakers pronounce intended nouns ("REcord") as verbs ("reCORD"), yielding syntactically well-formed utterances. By "lexically based" theories,…

  1. The Effectiveness of Chinese NNESTs in Teaching English Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chun-Hui; Bartz, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of Chinese non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) on Chinese ESL students' struggles with English syntax. The paper first classifies Chinese learners' syntactic errors into 10 common types. It demonstrates how each type of error results from an internal attempt to translate a common Chinese construction into…

  2. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  3. Chomsky, Syntax, and Reading: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolczynski, Richard G.

    Noam Chomsky's theory of grammar, or more specifically his theory of syntax, proposes to describe all possible English sentences through an explanation of how the native speaker generates sentences. It is the study of one's competence that offers insights into how language is acquired and how the rules and generalizations of that language are…

  4. Hindi Aspectual Complex Predicates at the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poornima, Shakthi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to explore Hindi verbal complex predicates at the syntax/semantics interface using the lexicalist framework of HPSG. The enduring theoretical interest in complex predicates is undoubtedly due to the fact that in some aspects they pattern with prototypical words, whereas in other aspects they pattern with…

  5. A Developmental Study of Factivity and Negation in Complex Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, Marita R.; Maratsos, Michael P.

    Two groups of preschoolers and one of young grade-schoolers were tested for their comprehension of presuppositions and negation in complex syntax. Four types of sentences were presented: affirmative and negative versions of sentences with factive main predicates (which presuppose the truth of the proposition of the complement clause) and with…

  6. Papers in Syntax. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathol, Andreas, Ed.; Pollard, Carl, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of working papers in syntax includes: "Null Objects in Mandarin Chinese" (Christie Block); "Toward a Linearization-Based Approach to Word Order Variation in Japanese" (Mike Calcagno); "A Lexical Approach to Inalienable Possession Constructions in Korean" (Chung, Chan); "Chinese NP Structure" (Gao, Qian); "Linearization and…

  7. Syntax Patterns in Elementary School Readers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachuck, Beatrice Levy

    Syntax in four published series of elementary school readers was analyzed to discover patterns of complexity increasing from first to sixth grade, to identify structures accounting for differences across the grades, and to compare the frequency of specific structures among the series. Analyses of 16 surface structures representing complexities…

  8. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  9. Semantic Inferences: The Role of Count/Mass Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study tested the validity of a theory of count/mass syntax in word learning. The theory proposes that children infer one of two procedures, depending on whether the referent is an object or a non-solid substance. Subjects were 36 2-year-olds, divided according to three experimental conditions. All were taught a novel word with reference to…

  10. Animacy Constraints on Preschool Children's Acquisition of Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempert, Henrietta

    1989-01-01

    Investigates whether patient animacy affected the acquisition of the passive construction of syntax of 32 children aged two-five years. Results indicate that children who were taught the passive with animate patients produced more passives in the teaching phase than did comparable children who received inanimate patients. (RJC)

  11. Syntax of Emotional Narratives of Persons Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…

  12. Learning Proper Nouns and Common Nouns without Clues from Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko

    2001-01-01

    Examined how Japanese 2- and 4-year-olds assigned meaning to novel nouns associated with familiar and unfamiliar animals and inanimate objects. Found that in the absence of useful information from syntax, the 2-year-olds were able to fast map a noun to its meaning by elegantly coordinating word-learning biases and other available sources of…

  13. Stanzaic Syntax in the "Madrase" of St. Ephrem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul Spencer

    2013-01-01

    The prosody of the stanzaic poems called madrasê, written in Syriac by Ephrem of Nisibis in the fourth century, has long been studied by scholars. Until now, these studies have focused on meter, but this has left many questions unanswered. The present study examines the interclausal syntax of individual stanzas of madrasê V and VI of the cycle on…

  14. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  15. Linguistic Transfer in Andean Spanish: Syntax or Pragmatics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntendam, Antje

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…

  16. The Syntax and Semantics of Event Quantifiers in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Dun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax and semantics of nine Chinese "measures for verbs" (Chao 1968:615), which are words used with numerals to form event quantifiers counting the eventualities denoted by the predicate of a sentence. Based on their syntactic behavior, I argue that the nine words can be divided into two groups. The…

  17. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  18. Syntax and Morphology. Working Papers in Linguistics 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four papers on syntax and morphology are presented. "Clitics in Slavic" (Mila Dimitrova-Vulchanova) discusses the syntactic relevance of clitic placement across Slavic languages, and the functional categories that are or might be instrumental in determining placement of clitics and clitic clusters. In "A Promotion Analysis of Restrictive Relative…

  19. The Lillooet Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax. First Nations Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijk, Jan

    The first complete descriptive grammar of Lillooet, an interior Salish language spoken in British Columbia (Canada), uses the structuralist method to provide a detailed analysis of the language's sound system, word structure, and syntax, and to explain their functions and positions within Lillooet's overall linguistic structure. The account is…

  20. Non-Nativeness in Second Language Texts: The Syntax Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Marie-Paule

    The so-called deviant character of a set of non-native texts is examined by looking closely at how sentence syntax realizes and affects textual functions. Two broad groups of syntactic phenomena are considered: subordination and "marked structures," such as passives and clefts. Emphasis in this paper is on the following four ways in which syntax…

  1. Notation Confusion of Symmetry Species for Molecules with Several Large-Amplitude Internal Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, P.

    2011-06-01

    The Mulliken convention has become the standard notation for symmetry species (irreducible representations) of point groups for quasi-rigid molecules. No such convention exists for symmetry species of symmetry groups for semi-rigid or non-rigid molecules with large amplitude internal motions (LAMs). As a result, we have a situation where we create notations in a do-it-yourself fashion or adopt them from the literature, sometimes even without proper reference to its derivation or to the character table on which it is based. This may be just a nuisance for those who are comfortable enough with group theory and molecular symmetry groups to figure "it" out, but it represents a real problem for everybody else. The notation confusion is illustrated with examples from the literature (both old and new) on molecules with two or more LAMs. Most authors use the notation introduced by Myers and Wilson for molecules such as acetone or propane. No universal notation is in use for molecules with two methyl groups but lower overall symmetry. For example, the notation G_1_8 is used for one of these groups. As it turns out, different people use the same notation for different groups. This presentation is an attempt to bring some light into the dark and to combat confusion with a call for an anti-confusion convention. R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. 43, 279 (1933). R. J. Myers, E. B. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 186 (1960).

  2. Spectroscopic LSJ notation for atomic levels obtained from relativistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigalas, G.; Zalandauskas, T.; Fritzsche, S.

    2004-03-01

    Today, relativistic calculations are known to provide a very successful means in the study of open-shell atoms and ions. But although accurate atomic data are obtained from these computations, they are traditionally carried out in jj-coupling and, hence, do often not allow for a simple LSJ classification of the atomic levels as needed by experiment. In fact, this lack of providing a proper spectroscopic notation from relativistic structure calculations has recently hampered not only the spectroscopy of medium and heavy elements, but also the interpretation and analysis of inner-shell processes, for which the occurrence of additional vacancies usually leads to a very detailed fine structure. Therefore, in order to facilitate the classification of atomic levels from such computations, here we present a program (within the RATIP environment) which help transform the atomic wave functions from jj-coupled multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations into a LS-coupled representation. Beside of a proper LSJ assignment to the atomic levels, the program also supports the full transformation of the wave functions if required for (nonrelativistic) computations. Program summaryTitle of program:LSJ Catalogue number: ADTL Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTL Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the new version has been tested: IBM RS 6000, PC Pentium III Installations: University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems: IBM AIX 4.1.2+, Linux 7.1.+ Program language used in the new version: ANSI standard Fortran 90/95 Memory required to execute with typical data: Memory requirements depend on the shell structure and the size of the wave function expansion which is used to represent the atomic levels No. of bits in a word: All real variables are parametrized by a selected kind parameter and, thus, can easily be adapted to any required precision as supported by the

  3. The Astronomy Workshop: Instructor Support Materials and Student Activities for the Scientific Notation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Grace; Hayes-Gehrke, M.; Hamilton, D.

    2008-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes and by the general public. The philosophy of the site is to foster student interest in astronomy by exploiting their fascination with computers and the internet. We have upgraded the "Scientific Notation" tool in response to faculty feedback and input from student interviews. In addition to providing students practice in changing decimal numbers into scientific notation, they may now practice multiplication and division with numbers in scientific notation. We have added instructor materials and student quizzes to enhance the instructional use of the scientific notation web tools. This research was sponsored by NASA EPO grant NNG06GGF99G.

  4. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  5. 30 CFR 75.1202-1 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202-1 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. (a) Mine maps shall be revised and supplemented...

  6. Early noun vocabularies: do ontology, category structure and syntax correspond?

    PubMed

    Samuelson, L K; Smith, L B

    1999-11-01

    This paper examines children's early noun vocabularies and their interpretations of names for solid and non-solid things. Previous research in this area assumes that ontology, category organization and syntax correspond in the nouns children learn early such that categories of solid things are organized by shape similarity and named with count nouns and categories of non-solid things are organized by material similarity and named with mass nouns. In Experiment 1 we examine the validity of this assumption in a corpus of early-learned nouns and conclude that one side of the solidity-syntax-category organization mapping is favored. In our second experiment we examine the relation between early noun vocabulary development and novel word generalization. We find that children between 17 and 33 months of age do not systematically generalize names for solid things by shape similarity until they already know many nouns, and do not systematically generalize names for non-solid substances by material similarity. The implications for children's acquisition of the ontological distinction, count/mass syntax, and novel nouns are discussed. PMID:10536222

  7. Curved orogen and syntaxes formation during subduction and collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajolet, F.; Replumaz, A.; Faccenna, C.; Lainé, R.

    2012-04-01

    The sustained convergence between India and Asia with successive stages of oceanic subduction, continental subduction and continental collision has lead to the formation of the Tibetan plateau while the Himalayan orogenic front acquired an arcuate shape convex toward the South. The Indian plate is bounded by north-south strike-slip faults, which accommodate a large indentation of Asia, between two oceanic subductions, beneath Makran to the west, beneath Indonesia to the east. Two syntaxes formed at both east and west termination of the Himalayan orogenic front at the transition between Indian and Asian plates. In order to better understand this particular configuration, we performed analog experiments at the Laboratory of Experimental Tectonics of Roma TRE to simulate, at the scale of the mantle - lithosphere system, the mechanics of the indentation process. The configuration is set to drive the India indenter towards the Asian continent with a motor-controlled-piston, to simulate far field stresses necessary for indentation. In particular, we test (1) which geometry and rheological parameters favor arcuate orogen and syntaxes formation, (2) what are the consequences on the topography of both the orogenic front and the plateau, and (3) how they relate with the subduction/collision dynamics. The setup is composed of a subducting and an overriding plate made of visco-elastic silicone putty, floating on low-viscosity syrup simulating the asthenosphere. The subducting plate simulates an oceanic lithosphere followed by a continental indenter (analog for the Indian craton) flanked or not by oceans (analog for Makran and Indonesian domains), while the upper continental plate simulates the Tibetan plateau. Results show that the curvature of the orogen and syntaxes' formation are primarily controlled by the strength and gravitational potential energy of the upper plate, and the shape of the subducting plate. A relatively strong upper plate flanked by oceans leads to a

  8. Extractor of software networks from enriched concrete syntax trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Miloš; Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2012-09-01

    Software networks are directed graphs of dependencies among entities (packages, classes, methods, etc.) found in a software system. These structures are used to study organizational software complexity and evolution. In this paper the prototype of software networks extractor - SNEIPL is described. SNEIPL uses enriched concrete syntax tree (eCST) representation of a source code. The benefit of such representation is that it enables independency of programming language. First experiences using SNEIPL showed that it correctly extracted isomorphic software networks from the source code of two structurally and semantically equivalent programs written in different programming languages.

  9. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  10. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  11. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  12. Application of SMILES Notation Based Optimal Descriptors in Drug Discovery and Design.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Veselinović, Jovana B; Živković, Jelena V; Nikolić, Goran M

    2015-01-01

    SMILES notation based optimal descriptors as a universal tool for the QSAR analysis with further application in drug discovery and design is presented. The basis of this QSAR modeling is Monte Carlo method which has important advantages over other methods, like the possibility of analysis of a QSAR as a random event, is discussed. The advantages of SMILES notation based optimal descriptors in comparison to commonly used descriptors are defined. The published results of QSAR modeling with SMILES notation based optimal descriptors applied for various pharmacologically important endpoints are listed. The presented QSAR modeling approach obeys OECD principles and has mechanistic interpretation with possibility to identify molecular fragments that contribute in positive and negative way to studied biological activity, what is of big importance in computer aided drug design of new compounds with desired activity. PMID:25961525

  13. From Conversation to Syntax. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin-Tripp, Susan M.

    Previous research has shown how macro-structures can affect children's verbalizations. This study focuses on whether conversational contexts of forms are learned along with syntax, on what makes syntax, and on how to predict speech. Transcripts of videotapes of young children provided a matrix of function or act against actual utterance, wherein…

  14. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…

  15. Aortic Wall Extracellular Matrix Proteins Correlate with Syntax Score in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Terri; Cheow, Esther S. H.; Woo, Chin C.; Lin, Xiao Y.; Khin, Lay W.; Lee, Chuen N.; Hartman, Mikael; Sze, Siu K.; Sorokin, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score correlate with major cardiovascular events post-revascularization, although the histopathological basis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the association between syntax score and extracellular matrix histological characteristics of aortic punch tissue obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This analysis compares coronary artery bypass surgery patients with High and Low syntax score which were followed up for one year period. Methods and Results: Patients with High (score ≥ 33, (n=77)) and Low Syntax Scores (score ≤ 22, (n=71)) undergoing elective CABG were recruited prospectively. Baseline clinical characteristics and surgical risks were well matched. At 1 year, EMACCE (Sum of cardiovascular death, stroke, congestive cardiac failure, and limb, gut and myocardial ischemia) was significantly elevated in the High syntax group (P=0.022). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative iTRAQ proteomic results validated on independent cohort by immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the High syntax group had significantly upraised Collagen I (P<0.0001) and Elastin (P<0.0001) content in ascending aortic wall. Conclusion: This study shows that aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) differ between High and Low syntax groups with up-regulation of Collagen I and Elastin level in High Syntax Score group. This identifies aortic punches collected during CABG as another biomarker source related with atherosclerosis severity and possible clinical outcome. PMID:27347220

  16. From Binary Notation to Gravitational Waves: Rocket Science Made Easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Cooper, Larry

    2001-01-01

    The Space Place is a NASA educational outreach program open to all NASA missions, studies, and instruments. It uses diverse media (web, print, displays, hands-on activities) to deliver high-quality products through a highly leveraged infrastructure. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. The CNS in the ICU: A Bedside Notation System for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Susan L.; Ash, Stephen R.; Farrell, Joan

    1982-01-01

    An extended trial of two months was instituted utilizing the CNS as a bedside nursing notation system in an intensive care unit. Analysis of data was based on content analysis of the notes, training time, subjective data and quantitative content of the notes. It is possible to totally replace other written forms of notation in the paper record with a computer printed note. Such a system is well accepted by staff, easy to implement, and results in timely notes of better organization and content without increase in time involved.

  18. The Implementation of Contextual Approach in Solving Problems Understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian at Universities in Surakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Tutik; Suwandi, Sarwiji; Slamet, St. Y.; Andayani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to: (1) assess the charge textbooks Syntax: "Sentence" bahasa Indonesia is based on a needs analysis; (2) analyzing the breakdown of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with contextual approach; (3) test the effectiveness of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with kontekstua approach.…

  19. Is Music "Colorful"? A Study of the Effects of Age and Musical Literacy on Children's Notational Color Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2004-01-01

    This eight-year study represents a pioneering effort to investigate color expression in children's graphic notations at two stages of development: "Pre-literate" (age: 7.0-8.5), before students received school music instruction, and "Post-literate" (age: 14.0-15.5), three years after students acquired Standard Notation in school, and to consider…

  20. Is That a Y or a...? Representation of Hand Configuration Data in Different Notation Systems for Child Acquisition of ASL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochgesang, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    In my dissertation, I examine four notation systems used to represent hand configurations in child acquisition of signed languages. Linguists have long recognized the descriptive limitations of Stokoe notation, currently the most commonly used system for phonetic or phonological transcription, but continue using it because of its widespread…

  1. Musically Untrained College Students' Interpretations of Musical Notation: Sound, Silence, Loudness, Duration, and Temporal Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Siu-Lan; Wakefield, Elizabeth M.; Jeffries, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty participants who had never learned how to read music completed a questionnaire about their interpretations of standard western musical notation. Some common assumptions were that a note must consist of a circle plus a line, symbols with unfilled spaces denote silence, the value of notes and rests increases with the size and number of…

  2. PathVisio-Validator: a rule-based validation plugin for graphical pathway notations

    PubMed Central

    Chandan, Kumar; van Iersel, Martijn P.; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Kohn, Kurt W.; Luna, Augustin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The PathVisio-Validator plugin aims to simplify the task of producing biological pathway diagrams that follow graphical standardized notations, such as Molecular Interaction Maps or the Systems Biology Graphical Notation. This plugin assists in the creation of pathway diagrams by ensuring correct usage of a notation, and thereby reducing ambiguity when diagrams are shared among biologists. Rulesets, needed in the validation process, can be generated for any graphical notation that a developer desires, using either Schematron or Groovy. The plugin also provides support for filtering validation results, validating on a subset of rules, and distinguishing errors and warnings. Availability: The PathVisio-Validator plugin works with versions of PathVisio 2.0.11 and later on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. The plugin along with the instructions, example rulesets for Groovy and Schematron, and Java source code can be downloaded at http://pathvisio.org/wiki/PathVisioValidatorHelp. The software is developed under the open-source Apache 2.0 License and is freely available for both commercial and academic use. Contact: chandankmit@gmail.com; augustin@mail.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22199389

  3. The Role of Symbols in Mathematical Communication: The Case of the Limit Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güçler, Beste

    2014-01-01

    Symbols play crucial roles in advanced mathematical thinking by providing flexibility and reducing cognitive load but they often have a dual nature since they can signify both processes and objects of mathematics. The limit notation reflects such duality and presents challenges for students. This study uses a discursive approach to explore how one…

  4. Development of a Notational Analysis System for Selected Soccer Skills of a Women's College Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Camille; Fellingham, Gilbert; Vehrs, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in ten games of a National…

  5. Goal Structured Notation in a Radiation Hardening Safety Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Reed, Robert; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Sierawski, Brian; Evans, John; LaBel, Ken

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structured Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  6. Children's Use of Variables and Variable Notation to Represent Their Algebraic Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Blanton, Maria; Sawrey, Katharine; Newman-Owens, Ashley; Murphy Gardiner, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a first grade classroom episode and individual interviews with students who participated in that classroom event to provide evidence of the variety of understandings about variable and variable notation held by first grade children approximately six years of age. Our findings illustrate that given the opportunity,…

  7. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Overhead Projection and Chalkboard in Teaching Music Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David

    A research project was designed to test two hypotheses concerning the teaching of music notation: (1) the overhead projector would prove superior to the chalkboard as a teaching aid; and (2) the use of the overhead projector would cause students to retain knowledge better and score higher on standardized music tests. The study involved 93 students…

  8. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the left-hand portion of the invoice, next to the articles to which they apply. (c) Value. The... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notation of tariff classification and value on... classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  9. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the left-hand portion of the invoice, next to the articles to which they apply. (c) Value. The... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notation of tariff classification and value on... classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  10. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the left-hand portion of the invoice, next to the articles to which they apply. (c) Value. The... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notation of tariff classification and value on... classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  11. 19 CFR 141.90 - Notation of tariff classification and value on invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the left-hand portion of the invoice, next to the articles to which they apply. (c) Value. The... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notation of tariff classification and value on... classification and value on invoice. (a) (b) Classification and rate of duty. The importer or customs broker...

  12. A Comparison of Programming Languages and Algebraic Notation as Expressive Languages for Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    Considers some of the implications of replacing, for the purposes of physics instruction, algebraic notation with programming language. Introduces a framework based on two theoretical constructs. Concludes that algebra-physics can be characterized as the physics of balance and equilibrium and programming-physics as the physics of processes and…

  13. Children's Invented Notations and Verbal Responses to a Piano Work by Claude Debussy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the way children listen to classical music composed for them and the effect of age on their spontaneous invented notations and verbal responses. The musical selection is a piano piece for children by Claude Debussy:"'Jimbo's Lullaby" from "Children's Corner". Two hundred and nine children 4-9.5-years-old…

  14. Reading a Note, Reading a Mind: Children's Notating Skills and Understanding of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Hopson, Sarah; Nichols, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Are children's understanding of mental states (understanding of mind) related to their notating skills, that is, their ability to produce and read written marks to convey information about objects and number? Fifty-three preschoolers and kindergarteners were presented with a dictation task where they produced some written marks and were later…

  15. External Representation and the Architecture of Music: Children Inventing and Speaking about Notations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This study concerns children's representational knowledge, more specifically, their "invented notations" of music. A small-scale empirical study of four 5-year-old children and their teachers working on the representation of music is reported. The challenges posed by the teachers and how the children respond to these challenges are analysed. The…

  16. A Computer Process for Substructure Searches on Compound Structures Ciphered in the IUPAC Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polton, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Computer programs have been written which enable substructure searches to be carried out on a file of compounds ciphered using a modified version of the IUPAC (Dyson) notation. The search system outlined is to be linked with one which uses input from the chemical structure typewriter. (3 references) (Author)

  17. An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics: A Rational Approach to Its Teaching. Part 1: Notation and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Donald F.; Glasser, David

    1991-01-01

    Introduces and develops mathematical notation to assist undergraduate students in overcoming conceptual difficulties involving the underlying mathematics of state functions, which tend to be different from functions encountered by students in previous mathematical courses, because of the need to manipulate special types of partial derivatives and…

  18. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  19. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  20. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  1. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. (a) Every application for patent for any minerals located subject to this Act must bear on its face, before being executed by...

  2. The Effects of In-School Stave Notation Learning on Student's Symbolising Behaviour and Musical Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2007-01-01

    Facing the ambiguous status of in-school music literacy, this follow-up eight-year study aims to touch on the effects of traditional staff notation (SN) learning on student's intuitive symbolizing behavior and musical perception. Subjects were 47 second-graders attending a religious Jewish school in Israel. One "pre-literate" meeting, in which…

  3. 30 CFR 75.1202-1 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. 75.1202-1 Section 75.1202-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps §...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1202-1 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. 75.1202-1 Section 75.1202-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps §...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1202-1 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. 75.1202-1 Section 75.1202-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps §...

  6. Young Students Learning Formal Algebraic Notation and Solving Linear Equations: Are Commonly Experienced Difficulties Avoidable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at a mixed ability group of 21 Year 5 primary students (aged 9-10 years old) who had previously never had formal instruction using letters to stand for unknowns or variables in a mathematics context; nor had they been introduced to formal algebraic notation. Three lessons were taught using the computer software "Grid Algebra"…

  7. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome. PMID:27155014

  8. The Arden Syntax standard for clinical decision support: experiences and directions.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Fehre, Karsten; de Bruin, Jeroen; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2012-08-01

    Arden Syntax is a widely recognized standard for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format. It has a history that reaches back until 1989 and is currently maintained by the Health Level 7 (HL7) organization. We created a production-ready development environment, compiler, rule engine and application server for Arden Syntax. Over the course of several years, we have applied this Arden - Syntax - based CDS system in a wide variety of clinical problem domains, such as hepatitis serology interpretation, monitoring of nosocomial infections or the prediction of metastatic events in melanoma patients. We found the Arden Syntax standard to be very suitable for the practical implementation of CDS systems. Among the advantages of Arden Syntax are its status as an actively developed HL7 standard, the readability of the syntax, and various syntactic features such as flexible list handling. A major challenge we encountered was the technical integration of our CDS systems in existing, heterogeneous health information systems. To address this issue, we are currently working on incorporating the HL7 standard GELLO, which provides a standardized interface and query language for accessing data in health information systems. We hope that these planned extensions of the Arden Syntax might eventually help in realizing the vision of a global, interoperable and shared library of clinical decision support knowledge. PMID:22342733

  9. Does syntax contribute to the function of duets in a parrot, Amazona auropalliata?

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-07-01

    Complex acoustic signals in many animal species are characterized by a syntax that governs how different notes are combined, but the importance of syntax to the communicative function of signals is not well understood. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, produce coordinated vocal duets that are used for territory maintenance and defense. These duets follow rules that specify the ordering of notes within duets, such as a strict alternation of sex-specific notes and a defined progression of note types through each duet. These syntactical rules may function to define sex-specific roles, improve coordination, and allow individuals to combine calls into meaningful sequences. As a first step toward understanding the functional significance of syntax, we conducted two separate audio playback experiments in which we presented nesting pairs with normal duets and duets with broken syntax (i.e., one of the syntactic rules was broken). In Experiment One, we reversed the order of female and male notes within note pairs while retaining the typical progression of note types through a duet. In Experiment Two we reversed the order of note types across a whole duet while retaining the typical female-male ordering within note pairs. We hypothesized that duets with broken syntax would be less-effective signals than duets with normal syntax and predicted that pairs would respond less to broken syntax than to normal duets. Contrary to predictions, we did not observe differences in response between treatments for any variables except latency to approach the speaker. After we combined data across experiments post hoc, we observed longer latencies to approach the speakers after playbacks of broken syntax duets, suggesting that pairs could differentiate between playbacks. These responses suggest that breaking one rule of duet syntax at a time does not result in detectable loss of signal efficacy in the context of territorial intrusions. PMID:22487728

  10. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

  11. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  12. Improving traffic noise simulations using space syntax: preliminary results from two roadway systems.

    PubMed

    M Dzhambov, Angel; D Dimitrova, Donka; H Turnovska, Tanya

    2014-09-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. In order to implement adequate strategies for noise control, assessment of traffic-generated noise is essential in city planning and management. The aim of this study was to determine whether space syntax could improve the predictive power of noise simulation. This paper reports a record linkage study which combined a documentary method with space syntax analysis. It analyses data about traffic flow as well as field-measured and computer-simulated traffic noise in two Bulgarian agglomerations. Our findings suggest that space syntax might have a potential in predicting traffic noise exposure by improving models for noise simulations using specialised software or actual traffic counts. The scientific attention might need to be directed towards space syntax in order to study its further application in current models and algorithms for noise prediction. PMID:25222575

  13. Association of Serum Bilirubin with SYNTAX Score and Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chiang, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shao-Sung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background Bilirubin has emerged as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, and increasing evidence shows that bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis. The SYNTAX score has been developed to assess the severity and complexity of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum bilirubin levels are associated with SYNTAX scores and whether they could be used to predict future cardiovascular events in patients undergoing coronary intervention. Methods Serum bilirubin levels and other blood parameters in patients with at least 12-h fasting states were determined. The primary endpoint was any composite cardiovascular event within 1 year, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization. Results In total, 250 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease (mean age 70 ± 13) who had received coronary intervention were enrolled. All study subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 was defined as high SYNTAX score (> 22), and group 2 was defined as low SYNTAX score (≤ 22). Total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the high SYNTAX score group than in the low SYNTAX score group (0.51 ± 0.22 vs. 0.72 ± 0.29 mg/dl, p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, serum total bilirubin levels were identified as an independent predictor for high SYNTAX score (adjusted odds ratio: 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.42; p = 0.004). Use of the Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significant difference in 1-year cardiovascular events between high (> 0.8 mg/dl), medium (> 0.5, ≤ 0.8 mg/dl), and low (≤ 0.5 mg/dl) bilirubin levels (log-rank test p = 0.011). Conclusions Serum bilirubin level is associated with SYNTAX score and predicts future cardiovascular events in patients undergoing coronary intervention. PMID:27471354

  14. Object Pronouns in German L3 Syntax: Evidence for the L2 Status Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on L3 lexicon, and recently also some on L3 syntax, have convincingly shown a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true L2 and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Some studies even indicate that L2 takes on a stronger role than L1 in the initial state of L3 syntax (e.g. Bardel and Falk, 2007; Rothman and Cabrelli…

  15. Potential Utility of the SYNTAX Score 2 in Patients Undergoing Left Main Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sérgio; Raposo, Luís; Brito, João; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Pedro; Teles, Rui; Gabriel, Henrique; Machado, Francisco; Almeida, Manuel; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background The revascularization strategy of the left main disease is determinant for clinical outcomes. Objective We sought to 1) validate and compare the performance of the SYNTAX Score 1 and 2 for predicting major cardiovascular events at 4 years in patients who underwent unprotected left main angioplasty and 2) evaluate the long-term outcome according to the SYNTAX score 2-recommended revascularization strategy. Methods We retrospectively studied 132 patients from a single-centre registry who underwent unprotected left main angioplasty between March 1999 and December 2010. Discrimination and calibration of both models were assessed by ROC curve analysis, calibration curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results Total event rate was 26.5% at 4 years.The AUC for the SYNTAX Score 1 and SYNTAX Score 2 for percutaneous coronary intervention, was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.49-0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.57-0.78), respectively. Despite a good overall adjustment for both models, the SYNTAX Score 2 tended to underpredict risk. In the 47 patients (36%) who should have undergone surgery according to the SYNTAX Score 2, event rate was numerically higher (30% vs. 25%; p=0.54), and for those with a higher difference between the two SYNTAX Score 2 scores (Percutaneous coronary intervention vs. Coronary artery by-pass graft risk estimation greater than 5.7%), event rate was almost double (40% vs. 22%; p=0.2). Conclusion The SYNTAX Score 2 may allow a better and individualized risk stratification of patients who need revascularization of an unprotected left main coronary artery. Prospective studies are needed for further validation. PMID:27007223

  16. Mechanisms for interaction: Syntax as procedures for online interactive meaning building.

    PubMed

    Kempson, Ruth; Chatzikyriakidis, Stergios; Cann, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    We argue that to reflect participant interactivity in conversational dialogue, the Christiansen & Chater (C&C) perspective needs a formal grammar framework capturing word-by-word incrementality, as in Dynamic Syntax, in which syntax is the incremental building of semantic representations reflecting real-time parsing dynamics. We demonstrate that, with such formulation, syntactic, semantic, and morpho-syntactic dependencies are all analysable as grounded in their potential for interaction. PMID:27562087

  17. Perceptual expertise and top-down expectation of musical notation engages the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Peng, Cynthia; Fratus, Kristyn N.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of visual processing propose that object recognition is achieved in higher visual cortex. However, we show that category selectivity for musical notation can be observed in the first event-related potential component called the C1 (measured 40-60ms after stimulus onset) with music-reading expertise. Moreover, the C1 note selectivity was observed only when the stimulus category was blocked but not when the stimulus category was randomized. Under blocking, the C1 activity for notes predicted individual music reading ability, and behavioral judgments of musical stimuli reflected music-reading skill. Our results challenge current theories of object recognition, indicating that the primary visual cortex can be selective for musical notation within the initial feedforward sweep of activity with perceptual expertise and with a testing context that is consistent with the expertise training, such as blocking the stimulus category for music reading. PMID:24666163

  18. Goal Structuring Notation in a Radiation Hardening Assurance Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Evans, John; Mahadevan, Nag; Karsai, Gabor; Sierawski, Brian; LaBel, Ken; Reed, Robert; Schrimpf, Ron

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  19. Goal Structuring Notation in a Radiation Hardening Assurance Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, A.; Austin, R.; Evans, J.; Mahadevan, N.; Karsai, G.; Sierawski, B.; LaBel, K.; Reed, R.; Schrimpf, R.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat in January 2017. A custom software language for development of a GSN assurance case is under development at Vanderbilt. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  20. Implementation of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) in the modelling of anatomic pathology processes

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Marcial García; Rolón, Elvira; Calahorra, Luis; García, Felix Óscar; Sánchez, Rosario Paloma; Ruiz, Francisco; Ballester, Nieves; Armenteros, María; Rodríguez, Teresa; Espartero, Rafael Martín

    2008-01-01

    Background Process orientation is one of the essential elements of quality management systems, including those in use in healthcare. Business processes in hospitals are very complex and variable. BPMN (Business Process Modelling Notation) is a user-oriented language specifically designed for the modelling of business (organizational) processes. Previous experiences of the use of this notation in the processes modelling within the Pathology in Spain or another country are not known. We present our experience in the elaboration of the conceptual models of Pathology processes, as part of a global programmed surgical patient process, using BPMN. Methods With the objective of analyzing the use of BPMN notation in real cases, a multidisciplinary work group was created, including software engineers from the Dep. of Technologies and Information Systems from the University of Castilla-La Mancha and health professionals and administrative staff from the Hospital General de Ciudad Real. The work in collaboration was carried out in six phases: informative meetings, intensive training, process selection, definition of the work method, process describing by hospital experts, and process modelling. Results The modelling of the processes of Anatomic Pathology is presented using BPMN. The presented subprocesses are those corresponding to the surgical pathology examination of the samples coming from operating theatre, including the planning and realization of frozen studies. Conclusion The modelling of Anatomic Pathology subprocesses has allowed the creation of an understandable graphical model, where management and improvements are more easily implemented by health professionals. PMID:18673511

  1. A Non-technical User-Oriented Display Notation for XACML Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, Bernard; Felty, Amy; Matwin, Stan

    Ideally, access control to resources in complex IT systems ought to be handled by business decision makers who own a given resource (e.g., the pay and benefits section of an organization should decide and manage the access rules to the payroll system). To make this happen, the security and database communities need to develop vendor-independent access management tools, useable by decision makers, rather than technical personnel detached from a given business function. We have developed and implemented such tool, based on XACML. The XACML is an important emerging tool for managing complex access control applications. As a formal notation, based on an XML schema representing the grammar of a given application, XACML is precise and non-ambiguous. But this very property puts it out of reach of non-technical users. We propose a new notation for displaying and editing XACML rules that is independent of XML, and we develop an editor for it. Our notation combines a tree representation of logical expressions with an accessible natural language layer. Our early experience indicates that such rules can be grasped by non-technical users wishing to develop and control rules for accessing their own resources.

  2. Syntax at Hand: Common Syntactic Structures for Actions and Language

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Alice C.; Curie, Aurore; Nazir, Tatjana; Paulignan, Yves; des Portes, Vincent; Fourneret, Pierre; Deprez, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI’s structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax. PMID:23991140

  3. Syntax at hand: common syntactic structures for actions and language.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alice C; Curie, Aurore; Nazir, Tatjana; Paulignan, Yves; des Portes, Vincent; Fourneret, Pierre; Deprez, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax. PMID:23991140

  4. Developmental language disorders: cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax.

    PubMed

    Cromer, R F

    1981-03-01

    Five areas of research concerned with language acquisition--cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax--are reviewed in terms of their contribution to understanding language disorders. Two views of cognitive processes are discussed. One of these, emphasizing cognitive mechanisms such as short-term memory, is seen as providing possible explanations for some types of language deficits. The other, a concern with conceptual knowledge, is subjected to a critical analysis questioning how complete an explanation it is able to offer for some aspects of language acquisition. Problems of definition are also discussed when semantic aspects of language are considered. Problems in the pragmatic component of language are seen as providing an explanation for particular aspects of language disorder in some autistic children. The importance of focusing on phonology as a central grammatical process is discussed and linked to dyslexia and to spelling disorders. Finally, it is argued that the acquisition of syntactic structure is not yet understood. Impairments such as a hierarchical planning order deficit may affect syntactic ability and lead to disordered language, as found in some types of developmentally aphasic children. It is concluded that it is important to study all five areas of the title, and their interrelationships, if various language disorders are to be adequately understood. PMID:6927699

  5. A Statistical Method for Quantifying Songbird Phonology and Syntax

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Thompson, John A.; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Songbirds are the preeminent animal model for understanding how the brain encodes and produces learned vocalizations. Here, we report a new statistical method, the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) distance, for analyzing vocal change over time. First, we use a computerized recording system to capture all song syllables produced by birds each day. Sound Analysis Pro software (Tchernichovski et al., 2000) is then used to measure the duration of each syllable as well as four spectral features: pitch, entropy, frequency modulation, and pitch goodness. Next, 2-dimensional scatter plots of each day of singing are created where syllable duration is on the x-axis and each of the spectral features is represented separately on the y-axis. Each point in the scatter plots represents one syllable and we regard these plots as random samples from a probability distribution. We then apply the standard information-theoretic quantity K-L distance to measure dissimilarity in phonology across days of singing. A variant of this procedure can also be used to analyze differences in syllable syntax. PMID:18674560

  6. The structure of an avian syllable syntax network.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Viviane; Faria, Luiz R R; Borges, Marcelo E; Pie, Marcio R

    2014-07-01

    A common result in recent linguistic studies on word association networks is that their topology can often be described by Zipf's law, in which most words have few associations, whereas a few words are highly connected. However, little is known about syntactic networks in more rudimentary communication systems, which could represent a window into the early stages of language evolution. In this study, we investigate the syntactic network formed by syllable associations in the song of the oscine bird Troglodytes musculus. We use methods recently developed in the context of the study of complex networks to assess topological characteristics in the syntactic networks of T. musculus. We found statistically significant evidence for nestedness in the syllable association network of T. musculus, indicating network organization around a core of commonly used notes, small-world features, and a non-random degree distribution. Our analyses suggest the possibility of a balance between the maintenance of core notes and the acquisition/loss of rare notes through both cultural drift and improvisation. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating communication networks of other animal species in uncovering the initial steps in the evolution of complex syntax networks. PMID:24792818

  7. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  8. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  9. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  10. Condition-dependent functional connectivity: syntax networks in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dodel, Silke; Golestani, Narly; Pallier, Christophe; ElKouby, Vincent; Le Bihan, Denis; Poline, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to study the variation of brain functional connectivity networks with respect to experimental conditions in fMRI data. It is related to the psychophysiological interaction technique introduced by Friston et al. and extends to networks of correlation modulation (CM networks). Extended networks containing several dozens of nodes are determined in which the links correspond to consistent correlation modulation across subjects. In addition, we assess inter-subject variability and determine networks in which the condition-dependent functional interactions can be explained by a subject-dependent variable. We applied the technique to data from a study on syntactical production in bilinguals and analysed functional interactions differentially across tasks (word reading or sentence production) and across languages. We find an extended network of consistent functional interaction modulation across tasks, whereas the network comparing languages shows fewer links. Interestingly, there is evidence for a specific network in which the differences in functional interaction across subjects can be explained by differences in the subjects' syntactical proficiency. Specifically, we find that regions, including ones that have previously been shown to be involved in syntax and in language production, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus, putamen, insula, precentral gyrus, as well as the supplementary motor area, are more functionally linked during sentence production in the second, compared with the first, language in syntactically more proficient bilinguals than in syntactically less proficient ones. Our approach extends conventional activation analyses to the notion of networks, emphasizing functional interactions between regions independently of whether or not they are activated. On the one hand, it gives rise to testable hypotheses and allows an interpretation of the results in terms of the previous literature, and on the other hand, it provides a

  11. The neural dynamics of song syntax in songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dezhe

    2010-03-01

    Songbird is ``the hydrogen atom'' of the neuroscience of complex, learned vocalizations such as human speech. Songs of Bengalese finch consist of sequences of syllables. While syllables are temporally stereotypical, syllable sequences can vary and follow complex, probabilistic syntactic rules, which are rudimentarily similar to grammars in human language. Songbird brain is accessible to experimental probes, and is understood well enough to construct biologically constrained, predictive computational models. In this talk, I will discuss the structure and dynamics of neural networks underlying the stereotypy of the birdsong syllables and the flexibility of syllable sequences. Recent experiments and computational models suggest that a syllable is encoded in a chain network of projection neurons in premotor nucleus HVC (proper name). Precisely timed spikes propagate along the chain, driving vocalization of the syllable through downstream nuclei. Through a computational model, I show that that variable syllable sequences can be generated through spike propagations in a network in HVC in which the syllable-encoding chain networks are connected into a branching chain pattern. The neurons mutually inhibit each other through the inhibitory HVC interneurons, and are driven by external inputs from nuclei upstream of HVC. At a branching point that connects the final group of a chain to the first groups of several chains, the spike activity selects one branch to continue the propagation. The selection is probabilistic, and is due to the winner-take-all mechanism mediated by the inhibition and noise. The model predicts that the syllable sequences statistically follow partially observable Markov models. Experimental results supporting this and other predictions of the model will be presented. We suggest that the syntax of birdsong syllable sequences is embedded in the connection patterns of HVC projection neurons.

  12. Syntax in language and music: what is the right level of comparison?

    PubMed

    Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental "syntax." Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between "language syntax" and "music syntax" can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology ("phonological syntax"), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called "syntax" can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals. PMID:26191034

  13. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  14. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  15. Knowledge representation in pharmacology. A possible application area for the Arden Syntax?

    PubMed

    Prokosch, H U; Kamm, S; Wieczorek, D; Dudeck, J

    1991-01-01

    In 1990 the Arden Syntax was proposed as a first version of a standardized syntax for the representation of medical knowledge. For the evaluation of the practicability of this first release we have analyzed the medical and pharmacological knowledge applied in the process of drug prescription. The separation of declarative (e.g. in a semantic network) and procedural knowledge is a basic issue of our research. We therefore propose to further extend the Arden syntax with declarative knowledge representation facilities. One way to do this may be the incorporation of a standardized medical data dictionary (e.g. the UMLS Metathesaurus) which promotes the representation of medical terms in a semantic network. Furthermore the problem of 'institution-specific knowledge', which is especially important for the issue of knowledge sharing between different institutions, is analyzed based on examples of knowledge modules for monitoring drug allergies and drug-drug-interactions. PMID:1807597

  16. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii).

    PubMed

    Hedley, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin's Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity-zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models-and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher's exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537

  17. A cortical-subcortical syntax pathway linking Broca's area and the striatum.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Marc; Rosso, Charlotte; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Bloch, Isabelle; Brugières, Pierre; Duffau, Hugues; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial syntax has been shown to be underpinned by cortical key regions such as Broca's area and temporal cortices, and by subcortical structures such as the striatum. The cortical regions are connected via several cortico-to-cortical tracts impacting syntactic processing (e.g., the arcuate) but it remains unclear whether and how the striatum can be integrated into this cortex-centered syntax network. Here, we used a systematic stepwise approach to investigate the existence and syntactic function of an additional deep Broca-striatum pathway. We first asked 15 healthy controls and 12 patients with frontal/striatal lesions to perform three syntax tests. The results obtained were subjected to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to provide an anatomo-functional approximation of the pathway. The significant VLSM clusters were then overlapped with the probability maps of four cortico-cortical language tracts generated for 12 healthy participants (arcuate, extreme capsule fiber system, uncinate, aslant), including a probabilistic Broca-striatum tract. Finally, we carried out quantitative analyses of the relationship between the lesion load along the tracts and syntactic processing, by calculating tract-lesion overlap for each patient and analyzing the correlation with syntactic data. Our findings revealed a Broca-striatum tract linking BA45 with the left caudate head and overlapping with VLSM voxel clusters relating to complex syntax. The lesion load values for this tract were correlated with complex syntax scores, whereas no such correlation was observed for the other tracts. These results extend current syntax-network models, by adding a deep "Broca-caudate pathway," and are consistent with functional accounts of frontostriatal circuits. PMID:25682763

  18. Neural bases of syntax-semantics interface processing.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evguenia; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    The binding problem-question of how information between the modules of the linguistic system is integrated during language processing-is as yet unresolved. The remarkable speed of language processing and comprehension (Pulvermüller et al. 2009) suggests that at least coarse semantic information (e.g. noun animacy) and syntactically-relevant information (e.g. verbal template) are integrated rapidly to allow for coarse comprehension. This EEG study investigated syntax-semantics interface processing during word-by-word sentence reading. As alpha-band neural activity serves as an inhibition mechanism for local networks, we used topographical distribution of alpha power to help identify the timecourse of the binding process. We manipulated the syntactic parameter of verbal event structure, and semantic parameter of noun animacy in reduced relative clauses (RRCs, e.g. "The witness/mansion seized/protected by the agent was in danger"), to investigate the neural bases of interaction between syntactic and semantic networks during sentence processing. The word-by-word stimulus presentation method in the present experiment required manipulation of both syntactic structure and semantic features in the working memory. The results demonstrated a gradient distribution of early components (biphasic posterior P1-N2 and anterior N1-P2) over function words "by" and "the", and the verb, corresponding to facilitation or conflict resulting from the syntactic (telicity) and semantic (animacy) cues in the preceding portion of the sentence. This was followed by assimilation of power distribution in the α band at the second noun. The flattened distribution of α power during the mental manipulation with high demand on working memory-thematic role re-assignment-demonstrates a state of α equilibrium with strong functional coupling between posterior and anterior regions. These results demonstrate that the processing of semantic and syntactic features during sentence comprehension proceeds

  19. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  1. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  2. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  3. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  5. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  6. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  7. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  9. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  10. Using a color-coded ambigraphic nucleic acid notation to visualize conserved palindromic motifs within and across genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambiscript is a graphically-designed nucleic acid notation that uses symbol symmetries to support sequence complementation, highlight biologically-relevant palindromes, and facilitate the analysis of consensus sequences. Although the original Ambiscript notation was designed to easily represent consensus sequences for multiple sequence alignments, the notation’s black-on-white ambiguity characters are unable to reflect the statistical distribution of nucleotides found at each position. We now propose a color-augmented ambigraphic notation to encode the frequency of positional polymorphisms in these consensus sequences. Results We have implemented this color-coding approach by creating an Adobe Flash® application ( http://www.ambiscript.org) that shades and colors modified Ambiscript characters according to the prevalence of the encoded nucleotide at each position in the alignment. The resulting graphic helps viewers perceive biologically-relevant patterns in multiple sequence alignments by uniquely combining color, shading, and character symmetries to highlight palindromes and inverted repeats in conserved DNA motifs. Conclusion Juxtaposing an intuitive color scheme over the deliberate character symmetries of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation yields a highly-functional nucleic acid notation that maximizes information content and successfully embodies key principles of graphic excellence put forth by the statistician and graphic design theorist, Edward Tufte. PMID:24447494

  11. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  12. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  13. Fuzzy-Arden-Syntax-based, Vendor-agnostic, Scalable Clinical Decision Support and Monitoring Platform.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective is to develop and use a scalable genuine technology platform for clinical decision support based on Arden Syntax, which was extended by fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Arden Syntax is a widely recognized formal language for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format, and is maintained by Health Level Seven (HL7) International and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Fuzzy set theory and logic permit the representation of knowledge and automated reasoning under linguistic and propositional uncertainty. These forms of uncertainty are a common feature of patients' medical data, the body of medical knowledge, and deductive clinical reasoning. PMID:26262410

  14. A theory of marks and mind: the effect of notational systems on hominid brain evolution and child development with an emphasis on exchanges between mothers and children.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Susan Rich

    2005-01-01

    A model of human language requires a theory of meaningful marks. Humans are the only species who use marks to think. A theory of marks identifies children's scribbles as significant behavior, while hypothesizing the importance of rotational systems to hominid brain evolution. By recognizing the importance of children's scribbles and drawings in developmental terms as well as in evolutionary terms, a marks-based rather than a predominantly speech-based theory of the human brain, language, and consciousness emerges. Combined research in anthropology, primatology, art history, neurology, child development (including research with deaf and blind children), gender studies and literacy suggests the importance of notational systems to human language, revealing the importance of mother/child interactions around marks and sounds to the development of an expressive, communicative, symbolic human brain. An understanding of human language is enriched by identifying marks carved on bone 1.9 million years ago as observational lunar calendar-keeping, pushing proto-literacy back dramatically. Neurologically, children recapitulate the meaningful marks of early hominins when they scribble and draw, reminding us that literacy belongs to humankind's earliest history. Even more than speech, such meaningful marks played - and continue to play - decisive roles in human brain evolution. The hominid brain required a model for integrative, transformative neural transfer. The research strongly suggests that humankind's multiple literacies (art, literature, scientific writing, mathematics and music) depended upon dyadic exchanges between hominid mothers and children, and that this exchange and sharing of visuo-spatial information drove the elaboration of human speech in terms of syntax, grammar and vocabulary. The human brain was spatial before it was linguistic. The child scribbles and draws before it speaks or writes. Children babble and scribble within the first two years of life. Hands

  15. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  16. The Astronomy Workshop: Enhanced Tools "scientific Notation" And "solar System Visualizer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Hamilton, D.; Deming, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes and by the general public. The philosophy of the site is to foster student interest in astronomy by using their fascination with computers and the internet. We are upgrading the "Scientific Notation" tool; its initial function was to enable the practice of changing decimal numbers into scientific notation numbers. This tool is very popular, with 10,000 hits per day typically. The upgrades include multiplication and division and the implementation of automatically-graded quizzes. We have also added a new tool, the "Solar System Visualizer", which animates orbits of the solar system's planets, moons, and rings to the correct scale (including retrograde motions), as well as displaying the orbits of a number of extrasolar systems to scale. We are gradually adding instructor materials and student activities to enhance the instructional use of the web tools.

  17. Terminology representation guidelines for biomedical ontologies in the semantic web notations.

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Wei, Wei-Qi; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-02-01

    Terminologies and ontologies are increasingly prevalent in healthcare and biomedicine. However they suffer from inconsistent renderings, distribution formats, and syntax that make applications through common terminologies services challenging. To address the problem, one could posit a shared representation syntax, associated schema, and tags. We identified a set of commonly-used elements in biomedical ontologies and terminologies based on our experience with the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) Specification as well as the Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project. We propose guidelines for precisely such a shared terminology model, and recommend tags assembled from SKOS, OWL, Dublin Core, RDF Schema, and DCMI meta-terms. We divide these guidelines into lexical information (e.g. synonyms, and definitions) and semantic information (e.g. hierarchies). The latter we distinguish for use by informal terminologies vs. formal ontologies. We then evaluate the guidelines with a spectrum of widely used terminologies and ontologies to examine how the lexical guidelines are implemented, and whether our proposed guidelines would enhance interoperability. PMID:23026232

  18. Terminology Representation Guidelines for Biomedical Ontologies in the Semantic Web Notations

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Cui; Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R.; Wei, Wei-Qi; Chute, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Terminologies and ontologies are increasingly prevalent in health-care and biomedicine. However they suffer from inconsistent renderings, distribution formats, and syntax that make applications through common terminologies services challenging. To address the problem, one could posit a shared representation syntax, associated schema, and tags. We identified a set of commonly-used elements in biomedical ontologies and terminologies based on our experience with the Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) Specification as well as the Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project. We propose guidelines for precisely such a shared terminology model, and recommend tags assembled from SKOS, OWL, Dublin Core, RDF Schema, and DCMI meta-terms. We divide these guidelines into lexical information (e.g. synonyms, and definitions) and semantic information (e.g. hierarchies.) The latter we distinguish for use by informal terminologies vs. formal ontologies. We then evaluate the guidelines with a spectrum of widely used terminologies and ontologies to examine how the lexical guidelines are implemented, and whether our proposed guidelines would enhance interoperability. PMID:23026232

  19. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  20. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  1. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  2. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  3. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  4. Syntax-Semantics Issues for Multiple Event Clauses in Bangla (Bengali)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Debarchana

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the complex predicates in Bangla (Bengali); serial verb constructions (SVCs) and verb compounds (VCs). Based on semantics, syntactic behavior and prosody, I claim that the predicates belong to two different modules of grammar: SVCs in syntax and VCs in the lexicon. Additionally, I show that clausal tense marked in the last verb…

  5. A Role for Chunk Formation in Statistical Learning of Second Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Humans are remarkably sensitive to the statistical structure of language. However, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for such statistical sensitivities. The present study compared adult learning of syntax and the ability of two models of statistical learning to simulate human performance: Simple Recurrent Networks, which learn by…

  6. Syntax and Discourse in Near-Native French: Clefts and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines aspects of the syntax-discourse interface in near-native French. Two cleft structures--"c'est" clefts and "avoir" clefts--are examined in experimental and spontaneous conversational data from 10 adult Anglophone learners of French and ten native speakers of French. "C'est" clefts mark focus, and "avoir" clefts introduce new…

  7. Transfer at the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Pronominal Subjects in Bilingual Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the issue of crosslinguistic influence in the domain of subject realization in Turkish in simultaneous acquisition of Turkish and English. The use of subjects in a null subject language like Turkish is a phenomenon linked to the pragmatics-syntax interface of the grammar and, thus, is a domain where crosslinguistic…

  8. Learning Verb Syntax via Listening: New Evidence from 22-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Katherine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Children recruit verb syntax to guide verb interpretation. We asked whether 22-month-olds spontaneously encode information about a particular novel verb's syntactic properties through listening to sentences, retain this information in long-term memory over a filled delay, and retrieve it to guide interpretation upon hearing the same novel verb…

  9. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  10. Eye Gaze Reveals a Fast, Parallel Extraction of the Syntax of Arithmetic Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elisa; Maruyama, Masaki; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics shares with language an essential reliance on the human capacity for recursion, permitting the generation of an infinite range of embedded expressions from a finite set of symbols. We studied the role of syntax in arithmetic thinking, a neglected component of numerical cognition, by examining eye movement sequences during the…

  11. Internal domain-specific language based on Arden Syntax and FHIR.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Ishihara, Ken

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the concept of Arden Syntax, which is like Domain Specific Language (DSL), for describing decision support rules that take advantage of modern programming language concepts. Using object relational mapper and meta programming enables the conceptualization of FHIR resources from various data sources, and reduces the complexity of knowledge retrieval in decision rules. PMID:26262257

  12. Learning Biases, Regularization, and the Emergence of Typological Universals in Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates typological patterns of syntax and morphosyntax, and the role that learning biases play in constraining them. A link between learning biases and typology is integral to generative linguistics, however evidence for this connection remains minimal. Using experimental, theoretical, and mathematical tools, I provide…

  13. Complex Syntax in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Study of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for…

  14. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection. PMID:26351994

  15. Effects of Distributed Practice on the Acquisition of Second Language English Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study compared the effects of distributed and massed practice schedules on the learning of second language English syntax. Participants were taught distinctions in the tense and aspect systems of English at short and long practice intervals. They were then tested at short and long intervals. The results showed that distributed…

  16. The Syntax of Spoken Arabic: A Comparative Study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brustad, Kristen E.

    This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…

  17. Interlanguage Syntax of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English: The Noun Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

    This study examined the interlanguage syntax of Arabic speaking learners of English in the area of the noun phrase, focusing on the closed system elements that can occur before or after the noun head, the noun head and pronouns in line with Quirk and Greenbaum's (1977) treatment of the noun phrase. Participants were 25 Arabic speaking English…

  18. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Dunson, David B.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Holy and Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other) and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for. PMID:25883559

  19. TWO APPROACHES TO TEACHING SYNTAX. INDIANA UNIVERSITY ENGLISH CURRICULUM STUDY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, MARSHALL L.; AND OTHERS

    TWO TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE APPROACHES TO TEACHING SYNTAX IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED. ONE IS FOR USE WITH AVERAGE AND TALENTED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7-9, AND THE OTHER IS FOR SLOW-LEARNING STUDENTS IN GRADES 7-11. A DISCUSSION OF THE FIRST APPROACH IS DIVIDED BY GRADE LEVEL AND INCLUDES AN EXAMINATION OF BASIC SENTENCE…

  20. Language Development during the Adolescent Years: Aspects of Pragmatics, Syntax, and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Aspects of language that develop during the adolescent years are discussed in the domains of pragmatics, syntax, and semantics. Selected topics include complex conversational behaviors that adolescents employ, syntactic attainments associated with persuasive writing; and the understanding of proverbs and figurative expressions. Relevant…

  1. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  2. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  3. "WH"-Topicalization at the Syntax-Discourse Interface in English Speakers' L2 Chinese Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Boping; Dugarova, Esuna

    2012-01-01

    Although "wh"-words generally stay in situ in Chinese "wh"-questions, they can be topicalized. However, the "wh"-topicalization is determined at the syntax-discourse interface and has to be governed by discourse conditions; only discourse-linked (D-linked) "wh"-words can be topicalized, but non-D-linked ones cannot. This article reports on an…

  4. Peer Conflict Explanations in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Examining the Development of Complex Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Mansfield, Tracy C.; Billow, Jesse L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Expository discourse, the use of language to convey information, requires facility with complex syntax. Although expository discourse is often employed in school and work settings, little is known about its development in children, adolescents, and adults. Hence, it is difficult to evaluate this genre in students who have language…

  5. Implicit Statistical Learning Is Directly Associated with the Acquisition of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an individual differences study that investigated the role of implicit statistical learning in the acquisition of syntax in children. One hundred children ages 4 years 5 months through 6 years 11 months completed a test of implicit statistical learning, a test of explicit declarative learning, and standardized tests of…

  6. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  7. "Meaning through Syntax" in Sentence Production and Comprehension: Reply to McRae et al. (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The "meaning through syntax" framework proposes lexical, decompositional representations of verb meaning. For several classes of verbs, the proposed representations have successfully predicted 2 types of data that pattern differently: the syntactic structures of sentences that are naturally produced by speakers and writers and the comprehension…

  8. Theme, Rheme, Topic, and Comment in the Syntax of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    The syntax of lexical units, or signs, of American Sign Language (ASL) is analyzed. Previous areas of study concerning pauses, functional sentence perspective, theme and rheme, and topic and comment are discussed. A model is offered to depict topic-comment relationships in ASL using space, vectors, and relationship rules. (SW)

  9. Thematic Resultative Expressions in English and Japanese: A View from the Syntax of Event Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cross-linguistic behavior of Thematic Resultative Expressions in English and Japanese from the viewpoint of syntax-semantics mappings of event aspects, and discusses the source of some of their well-recognized syntactic and syntactico-semantic properties. Thematic Resultative Expressions (e.g. "John smashed the…

  10. Designing a Syntax-Based Retrieval System for Supporting Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Nai-Lung; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Wible, David; Hung, Tsung-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a syntax-based text retrieval system for on-line language learning and use a fast regular expression search engine as its main component. Regular expression searches provide more scalable querying and search results than keyword-based searches. However, without a well-designed index scheme, the execution time of regular…

  11. Tone and Syntax in Rutooro, a Toneless Bantu Language of Western Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaji, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction of tone and syntax in Rutooro, a Bantu language of Western Uganda. Rutooro has lost its lexical tone but retains a phrasally defined high pitch that appears on the penultimate syllable--the default position in Bantu. This high pitch can work grammatically and in fact distinguishes between the noun phrase vs.…

  12. Is Young Children's Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence from Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Katherine; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Sorace, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that English-speaking children comprehend agent-patient verb passives earlier than experiencer-theme verb passives (Maratsos, Fox, Becker, & Chalkley, 1985). We report three experiments examining whether such effects reflect delayed acquisition of the passive syntax or instead are an artifact of the experimental task,…

  13. A Behavior Analytic Analogue of Learning to Use Synonyms, Syntax, and Parts of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, P. N.; Ellenwood, D. W.; Madden, G.

    2008-01-01

    Matching-to-sample and sequence training procedures were used to develop responding to stimulus classes that were considered analogous to 3 aspects of verbal behavior: identifying synonyms and parts of speech,and using syntax. Matching-to-sample procedures were used to train 12 paired associates from among 24 stimuli. These pairs were analogous to…

  14. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  15. Using Arden Syntax for the Generation of Intelligent Intensive Care Discharge Letters.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Stefan; Castellanos, Ixchel; Albermann, Matthias; Schuettler, Christina; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Staudigel, Martin; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Discharge letters are an important means of communication between physicians and nurses from intensive care units and their colleagues from normal wards. The patient data management system (PDMS) used at our local intensive care units provides an export tool to create discharge letters by inserting data items from electronic medical records into predefined templates. Local intensivists criticized the limitations of this tool regarding the identification and the further processing of clinically relevant data items for a flexible creation of discharge letters. As our PDMS supports Arden Syntax, and the demanded functionalities are well within the scope of this standard, we set out to investigate the suitability of Arden Syntax for the generation of discharge letters. To provide an easy-to-understand facility for integrating data items into document templates, we created an Arden Syntax interface function which replaces the names of previously defined variables with their content in a way that permits arbitrary custom formatting by clinical users. Our approach facilitates the creation of flexible text sections by conditional statements, as well as the integration of arbitrary HTML code and dynamically generated graphs. The resulting prototype enables clinical users to apply the full set of Arden Syntax language constructs to identify and process relevant data items in a way that far exceeds the capabilities of the PDMS export tool. The generation of discharge letters is an uncommon area of application for Arden Syntax, considerably differing from its original purpose. However, we found our prototype well suited for this task and plan to evaluate it in clinical production after the next major release change of our PDMS. PMID:27577427

  16. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  17. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  18. TCD: A Text-Based UML Class Diagram Notation and Its Model Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washizaki, Hironori; Akimoto, Masayoshi; Hasebe, Atsushi; Kubo, Atsuto; Fukazawa, Yoshiaki

    Among several diagrams defined in UML, the class diagram is particularly useful through entire software development process, from early domain analysis stages to later maintenance stages. However conventional UML environments are often inappropriate for collaborative modeling in physically remote locations, such as exchanging models on a public mailing list via email. To overcome this issue, we propose a new diagram notation, called "TCD" (Text-based uml Class Diagram), for describing UML class diagrams using ASCII text. Since text files can be easily created, modified and exchanged in anywhere by any computing platforms, TCD facilitates the collaborative modeling with a number of unspecified people. Moreover, we implemented model converters for converting in both directions between UML class diagrams described in the XMI form and those in the TCD form. By using the converters, the reusability of models can be significantly improved because many of UML modeling tools support the XMI for importing and exporting modeling data.

  19. The Effects of Aural versus Notated Instructional Materials on Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Jazz Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the…

  20. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  1. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  2. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  3. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  6. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  7. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  9. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  10. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  11. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  12. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  13. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  14. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  16. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  18. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  19. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  20. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  1. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  2. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  4. Using features of Arden Syntax with object-oriented medical data models for guideline modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, M.; Ogunyemi, O.; Tu, S.; Boxwala, A. A.; Zeng, Q.; Greenes, R. A.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) can deliver patient-specific decision support at the point of care. CIGs base their recommendations on eligibility and decision criteria that relate medical concepts to patient data. CIG models use expression languages for specifying these criteria, and define models for medical data to which the expressions can refer. In developing version 3 of the GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF3), we used existing standards as the medical data model and expression language. We investigated the object-oriented HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a default data model. We developed an expression language, called GEL, based on Arden Syntax's logic grammar. Together with other GLIF constructs, GEL reconciles incompatibilities between the data models of Arden Syntax and the HL7 RIM. These incompatibilities include Arden's lack of support for complex data types and time intervals, and the mismatch between Arden's single primary time and multiple time attributes of the HL7 RIM. PMID:11825243

  5. Street network measures and adults' walking for transport: Application of space syntax.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Owen, Neville

    2016-03-01

    The street network underpins the walkability of local neighborhoods. We examined whether two street network measures (intersection density and street integration from space syntax) were independently associated with walking for transport (WT); and, to what extent the relationship of street integration with WT may be explained by the presence of destinations. In 2003-2004, adults living in Adelaide, Australia (n=2544) reported their past-week WT frequency and perceived distances to 16 destination types. Marginal models via generalized estimating equations tested mediation effects. Both intersection density and street integration were significantly associated with WT, after adjusting for each other. Perceived destination availability explained 42% of the association of street integration with WT; this may be because of an association between street integration and local destination availability - an important element of neighborhood walkability. The use of space syntax concepts and methods has the potential to provide novel insights into built-environment influences on walking. PMID:26808485

  6. Classifiers as Count Syntax: Individuation and Measurement in the Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peggy; Barner, David; Huang, Becky H.

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between mass nouns (e.g., butter) and count nouns (e.g., table) offers a test case for asking how the syntax and semantics of natural language are related, and how children exploit syntax-semantics mappings when acquiring language. Virtually no studies have examined this distinction in classifier languages (e.g., Mandarin Chinese) due to the widespread assumption that such languages lack mass-count syntax. However, Cheng and Sybesma (1998) argue that Mandarin encodes the mass-count at the classifier level: classifiers can be categorized as “mass-classifiers” or “count-classifiers.” Mass and count classifiers differ in semantic interpretation and occur in different syntactic constructions. The current study is first an empirical test of Cheng and Sybesma’s hypothesis, and second, a test of the acquisition of putative mass and count classifiers by children learning Mandarin. Experiments 1 and 2 asked whether count-classifiers select individuals and mass classifiers select nonindividuals and sets of individuals. Adult Mandarin-speakers indeed showed this pattern of interpretation, while 4- to 6-year-olds had not fully mastered the distinction. Experiment 3 tested participants’ syntactic sensitivity by asking them to match two syntactic constructions (one that supported the mass or portion reading and one that did not) to two contrasting choices (a portion of an object and a whole object). A developmental trend was observed for the syntactic knowledge from 4-year-old children into adulthood: adults were near perfect and the older children were more likely than the younger children to correctly match the contrasting phrases to the objects. Thus, in three experiments we find support for Cheng and Sybesma’s analysis, but also find that children master the syntax and semantics of Mandarin classifiers much later than English-speaking children acquire knowledge of the English mass-count distinction. PMID:20151047

  7. Complexity VIII. Ontology of closure in complex systems: The C* hypothesis and the O° notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jerry LR

    1999-03-01

    Closure is a common characteristic of mathematical, natural and socio-cultural systems. Whether one is describing a graph, a molecule, a cell, a human, or a nation state, closure is implicitly understood. An objective of this paper is to continue a construction of a systematic framework for closure which is sufficient for future quantitative transdisciplinary investigations. A further objective is to extend the Birkhoff-von Neumann criterion for quantum systems to complex natural objects. The C* hypothesis is being constructed to be consistent with algebraic category theory (Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1987, 1997, Chandler, 1990, 1991, Chandler, Ehresmann and Vanbremeersch, 1996). Five aspects of closure will be used to construct a framework for categories of complex systems: 1. Truth functions in mathematics and the natural sciences 2. Systematic descriptions in the mks and O° notations 3. Organizational structures in hierarchical scientific languages 4. Transitive organizational pathways in the causal structures of complex behaviors 5. Composing additive, multiplicative and exponential operations in complex systems Truth functions can be formal or objective or subjective, depending on the complexity of the system and on our capability to represent the fine structure of the system symbolically, observationally or descriptively. "Complete" material representations of the fine structure of a system may allow truth functions to be created over sets of one to one correspondences. Less complete descriptions can support less stringent truth functions based on coherence or subjective judgments. The role of human values in creating and perpetuating truth functions can be placed in context of the degree of fine structure in the system's description. The organization of complex systems are hypothesized to be categorizable into degrees relative to one another, thereby creating an ordering relationship. This ordering relationship is denoted by the symbols: O°1, O°2,O°3

  8. Syntax of Phase Transition Peptide Polymers with LCST and UCST Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quiroz, Felipe

    "Smart" polymers that sense stimuli in aqueous environments and that respond with a pronounced change in their solvation are of great utility in biotechnology and medicine. Currently, however, only few peptide polymers are known to display this behavior. Here, we uncover the syntax -- defined as the arrangement of amino acids (letters) into repeat units (words) that have a functional behavior of interest -- of a novel and extensive family of genetically encoded "smart" peptide polymers, termed syntactomers, that dictates their ability to undergo a soluble to insoluble phase transition at temperatures above a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or below an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). We show that this syntax ranges from phase transition polymers composed of simple repeats of a few amino acids to polymers whose syntax resembles the complex sequence of peptide drugs and protein domains that exhibit dual levels of function, as seen by their stimulus responsiveness and biological activity. This seamless fusion of materials and protein design embodied by syntactomers promises, we hope, a new generation of designer polymers with multiple levels of embedded functionality that should lead to new functional materials of broad interest

  9. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We examined which cognitive, environmental, and speech/language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), and typical development (TD), and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method We obtained Index of Productive Syntax scores for 18 boys with FXS only, 20 boys with both FXS and autism spectrum disorder, 27 boys with DS, and 25 younger TD boys of similar nonverbal mental age (MA). Predictors included group (diagnosis), nonverbal cognition, phonological working memory (PWM), maternal education, speech intelligibility, and expressive vocabulary. We addressed the research questions via hierarchical linear regression. Results Diagnostic group, nonverbal cognition, and PWM predicted 56% of the variance in syntactic ability, with approximately three-fourths of the predicted variance explained by group membership alone. The other factors did not contribute any additional significant variance in this final model. There was no evidence that predictor effects differed by group. Conclusions Nonverbal cognition and PWM have an effect on expressive syntax beyond that of diagnostic group. These effects are estimated to be the same in FXS, DS, and TD. We discuss explanations for residual variance and the relative role of different predictors. PMID:22473836

  10. A Behavior Analytic Analogue of Learning to Use Synonyms, Syntax, and Parts of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Philip N; Ellenwood, David W; Madden, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Matching-to-sample and sequence training procedures were used to develop responding to stimulus classes that were considered analogous to 3 aspects of verbal behavior: identifying synonyms and parts of speech, and using syntax. Matching-to-sample procedures were used to train 12 paired associates from among 24 stimuli. These pairs were analogous to synonyms. Then, sequence characteristics were trained to 6 of the stimuli. The result was the formation of 3 classes of 4 stimuli, with the classes controlling a sequence response analogous to a simple ordering syntax: first, second, and third. Matching-to-sample procedures were then used to add 4 stimuli to each class. These stimuli, without explicit sequence training, also began to control the same sequence responding as the other members of their class. Thus, three 8-member functionally equivalent sequence classes were formed. These classes were considered to be analogous to parts of speech. Further testing revealed three 8-member equivalence classes and 512 different sequences of first, second, and third. The study indicated that behavior analytic procedures may be used to produce some generative aspects of verbal behavior related to simple syntax and semantics. PMID:22477402

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  12. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  13. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  14. Requirements Modeling with the Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN): A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussbacher, Gunter; Amyot, Daniel; Araújo, João; Moreira, Ana

    The User Requirements Notation (URN) is a recent ITU-T standard that supports requirements engineering activities. The Aspect-oriented URN (AoURN) adds aspect-oriented concepts to URN, creating a unified framework that allows for scenario-based, goal-oriented, and aspect-oriented modeling. AoURN is applied to the car crash crisis management system (CCCMS), modeling its functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). AoURN generally models all use cases, NFRs, and stakeholders as individual concerns and provides general guidelines for concern identification. AoURN handles interactions between concerns, capturing their dependencies and conflicts as well as the resolutions. We present a qualitative comparison of aspect-oriented techniques for scenario-based and goal-oriented requirements engineering. An evaluation carried out based on the metrics adapted from literature and a task-based evaluation suggest that AoURN models are more scalable than URN models and exhibit better modularity, reusability, and maintainability.

  15. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games. PMID:19197212

  16. Kidney transplantation process in Brazil represented in business process modeling notation.

    PubMed

    Peres Penteado, A; Molina Cohrs, F; Diniz Hummel, A; Erbs, J; Maciel, R F; Feijó Ortolani, C L; de Aguiar Roza, B; Torres Pisa, I

    2015-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for people with chronic kidney failure, because it improves the patients' quality of life and increases their length of survival compared with patients undergoing dialysis. The kidney transplantation process in Brazil is defined through laws, decrees, ordinances, and resolutions, but there is no visual representation of this process. The aim of this study was to analyze official documents to construct a representation of the kidney transplantation process in Brazil with the use of business process modeling notation (BPMN). The methodology for this study was based on an exploratory observational study, document analysis, and construction of process diagrams with the use of BPMN. Two rounds of validations by specialists were conducted. The result includes the kidney transplantation process in Brazil representation with the use of BPMN. We analyzed 2 digital documents that resulted in 2 processes with 45 total of activities and events, 6 organizations involved, and 6 different stages of the process. The constructed representation makes it easier to understand the rules for the business of kidney transplantation and can be used by the health care professionals involved in the various activities within this process. Construction of a representation with language appropriate for the Brazilian lay public is underway. PMID:26036495

  17. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528562

  18. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528563

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge. PMID:26528561

  20. Non-symbolic and symbolic notations in simple arithmetic differentially involve intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus activity.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Frauke; Takashima, Atsuko; Segers, Eliane; Fernández, Guillén; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-07-15

    Addition problems can be solved by mentally manipulating quantities for which the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is likely recruited, or by retrieving the answer directly from fact memory in which the left angular gyrus (AG) and perisylvian areas may play a role. Mental addition is usually studied with problems presented in the Arabic notation (4+2), and less so with number words (four+two) or dots (:: +·.). In the present study, we investigated how the notation of numbers influences processing during simple mental arithmetic. Twenty-five highly educated participants performed simple arithmetic while their brain activity was recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging. To reveal the effect of number notation, arithmetic problems were presented in a non-symbolic (Dots) or symbolic (Arabic; Words) notation. Furthermore, we asked whether IPS processing during mental arithmetic is magnitude specific or of a more general, visuospatial nature. To this end, we included perception and manipulation of non-magnitude formats (Colors; unfamiliar Japanese Characters). Increased IPS activity was observed, suggesting magnitude calculations during addition of non-symbolic numbers. In contrast, there was greater activity in the AG and perisylvian areas for symbolic compared to non-symbolic addition, suggesting increased verbal fact retrieval. Furthermore, IPS activity was not specific to processing of numerical magnitude but also present for non-magnitude stimuli that required mental visuospatial processing (Color-mixing; Character-memory measured by a delayed match-to-sample task). Together, our data suggest that simple non-symbolic sums are calculated using visual imagery, whereas answers for simple symbolic sums are retrieved from verbal memory. PMID:27117869

  1. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  2. Abstract for 1999 Rational Software User Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, Julia; Rouquette, Nicolas; Feather, Martin; Tung, Yu-Wen

    1999-01-01

    We develop spacecraft fault-protection software at NASA/JPL. Challenges exemplified by our task: 1) high-quality systems - need for extensive validation & verification; 2) multi-disciplinary context - involves experts from diverse areas; 3) embedded systems - must adapt to external practices, notations, etc.; and 4) development pressures - NASA's mandate of "better, faster, cheaper".

  3. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  4. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  5. Interpretation for scales of measurement linking with abstract algebra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Stevens classification of levels of measurement involves four types of scale: “Nominal”, “Ordinal”, “Interval” and “Ratio”. This classification has been used widely in medical fields and has accomplished an important role in composition and interpretation of scale. With this classification, levels of measurements appear organized and validated. However, a group theory-like systematization beckons as an alternative because of its logical consistency and unexceptional applicability in the natural sciences but which may offer great advantages in clinical medicine. According to this viewpoint, the Stevens classification is reformulated within an abstract algebra-like scheme; ‘Abelian modulo additive group’ for “Ordinal scale” accompanied with ‘zero’, ‘Abelian additive group’ for “Interval scale”, and ‘field’ for “Ratio scale”. Furthermore, a vector-like display arranges a mixture of schemes describing the assessment of patient states. With this vector-like notation, data-mining and data-set combination is possible on a higher abstract structure level based upon a hierarchical-cluster form. Using simple examples, we show that operations acting on the corresponding mixed schemes of this display allow for a sophisticated means of classifying, updating, monitoring, and prognosis, where better data mining/data usage and efficacy is expected. PMID:24987515

  6. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  7. A Simple Predictive Enhancer Syntax for Hindbrain Patterning Is Conserved in Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Joseph; Noyvert, Boris; Doglio, Laura; Elgar, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Determining the function of regulatory elements is fundamental for our understanding of development, disease and evolution. However, the sequence features that mediate these functions are often unclear and the prediction of tissue-specific expression patterns from sequence alone is non-trivial. Previous functional studies have demonstrated a link between PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP binding interactions and hindbrain enhancer activity, but the defining grammar of these sites, if any exists, has remained elusive. Results Here, we identify a shared sequence signature (syntax) within a heterogeneous set of conserved vertebrate hindbrain enhancers composed of spatially co-occurring PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP transcription factor binding motifs. We use this syntax to accurately predict hindbrain enhancers in 89% of cases (67/75 predicted elements) from a set of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs). Furthermore, mutagenesis of the sites abolishes activity or generates ectopic expression, demonstrating their requirement for segmentally restricted enhancer activity in the hindbrain. We refine and use our syntax to predict over 3,000 hindbrain enhancers across the human genome. These sequences tend to be located near developmental transcription factors and are enriched in known hindbrain activating elements, demonstrating the predictive power of this simple model. Conclusion Our findings support the theory that hundreds of CNEs, and perhaps thousands of regions across the human genome, function to coordinate gene expression in the developing hindbrain. We speculate that deeply conserved sequences of this kind contributed to the co-option of new genes into the hindbrain gene regulatory network during early vertebrate evolution by linking patterns of hox expression to downstream genes involved in segmentation and patterning, and evolutionarily newer instances may have continued to contribute to lineage-specific elaboration of the hindbrain. PMID:26131856

  8. Dr Syntax's view of Edinburgh medicine: the life and pictures of John Sheriff (1775-1844).

    PubMed

    Kennaway, J

    2015-01-01

    From the 1820s to the 1840s, one of the most recognisable figures in Edinburgh was the eccentric John Sheriff, generally known as Dr Syntax. He was a talented amateur artist, whose work provides a fascinating and strange insight into the mind of a troubled man and, because of his interest in medicine, into the history of medicine in Scotland at the time. This paper seeks to show that Sheriff and his pictures deserve to be remembered, since they offer intriguing insights for anyone interested in the history of medicine and of Edinburgh at the end of its Golden Age. PMID:27070894

  9. Integrating decision support, based on the Arden Syntax, in a clinical laboratory environment.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, B.; Bergqvist, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A clinical decision support system prototype have been developed in the clinical laboratory environment. The knowledge base consists of Medical Logic Modules, written in the Arden Syntax, and the work describes how these modules can be written, evoked and executed in a system, that is integrated with a laboratory information system, and facilitate real time validation of laboratory data. Tools and methods for building a decision support system are described and design aspects, such as database access, system validation and platform independence, are discussed. PMID:8130502

  10. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  11. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  12. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  13. Language and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder: the relationship between complement syntax and false belief task performance.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Bowler, Dermot M

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and traditional location change and unexpected contents false belief tasks. Consistent with predictions, the correlation between complement syntax score and location change task performance was significantly stronger within the ASD group than within the comparison group. However, contrary to predictions, complement syntax score was not significantly correlated with unexpected contents task performance within either group. Possible explanations for this pattern of results are considered. PMID:19205856

  14. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin’s Vireo (Vireo cassinii)

    PubMed Central

    Hedley, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin’s Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity–zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models–and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher’s exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537

  15. Abstractions for DNA circuit design

    PubMed Central

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Youssef, Simon; Cardelli, Luca; Phillips, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    DNA strand displacement techniques have been used to implement a broad range of information processing devices, from logic gates, to chemical reaction networks, to architectures for universal computation. Strand displacement techniques enable computational devices to be implemented in DNA without the need for additional components, allowing computation to be programmed solely in terms of nucleotide sequences. A major challenge in the design of strand displacement devices has been to enable rapid analysis of high-level designs while also supporting detailed simulations that include known forms of interference. Another challenge has been to design devices capable of sustaining precise reaction kinetics over long periods, without relying on complex experimental equipment to continually replenish depleted species over time. In this paper, we present a programming language for designing DNA strand displacement devices, which supports progressively increasing levels of molecular detail. The language allows device designs to be programmed using a common syntax and then analysed at varying levels of detail, with or without interference, without needing to modify the program. This allows a trade-off to be made between the level of molecular detail and the computational cost of analysis. We use the language to design a buffered architecture for DNA devices, capable of maintaining precise reaction kinetics for a potentially unbounded period. We test the effectiveness of buffered gates to support long-running computation by designing a DNA strand displacement system capable of sustained oscillations. PMID:21775321

  16. Glacier and landslide feedbacks to topographic relief in the Himalayan syntaxes.

    PubMed

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R; Hewitt, Kenneth

    2010-03-23

    Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift. PMID:20212156

  17. Glacier and landslide feedbacks to topographic relief in the Himalayan syntaxes

    PubMed Central

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R.; Hewitt, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift. PMID:20212156

  18. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area. PMID:26536026

  19. Evolution of a knowledge base for a clinical decision support system encoded in the Arden Syntax.

    PubMed Central

    Jenders, R. A.; Huang, H.; Hripcsak, G.; Clayton, P. D.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are being used increasingly in medical practice. Thus, long-term maintenance of the knowledge bases (KB) of such systems becomes important. To quantify changes that occur as a KB evolves, we studied the KB at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. This KB has a total of 229 Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) encoded in the Arden Syntax. Eliminating those never used in practice, we retrospectively analyzed 156 MLMs developed over 78 months. We noted 2020 distinct versions of these MLMs that included 5528 changed statements over time. These changes occurred primarily in the logic slot (38.7% of all changes), the action slot (17.8%), in queries (15.0%) and in the data slot exclusive of queries (12.4%). We conclude that long-term maintenance of a KB for a CDSS requires significant changes over time. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of KB editors for the Arden Syntax. PMID:9929281

  20. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca’s Area: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026

  1. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  2. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several studies of child language that have been conducted with the goal of helping to adjudicate between the alternative approaches to language development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:185-203. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301394

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  4. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  5. Argument Realization in Second Language Acquisition of French and Spanish: A View from the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on monolingual (L1) and bilingual (2L1) language acquisition is exploring the idea that children's early deviant structures involving omission of obligatory subjects and objects might be due not so much to performance limitations or purely syntactic deficits, but rather to an immature interface between syntax and discourse. For…

  6. The Crucial Role of Thiamine in the Development of Syntax and Lexical Retrieval: A Study of Infantile Thiamine Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fattal, Iris; Friedmann, Naama; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the effect of thiamine deficiency during early infancy on the development of syntax and lexical retrieval. We tested syntactic comprehension and production, lexical retrieval abilities and conceptual abilities of 59 children aged 5-7 years who had been fed during their first year of life with a thiamine-deficient milk…

  7. A Comparative Study of the Quality and Syntax of Compositions by First Year College Students Using Handwriting and Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etchison, Craig

    Based on the general lack of empirical evidence on the effects of word processors on writing quality, a study focused on changes in writing quality and syntax of first-year college writers who were taught to use word processors as part of their English composition class. The issue addressed was whether using word processors increased the syntactic…

  8. Alcuni Aspetti dello Sviluppo Morfosintattico in Italiano (Some Aspects of the Development of Morphology and Syntax in Italian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research that gathered language samples via videotape recordings from 2 Italian children (one upper class, the other lower class) from the age of 18 months to 36 months, and then analyzes the data to determine the development of morphology and syntax in these children. (19 references) (CFM)

  9. Language and Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Relationship between Complement Syntax and False Belief Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and…

  10. The Spanish Complementizer System: Consequences for the Syntax of Dislocations and Subjects, Locality of Movement, and Clausal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa-Garcia, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax of Spanish complementizers, with special attention to double-complementizer constructions and non-high "que" "that" complementizers. The goal is to explore the consequences of the behavior and distribution of such complementizers for the mapping of the Spanish left periphery, the…

  11. Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

  12. Comparison of Syntax Training for Students with Developmental Disabilities Utilizing Clinician-Directed versus Self-Determined Session Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Gonzalez, Lori; Schuster, John W.; Huebner, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The ability to make choices, plan, and self-evaluate are among the primary skills included in the development of self-determination. This study was designed to determine if a teaching paradigm, which incorporates key elements of self-determination, is as effective and more efficient in teaching syntax than a traditional, clinician-directed…

  13. Descriptions and Implementations of DL_F Notation: A Natural Chemical Expression System of Atom Types for Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chin W

    2016-08-22

    DL_F Notation is an easy-to-understand, standardized atom typesetting expression for molecular simulations for a range of organic force field (FF) schemes such as OPLSAA, PCFF, and CVFF. It is implemented within DL_FIELD, a software program that facilitates the setting up of molecular FF models for DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation software. By making use of the Notation, a single core conversion module (the DL_F conversion Engine) implemented within DL_FIELD can be used to analyze a molecular structure and determine the types of atoms for a given FF scheme. Users only need to provide the molecular input structure in a simple xyz format and DL_FIELD can produce the necessary force field file for DL_POLY automatically. In commensurate with the development concept of DL_FIELD, which placed emphasis on robustness and user friendliness, the Engine provides a single-step solution to setup complex FF models. This allows users to switch from one of the above-mentioned FF seamlessly to another while at the same time provides a consistent atom typing that is expressed in a natural chemical sense. PMID:27455451

  14. Different Treatment Strategies for Patients with Multivessel Coronary Disease and High SYNTAX Score.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Jia, Dalin; Han, Yang; Wang, Shaojun; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    We sought to evaluate the prognosis of different treatment strategies on patients with multivessel coronary disease and high SYNTAX score. 171 patients with multivessel coronary disease and SYNTAX score ε33, who underwent coronary angiography between July 2009 and July 2010 at our hospital were retrospectively selected and divided into incomplete and complete revascularization intervention groups (IR), a coronary artery bypass surgery group (CABG), a conservative drug therapy group according to treatment strategies chosen and agreed by the patients. These patients were followed up for 19.44 ± 5.73 months by telephone or outpatient service. We found the medical treatment group has a lower overall survival than the IR, CR group, and CABG group (P log-rank values are 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively). The medical treatment group also has a lower survival than the IR group, CR group, and CABG group in cerebral stroke and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) (P log-rank values are 0.004, 0.03, and 0.001, respectively) and MACE events (P log-rank values are 0.003, 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The medical treatment group and IR group have lower survival in recurrent angina pectoris than the CR group and CABG group (P log-rank values are 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03, 0.008, respectively). There are no significant differences between the CR group and the CABG group in number of deaths, strokes and recurrent MIs, MACE events, angina pectoris (P log-rank values are 0.69, 0.53, and 0.86, respectively). The IR group shows a lower survival than the CR group and CABG group only in angina pectoris (P log-rank values are 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). For the patients with a high SYNTAX score, medical treatment is still inferior to revascularization therapy (interventional therapy or coronary artery bypass surgery). It appears that the CABG is not obviously superior to the coronary intervention therapy. Complete revascularization and coronary artery bypass grafting

  15. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  16. Improved correlation between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis SYNTAX score using automated ultrasound carotid bulb plaque IMT measurement.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Dey, Nilanjan; Bose, Soumyo; Shafique, Shoaib; Arak, Tadashi; Godia, Elisa Cuadrado; Saba, Luca; Laird, John R; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    Described here is a detailed novel pilot study on whether the SYNTAX (Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and cardiac surgery) score, a measure of coronary artery disease complexity, could be better predicted with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measures using automated IMT all along the common carotid and bulb plaque compared with manual IMT determined by sonographers. Three hundred seventy consecutive patients who underwent carotid ultrasound and coronary angiography were analyzed. SYNTAX score was determined from coronary angiograms by two experienced interventional cardiologists. Unlike most methods of cIMT measurement commonly used by sonographers, our method involves a computerized automated cIMT measurement all along the carotid artery that includes the bulb region and the region proximal to the bulb (under the class of AtheroEdge systems from AtheroPoint, Roseville, CA, USA). In this study, the correlation between automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score was found to be 0.467 (p < 0.0001), compared with 0.391 (p < 0.0001) for the correlation between the sonographer's IMT reading and SYNTAX score. The correlation between the automated cIMT and the sonographer's IMT was 0.882. When compared against the radiologist's manual tracings, automated cIMT system performance had a lumen-intima error of 0.007818 ± 0.0071 mm, media-adventitia error of 0.0179 ± 0.0125 mm and automated cIMT error of 0.0099 ± 0.00988 mm. The precision of automated cIMT against the manual radiologist's reading was 98.86%. This current automated algorithm revealed a significantly stronger correlation between cIMT and coronary SYNTAX score as compared with the sonographer's cIMT measurements with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. We benchmarked our correlation between the automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score against a previously published (Ikeda et al. 2013) AtheroEdgeLink (AtheroPoint) correlation between the

  17. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  18. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  19. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  20. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  1. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  2. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  3. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  4. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  5. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness Is an Independent Predictor of Critical and Complex Coronary Artery Disease by Gensini and Syntax Scores

    PubMed Central

    Tanindi, Asli; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ugurlu, Murat; Tore, Hasan Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. We prospectively investigated whether epicardial adipose tissue thickness is related to coronary artery disease extent and complexity as denoted by Gensini and Syntax scores, and whether the thickness predicts critical disease. After performing coronary angiography in 183 patients who had angina or acute myocardial infarction, we divided them into 3 groups: normal coronary arteries, noncritical disease (≥1 coronary lesion with <70% stenosis), and critical disease (≥1 coronary lesion with <70% stenosis). We used transthoracic echocardiography to measure epicardial adipose tissue thickness, then calculated Gensini and Syntax scores by reviewing the angiograms. Mean thicknesses were 4.3 ± 0.9, 5.2 ± 1.5, and 7.5 ± 1.9 mm in patients with normal coronary arteries, noncritical disease, and critical disease, respectively (P <0.001). At progressive thicknesses (<5, 5–7, and >7 mm), mean Gensini scores were 4.1 ± 5.5, 19.8 ± 15.6, and 64.9 ± 32.4, and mean Syntax scores were 4.7 ± 5.9, 16.6 ± 8.5, and 31.7 ± 8.7, respectively (both P <0.001). Thickness had strong and positive correlations with both scores (Gensini, r =0.82, P <0.001; and Syntax, r =0.825, P <0.001). The cutoff thickness value to predict critical disease was 5.75 mm (area under the curve, 0.875; 95% confidence interval, 0.825–0.926; P <0.001). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is independently related to coronary artery disease extent and complexity as denoted by Gensini and Syntax scores, and it predicts critical coronary artery disease. PMID:27047282

  6. Automatic Number Processing Independent of Language and Notation in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Numbers are ubiquitous in life. At the same time, the symbols for numbers are highly abstract and their visual appearance does not carry any direct relation to their magnitude. This poses an important question for researchers interested in how numbers are mentally processed. Whereas research on numeric cognition suggests that culturally based…

  7. Coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. A focus on the 3-year SYNTAX trial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Groot, M W; Head, S J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Kappetein, A P

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is growing worldwide. Diabetics are predisposed to coronary artery disease due to an increased rate of atherosclerosis. The optimal treatment for these patients remains uncertain. Randomized trials compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to determine the most suitable revascularization strategy. Meta-analyses suggest a survival advantage in favor of surgery over angioplasty or stenting with bare-metal stents (BMS). New evidence was needed since advances in medical therapy, PCI technology, and surgical techniques have emerged. The Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was the first to compare a drug-eluting stent to CABG and showed an increased rate of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events after PCI. Results are mainly driven by the increased rates in patients with high lesion complexity; therefore, the current evidence suggests that diabetic patients with complex coronary disease have better outcomes with CABG. PMID:22430286

  8. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-08-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing children in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of (morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics. PMID:27209514

  9. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. PMID:26171760

  10. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  11. QUANTUM: A Wolfram Mathematica add-on for Dirac Bra-Ket Notation, Non-Commutative Algebra, and Simulation of Quantum Computing Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Muñoz, J. L.; Delgado, F.

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces QUANTUM, a free library of commands of Wolfram Mathematica that can be used to perform calculations directly in Dirac braket and operator notation. Its development started several years ago, in order to study quantum random walks. Later, many other features were included, like operator and commutator algebra, simulation and graphing of quantum computing circuits, generation and solution of Heisenberg equations of motion, among others. To the best of our knowledge, QUANTUM remains a unique tool in its use of Dirac notation, because it is used both in the input and output of the calculations. This work depicts its usage and features in Quantum Computing and Quantum Hamilton Dynamics.

  12. The role of the striatum in sentence processing: disentangling syntax from working memory in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Sambin, Sara; Teichmann, Marc; de Diego Balaguer, Ruth; Giavazzi, Maria; Sportiche, Dominique; Schlenker, Philippe; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The role of sub-cortical structures in language processing remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the striatum subserves language-specific processes such as syntax or whether it solely affects language performance via its significant role in executive functioning and/or working memory. Here, in order to address this issue, we attempted to equalize working memory constraints while varying syntactic complexity, to study sentence comprehension in 15 patients with striatal damage, namely Huntington's disease at early stage, and in 15 healthy controls. More particularly, we manipulated the syntactic relation between a name and a pronoun while holding the distance between them constant. We exploited a formal principle of syntactic theory called Principle C. This principle states that whereas in a sentence such as "Paul smiled when he entered" Paul and he can be a single person, this interpretation is blocked in sentences such as "He smiled when Paul entered". In a second experiment we varied working memory load using noun-adjective gender agreement in center-embedded and right-branching relatives (e.g., "the girl who watches the dog is green" vs. "the girl watches the dog which is green"). The results show that HD patients correctly establish name-pronoun co-reference but they fail to block it when Principle C should apply. Furthermore, they have good performance with both center-embedded and right-branching relatives, suggesting that their difficulties in sentence comprehension do not arise from memory load impairment during sentence processing. Taken together, our findings indicate that the striatum holds a genuine role in syntactic processing, which cannot be reduced to its involvement in working memory. However, it only impacts on particular aspects of syntax that may relate to complex computations whereas other operations appear to be preserved. Hypotheses about the role of the striatum in syntactic processing are discussed. PMID:22820633

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Predictive Value of Combining the Ankle-Brachial Index and SYNTAX Score for the Prediction of Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the SHINANO Registry).

    PubMed

    Ueki, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Motoki, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Sekimura, Noriyuki; Morita, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-01-15

    The Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is effective in predicting clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its prediction ability is low because it reflects only the coronary characterization. We assessed the predictive value of combining the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and SYNTAX score to predict clinical outcomes after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated for 1,197 patients recruited from the Shinshu Prospective Multi-center Analysis for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SHINANO) registry, a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in Japan. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in the first year after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated by categorizing and summing up the ABI and SYNTAX scores. ABI ≤ 0.49 was defined as 4, 0.5 to 0.69 as 3, 0.7 to 0.89 as 2, 0.9 to 1.09 as 1, and 1.1 to 1.5 as 0; an SYNTAX score ≤ 22 was defined as 0, 23 to 32 as 1, and ≥ 33 as 2. Patients were divided into low (0), moderate (1 to 2), and high (3 to 6) groups. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the high ABI-SYNTAX score group than in the lower 2 groups (low: 4.6% vs moderate: 7.0% vs high: 13.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis found that ABI-SYNTAX score independently predicted MACE (hazards ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52, p = 0.029). The respective C-statistic for the ABI-SYNTAX and SYNTAX score for 1-year MACE was 0.60 and 0.55, respectively. In conclusion, combining the ABI and SYNTAX scores improved the prediction of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with the SYNTAX score alone. PMID:26684515

  15. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  16. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  17. Validation of the SYNTAX revascularization index to quantify reasonable level of incomplete revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Généreux, Philippe; Campos, Carlos M; Farooq, Vasim; Bourantas, Christos V; Mohr, Friedrich W; Colombo, Antonio; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Feldman, Ted E; Holmes, David R; Mack, Michael J; Morice, Marie-Claude; Kappetein, A Pieter; Palmerini, Tullio; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-07-15

    Incomplete revascularization is common after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether a "reasonable" degree of incomplete revascularization is associated with a similar favorable long-term prognosis compared with complete revascularization remains unknown. We sought to quantify the proportion of coronary artery disease burden treated by PCI and evaluate its impact on outcomes using a new prognostic instrument-the Synergy Between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Revascularization Index (SRI). The baseline SYNTAX score (bSS), the residual SYNTAX score, and the delta SYNTAX score (ΔSS) were determined from 888 angiograms of patients enrolled in the prospective SYNTAX trial. The SRI was then calculated for each patient using the following formula: SRI = (ΔSS/bSS]) × 100. Outcomes were examined according to the proportion of revascularized myocardium (SRI = 100% [complete revascularization], 50% to <100%, and <50%). The Youden index for the SRI was computed to identify the best cutoff for 5-year all-cause mortality. The mean bSS was 28.4 ± 11.5, and after PCI, the mean ΔSS was 23.8 ± 10.9 and the mean residual SYNTAX score was 4.5 ± 6.9. The mean SRI was 85.3 ± 21.2% and was 100% in 385 patients (43.5%), <100% to 50% in 454 patients (51.1%), and <50% in 48 patients (5.4%). Five-year adverse outcomes, including death, were inversely proportional to the SRI. An SRI cutoff of <70% (present in 142 patients [16.0%] after PCI) had the best prognostic accuracy for prediction of death and, by multivariable analysis, was an independent predictor of 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.79 to 6.11, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the SRI is a newly described method for quantifying the proportion of coronary artery disease burden treated by PCI. The SRI is a useful tool in assessing the degree of revascularization after PCI, with SRI ≥70% representing a "reasonable" goal for patients with complex coronary artery

  18. Computerized crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials with CRYSTANA and formula notation for classified structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Hans-Joachim; Liebau, Friedrich

    2008-09-01

    The computer program CRYSTANA is described which implements a method for the crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials. This method is mainly based upon the topological structure of the connected units of a compound and can be applied when the units are built from tetrahedra as coordination polyhedra. The classification parameters and the rules which have to be applied for their determination are summarized and a formalization of the method is provided based upon a finite graph representation of the units. A description of how CRYSTANA can be used and which kind of output it produces is included. From this output crystal-chemical formulas can be derived, which differ slightly from an existing notation in order to meet recommendations of the International Union of Crystallography.

  19. The computerized notation system: a portable, self-contained system for entry of physicians' and nurses' notes.

    PubMed

    Ash, S R; Mertz, S L; Ulrich, D K

    1983-01-01

    The Computerized Notation System (CNS) is a portable microprocessor system designed for use in outpatient clinics, hospital wards, and intensive care units. It can produce essentially all written communications required of both physicians and nurses, with printout at the bedside or in the clinic examining room. It is designed to ameliorate several problems which have limited direct computer entry by physicians and nurses (keyboard and processor access, marginal typing skills, lack of immediate printout, and logical restriction of menu choices). The system encourages and simplifies use of the problem-oriented approach to the patient, by producing organized, legible daily notes and patient summaries. Printouts of the system are compatible with the present hospital and clinic "paper charts." Clinical trials have confirmed the applicability, variability, and acceptability of the CNS in both hospital and outpatient practice. PMID:10295287

  20. New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I - Quadrature phases and squeezed states. II - Mathematical foundation and compact notation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).

  1. HRT-UML: a design method for hard real-time systems based on the UML notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Massimo; Mazzini, Silvia; di Natale, Marco; Lipari, Giuseppe

    2002-07-01

    The Hard Real-Time-Unified Modelling Language (HRT-UML) method aims at providing a comprehensive solution to the modeling of Hard Real Time systems. The experience shows that the design of Hard Real-Time systems needs methodologies suitable for the modeling and analysis of aspects related to time, schedulability and performance. In the context of the European Aerospace community a reference method for design is Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HOOD) and in particular its extension for the modeling of hard real time systems, Hard Real-Time-Hierarchical Object Oriented Design (HRT-HOOD), recommended by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the development of on-board systems. On the other hand in recent years the Unified Modelling Language (UML) has been gaining a very large acceptance in a wide range of domains, all over the world, becoming a de-facto international standard. Tool vendors are very active in this potentially big market. In the Aerospace domain the common opinion is that UML, as a general notation, is not suitable for Hard Real Time systems, even if its importance is recognized as a standard and as a technological trend in the near future. These considerations suggest the possibility of replacing the HRT-HOOD method with a customized version of UML, that incorporates the advantages of both standards and complements the weak points. This approach has the clear advantage of making HRT-HOOD converge on a more powerful and expressive modeling notation. The paper identifies a mapping of the HRT-HOOD semantics into the UML one, and proposes a UML extension profile, that we call HRT-UML, based on the UML standard extension mechanisms, to fully represent HRT-HOOD design concepts. Finally it discusses the relationships between our profile and the UML profile for schedulability, performance and time, adopted by OMG in November 2001.

  2. A Theory of Marks and Mind: The Effect of Notational Systems on Hominid Brain Evolution and Child Development with an Emphasis on Exchanges between Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan Rich

    2005-01-01

    A model of human language requires a theory of meaningful marks. Humans are the only species who use marks to think. A theory of marks identifies children's scribbles as significant behavior, while hypothesizing the importance of notational systems to hominid brain evolution. By recognizing the importance of children's scribbles and drawings in…

  3. A Method for Writing Open-Ended Curved Arrow Notation Questions for Multiple-Choice Exams and Electronic-Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Suzanne M.; Straumanis, Andrei R.

    2009-01-01

    A critical stage in the process of developing a conceptual understanding of organic chemistry is learning to use curved arrow notation. From this stems the ability to predict reaction products and mechanisms beyond the realm of memorization. Since evaluation (i.e., testing) is known to be a key driver of student learning, it follows that a new…

  4. A Review. A Real-Time Microcomputer-Assisted System for Translating Aural, Monophonic Tones into Music Notation as an Aid in Sight-Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a dissertation in which the problems of real-time pitch detection by computer were studied in an attempt to develop a learning tool for sightsinging students. Specialized hardware and software were developed to discriminate aural pitches and to display them in real-time using standard notation. (BSR)

  5. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  6. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  7. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  8. The Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center decision-support system as a model for implementing the Arden Syntax.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G.; Cimino, J. J.; Johnson, S. B.; Clayton, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center is implementing a decision-support system based on the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLM's). The system uses a compiler-interpreter pair. MLM's are first compiled into pseudo-codes, which are instructions for a virtual machine. The MLM's are then executed using an interpreter that emulates the virtual machine. This design has resulted in increased portability, easier debugging and verification, and more compact compiled MLM's. The time spent interpreting the MLM pseudo-codes has been found to be insignificant compared to database accesses. The compiler, which is written using the tools "lex" and "yacc," optimizes MLM's by minimizing the number of database accesses. The interpreter emulates a stack-oriented machine. A phased implementation of the syntax was used to speed the development of the system. PMID:1807598

  9. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  10. The Syntax-Discourse Interface in Near-Native L2 Acquisition: Offline and On-Line Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates ultimate attainment at the syntax-discourse interface in adult second-language (L2) acquisition. In total, 91 L1 (first-language) English, L1 Dutch and L1 Russian advanced-to-near-native speakers of German and 63 native controls are tested on an acceptability judgement task and an on-line self-paced reading task. These…

  11. Syntax processing by auditory cortical neurons in the FM-FM area of the mustached bat Pteronotus parnellii.

    PubMed

    Esser, K H; Condon, C J; Suga, N; Kanwal, J S

    1997-12-01

    Syntax denotes a rule system that allows one to predict the sequencing of communication signals. Despite its significance for both human speech processing and animal acoustic communication, the representation of syntactic structure in the mammalian brain has not been studied electrophysiologically at the single-unit level. In the search for a neuronal correlate for syntax, we used playback of natural and temporally destructured complex species-specific communication calls-so-called composites-while recording extracellularly from neurons in a physiologically well defined area (the FM-FM area) of the mustached bat's auditory cortex. Even though this area is known to be involved in the processing of target distance information for echolocation, we found that units in the FM-FM area were highly responsive to composites. The finding that neuronal responses were strongly affected by manipulation in the time domain of the natural composite structure lends support to the hypothesis that syntax processing in mammals occurs at least at the level of the nonprimary auditory cortex. PMID:9391145

  12. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  13. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  14. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  15. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  16. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  17. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  18. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  19. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  20. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  1. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  2. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  3. Changes in Postural Syntax Characterize Sensory Modulation and Natural Variation of C. elegans Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Roland F.; Branicky, Robyn; Grundy, Laura J.; Schafer, William R.; Brown, André E. X.

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion is driven by shape changes coordinated by the nervous system through time; thus, enumerating an animal's complete repertoire of shape transitions would provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of locomotor behaviour. Here we introduce a discrete representation of behaviour in the nematode C. elegans. At each point in time, the worm’s posture is approximated by its closest matching template from a set of 90 postures and locomotion is represented as sequences of postures. The frequency distribution of postural sequences is heavy-tailed with a core of frequent behaviours and a much larger set of rarely used behaviours. Responses to optogenetic and environmental stimuli can be quantified as changes in postural syntax: worms show different preferences for different sequences of postures drawn from the same set of templates. A discrete representation of behaviour will enable the use of methods developed for other kinds of discrete data in bioinformatics and language processing to be harnessed for the study of behaviour. PMID:26295152

  4. The Intonation-Syntax Interface in the Speech of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Huber, Jessica E.; Snow, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effect of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the intonational marking of final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries and investigated whether the effect of PD on intonation was sex-specific. Method Eight women and 8 men with PD and 16 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage at comfortable pitch, rate, and loudness. Nuclear tones from final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries in clauses and lists were extracted. Measures of F0 were made on each tone contour. Results Individuals with PD demonstrated impaired differentiation of syntactic boundary finality/nonfinality with contour direction. They produced a lower proportion of falling contours in final boundaries and a higher proportion of falling contours in nonfinal boundaries than control participants. While not mediated by syntax, the effect of PD on F0 standard deviation (F0 SD) and pitch range (PRST) was sex-specific. Women with PD produced greater F0 SD and PRST than men with PD and women without PD. Men with PD produced lower PRST than men without PD. Conclusions Impaired intonational marking of syntactic boundaries likely contributes to dysprosody and reduced communicative effectiveness in PD. The effect of PD on intonation was sex-specific. The results were not fully explained by PD-related motor execution impairments. PMID:20699346

  5. Does it really matter? Separating the effects of musical training on syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brod, Garvin; Opitz, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    The possible transfer of musical expertise to the acquisition of syntactical structures in first and second language has emerged recently as an intriguing topic in the research of cognitive processes. However, it is unlikely that the benefits of musical training extend equally to the acquisition of all syntactical structures. As cognitive transfer presumably requires overlapping processing components and brain regions involved in these processing components, one can surmise that transfer between musical ability and syntax acquisition would be limited to structural elements that are shared between the two. We propose that musical expertise transfers only to the processing of recursive long-distance dependencies inherent in hierarchical syntactic structures. In this study, we taught fifty-six participants with widely varying degrees of musical expertise the artificial language BROCANTO, which allows the direct comparison of long-distance and local dependencies. We found that the quantity of musical training (measured in accumulated hours of practice and instruction) explained unique variance in performance in the long-distance dependency condition only. These data suggest that musical training facilitates the acquisition specifically of hierarchical syntactic structures. PMID:23248608

  6. [Detection of rapid eye movement with rapidly adapting neuronal fuzzy systems in imprecise REM syntax].

    PubMed

    Wallner, F

    1996-04-01

    Both living beings and artificial neuronal networks are capable of 'learning' and behavioural adaptation. But also the fuzzy program designed to detect rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep and described here, can be provided with a self-learning option that provides important information about REM sleep. The algorithm computes REM on the basis of horizontal and vertical EOG. EEG, EMG and actiography signals are employed to optimize the method and eliminate artefacts. In a second step, the fuzzy system learns to detect REM with the aid of a sample data set and a minimal set of syntax rules. From sample data and the actions and reactions of visual scorers, the program extracts additional rules and information, which are then used to build a complete fuzzy structure. Thereafter, the REM detection program optimizes the fuzzy logic structure, independently of visual monitoring, on its own. A direct comparison of the results of the algorithm in a 10-night analysis with those of two experienced visual scorers revealed a better than 95% agreement. Re-analysis with the algorithm showed a 100% concurrence. Complete visual measurement of the eye movements occurring in a single night requires several hours; this compares with only 15 minutes required by the algorithm. PMID:8679911

  7. Melody effects on ERANm elicited by harmonic irregularity in musical syntax.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hee; Lee, Sojin; Kim, June Sic; Seol, Jaeho; Yi, Suk Won; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-04-29

    Recent studies have reported that early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and its magnetic counterpart (ERANm) are evoked by harmonic irregularity in Western tonal music; however, those studies did not control for differences of melody. Because melody and harmony have an interdependent relationship and because melody (in this study melody is represented by the highest voice part) in a chord sequence may dominate, there is controversy over whether ERAN (or ERANm) changes arise from melody or harmony differences. To separate the effects of melody differences and harmonic irregularity on ERANm responses, we designed two magnetoencephalography experiments and behavioral test. Participants were presented with three types of chord progression sequences (Expected, Intermediate, and Unexpected) with different harmonic regularities in which melody differences were or were not controlled. In the uncontrolled melody difference experiment, the unexpected chord elicited a significantly largest ERANm, but in the controlled melody difference experiment, the amplitude of the ERANm peak did not differ among the three conditions. However, ERANm peak latency was delayed more than that in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. The behavioral results show the difference between the two experiments even if harmonic irregularity was discriminated in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that there is a relationship between the effects of harmony and melody on ERANm. Hence, we suggest that a melody difference in a chord progression is largely responsible for the observed changes in ERANm, reaffirming that melody plays an important role in the processing of musical syntax. PMID:24607297

  8. Optimisation of artificial neural network structure using Direct Encoding Graph Syntax (DEGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, B.; Esat, I.

    1996-12-31

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is intended to represent usually a complex non-linear mapping between the two data sets that can then be able to generalize on unseen data for the solution of a particular task. The evaluation of the correct ANN structure (and hence the mapping) is very often, solely a ANN and error procedure which may not lead to the required solution. The Genetic algorithm (GA) has been perceived by researchers as a effective systematic technique for the design of ANNs. However the GA can be hampered by the difficulty of generating a variety of ANN structures. In addition there is the problem of a significant increase of the search space for network architectures as the network size increases (scalability problem). Even if these problems are addressed, the ANN structures produced by the GA must be viable and then efficiently trainable by a competent training algorithm. A network is not viable if it is incomplete with isolated processing units. Also the possibility of encountering the permutation problem which refers to the creation of ANNs that are different in structure but are equivalent geometrically also has to be reduced as this significantly reduces the efficiency of the GA. The above characteristics are indicative of other encoding schemes that poorly encode the ANN. This paper describes a direct encoding scheme, Direct Encoding Graph Syntax (DEGS), that endeavors to overcome these flaws. Its successful implementation in conjunction with the GA, for the design of ANNs to evaluate the 9-bit parity problem is also discussed.

  9. Does It Really Matter? Separating the Effects of Musical Training on Syntax Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Garvin; Opitz, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    The possible transfer of musical expertise to the acquisition of syntactical structures in first and second language has emerged recently as an intriguing topic in the research of cognitive processes. However, it is unlikely that the benefits of musical training extend equally to the acquisition of all syntactical structures. As cognitive transfer presumably requires overlapping processing components and brain regions involved in these processing components, one can surmise that transfer between musical ability and syntax acquisition would be limited to structural elements that are shared between the two. We propose that musical expertise transfers only to the processing of recursive long-distance dependencies inherent in hierarchical syntactic structures. In this study, we taught fifty-six participants with widely varying degrees of musical expertise the artificial language BROCANTO, which allows the direct comparison of long-distance and local dependencies. We found that the quantity of musical training (measured in accumulated hours of practice and instruction) explained unique variance in performance in the long-distance dependency condition only. These data suggest that musical training facilitates the acquisition specifically of hierarchical syntactic structures. PMID:23248608

  10. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  11. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  12. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  13. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  14. Effect of Serum Growth Differentiation Factor-15 and the Syntax Score on 2-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Avanzas, Pablo; Consuegra-Sanchez, Luciano

    2016-05-15

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is produced by cardiomyocytes and atherosclerotic lesions under stress conditions, but little is known about its relation with severity and complexity of coronary lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GDF-15 and the syntax score for risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 2-year follow-up in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). This is a prospective cohort study of 502 patients with NSTEACS. The syntax score was calculated from baseline coronary angiography. Blood samples were obtained at study entry for the assessment of GDF-15 and high-sensitivity C reactive protein. One hundred and three patients (20.5%) showed MACE at 2-year follow-up. Patients who developed MACE had greater GDF-15 concentrations and syntax score (p <0.001) compared to patients who did not. There was a positive, but moderate, correlation between GDF-15 and syntax score (ρ = 0.45, p <0.0001). On Cox regression analysis, only GDF-15 levels (p <0.001), body mass index (p = 0.04), and syntax score (p <0.001) remained independent predictors of the MACE. The area under the curve of GDF-15 (0.912, 95% confidence interval 0.894 to 0.944) was significantly greater compared to high-sensitivity C reactive protein and syntax score. In conclusion, in patients with NSTEACS, levels of GDF-15 at admission were correlated with the syntax score and independently associated with an increased risk of MACE during 2-year follow-up. PMID:27013387

  15. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  16. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  17. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  18. Coronary lesion complexity assessed by SYNTAX score in 256-slice dual-source MDCT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yüceler, Zeyneb; Kantarcı, Mecit; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Sade, Recep; Kızrak, Yeşim; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Bayraktutan, Ümmügülsüm; Oğul, Hayri; Aksakal, Enbiya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The SYNTAX Score (SS) has an important role in grading the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing revascularization. Noninvasive determination of SS prior to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) might optimize patient management. We aimed to evaluate the agreement between ICA and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) while testing the diagnostic effectiveness of SS-MDCT. METHODS Our study included 108 consecutive patients who underwent both MDCT angiography with a 256-slice dual-source MDCT system and ICA within 14±3 days. SS was calculated for both ICA and MDCT coronary angiography. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association of SS-MDCT with SS-ICA, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed. RESULTS The degree of agreement between SS-ICA and SS-MDCT was moderate. The mean SS-MDCT was 14.5, whereas the mean SS-ICA was 15.9. After dividing SS into three groups (high [≥33], intermediate [23–32], and low [≤22] subgroups), agreement analysis was repeated. There was a significant correlation between SS-MDCT and SS-ICA in the low SS group (r=0.63, P = 0.043) but no significant correlation in the high SS group (r=0.036, P = 0.677). The inter-test agreement analysis showed at least moderate agreement, whereas thrombotic lesions and the type of bifurcation lesion showed fair agreement. CONCLUSION The calculation of SS-MDCT by adapting SS-ICA parameters achieved nearly the same degree of precision as SS-ICA and was better than SS-ICA, especially in the low SS group. PMID:27328718

  19. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  20. Syntax in language and music: what is the right level of comparison?

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental “syntax.” Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between “language syntax” and “music syntax” can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology (“phonological syntax”), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called “syntax” can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals. PMID:26191034

  1. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  2. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  3. Research of the relationship between space accessiblity and urban land price by point-based space syntax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Li, Manchun; Shao, Yixi; Liu, Yongxue

    2007-06-01

    Studies on economic geography assume that the space accessibility, which means the connectivity of one location with the others, can be considered as the crucial factor determining the land price in case that we can not take account of all factors. Space syntax was widely developed to study the accessibility of urban system recently. The traditional lines-based space syntax theory is not so in reason that every single point along each line has the same syntactical attributes, so it is more logical to use characteristic points to represent the urban system instead. This paper tries to analyze the space accessibility of urban system with point-based space syntax, and then find the inherent relationship between space accessibility and urban land price. The approach of this paper was to get the sample points of land price, calculate the syntactical variables of the sample points depend on interpolation with characteristic points, and find the relationship between space accessibility and urban land price from correlation analysis. The test area is Luqiao, Zhejiang Province, a developed area close to the East Sea of China. The result showed that the total integration and land price had rather strong correlation. It can be concluded that the space accessibility is one of the fatal factor influencing the urban land price, and the integration is the direct variable to describe it. However, more issues have to be discussed: the definition of characteristic points was not so clear and some preferences were factitious, etc. They need to be implemented in the wider context of accessibility covering both geographic and geometric elements through further researches.

  4. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  5. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  6. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  7. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  8. Analysis of complex human genetic traits: An ordered-notation method and new tests for mode of inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, G.

    1995-08-01

    A novel ordered notation is introduced that allows description and calculation of the probability of any nuclear-pedigree configuration of disease status and marker-allele information. Algorithms are given that allow for complex models of disease predisposition, a highly polymorphic or less polymorphic marker locus, gametic disequilibrium between the marker and disease loci (marker association with disease), recombination between the marker and disease loci, and different ascertainment schemes. The theoretical foundation is presented for a series of new tests to identify modes of inheritance and genetic heterogeneity. These use marker-locus data in nuclear families from four ascertainment schemes: simplex (S), multiplex parent-child (MPC), multiplex sibs (MS),and multiplex parent-sibs (MPS). The tests are (1) extension of the antigen-genotype-frequencies-among-patients method to MPC, MS,and MPS pedigrees; (2) determination of the expected rates of transmission, or not, of marker alleles from parents to an affected child, for all pedigree types; (3) determination of expected identity by descent (IBD) values for affected sib pairs when a parent is affected (MPS pedigrees); and (4) determination of the expected marker-allele frequencies in affected-sib-pair IBD categories (MS and MPS pedigrees). A sampling strategy that includes the four pedigree types S, MPC, MS, and MPS is recommended for complex diseases once linkage and/or association of a marker with disease has been established. The full array of new and old tests that can be applied to these pedigrees provides a complementary suite of methods that can facilitate the mapping and characterization of complex human genetic traits. 50 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Incremental prognostic value of the SYNTAX score to late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images for patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Saito, Naka; Kirigaya, Hidekuni; Gyotoku, Daiki; Iinuma, Naoki; Kusakawa, Yuka; Iguchi, Kohei; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Futaki, Masaaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Taguri, Masataka; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of the SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and cardiac surgery) score has recently been demonstrated in patients with stable multivessel or left main coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study determines whether adding the SYNTAX score to Framingham risk score (FRS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and presence of myocardial infarction (MI) by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging can improve the risk stratification in patients with stable CAD. We calculated the SYNTAX score in 161 patients with stable CAD (mean age: 66 ± 10 years old). During a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, 56 (35 %) of 161 patients developed cardiovascular events defined as cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, cerebral infarction, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization due to heart failure and revascularization. Multivariate Cox regression analysis selected triglycerides [hazard ratio (HR): 1.005 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.008), p < 0.008], presence of LGE [HR: 6.329 (95 % CI: 2.662-15.05), p < 0.001] and the SYNTAX score [HR: 1.085 (95 % CI: 1.044-1.127), p < 0.001] as risk factors for future cardiovascular events. Adding the SYNTAX score to FRS, EF and LGE significantly improved the net reclassification index (NRI) [40.4 % (95 % CI: 18.1-54.8 %), p < 0.05] with an increase in C-statistics of 0.089 (from 0.707 to 0.796). An increase in C-statistics and significant improvement of NRI showed that adding the SYNTAX score to the FRS, LVEF and LGE incrementally improved risk stratification in patient with stable CAD. PMID:25904244

  10. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  11. Abstract Numeric Relations and the Visual Structure of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition,…

  12. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  13. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  14. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  15. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  16. Increased Glycated Hemoglobin Level is Associated With SYNTAX Score II in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Karakoyun, Süleyman; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Rencüzoğulları, İbrahim; Karabağ, Yavuz; Altıntaş, Bernas; Topçu, Selim; Lazoğlu, Zakir; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Sevimli, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    SYNTAX score II (SS II) uses 2 anatomical and 6 clinical variables for the prediction of mortality after coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), and SYNTAX Score (SS) and SS II in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD). We enrolled 215 consecutive diabetic patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography. The SS II was calculated using a nomogram that was based on the findings of a previous study. There was a moderate correlation between HbA1c and SS (r = .396, P < .001), but there was a good correlation between HbA1c and SS II (r = .535, P < .001). There was also a weak correlation between FBG (r = .270, P = .001), PPG (r = .177, P = .027), and SS, but there was a weak-moderate correlation between FBG (r = .341, P < .001), PPG (r = .256, P = .001), and SS II. A better correlation has been detected between HbA1c and SS II compared to the correlation between HbA1c and SS. PMID:26101367

  17. The abstract geometry modeling language (AgML): experience and road map toward eRHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Jason; Lauret, Jerome; Perevoztchikov, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The STAR experiment has adopted an Abstract Geometry Modeling Language (AgML) as the primary description of our geometry model. AgML establishes a level of abstraction, decoupling the definition of the detector from the software libraries used to create the concrete geometry model. Thus, AgML allows us to support both our legacy GEANT 3 simulation application and our ROOT/TGeo based reconstruction software from a single source, which is demonstrably self- consistent. While AgML was developed primarily as a tool to migrate away from our legacy FORTRAN-era geometry codes, it also provides a rich syntax geared towards the rapid development of detector models. AgML has been successfully employed by users to quickly develop and integrate the descriptions of several new detectors in the RHIC/STAR experiment including the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) and Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrades installed in STAR for the 2012 and 2013 runs. AgML has furthermore been heavily utilized to study future upgrades to the STAR detector as it prepares for the eRHIC era. With its track record of practical use in a live experiment in mind, we present the status, lessons learned and future of the AgML language as well as our experience in bringing the code into our production and development environments. We will discuss the path toward eRHIC and pushing the current model to accommodate for detector miss-alignment and high precision physics.

  18. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  19. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  20. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  1. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  2. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  3. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  4. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  8. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  9. Clitic-Doubled Left Dislocation and Focus Fronting in L2 Spanish: A Case of Successful Acquisition at the Syntax-Discourse Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Kempchinsky, Paula; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study tests the Interface Hypothesis by looking into processes at the syntax-discourse interface, teasing apart acquisition of syntactic, semantic and discourse knowledge. Adopting Lopez's (2009) pragmatic features [[plus or minus]a(naphor)] and [[plus or minus]c(ontrast)], which in combination account for the constructions of…

  10. Effectiveness of a Computer-Based Syntax Program in Improving the Morphosyntax of Students Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of LanguageLinks: Syntax Assessment and Intervention (LL), produced by Laureate Learning Systems, Inc., as a supplemental classroom activity, affected morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in participants who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) and use American…

  11. Views of Nature and the Human-Nature Relations: An Analysis of the Visual Syntax of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks--Diachronic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…

  12. On the Relation between the Acquisition of Singular-Plural Morpho-Syntax and the Conceptual Distinction between One and More Than One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Thalwitz, Dora; Wood, Justin; Yang, Shu-Ju; Carey, Susan

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the acquisition of singular-plural morpho-syntax and children's representation of the distinction between singular and plural sets. Experiment 1 tested 18-month-olds using the manual-search paradigm and found that, like 14-month-olds (Feigenson & Carey, 2005), they distinguished three objects from one but…

  13. How Language Does (and Does Not) Relate to Theory of Mind: A Longitudinal Study of Syntax, Semantics, Working Memory and False Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Lance; Ruffman, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Forty-four children (mean 3.8 years) were given three false belief, a working memory, and four language tasks (each designed to tap a different aspect of syntax or semantics), and were tested again 6 months later. Once the range of scores in the language and false belief tasks were equated, there was a bidirectional relation between language and…

  14. Relations among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-Year-Old Children's Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary; Ouellette, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Books can be a rich source of learning for children and adults alike. In the present study, the contribution of shared reading and parent literacy to a variety of child outcomes was tested. Child outcomes included measures of expressive vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative ability (story grammar, cohesion, and language…

  15. Vocabulary, Syntax, and Narrative Development in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Early Parental Talk about the "There-and-Then" Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…

  16. Pairing Words with Syntactic Frames: Syntax, Semantics, and Count-Mass Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.; McDonnel, Samantha J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined English speakers' choices of count or mass compatible frames for nouns varying in imageability (concrete, abstract) and noun class (count, mass). Pairing preferences with equative ("much/many") and non-equative ("less/fewer") constructions were compared for groups of teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Deviations…

  17. Brain Embodiment of Syntax and Grammar: Discrete Combinatorial Mechanisms Spelt Out in Neuronal Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience has greatly improved our understanding of the brain basis of abstract lexical and semantic processes. The neuronal devices underlying words and concepts are distributed neuronal assemblies reaching into sensory and motor systems of the cortex and, at the cognitive level, information binding in such widely dispersed circuits is…

  18. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  19. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Early parental talk about the there-and-then matters

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input––talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized––in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children’s language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child’s own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the two groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  20. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: early parental talk about the "there-and-then" matters.

    PubMed

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children's language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child's own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at age 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the 2 groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the 2 groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  1. The application of rules in morphology, syntax and number processing: a case of selective deficit of procedural or executive mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Demonet, Jean-François; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Declarative memory is a long-term store for facts, concepts and words. Procedural memory subserves the learning and control of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, including the mental grammar. In this study, we report a single-case study of a mild aphasic patient who showed procedural deficits in the presence of preserved declarative memory abilities. We administered several experiments to explore rule application in morphology, syntax and number processing. Results partly support the differentiation between declarative and procedural memory. Moreover, the patient’s performance varied according to the domain in which rules were to be applied, which underlines the need for more fine-grained distinctions in cognition between procedural rules. PMID:20446168

  2. Challenges in implementing a knowledge editor for the Arden Syntax: knowledge base maintenance and standardization of database linkages.

    PubMed Central

    Jenders, Robert A.; Dasgupta, Balendu

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Incorporation of research findings into clinical practice lags behind their dissemination in the medical literature. Arden Syntax is a standard that could be used to encode evidence in a clinical decision support system (CDSS). However, dissemination of knowledge is hampered by lack of standard linkages to clinical databases. OBJECTIVE: To create a knowledge editor that facilitates transfer of knowledge from the medical literature to clinical practice via a CDSS. METHODS: Using a Web browser-based application, we implemented linkages to MEDLINE to permit queries on demand and registration of queries to be executed periodically, with results copied into Arden Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). To facilitate standardization of MLMs, database linkages are encoded using emerging HL7 standards such as a data model (virtual medical record). CONCLUSIONS: A Web-based application can facilitate transfer of knowledge into clinical practice and knowledge base maintenance through periodic queries and deployment of standards for knowledge representation. PMID:12463846

  3. Correlation between global longitudinal peak systolic strain and coronary artery disease severity as assessed by the angiographically derived SYNTAX score

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, David; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigate the correlation between reduced global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) and the SYNTAX score (SS) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods We examined 71 patients undergoing both echocardiogram and coronary angiography within 15 days. All patients had normal global and/or regional wall motion on resting echocardiogram. We calculated GLPSS using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. SS was calculated for each group of patients based on the presence and/or the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD): no CAD on angiogram (n=10, control group), low SS (n=36, SS<22) and high SS (n=25, SS≥22). We hypothesised that GLPSS at rest is inversely correlated with the angiographically derived SS. Results Age, sex and most of the risk factors were equally distributed among the groups. There was a significant inverse correlation between GLPSS and SS values (r2=0.3869, P<0.001). This correlation was weaker in the low-SS group (r2=0.1332, P<0.05), whereas it was lost in the high-SS group (r2=0.0002, P=NS). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified that the optimal cut-off for the detection of high-SS patients was 13.95% (sensitivity=71%, specificity=90%, P<0.001). Conclusions The results of our study suggest that GLPSS might be promising for the detection of patients with high SYNTAX score on coronary angiogram. There is an inverse correlation between resting GLPSS and SS as assessed by coronary angiography. In patients with the highest SS, however, the correlation with GLPSS was less significant. PMID:27248153

  4. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  5. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  6. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  7. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  8. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  9. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  10. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  11. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  12. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  13. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  14. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  15. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  16. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  17. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  18. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  19. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  20. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…