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Sample records for abstract syntax tree

  1. An implementation and analysis of the Abstract Syntax Notation One and the basic encoding rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively solve the problem of data transfer across incompatible host environments are presented, and a compiler that was built to automate their use is described. Experiences with this compiler are also discussed which provide a quantitative analysis of the performance costs associated with the application of these standards. An evaluation is offered as to how well suited ASN.1 and BER are in solving the common data representation problem.

  2. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops. PMID:18958630

  3. Test Input Generation for Red-Black Trees using Abstraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visser, Willem; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Pelanek, Radek

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of test input generation for code that manipulates complex data structures. Test inputs are sequences of method calls from the data structure interface. We describe test input generation techniques that rely on state matching to avoid generation of redundant tests. Exhaustive techniques use explicit state model checking to explore all the possible test sequences up to predefined input sizes. Lossy techniques rely on abstraction mappings to compute and store abstract versions of the concrete states; they explore under-approximations of all the possible test sequences. We have implemented the techniques on top of the Java PathFinder model checker and we evaluate them using a Java implementation of red-black trees.

  4. Progressive 3D shape abstraction via hierarchical CSG tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingyou; Tang, Jin; Li, Chenglong

    2017-06-01

    A constructive solid geometry(CSG) tree model is proposed to progressively abstract 3D geometric shape of general object from 2D image. Unlike conventional ones, our method applies to general object without the need for massive CAD models, and represents the object shapes in a coarse-to-fine manner that allows users to view temporal shape representations at any time. It stands in a transitional position between 2D image feature and CAD model, benefits from state-of-the-art object detection approaches and better initializes CAD model for finer fitting, estimates 3D shape and pose parameters of object at different levels according to visual perception objective, in a coarse-to-fine manner. Two main contributions are the application of CSG building up procedure into visual perception, and the ability of extending object estimation result into a more flexible and expressive model than 2D/3D primitive shapes. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Interaction between groundwater and trees in an arid site: Potential impacts of climate variation and groundwater abstraction on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lihe; Zhou, Yangxiao; Huang, Jinting; Wenninger, Jochen; Zhang, Eryong; Hou, Guangcai; Dong, Jiaqiu

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the interaction between groundwater and trees is vital for sustainable groundwater use and maintenance of a healthy ecosystem in arid regions. The short- and long-term groundwater contribution to tree water use was investigated using the HYDRUS-1D model and stable isotopes. For the short-term simulation, the ratio between the actual transpiration (Ta) and potential transpiration (Tp) approached almost ∼1.0 due to the constant groundwater uptake. The results from the short-term simulation indicated that the groundwater contribution to tree water use ranged between 53% and 56% in the dry season (May-June) and 16-19% in the wet period (August-September). Isotopic analysis indicated that groundwater contributed to 45% of plant water use in the dry season, decreasing to 4-12% during the wet period. Because of canopy interception and transpiration, groundwater recharge only occurred after heavy rainfall and accounted for 3-8% of the total heavy rainfall. For the long-term simulation, Ta/Tp ranged between 0.91 and 1.00 except in 2007 (0.78), when the water table declined because of groundwater abstraction. In the scenario simulation for deep water table conditions caused by anthropogenic activities, Ta/Tp ranged between 0.09 and 0.40 (mean = 0.22) that is significantly lower than the values in the natural conditions. In conclusion, vegetation restoration in arid zones should be cautious as over-planting of trees will decrease the groundwater recharge and potentially cause a rapid drop in water table levels, which in turn may result in the death of planted trees. Trees adapt to arid regions by adopting root patterns that allow soil water uptake by shallow roots and groundwater use by deep roots, thus climatic variation itself may not bring severe negative impact on trees. However, anthropogenic activities, such as groundwater abstraction, will result in significant water table decline that will reduce actual transpiration of trees significantly

  6. Effects of groundwater abstraction on two keystone tree species in an arid savanna national park

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background In arid systems with no surface water, deep boreholes in ephemeral river beds provide for humans and animals. With continually increasing infrastructure development for tourism in arid wildlife parks such as the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, we ask what effects increased abstraction may have on large trees. Large trees in arid savannas perform essential ecosystem services by providing food, shade, nesting sites and increased nutrients for many other plant and animal species and for this are regarded as keystone species. Methods We determine seasonal fluctuations in the water table while also determining the water source for the dominant large tree species in the Auob and Nossob rivers in the Park. We also determine the extent to which these trees are physiologically stressed using leaf δ13C, xylem pressure potentials, specific leaf area and an estimate of canopy death. We do this both upstream and downstream of a low water use borehole in the Auob River and a high water use borehole in the Nossob River. Results Our results show that the trees are indeed using deep groundwater in the wet season and that this is the same water used by people. In the dry season, trees in the Auob downstream of the active borehole become detached from the aquifer and use more isotopically enriched soil water. In the Nossob in the dry season, all trees use isotopically enriched soil water, and downstream of the active borehole use stomatal regulation to maintain leaf water potentials. These results suggest that trees in the more heavily utilised Nossob are under more water stress than those trees in the Auob but that trees in both rivers demonstrate physiological adaptation to the changes in available water with smaller heavier leaves, no significant canopy dieback and in the dry season in the Nossob stomatal regulation of leaf water potentials. Discussion An increase in abstraction of groundwater particularly at the Nossob borehole may cause an additional

  7. Effects of groundwater abstraction on two keystone tree species in an arid savanna national park.

    PubMed

    Shadwell, Eleanor; February, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In arid systems with no surface water, deep boreholes in ephemeral river beds provide for humans and animals. With continually increasing infrastructure development for tourism in arid wildlife parks such as the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, we ask what effects increased abstraction may have on large trees. Large trees in arid savannas perform essential ecosystem services by providing food, shade, nesting sites and increased nutrients for many other plant and animal species and for this are regarded as keystone species. We determine seasonal fluctuations in the water table while also determining the water source for the dominant large tree species in the Auob and Nossob rivers in the Park. We also determine the extent to which these trees are physiologically stressed using leaf δ 13 C, xylem pressure potentials, specific leaf area and an estimate of canopy death. We do this both upstream and downstream of a low water use borehole in the Auob River and a high water use borehole in the Nossob River. Our results show that the trees are indeed using deep groundwater in the wet season and that this is the same water used by people. In the dry season, trees in the Auob downstream of the active borehole become detached from the aquifer and use more isotopically enriched soil water. In the Nossob in the dry season, all trees use isotopically enriched soil water, and downstream of the active borehole use stomatal regulation to maintain leaf water potentials. These results suggest that trees in the more heavily utilised Nossob are under more water stress than those trees in the Auob but that trees in both rivers demonstrate physiological adaptation to the changes in available water with smaller heavier leaves, no significant canopy dieback and in the dry season in the Nossob stomatal regulation of leaf water potentials. An increase in abstraction of groundwater particularly at the Nossob borehole may cause an additional draw down of the water table adding

  8. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  9. Memory for syntax despite amnesia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Bock, Kathryn; Wilson, Michael P; Cohen, Neal J

    2008-09-01

    Syntactic persistence is a tendency for speakers to reproduce sentence structures independently of accompanying meanings, words, or sounds. The memory mechanisms behind syntactic persistence are not fully understood. Although some properties of syntactic persistence suggest a role for procedural memory, current evidence suggests that procedural memory (unlike declarative memory) does not maintain the abstract, relational features that are inherent to syntactic structures. In a study evaluating the contribution of procedural memory to syntactic persistence, patients with anterograde amnesia and matched control speakers reproduced prime sentences with different syntactic structures; reproduced 0, 1, 6, or 10 neutral sentences; then spontaneously described pictures that elicited the primed structures; and finally made recognition judgments for the prime sentences. Amnesic and control speakers showed significant and equivalent syntactic persistence, despite the amnesic speakers' profoundly impaired recognition memory for the primes. Thus, syntax is maintained by procedural-memory mechanisms. This result reveals that procedural memory is capable of supporting abstract, relational knowledge.

  10. Emergence of Scale-Free Syntax Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V.

    The evolution of human language allowed the efficient propagation of nongenetic information, thus creating a new form of evolutionary change. Language development in children offers the opportunity of exploring the emergence of such complex communication system and provides a window to understanding the transition from protolanguage to language. Here we present the first analysis of the emergence of syntax in terms of complex networks. A previously unreported, sharp transition is shown to occur around two years of age from a (pre-syntactic) tree-like structure to a scale-free, small world syntax network. The observed combinatorial patterns provide valuable data to understand the nature of the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of syntax, introducing a new ingredient to understand the possible biological endowment of human beings which results in the emergence of complex language. We explore this problem by using a minimal, data-driven model that is able to capture several statistical traits, but some key features related to the emergence of syntactic complexity display important divergences.

  11. The symbolic computation of series solutions to ordinary differential equations using trees (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms previously developed by the author give formulas which can be used for the efficient symbolic computation of series expansions to solutions of nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. As a by product of this analysis, formulas are derived which relate to trees to the coefficients of the series expansions, similar to the work of Leroux and Viennot, and Lamnabhi, Leroux and Viennot.

  12. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  13. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties. PMID:24385957

  14. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  15. The syntax of DRAGOON: Evaluation and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1992-01-01

    Several different ways to add linguistic support for object-oriented programming to the Ada programming language have been proposed and developed in recent years. The Distributable Reusable Ada Generated from an Object-Oriented Notation (DRAGOON) language is one such Ada extension. The DRAGOON syntax is described for classes, objects, and inheritance, and the syntax is evaluated against the following five criteria: readability, writeability, lack of ambiguity, ease of translation, and consistency with existing Ada syntax. The evaluation reveals several deficiencies in the notation. A revised syntax that corrects these deficiencies is proposed.

  16. Syntax and reading comprehension: a meta-analysis of different spoken-syntax assessments.

    PubMed

    Brimo, Danielle; Lund, Emily; Sapp, Alysha

    2018-05-01

    Syntax is a language skill purported to support children's reading comprehension. However, researchers who have examined whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments report inconsistent results. To determine if differences in how syntax is measured affect whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments. Studies that included a group comparison design, children with average and below-average reading comprehension, and a spoken-syntax assessment were selected for review. Fourteen articles from a total of 1281 reviewed met the inclusionary criteria. The 14 articles were coded for the age of the children, score on the reading comprehension assessment, type of spoken-syntax assessment, type of syntax construct measured and score on the spoken-syntax assessment. A random-effects model was used to analyze the difference between the effect sizes of the types of spoken-syntax assessments and the difference between the effect sizes of the syntax construct measured. There was a significant difference between children with average and below-average reading comprehension on spoken-syntax assessments. Those with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments when norm-referenced and researcher-created assessments were compared. However, when the type of construct was compared, children with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on assessments that measured knowledge of spoken syntax, but not on assessments that measured awareness of spoken syntax. The results of this meta-analysis confirmed that the type of spoken-syntax assessment, whether norm-referenced or researcher-created, did not explain why some researchers reported that there were no significant differences between children with average and below

  17. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  18. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  19. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  20. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  1. Origins of Complex Syntax in Interlanguage Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Charlene J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional analysis of longitudinal, conversational interlanguage data from two Vietnamese learners of English focused on the emergence of complex syntax in interlanguage development. The interdependence of different linguistic levels in interlanguage development was demonstrated. (Author/CB)

  2. Syntax-induced pattern deafness

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual systems often force systematically biased interpretations upon sensory input. These interpretations are obligatory, inaccessible to conscious control, and prevent observers from perceiving alternative percepts. Here we report a similarly impenetrable phenomenon in the domain of language, where the syntactic system prevents listeners from detecting a simple perceptual pattern. Healthy human adults listened to three-word sequences conforming to patterns readily learned even by honeybees, rats, and sleeping human neonates. Specifically, sequences either started or ended with two words from the same syntactic category (e.g., noun–noun–verb or verb–verb–noun). Although participants readily processed the categories and learned repetition patterns over nonsyntactic categories (e.g., animal–animal–clothes), they failed to learn the repetition pattern over syntactic categories, even when explicitly instructed to look for it. Further experiments revealed that participants successfully learned the repetition patterns only when they were consistent with syntactically possible structures, irrespective of whether these structures were attested in English or in other languages unknown to the participants. When the repetition patterns did not match such syntactically possible structures, participants failed to learn them. Our results suggest that when human adults hear a string of nouns and verbs, their syntactic system obligatorily attempts an interpretation (e.g., in terms of subjects, objects, and predicates). As a result, subjects fail to perceive the simpler pattern of repetitions—a form of syntax-induced pattern deafness that is reminiscent of how other perceptual systems force specific interpretations upon sensory input. PMID:19920182

  3. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  4. The Syntax-Semantics Interface in Distributed Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Justin Robert

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz 1993; Marantz 1997) is founded on the premise that the syntax is the only computational component of the grammar. Much research focuses on how this premise is relevant to the syntax-morphology interface in DM. In this dissertation, I examine theory-internal issues related to the syntax-semantics…

  5. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  6. Selective Preservation of Syntax in Alzheimer's Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempler, Daniel; Curtiss, Susan

    A study investigating the independence of linguistic abilities from each other, specifically the separability of syntax and semantics and the autonomy of syntactic abilities, is described. In the study, 30 individuals with Alzheimer's disease produced spontaneous conversations, completed sentences eliciting 16 grammatical forms, and when possible,…

  7. Syntax Flowcharts for Advanced French Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of syntax flow charts as a graphic illustration of syntactic rules is suggested as both an instructional and a heuristic tool. Charts for these French structures are presented: negating of verbal expressions; balancing of conditional tenses; use of imperfect versus compound; agreement of past participles; and subjunctive sequences. (MSE)

  8. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  9. Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles and readers

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Summary A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as ‘cell assemblies’, underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well understood. I introduce and review three interconnected topics, which could facilitate progress in defining cell assemblies, identifying their neuronal organization and revealing causal relationships between assembly organization and behavior. First, I hypothesize that cell assemblies are best understood in light of their output product, as detected by ‘reader-actuator’ mechanisms. Second, I suggest that the hierarchical organization of cell assemblies may be regarded as a neural syntax. Third, constituents of the neural syntax are linked together by dynamically changing constellations of synaptic weights (‘synapsembles’). Existing support for this tripartite framework is reviewed and strategies for experimental testing of its predictions are discussed. PMID:21040841

  10. Executable medical guidelines with Arden Syntax-Applications in dermatology and obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Seitinger, Alexander; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Leitich, Harald; Binder, Michael; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2016-08-12

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are being developed to assist physicians in processing extensive data and new knowledge based on recent scientific advances. Structured medical knowledge in the form of clinical alerts or reminder rules, decision trees or tables, clinical protocols or practice guidelines, score algorithms, and others, constitute the core of CDSSs. Several medical knowledge representation and guideline languages have been developed for the formal computerized definition of such knowledge. One of these languages is Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems, an International Health Level Seven (HL7) standard whose development started in 1989. Its latest version is 2.10, which was presented in 2014. In the present report we discuss Arden Syntax as a modern medical knowledge representation and processing language, and show that this language is not only well suited to define clinical alerts, reminders, and recommendations, but can also be used to implement and process computerized medical practice guidelines. This section describes how contemporary software such as Java, server software, web-services, XML, is used to implement CDSSs based on Arden Syntax. Special emphasis is given to clinical decision support (CDS) that employs practice guidelines as its clinical knowledge base. Two guideline-based applications using Arden Syntax for medical knowledge representation and processing were developed. The first is a software platform for implementing practice guidelines from dermatology. This application employs fuzzy set theory and logic to represent linguistic and propositional uncertainty in medical data, knowledge, and conclusions. The second application implements a reminder system based on clinically published standard operating procedures in obstetrics to prevent deviations from state-of-the-art care. A to-do list with necessary actions specifically tailored to the gestational week/labor/delivery is generated. Today, with the latest versions of

  11. The evolution of syntax: an exaptationist perspective.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The "continuist" perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The "exaptationist" perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca's area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses.

  12. XML syntax for clinical laboratory procedure manuals.

    PubMed

    Saadawi, Gilan; Harrison, James H

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a document type description (DTD) in Extensable Markup Language (XML) for clinical laboratory procedures. Our XML syntax can adequately structure a variety of procedure types across different laboratories and is compatible with current procedure standards. The combination of this format with an XML content management system and appropriate style sheets will allow efficient procedure maintenance, distributed access, customized display and effective searching across a large body of test information.

  13. Severity of erectile dysfunction is highly correlated with the syntax score in patients undergoing coronariography

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Weslley Santiago; Oliveira, Paulo; Laydner, Humberto; Ferreira, Eduardo Jose Pereira; Barreto, Jose Augusto Soares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the association between the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in men undergoing coronary angiography for angina or acute myocardial infarct (AMI). Material and Methods We studied 132 males who underwent coronary angiography for first time between January and November 2010. ED severity was assessed by the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) and CAD severity was assessed by the Syntax score. Patients with CAD (cases) and without CAD (controls) had their IIEF-5 compared. In the group with CAD, their IIEF-5 scores were compared to their Syntax score results. Results We identified 86 patients with and 46 without CAD. The IIEF-5 score of the group without CAD (22.6±0.8) was significantly higher than the group with CAD (12.5±0.5; p<0.0001). In patients without ED, the Syntax score average was 6.3±3.5, while those with moderate or severe ED had a mean Syntax score of 39.0±11.1. After adjustment, ED was independently associated to CAD, with an odds ratio of 40.6 (CI 95%, 14.3-115.3, p<0.0001). The accuracy of the logistic model to correctly identify presence or absence of CAD was 87%, with 92% sensitivity and 78% specificity. The average time that ED was present in patients with CAD was 38.8±2.3 months before coronary symptoms, about twice as high as patients without CAD (18.0±5.1 months). Conclusions ED severity is strongly and independently correlated with CAD complexity, as assessed by the Syntax score in patients undergoing coronariography for evaluation of new onset coronary symptoms. PMID:27136478

  14. ArdenML: The Arden Syntax Markup Language (or Arden Syntax: It's Not Just Text Any More!)

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, R. Matthew

    2001-01-01

    It is no longer necessary to think of Arden Syntax as simply a text-based knowledge base format. The development of ArdenML (Arden Syntax Markup Language), an XML-based markup language allows structured access to most of the maintenance and library categories without the need to write or buy a compiler may lead to the development of simple commercial and freeware tools for processing Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs)

  15. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  16. 78 FR 63522 - Syntax Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 18, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Trust (``Trust''). Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that permits: (a) Actively... unit investment trusts outside of the same group of investment companies as the series to acquire...

  17. (abstract) Characterization of Tree Water Status and Dielectric Constant Changes of North American Boreal Forests in Combination with Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Zimmerman, R.; Way, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of temporal and spatial tree water status changes in the boreal environment were studied in a floodplain forest in Alaska and in four forest types of Central Canada. Under limited water supply conditions from the rooted soil zone in early spring (freeze/thaw transition) and during summer, trees show declining water potentials. Coincidental change in tree water potential, tree transpiration and tree dielectric constant had been observed in previous studies performed in Mediterranean ecotones. If radar is sensitive to chances in tree water status as reflected through changes in dielectric constant, then radar remote sensing could be used to monitor the water status of forests. The SAR imagery is examined to determine the response of the radar backscatter to the ground based observations of the water status of forest canopies. Comparisons are made between stands and also along the large North-South gradient between sites. Data from SAR are used to examine the radar response to canopy physiological state as related to vegetation freeze/thaw and growing season length.

  18. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  19. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  20. Joint action syntax in Japanese martial arts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Okumura, Motoki; Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts, requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles. We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax. Linear functions on return maps identified two attractors as well as the transitions between them. The effects of skill differences were evident in the second- and third-order state-transition diagrams for these two attractors. Our results suggest that abrupt switching between attractors is related to the diverse continuous movements resulting from quick responses to sudden changes in the environment. This abrupt-switching-quick-response behavior is characterized by a joint action syntax. The resulting hybrid dynamical system is composed of a higher module with discrete dynamics and a lower module with continuous dynamics. Our results suggest that intelligent human behavior and robust autonomy in real-life scenarios are based on this hybrid dynamical system, which connects interpersonal coordination and competition.

  1. Language, music, syntax and the brain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2003-07-01

    The comparative study of music and language is drawing an increasing amount of research interest. Like language, music is a human universal involving perceptually discrete elements organized into hierarchically structured sequences. Music and language can thus serve as foils for each other in the study of brain mechanisms underlying complex sound processing, and comparative research can provide novel insights into the functional and neural architecture of both domains. This review focuses on syntax, using recent neuroimaging data and cognitive theory to propose a specific point of convergence between syntactic processing in language and music. This leads to testable predictions, including the prediction that that syntactic comprehension problems in Broca's aphasia are not selective to language but influence music perception as well.

  2. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The emergence of complexity in prosody and syntax

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Irit; Dachkovsky, Svetlana; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The relation between prosody and syntax is investigated here by tracing the emergence of each in a new language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language. We analyze the structure of narratives of four signers of this language: two older second generation signers, and two about 15 years younger. We find that younger signers produce prosodic cues to dependency between semantically related constituents, e.g., the two clauses of conditionals, revealing a type and degree of complexity in their language that is not frequent in that of the older pair. In these younger signers, several rhythmic and (facial) intonational cues are aligned at constituent boundaries, indicating the emergence of a grammatical system. There are no overt syntactic markers (such as complementizers) to relate clauses; prosody is the only clue. But this prosodic complexity is matched by syntactic complexity inside propositions in the younger signers, who are more likely to use pronouns as abstract grammatical markers of arguments, and to combine predicates with their arguments within in a constituent. As the prosodic means emerge for identifying constituent types and signaling dependency relations between them, the constituents themselves become increasingly complex. Finally, our study shows that the emergence of grammatical complexity is gradual. PMID:23087486

  4. Space syntax in healthcare facilities research: a review.

    PubMed

    Haq, Saif; Luo, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Space Syntax is a theory and method that has been developing for the last 40 years. Originally conceived as a theory of "society and space," it has expanded to other areas. An important aspect of this is technical; it allows the quantification of layouts, and unit spaces within a layout, so that the environment itself can produce independent variables in quantitative research. Increasingly, it is being used to study healthcare facilities. Space Syntax has thereby become relevant to healthcare facilities researchers and designers. This paper attempts to explain Space Syntax to a new audience of healthcare designers, administrators, and researchers; it provides a literature review on the use of Space Syntax in healthcare facility research and suggests some possibilities for future application.

  5. A Conformance Test Suite for Arden Syntax Compilers and Interpreters.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Klimek, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standardized and well-established programming language to represent medical knowledge. To test the compliance level of existing compilers and interpreters no public test suite exists. This paper presents the research to transform the specification into a set of unit tests, represented in JUnit. It further reports on the utilization of the test suite testing four different Arden Syntax processors. The presented and compared results reveal the status conformance of the tested processors. How test driven development of Arden Syntax processors can help increasing the compliance with the standard is described with two examples. In the end some considerations how an open source test suite can improve the development and distribution of the Arden Syntax are presented.

  6. Fuzzy Arden Syntax: A fuzzy programming language for medicine.

    PubMed

    Vetterlein, Thomas; Mandl, Harald; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The programming language Arden Syntax has been optimised for use in clinical decision support systems. We describe an extension of this language named Fuzzy Arden Syntax, whose original version was introduced in S. Tiffe's dissertation on "Fuzzy Arden Syntax: Representation and Interpretation of Vague Medical Knowledge by Fuzzified Arden Syntax" (Vienna University of Technology, 2003). The primary aim is to provide an easy means of processing vague or uncertain data, which frequently appears in medicine. For both propositional and number data types, fuzzy equivalents have been added to Arden Syntax. The Boolean data type was generalised to represent any truth degree between the two extremes 0 (falsity) and 1 (truth); fuzzy data types were introduced to represent fuzzy sets. The operations on truth values and real numbers were generalised accordingly. As the conditions to decide whether a certain programme unit is executed or not may be indeterminate, a Fuzzy Arden Syntax programme may split. The data in the different branches may be optionally aggregated subsequently. Fuzzy Arden Syntax offers the possibility to formulate conveniently Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) based on the principle of a continuously graded applicability of statements. Furthermore, ad hoc decisions about sharp value boundaries can be avoided. As an illustrative example shows, an MLM making use of the features of Fuzzy Arden Syntax is not significantly more complex than its Arden Syntax equivalent; in the ideal case, a programme handling crisp data remains practically unchanged when compared to its fuzzified version. In the latter case, the output data, which can be a set of weighted alternatives, typically depends continuously from the input data. In typical applications an Arden Syntax MLM can produce a different output after only slight changes of the input; discontinuities are in fact unavoidable when the input varies continuously but the output is taken from a discrete set of possibilities

  7. Can syntax appear in a mirror (system)?

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Moro, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Converging evidence indicates that the processing of some aspects related to the phonetic and the semantic components of language is tightly associated with both the perceptual and the motor neural systems. It has been suggested that mirror neurons contribute to language understanding by virtue of a neurophysiological response matching perceptual linguistic information onto corresponding motor plans. This proposal has sometimes been extended to advocate that the language competence as a whole, including syntax, may be ascribed to this kind of perceptuo-motor mappings. This position paper examines what kinds of empirical and theoretical challenges such general mirror neuron language accounts need to face in order to proof their validity--challenges that we think have not been adequately addressed yet. We highlight that the most important limitation is constituted by the fact that some core defining properties of human language, at the phonetic, semantic, and especially at the syntactic level, are not transparent to the bodily senses and thus they cannot be the direct source of mirror neuron perceptuo-motor matching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  9. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty.

  10. Asking Questions in Child English: Evidence for Early Abstract Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzan, Lucia; Valian, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    We compare the predictions of two different accounts of first language acquisition by investigating the relative contributions of abstract syntax and input frequency to the elicited production of main and embedded questions by 36 monolingual English-speaking toddlers aged 3;00 to 5;11. In particular, we investigate whether children's accuracy…

  11. High-Level Data-Abstraction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Communication with data-base processor flexible and efficient. High Level Data Abstraction (HILDA) system is three-layer system supporting data-abstraction features of Intel data-base processor (DBP). Purpose of HILDA establishment of flexible method of efficiently communicating with DBP. Power of HILDA lies in its extensibility with regard to syntax and semantic changes. HILDA's high-level query language readily modified. Offers powerful potential to computer sites where DBP attached to DEC VAX-series computer. HILDA system written in Pascal and FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  12. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language.

    PubMed

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  13. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S.; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated—linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  14. Modeling the Arden Syntax for medical decisions in XML.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukil; Haug, Peter J; Rocha, Roberto A; Choi, Inyoung

    2008-10-01

    A new model expressing Arden Syntax with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) was developed to increase its portability. Every example was manually parsed and reviewed until the schema and the style sheet were considered to be optimized. When the first schema was finished, several MLMs in Arden Syntax Markup Language (ArdenML) were validated against the schema. They were then transformed to HTML formats with the style sheet, during which they were compared to the original text version of their own MLM. When faults were found in the transformed MLM, the schema and/or style sheet was fixed. This cycle continued until all the examples were encoded into XML documents. The original MLMs were encoded in XML according to the proposed XML schema and reverse-parsed MLMs in ArdenML were checked using a public domain Arden Syntax checker. Two hundred seventy seven examples of MLMs were successfully transformed into XML documents using the model, and the reverse-parse yielded the original text version of MLMs. Two hundred sixty five of the 277 MLMs showed the same error patterns before and after transformation, and all 11 errors related to statement structure were resolved in XML version. The model uses two syntax checking mechanisms, first an XML validation process, and second, a syntax check using an XSL style sheet. Now that we have a schema for ArdenML, we can also begin the development of style sheets for transformation ArdenML into other languages.

  15. [The value of SYNTAX score in predicting outcome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-chun; Yu, Xian-peng; He, Ji-qiang; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of SYNTAX score to predict major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) among patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. 190 patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Cypher select drug-eluting stent were enrolled. SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score were retrospectively calculated. Our clinical Endpoint focused on MACCE, a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and repeat revascularization. The value of SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score to predict MACCE were studied respectively. 29 patients were observed to suffer from MACCE, accounting 18.5% of the overall 190 patients. MACCE rates of low (≤ 20.5), intermediate (21.0 - 31.0), and high (≥ 31.5) tertiles according to SYNTAX score were 9.1%, 16.2% and 30.9% respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that SYNTAX score was the independent predictor of MACCE. MACCE rates of low (≤ 19.5), intermediate (19.6 - 29.1), and high (≥ 29.2) tertiles according to clinical SYNTAX score were 14.9%, 9.8% and 30.6% respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that clinical SYNTAX score was the independent predictor of MACCE. ROC analysis showed both SYNTAX score (AUC = 0.667, P = 0.004) and clinical SYNTAX score (AUC = 0.636, P = 0.020) had predictive value of MACCE. Clinical SYNTAX score failed to show better predictive ability than the SYNTAX score. Both SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score could be independent risk predictors for MACCE among patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical SYNTAX score failed to show better predictive ability than the SYNTAX score in this group of patients.

  16. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  17. The Development of Music Syntax: Some Observations of Music Babble in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, John M.

    Using the analogy of language syntax, this paper describes the development of music syntax in children ages 5 months to 5 years. It is suggested that music syntax enables the child to comprehend familiar and unfamiliar music and to reproduce familiar music and create novel music. Observations were made in a day care center and a nursery school of…

  18. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  19. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  20. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  1. Generalizing the Arden Syntax to a Common Clinical Application Language.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems is a standard for encoding and sharing knowledge in the form of Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). Although the Arden Syntax has been designed to meet the requirements of data-driven clinical event monitoring, multiple studies suggest that its language constructs may be suitable for use outside the intended application area and even as a common clinical application language. Such a broader context, however, requires to reconsider some language features. The purpose of this paper is to outline the related modifications on the basis of a generalized Arden Syntax version. The implemented prototype provides multiple adjustments to the standard, such as an option to use programming language constructs without the frame-like MLM structure, a JSON compliant data type system, a means to use MLMs as user-defined functions, and native support of restful web services with integrated data mapping. This study does not aim to promote an actually new language, but a more generic version of the proven Arden Syntax standard. Such an easy-to-understand domain-specific language for common clinical applications might cover multiple additional medical subdomains and serve as a lingua franca for arbitrary clinical algorithms, therefore avoiding a patchwork of multiple all-purpose languages between, and even within, institutions.

  2. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  3. Papers in Syntax. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathol, Andreas, Ed.; Pollard, Carl, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of working papers in syntax includes: "Null Objects in Mandarin Chinese" (Christie Block); "Toward a Linearization-Based Approach to Word Order Variation in Japanese" (Mike Calcagno); "A Lexical Approach to Inalienable Possession Constructions in Korean" (Chung, Chan); "Chinese NP Structure"…

  4. Chomsky, Syntax, and Reading: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolczynski, Richard G.

    Noam Chomsky's theory of grammar, or more specifically his theory of syntax, proposes to describe all possible English sentences through an explanation of how the native speaker generates sentences. It is the study of one's competence that offers insights into how language is acquired and how the rules and generalizations of that language are…

  5. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  6. Linguistic Transfer in Andean Spanish: Syntax or Pragmatics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntendam, Antje

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…

  7. The Syntax of Elliptical Constructions in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Bukhari, Juman

    2016-01-01

    The syntax of Arabic elliptical constructions is unsettled, as there are few studies that have been done in the Arabic descriptive literature, as well as in Jordanian Arabic (henceforth, JA) specifically. Therefore, this paper will investigate some elliptical constructions in JA in particular to figure out the analysis of these constructions. In…

  8. Deriving Case, Agreement and Voice Phenomena in Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Einar Freyr

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation places case, agreement and Voice phenomena in syntax. It argues that the derivation is driven by so-called derivational features, that is, structure-building features (Merge) and probe features (Agree) (Heck and Muller 2007 and Muller 2010; see also Chomsky 2000, 2001). Both types are essential in deriving case and agreement in…

  9. Creating Clinical Fuzzy Automata with Fuzzy Arden Syntax.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Steltzer, Heinz; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Formal constructs for fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are incorporated into Arden Syntax version 2.9 (Fuzzy Arden Syntax). With fuzzy sets, the relationships between measured or observed data and linguistic terms are expressed as degrees of compatibility that model the unsharpness of the boundaries of linguistic terms. Propositional uncertainty due to incomplete knowledge of relationships between clinical linguistic concepts is modeled with fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Arden Syntax also supports the construction of fuzzy state monitors. The latter are defined as monitors that employ fuzzy automata to observe gradual transitions between different stages of disease. As a use case, we re-implemented FuzzyARDS, a previously published clinical monitoring system for patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using the re-implementation as an example, we show how key concepts of fuzzy automata, i.e., fuzzy states and parallel fuzzy state transitions, can be implemented in Fuzzy Arden Syntax. The results showed that fuzzy state monitors can be implemented in a straightforward manner.

  10. Syntax of Kindergarten and Elementary School Children: A Transformational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.; And Others

    This investigation sought to learn about the oral and written language behavior of students from kindergarten age through grade 7, and to determine the validity of different analytic techniques for measuring children's development in control of syntax. Language samples were collected from 180 children (grades K-3, 5, and 7) by having the children…

  11. The Effectiveness of Chinese NNESTs in Teaching English Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chun-Hui; Bartz, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of Chinese non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) on Chinese ESL students' struggles with English syntax. The paper first classifies Chinese learners' syntactic errors into 10 common types. It demonstrates how each type of error results from an internal attempt to translate a common Chinese construction into…

  12. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  13. Abstract Syntax in Sentence Production: Evidence from Stem-Exchange Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Liane Wardlow; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments tested theories of syntactic representation by assessing "stem-exchange" errors ("hates the record"[right arrow]"records the hate"). Previous research has shown that in stem exchanges, speakers pronounce intended nouns ("REcord") as verbs ("reCORD"), yielding syntactically well-formed utterances. By "lexically based" theories,…

  14. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  15. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  16. Generation of development environments for the Arden Syntax.

    PubMed Central

    Bång, M.; Eriksson, H.

    1997-01-01

    Providing appropriate development environments for specialized languages requires a significant development and maintenance effort. Specialized environments are therefore expensive when compared to their general-language counterparts. The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLM) is a standardized language for representing medical knowledge. We have used PROTEGE-II, a knowledge-engineering environment, to generate a number of experimental development environments for the Arden Syntax. MEDAILLE is the resulting MLM editor, which provides a user-friendly environment that allows users to create and modify MLM definitions. Although MEDAILLE is a generated editor, it has similar functionality, while reducing the programming effort, as compared to other MLM editors developed using traditional programming techniques. We discuss how developers can use PROTEGE-II to generate development environments for other standardized languages and for general programming languages. PMID:9357639

  17. Using SPSS syntax: a beginner's guide Jacqueline Collier Using SPSS syntax: a beginner's guide Sage Pages: 216 £24.99 9781412922180 1412922186 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2011-01-21

    As someone who is comfortable with analysing data in SAS using coding language, it is perplexing that I run from the use of syntax in SPSS. But, my apprehension has subsided with the Collier's guide. Syntax command can automate processes, increase reproducibility and give the user broader access to features otherwise unavailable in SPSS.

  18. Children's Overtensing Errors: Phonological and Lexical Effects on Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2007-01-01

    Overtensing (the use of an inflected form in place of a nonfinite form, e.g. *"didn't broke" for target "didn't break") is common in early syntax. In a ChiLDES-based study of 36 children acquiring English, I examine the effects of phonological and lexical factors. For irregulars, errors are more common with verbs of low frequency and when…

  19. Written Language and Writing Abilities: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," March through December 1977 (Vol. 37 No. 9 through Vol. 38 No. 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 14 titles deal with the following topics: the composing processes of four twelfth-grade students; the relationship of writing quality to syntax; the development of language variables in two modes of writing and their relationship…

  20. Remedial and Compensatory Reading Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1981 (Vol. 42 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 35 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the oral, written, and reading syntax of 46 learning disabled children; (2) the effects of oral reading rate and reinforcement on reading comprehension; (3)…

  1. Written Language and Writing Abilities: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 31 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the influence of audience on student writing; (2) syntax in the written language of reading-disabled and nonreading-disabled children; (3) the use of a…

  2. Disentangling syntax and intelligibility in auditory language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Kotz, Sonja A; Scott, Sophie K; Obleser, Jonas

    2010-03-01

    Studies of the neural basis of spoken language comprehension typically focus on aspects of auditory processing by varying signal intelligibility, or on higher-level aspects of language processing such as syntax. Most studies in either of these threads of language research report brain activation including peaks in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and/or the superior temporal sulcus (STS), but it is not clear why these areas are recruited in functionally different studies. The current fMRI study aims to disentangle the functional neuroanatomy of intelligibility and syntax in an orthogonal design. The data substantiate functional dissociations between STS and STG in the left and right hemispheres: first, manipulations of speech intelligibility yield bilateral mid-anterior STS peak activation, whereas syntactic phrase structure violations elicit strongly left-lateralized mid STG and posterior STS activation. Second, ROI analyses indicate all interactions of speech intelligibility and syntactic correctness to be located in the left frontal and temporal cortex, while the observed right-hemispheric activations reflect less specific responses to intelligibility and syntax. Our data demonstrate that the mid-to-anterior STS activation is associated with increasing speech intelligibility, while the mid-to-posterior STG/STS is more sensitive to syntactic information within the speech. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Relative Suffix Trees

    PubMed Central

    Farruggia, Andrea; Gagie, Travis; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Suffix trees are one of the most versatile data structures in stringology, with many applications in bioinformatics. Their main drawback is their size, which can be tens of times larger than the input sequence. Much effort has been put into reducing the space usage, leading ultimately to compressed suffix trees. These compressed data structures can efficiently simulate the suffix tree, while using space proportional to a compressed representation of the sequence. In this work, we take a new approach to compressed suffix trees for repetitive sequence collections, such as collections of individual genomes. We compress the suffix trees of individual sequences relative to the suffix tree of a reference sequence. These relative data structures provide competitive time/space trade-offs, being almost as small as the smallest compressed suffix trees for repetitive collections, and competitive in time with the largest and fastest compressed suffix trees. PMID:29795706

  4. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…

  5. The Genetic and Environmental Etiology of the Association between Vocabulary and Syntax in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimeau, Catherine; Dionne, Ginette; Feng, Bei; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    This twin study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of vocabulary, syntax, and their association in first graders. French-speaking same-sex twins (n = 555) completed two vocabulary tests, and two scores of syntax were calculated from their spontaneous speech at 7 years of age. Multivariate latent factor genetic analyses showed that…

  6. Aortic Wall Extracellular Matrix Proteins Correlate with Syntax Score in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Terri; Cheow, Esther S. H.; Woo, Chin C.; Lin, Xiao Y.; Khin, Lay W.; Lee, Chuen N.; Hartman, Mikael; Sze, Siu K.; Sorokin, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score correlate with major cardiovascular events post-revascularization, although the histopathological basis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the association between syntax score and extracellular matrix histological characteristics of aortic punch tissue obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This analysis compares coronary artery bypass surgery patients with High and Low syntax score which were followed up for one year period. Methods and Results: Patients with High (score ≥ 33, (n=77)) and Low Syntax Scores (score ≤ 22, (n=71)) undergoing elective CABG were recruited prospectively. Baseline clinical characteristics and surgical risks were well matched. At 1 year, EMACCE (Sum of cardiovascular death, stroke, congestive cardiac failure, and limb, gut and myocardial ischemia) was significantly elevated in the High syntax group (P=0.022). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative iTRAQ proteomic results validated on independent cohort by immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the High syntax group had significantly upraised Collagen I (P<0.0001) and Elastin (P<0.0001) content in ascending aortic wall. Conclusion: This study shows that aortic extracellular matrix (ECM) differ between High and Low syntax groups with up-regulation of Collagen I and Elastin level in High Syntax Score group. This identifies aortic punches collected during CABG as another biomarker source related with atherosclerosis severity and possible clinical outcome. PMID:27347220

  7. Syntax and Morphology in Danish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta; Lemcke, Sanne; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with…

  8. Resolving Conflicts Between Syntax and Plausibility in Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Glenda; Ogden, Jessica E.; Halford, Graeme S.

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of plausible and implausible object- and subject-relative clause sentences with and without prepositional phrases was examined. Undergraduates read each sentence then evaluated a statement as consistent or inconsistent with the sentence. Higher acceptance of consistent than inconsistent statements indicated reliance on syntactic analysis. Higher acceptance of plausible than implausible statements reflected reliance on semantic plausibility. There was greater reliance on semantic plausibility and lesser reliance on syntactic analysis for more complex object-relatives and sentences with prepositional phrases than for less complex subject-relatives and sentences without prepositional phrases. Comprehension accuracy and confidence were lower when syntactic analysis and semantic plausibility yielded conflicting interpretations. The conflict effect on comprehension was significant for complex sentences but not for less complex sentences. Working memory capacity predicted resolution of the syntax-plausibility conflict in more and less complex items only when sentences and statements were presented sequentially. Fluid intelligence predicted resolution of the conflict in more and less complex items under sequential and simultaneous presentation. Domain-general processes appear to be involved in resolving syntax-plausibility conflicts in sentence comprehension. PMID:28458748

  9. MLM Builder: An Integrated Suite for Development and Maintenance of Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, R. Matthew

    1997-01-01

    The Arden Syntax specification for sharable computerized medical knowledge bases has not been widely utilized in the medical informatics community because of a lack of tools for developing Arden Syntax knowledge bases (Medical Logic Modules). The MLM Builder is a Microsoft Windows-hosted CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tool designed to aid in the development and maintenance of Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). The MLM Builder consists of the MLM Writer (an MLM generation tool), OSCAR (an anagram of Object-oriented ARden Syntax Compiler), a test database, and the MLManager (an MLM management information system). Working together, these components form a self-contained, unified development environment for the creation, testing, and maintenance of Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules.

  10. The Implementation of Contextual Approach in Solving Problems Understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian at Universities in Surakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Tutik; Suwandi, Sarwiji; Slamet, St. Y.; Andayani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to: (1) assess the charge textbooks Syntax: "Sentence" bahasa Indonesia is based on a needs analysis; (2) analyzing the breakdown of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with contextual approach; (3) test the effectiveness of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with kontekstua approach.…

  11. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  12. Syntax of emotional narratives of persons diagnosed with antisocial personality.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with low antisocial tendencies, and 100 men without the antisocial tendencies, were analyzed. The participants had to describe the situations of love, hate and anxiety inspired by the photographs. The narrative discourse was analyzed. The research was concentrated on syntactic elements. Comparisons between the three groups were conducted. The results show the differences between the antisocial inmates, non-antisocial inmates, and controls. In their emotional narratives, the antisocial individuals used more repetitions, pauses and negations. These linguistic characteristics are attributed to high activity, psychopathy and emotionality of persons diagnosed with antisocial personality.

  13. Context-Sensitive Clinical Alert Packages Written in Arden Syntax.

    PubMed

    Zeckl, Julia; Adlassnig, Katharina; Fossler, Renate; Blacky, Alexander; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Koller, Walter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of raw patient data is generated on each day of a patient's stay at a hospital. It is of paramount importance that critical patient information be extracted from these large data volumes and presented to the patient's clinical caregivers as early as possible. Contemporary clinical alert systems attempt to provide this service with moderate success. The efficacy of the systems is limited by the fact that they are too general to fit specific patient populations or healthcare institutions. In this study we present an extendable alerting framework implemented in Arden Syntax, which can be configured to the needs and preferences of healthcare institutions and individual patient caregivers. We illustrate the potential of this alerting framework via an alert package that analyzes hematological laboratory results with data from intensive care units at the Vienna General Hospital, Austria. The results show the effectiveness of this alert package and its ability to generate key alerts while avoiding over-alerting.

  14. The Arden Syntax standard for clinical decision support: experiences and directions.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Fehre, Karsten; de Bruin, Jeroen; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2012-08-01

    Arden Syntax is a widely recognized standard for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format. It has a history that reaches back until 1989 and is currently maintained by the Health Level 7 (HL7) organization. We created a production-ready development environment, compiler, rule engine and application server for Arden Syntax. Over the course of several years, we have applied this Arden - Syntax - based CDS system in a wide variety of clinical problem domains, such as hepatitis serology interpretation, monitoring of nosocomial infections or the prediction of metastatic events in melanoma patients. We found the Arden Syntax standard to be very suitable for the practical implementation of CDS systems. Among the advantages of Arden Syntax are its status as an actively developed HL7 standard, the readability of the syntax, and various syntactic features such as flexible list handling. A major challenge we encountered was the technical integration of our CDS systems in existing, heterogeneous health information systems. To address this issue, we are currently working on incorporating the HL7 standard GELLO, which provides a standardized interface and query language for accessing data in health information systems. We hope that these planned extensions of the Arden Syntax might eventually help in realizing the vision of a global, interoperable and shared library of clinical decision support knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does syntax contribute to the function of duets in a parrot, Amazona auropalliata?

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Christine R; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-07-01

    Complex acoustic signals in many animal species are characterized by a syntax that governs how different notes are combined, but the importance of syntax to the communicative function of signals is not well understood. Mated pairs of yellow-naped amazons, Amazona auropalliata, produce coordinated vocal duets that are used for territory maintenance and defense. These duets follow rules that specify the ordering of notes within duets, such as a strict alternation of sex-specific notes and a defined progression of note types through each duet. These syntactical rules may function to define sex-specific roles, improve coordination, and allow individuals to combine calls into meaningful sequences. As a first step toward understanding the functional significance of syntax, we conducted two separate audio playback experiments in which we presented nesting pairs with normal duets and duets with broken syntax (i.e., one of the syntactic rules was broken). In Experiment One, we reversed the order of female and male notes within note pairs while retaining the typical progression of note types through a duet. In Experiment Two we reversed the order of note types across a whole duet while retaining the typical female-male ordering within note pairs. We hypothesized that duets with broken syntax would be less-effective signals than duets with normal syntax and predicted that pairs would respond less to broken syntax than to normal duets. Contrary to predictions, we did not observe differences in response between treatments for any variables except latency to approach the speaker. After we combined data across experiments post hoc, we observed longer latencies to approach the speakers after playbacks of broken syntax duets, suggesting that pairs could differentiate between playbacks. These responses suggest that breaking one rule of duet syntax at a time does not result in detectable loss of signal efficacy in the context of territorial intrusions.

  16. Development of syntax of intuition-based learning model in solving mathematics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeni Heryaningsih, Nok; Khusna, Hikmatul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to produce syntax of Intuition Based Learning (IBL) model in solving mathematics problem for improving mathematics students’ achievement that valid, practical and effective. The subject of the research were 2 classes in grade XI students of SMAN 2 Sragen, Central Java. The type of the research was a Research and Development (R&D). Development process adopted Plomp and Borg & Gall development model, they were preliminary investigation step, design step, realization step, evaluation and revision step. Development steps were as follow: (1) Collected the information and studied of theories in Preliminary Investigation step, studied about intuition, learning model development, students condition, and topic analysis, (2) Designed syntax that could bring up intuition in solving mathematics problem and then designed research instruments. They were several phases that could bring up intuition, Preparation phase, Incubation phase, Illumination phase and Verification phase, (3) Realized syntax of Intuition Based Learning model that has been designed to be the first draft, (4) Did validation of the first draft to the validator, (5) Tested the syntax of Intuition Based Learning model in the classrooms to know the effectiveness of the syntax, (6) Conducted Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to evaluate the result of syntax model testing in the classrooms, and then did the revision on syntax IBL model. The results of the research were produced syntax of IBL model in solving mathematics problems that valid, practical and effective. The syntax of IBL model in the classroom were, (1) Opening with apperception, motivations and build students’ positive perceptions, (2) Teacher explains the material generally, (3) Group discussion about the material, (4) Teacher gives students mathematics problems, (5) Doing exercises individually to solve mathematics problems with steps that could bring up students’ intuition: Preparations, Incubation, Illumination, and

  17. Generalized Processing Tree Models: Jointly Modeling Discrete and Continuous Variables.

    PubMed

    Heck, Daniel W; Erdfelder, Edgar; Kieslich, Pascal J

    2018-05-24

    Multinomial processing tree models assume that discrete cognitive states determine observed response frequencies. Generalized processing tree (GPT) models extend this conceptual framework to continuous variables such as response times, process-tracing measures, or neurophysiological variables. GPT models assume finite-mixture distributions, with weights determined by a processing tree structure, and continuous components modeled by parameterized distributions such as Gaussians with separate or shared parameters across states. We discuss identifiability, parameter estimation, model testing, a modeling syntax, and the improved precision of GPT estimates. Finally, a GPT version of the feature comparison model of semantic categorization is applied to computer-mouse trajectories.

  18. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

  19. User-defined functions in the Arden Syntax: An extension proposal.

    PubMed

    Karadimas, Harry; Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Lepage, Eric

    2015-12-11

    The Arden Syntax is a knowledge-encoding standard, started in 1989, and now in its 10th revision, maintained by the health level seven (HL7) organization. It has constructs borrowed from several language concepts that were available at that time (mainly the HELP hospital information system and the Regenstrief medical record system (RMRS), but also the Pascal language, functional languages and the data structure of frames, used in artificial intelligence). The syntax has a rationale for its constructs, and has restrictions that follow this rationale. The main goal of the Standard is to promote knowledge sharing, by avoiding the complexity of traditional programs, so that a medical logic module (MLM) written in the Arden Syntax can remain shareable and understandable across institutions. One of the restrictions of the syntax is that you cannot define your own functions and subroutines inside an MLM. An MLM can, however, call another MLM, where this MLM will serve as a function. This will add an additional dependency between MLMs, a known criticism of the Arden Syntax knowledge model. This article explains why we believe the Arden Syntax would benefit from a construct for user-defined functions, discusses the need, the benefits and the limitations of such a construct. We used the recent grammar of the Arden Syntax v.2.10, and both the Arden Syntax standard document and the Arden Syntax Rationale article as guidelines. We gradually introduced production rules to the grammar. We used the CUP parsing tool to verify that no ambiguities were detected. A new grammar was produced, that supports user-defined functions. 22 production rules were added to the grammar. A parser was built using the CUP parsing tool. A few examples are given to illustrate the concepts. All examples were parsed correctly. It is possible to add user-defined functions to the Arden Syntax in a way that remains coherent with the standard. We believe that this enhances the readability and the robustness

  20. Design of a Syntax Validation Tool for Requirements Analysis Using Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    analysis phase of the software life cycle (16:1-1). While editing a SADT diagram, the tool should be able to check whether or not structured analysis...diag-ams are valid for the SADT’s syntax, produce error messages, do error recovery, and perform editing suggestions. Thus, this tool must have the...directed editors are editors which use the syn- tax of the programming language while editing a program. While text editors treat programs as text, syntax

  1. Potential Utility of the SYNTAX Score 2 in Patients Undergoing Left Main Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sérgio; Raposo, Luís; Brito, João; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Pedro; Teles, Rui; Gabriel, Henrique; Machado, Francisco; Almeida, Manuel; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background The revascularization strategy of the left main disease is determinant for clinical outcomes. Objective We sought to 1) validate and compare the performance of the SYNTAX Score 1 and 2 for predicting major cardiovascular events at 4 years in patients who underwent unprotected left main angioplasty and 2) evaluate the long-term outcome according to the SYNTAX score 2-recommended revascularization strategy. Methods We retrospectively studied 132 patients from a single-centre registry who underwent unprotected left main angioplasty between March 1999 and December 2010. Discrimination and calibration of both models were assessed by ROC curve analysis, calibration curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results Total event rate was 26.5% at 4 years.The AUC for the SYNTAX Score 1 and SYNTAX Score 2 for percutaneous coronary intervention, was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.49-0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.57-0.78), respectively. Despite a good overall adjustment for both models, the SYNTAX Score 2 tended to underpredict risk. In the 47 patients (36%) who should have undergone surgery according to the SYNTAX Score 2, event rate was numerically higher (30% vs. 25%; p=0.54), and for those with a higher difference between the two SYNTAX Score 2 scores (Percutaneous coronary intervention vs. Coronary artery by-pass graft risk estimation greater than 5.7%), event rate was almost double (40% vs. 22%; p=0.2). Conclusion The SYNTAX Score 2 may allow a better and individualized risk stratification of patients who need revascularization of an unprotected left main coronary artery. Prospective studies are needed for further validation. PMID:27007223

  2. One vendor's experience: preliminary development of a reminder system based on the Arden Syntax.

    PubMed

    Spates, R P; Aller, K C

    1994-09-01

    This article reviews the efforts of HBO & Company in the production of a first phase clinical alerting system based on the Arden Syntax. The alerting system was integrated with a clinical data repository and clinical workstation to process returning laboratory results. Investigations with expert systems resulted in a C language alerting system. GUI prototyping of an authoring environment led to a Smalltalk language authoring system. Future development is expected to broaden the system scope and address the evolution of the Arden Syntax.

  3. Idiom, syntax, and advanced theory of mind abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Nelson, Keith E; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the authors investigated idiom, syntax, and advanced TOM abilities in children with ASD compared to children with typical development (TD). Twenty-six children with ASD, ages 5 to 12 years, were compared to individuals in each of 2 control groups of children with TD: 1 matched on chronological age and nonverbal IQ, and 1 matched on syntax age-equivalence and raw scores. Idiom comprehension, syntax, vocabulary, and 2 measures of advanced TOM abilities were examined. Although children with ASD performed worse on idiom comprehension compared to the age-matched group with TD, they exhibited comparable idiom performance to the syntax-matched group with TD. Advanced TOM abilities were related to idiom comprehension for children with ASD, but not for children with TD, above the contributions of basic language abilities. Syntax abilities should be used as a matching variable when examining figurative or other late-developing language skills.

  4. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  5. The Analysis of A1 Level Speaking Exam in Terms of Syntax: The Effect of General Competence on Syntax in A1 Level Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misir, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the relevance of general competence of Turkish and Arab learners who have an A1 level of English proficiency in preparatory school of University of Turkish Aeronautical Association (UTAA) to their speaking skill in terms of syntax by analyzing the recordings of speaking exams in the first semester. One can ask why…

  6. Using Arden Syntax for the creation of a multi-patient surveillance dashboard.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Stefan; Drescher, Caroline; Sedlmayr, Martin; Castellanos, Ixchel; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2015-10-09

    Most practically deployed Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support (CDS) modules process data from individual patients. The specification of Arden Syntax, however, would in principle also support multi-patient CDS. The patient data management system (PDMS) at our local intensive care units does not natively support patient overviews from customizable CDS routines, but local physicians indicated a demand for multi-patient tabular overviews of important clinical parameters such as key laboratory measurements. As our PDMS installation provides Arden Syntax support, we set out to explore the capability of Arden Syntax for multi-patient CDS by implementing a prototypical dashboard for visualizing laboratory findings from patient sets. Our implementation leveraged the object data type, supported by later versions of Arden, which turned out to be serviceable for representing complex input data from several patients. For our prototype, we designed a modularized architecture that separates the definition of technical operations, in particular the control of the patient context, from the actual clinical knowledge. Individual Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) for processing single patient attributes could then be developed according to well-tried Arden Syntax conventions. We successfully implemented a working dashboard prototype entirely in Arden Syntax. The architecture consists of a controller MLM to handle the patient context, a presenter MLM to generate a dashboard view, and a set of traditional MLMs containing the clinical decision logic. Our prototype could be integrated into the graphical user interface of the local PDMS. We observed that with realistic input data the average execution time of about 200ms for generating dashboard views attained applicable performance. Our study demonstrated the general feasibility of creating multi-patient CDS routines in Arden Syntax. We believe that our prototypical dashboard also suggests that such implementations can be relatively

  7. Condition-dependent functional connectivity: syntax networks in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dodel, Silke; Golestani, Narly; Pallier, Christophe; ElKouby, Vincent; Le Bihan, Denis; Poline, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to study the variation of brain functional connectivity networks with respect to experimental conditions in fMRI data. It is related to the psychophysiological interaction technique introduced by Friston et al. and extends to networks of correlation modulation (CM networks). Extended networks containing several dozens of nodes are determined in which the links correspond to consistent correlation modulation across subjects. In addition, we assess inter-subject variability and determine networks in which the condition-dependent functional interactions can be explained by a subject-dependent variable. We applied the technique to data from a study on syntactical production in bilinguals and analysed functional interactions differentially across tasks (word reading or sentence production) and across languages. We find an extended network of consistent functional interaction modulation across tasks, whereas the network comparing languages shows fewer links. Interestingly, there is evidence for a specific network in which the differences in functional interaction across subjects can be explained by differences in the subjects' syntactical proficiency. Specifically, we find that regions, including ones that have previously been shown to be involved in syntax and in language production, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus, putamen, insula, precentral gyrus, as well as the supplementary motor area, are more functionally linked during sentence production in the second, compared with the first, language in syntactically more proficient bilinguals than in syntactically less proficient ones. Our approach extends conventional activation analyses to the notion of networks, emphasizing functional interactions between regions independently of whether or not they are activated. On the one hand, it gives rise to testable hypotheses and allows an interpretation of the results in terms of the previous literature, and on the other hand, it provides a

  8. The neural dynamics of song syntax in songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dezhe

    2010-03-01

    Songbird is ``the hydrogen atom'' of the neuroscience of complex, learned vocalizations such as human speech. Songs of Bengalese finch consist of sequences of syllables. While syllables are temporally stereotypical, syllable sequences can vary and follow complex, probabilistic syntactic rules, which are rudimentarily similar to grammars in human language. Songbird brain is accessible to experimental probes, and is understood well enough to construct biologically constrained, predictive computational models. In this talk, I will discuss the structure and dynamics of neural networks underlying the stereotypy of the birdsong syllables and the flexibility of syllable sequences. Recent experiments and computational models suggest that a syllable is encoded in a chain network of projection neurons in premotor nucleus HVC (proper name). Precisely timed spikes propagate along the chain, driving vocalization of the syllable through downstream nuclei. Through a computational model, I show that that variable syllable sequences can be generated through spike propagations in a network in HVC in which the syllable-encoding chain networks are connected into a branching chain pattern. The neurons mutually inhibit each other through the inhibitory HVC interneurons, and are driven by external inputs from nuclei upstream of HVC. At a branching point that connects the final group of a chain to the first groups of several chains, the spike activity selects one branch to continue the propagation. The selection is probabilistic, and is due to the winner-take-all mechanism mediated by the inhibition and noise. The model predicts that the syllable sequences statistically follow partially observable Markov models. Experimental results supporting this and other predictions of the model will be presented. We suggest that the syntax of birdsong syllable sequences is embedded in the connection patterns of HVC projection neurons.

  9. SYNTAX Score and Long-Term Outcomes: The BARI-2D Trial.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Fumiaki; Brooks, Maria Mori; Nakagawa, Kaori; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kaneda, Hideaki; Mitsutake, Yoshiaki; Vlachos, Helen A; Schwartz, Leonard; Frye, Robert L; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Hlatky, Mark A

    2017-01-31

    The extent of coronary disease affects clinical outcomes and may predict the effectiveness of coronary revascularization with either coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score quantifies the extent of coronary disease. This study sought to determine whether SYNTAX scores predicted outcomes and the effectiveness of coronary revascularization compared with medical therapy in the BARI-2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial. Baseline SYNTAX scores were retrospectively calculated for BARI-2D patients without prior revascularization (N = 1,550) by angiographic laboratory investigators masked to patient characteristics and outcomes. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) over 5 years. A mid/high SYNTAX score (≥23) was associated with a higher risk of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.75, p = 0.01). Patients in the CABG stratum had significantly higher SYNTAX scores: 36% had mid/high SYNTAX scores compared with 13% in the PCI stratum (p < 0.001). Among patients with low SYNTAX scores (≤22), major cardiovascular events did not differ significantly between revascularization and medical therapy, either in the CABG stratum (26.1% vs. 29.9%, p = 0.41) or in the PCI stratum (17.8% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.84). Among patients with mid/high SYNTAX scores, however, major cardiovascular events were lower after revascularization than with medical therapy in the CABG stratum (15.3% vs. 30.3%, p = 0.02), but not in the PCI stratum (35.6% vs. 26.5%, p = 0.12). Among patients with diabetes and stable ischemic heart disease, higher SYNTAX scores predict higher rates of major cardiovascular events and were associated with more favorable outcomes of revascularization compared with medical

  10. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as "precision". We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based…

  11. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  12. Adapting current Arden Syntax knowledge for an object oriented event monitor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Lussier, Yves A; Mendoça, Eneida A

    2003-01-01

    Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Module (MLM)1 was designed for writing and sharing task-specific health knowledge in 1989. Several researchers have developed frameworks to improve the sharability and adaptability of Arden Syntax MLMs, an issue known as "curly braces" problem. Karadimas et al proposed an Arden Syntax MLM-based decision support system that uses an object oriented model and the dynamic linking features of the Java platform.2 Peleg et al proposed creating a Guideline Expression Language (GEL) based on Arden Syntax's logic grammar.3 The New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYPH) has a collection of about 200 MLMs. In a process of adapting the current MLMs for an object-oriented event monitor, we identified two problems that may influence the "curly braces" one: (1) the query expressions within the curly braces of Arden Syntax used in our institution are cryptic to the physicians, institutional dependent and written ineffectively (unpublished results), and (2) the events are coded individually within a curly braces, resulting sometimes in a large number of events - up to 200.

  13. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DENTISTRY, ABSTRACTS), TEETH, DISEASES, MOUTH, TRANSPLANTATION, HYGIENE, STERILIZATION, FLUORIDES, HISTOLOGY, SURGICAL IMPLANTATION, OXYTETRACYCLINE , GELATINS, CELLULOSE, CASTING, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, TRAINING DEVICES

  14. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  15. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  16. About Edible Restaurants: Conflicts between Syntax and Semantics as Revealed by ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Miriam; Vosse, Theo; van den Brink, Daniëlle; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate conflicts between semantics and syntax, we recorded ERPs, while participants read Dutch sentences. Sentences containing conflicts between syntax and semantics (Fred eats in a sandwich…/Fred eats a restaurant…) elicited an N400. These results show that conflicts between syntax and semantics not necessarily lead to P600 effects and are in line with the processing competition account. According to this parallel account the syntactic and semantic processing streams are fully interactive and information from one level can influence the processing at another level. The relative strength of the cues of the processing streams determines which level is affected most strongly by the conflict. The processing competition account maintains the distinction between the N400 as index for semantic processing and the P600 as index for structural processing. PMID:21833277

  17. Robust Resilience of the Frontotemporal Syntax System to Aging

    PubMed Central

    Samu, Dávid; Davis, Simon W.; Geerligs, Linda; Mustafa, Abdur; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain function is thought to become less specialized with age. However, this view is largely based on findings of increased activation during tasks that fail to separate task-related processes (e.g., attention, decision making) from the cognitive process under examination. Here we take a systems-level approach to separate processes specific to language comprehension from those related to general task demands and to examine age differences in functional connectivity both within and between those systems. A large population-based sample (N = 111; 22–87 years) from the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) was scanned using functional MRI during two versions of an experiment: a natural listening version in which participants simply listened to spoken sentences and an explicit task version in which they rated the acceptability of the same sentences. Independent components analysis across the combined data from both versions showed that although task-free language comprehension activates only the auditory and frontotemporal (FTN) syntax networks, performing a simple task with the same sentences recruits several additional networks. Remarkably, functionality of the critical FTN is maintained across age groups, showing no difference in within-network connectivity or responsivity to syntactic processing demands despite gray matter loss and reduced connectivity to task-related networks. We found no evidence for reduced specialization or compensation with age. Overt task performance was maintained across the lifespan and performance in older, but not younger, adults related to crystallized knowledge, suggesting that decreased between-network connectivity may be compensated for by older adults' richer knowledge base. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding spoken language requires the rapid integration of information at many different levels of analysis. Given the complexity and speed of this process, it is remarkably well preserved with age. Although previous

  18. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  19. Can Vocabulary Lessons Increase the Amount of Complex Syntax Produced by Head Start Teachers? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Amanda Owen; Curran, Maura; Hall, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In this pilot study, we examine the suitability of materials for a vocabulary intervention designed to influence the amount of complex syntax teachers use in at-risk preschool classrooms. Six Head Start classrooms were assigned to one of two vocabulary interventions: a condition using cognitive verbs, which are biased toward complex syntax (e.g.…

  20. Fuzzy-Arden-Syntax-based, Vendor-agnostic, Scalable Clinical Decision Support and Monitoring Platform.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective is to develop and use a scalable genuine technology platform for clinical decision support based on Arden Syntax, which was extended by fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Arden Syntax is a widely recognized formal language for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format, and is maintained by Health Level Seven (HL7) International and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Fuzzy set theory and logic permit the representation of knowledge and automated reasoning under linguistic and propositional uncertainty. These forms of uncertainty are a common feature of patients' medical data, the body of medical knowledge, and deductive clinical reasoning.

  1. An add-in implementation of the RESAMPLING syntax under Microsoft EXCEL.

    PubMed

    Meineke, I

    2000-10-01

    The RESAMPLING syntax defines a set of powerful commands, which allow the programming of probabilistic statistical models with few, easily memorized statements. This paper presents an implementation of the RESAMPLING syntax using Microsoft EXCEL with Microsoft WINDOWS(R) as a platform. Two examples are given to demonstrate typical applications of RESAMPLING in biomedicine. Details of the implementation with special emphasis on the programming environment are discussed at length. The add-in is available electronically to interested readers upon request. The use of the add-in facilitates numerical statistical analyses of data from within EXCEL in a comfortable way.

  2. Syntax and serial recall: How language supports short-term memory for order.

    PubMed

    Perham, Nick; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2009-07-01

    The extent to which familiar syntax supports short-term serial recall of visually presented six-item sequences was shown by the superior recall of lists in which item pairs appeared in the order of "adjective-noun" (items 1-2, 3-4, 5-6)--congruent with English syntax--compared to when the order of items within pairs was reversed. The findings complement other evidence suggesting that short-term memory is an assemblage of language processing and production processes more than it is a bespoke short-term memory storage system.

  3. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    PubMed

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  4. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...Packaged Dental Instrument4’, (Abstract #1133) 8. I. L. SHKLAIR*, R. W. GAUGLER, R. G. WALTER -.The Effect of Three Surfactants on Controlling Caries...Insoluble Streptococcal Glucan"’. e (Abstract #102) - _/_ / 10. R. G. WALTER* and I. L. SHKLAIR - The Effect of T-10 Dextran on Caries and Plaque in

  5. The logical syntax of number words: theory, acquisition and processing.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-04-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. Cognition93, 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar implicatures: Experiments at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Cognition, 86, 253-282; Hurewitz, F., Papafragou, A., Gleitman, L., Gelman, R. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of numbers and quantifiers. Language Learning and Development, 2, 76-97; Huang, Y. T., Snedeker, J., Spelke, L. (submitted for publication). What exactly do numbers mean?]. Specifically, these studies have shown that data from experimental investigations of child language can be used to illuminate core theoretical issues in the semantic and pragmatic analysis of number terms. In this article, I extend this approach to the logico-syntactic properties of number words, focusing on the way numerals interact with each other (e.g. Three boys are holding two balloons) as well as with other quantified expressions (e.g. Three boys are holding each balloon). On the basis of their intuitions, linguists have claimed that such sentences give rise to at least four different interpretations, reflecting the complexity of the linguistic structure and syntactic operations involved. Using psycholinguistic experimentation with preschoolers (n=32) and adult speakers of English (n=32), I show that (a) for adults, the intuitions of linguists can be verified experimentally, (b) by the age of 5, children have knowledge of the core aspects of the logical syntax of number words, (c) in spite of this knowledge, children nevertheless differ from adults in systematic ways, (d) the differences observed between children and adults can be accounted for on the basis of an independently motivated, linguistically-based processing model [Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language

  6. Effects of Distributed Practice on the Acquisition of Second Language English Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study compared the effects of distributed and massed practice schedules on the learning of second language English syntax. Participants were taught distinctions in the tense and aspect systems of English at short and long practice intervals. They were then tested at short and long intervals. The results showed that distributed…

  7. Evidence for Knowledge of the Syntax of Large Numbers in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for knowledge of the syntax governing the verbal form of large numbers in preschoolers long before they are able to count up to these numbers. We reasoned that if such knowledge exists, it should facilitate the maintenance in short-term memory of lists of lexical primitives that constitute a number…

  8. Designing a Syntax-Based Retrieval System for Supporting Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Nai-Lung; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Wible, David; Hung, Tsung-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a syntax-based text retrieval system for on-line language learning and use a fast regular expression search engine as its main component. Regular expression searches provide more scalable querying and search results than keyword-based searches. However, without a well-designed index scheme, the execution time of regular…

  9. Thematic Resultative Expressions in English and Japanese: A View from the Syntax of Event Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the cross-linguistic behavior of Thematic Resultative Expressions in English and Japanese from the viewpoint of syntax-semantics mappings of event aspects, and discusses the source of some of their well-recognized syntactic and syntactico-semantic properties. Thematic Resultative Expressions (e.g. "John smashed the…

  10. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  11. The Syntax and Semantics of ERICA. Technical Report No. 185, Psychology and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Lawrence, Jr.

    This report is a detailed empirical examination of Suppes' ideas about the syntax and semantics of natural language, and an attempt at supporting the proposal that model-theoretic semantics of the type first proposed by Tarski is a useful tool for understanding the semantics of natural language. Child speech was selected as the best place to find…

  12. Contextual Approach to the Development of an Indonesian Syntax Textbook in Higher Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Tutik; Suwandi, Sarwiji; Slamet, St. Y.; Andayani

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this present research is to develop an Indonesian Syntax textbook. At the exploratory stage, a descriptive-qualitative approach was adopted. The data were collected using a documentary study, observations, and questionnaires and analyzed through a contextual model. The model was experimentally tested. At this stage, some main…

  13. Transfer at the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Pronominal Subjects in Bilingual Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the issue of crosslinguistic influence in the domain of subject realization in Turkish in simultaneous acquisition of Turkish and English. The use of subjects in a null subject language like Turkish is a phenomenon linked to the pragmatics-syntax interface of the grammar and, thus, is a domain where crosslinguistic…

  14. Is Young Children's Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence from Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Katherine; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Sorace, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that English-speaking children comprehend agent-patient verb passives earlier than experiencer-theme verb passives (Maratsos, Fox, Becker, & Chalkley, 1985). We report three experiments examining whether such effects reflect delayed acquisition of the passive syntax or instead are an artifact of the experimental task,…

  15. Peer Conflict Explanations in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Examining the Development of Complex Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Mansfield, Tracy C.; Billow, Jesse L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Expository discourse, the use of language to convey information, requires facility with complex syntax. Although expository discourse is often employed in school and work settings, little is known about its development in children, adolescents, and adults. Hence, it is difficult to evaluate this genre in students who have language…

  16. A Role for Chunk Formation in Statistical Learning of Second Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Humans are remarkably sensitive to the statistical structure of language. However, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for such statistical sensitivities. The present study compared adult learning of syntax and the ability of two models of statistical learning to simulate human performance: Simple Recurrent Networks, which learn by…

  17. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  18. Syntax for calculation of discounting indices from the monetary choice questionnaire and probability discounting questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; Amlung, Michael T; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James

    2016-09-01

    The 27-item Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ; Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999) and 30-item Probability Discounting Questionnaire (PDQ; Madden, Petry, & Johnson, 2009) are widely used, validated measures of preferences for immediate versus delayed rewards and guaranteed versus risky rewards, respectively. The MCQ measures delayed discounting by asking individuals to choose between rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after a delay. The PDQ measures probability discounting by asking individuals to choose between guaranteed rewards and a chance at winning larger rewards. Numerous studies have implicated these measures in addiction and other health behaviors. Unlike typical self-report measures, the MCQ and PDQ generate inferred hyperbolic temporal and probability discounting functions by comparing choice preferences to arrays of functions to which the individual items are preconfigured. This article provides R and SPSS syntax for processing the MCQ and PDQ. Specifically, for the MCQ, the syntax generates k values, consistency of the inferred k, and immediate choice ratios; for the PDQ, the syntax generates h indices, consistency of the inferred h, and risky choice ratios. The syntax is intended to increase the accessibility of these measures, expedite the data processing, and reduce risk for error. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Contribution of parenting to complex syntax development in preschool children with developmental delays or typical development.

    PubMed

    Moody, C T; Baker, B L; Blacher, J

    2018-05-10

    Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development. Parent-child interactions were transcribed and coded for parenting domains and child language. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the contribution of parenting to complex syntax growth in children with typical development or DD. Analyses supported a final model, F(9,50) = 11.90, P < .001, including a significant three-way interaction between positive parenting behaviours, negative parenting behaviours and child delay status. This model explained 68.16% of the variance in children's complex syntax at age 4. Simple two-way interactions indicated differing effects of parenting variables for children with or without DD. Results have implications for understanding of complex syntax acquisition in young children, as well as implications for interventions. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of Syntax after Adolescent Brain Injury: Effects of Memory on Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Holland, Audrey L.

    1998-01-01

    This study of six adolescents with brain injuries, and six controls, investigated the influence of working memory load on performance of a task designed to measure receptive syntax ability. The performance of the adolescents with brain injuries was significantly worse than that of controls. (Author/CR)

  1. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  2. [Correlation of heart rate variability with SYNTAX II on chronic angina].

    PubMed

    Castro-de la Torre, Tatiana Chantal; Amador-Licona, Norma; Bernal-Ruíz, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a prognostic value of cardiovascular risk. It is unknown the correlation between HRV and coronary severity on patients with chronic angina. The objective was to determine the correlation between HRV and the SYNTAX II score in chronic angina. Cross-sectional study in patients of 18 years or older with stable angina and indication of coronary angiography who went to a third level center. The SYNTAX II score was established by using coronary angiography, while HRV was obtained by a 24-hour Holter ECG. The correlation between SYNTAX II and HRV was performed with Pearson's test. Values of SDNN < 100 ms and RMSSD < 15 ms were considered risk factors. 61 patients were included. 45 had a decreased value of SDNN (73.77%) and eight had a decreased value of RMSSD (13.11%). There was no correlation between HRV and SYNTAX II score. There were more events of ventricular tachycardia in the group of patients with low SDNN than in those with normal SDNN (15.5% vs. 0.0%; p = 0.04). There was no correlation between HRV and the severity of coronary artery disease in stable chronic ischemic heart disease. However, those patients with low HRV showed more events of ventricular tachycardia.

  3. Linguistics from a Conceptual Viewpoint (Aspects of Aspects of a Theory of Syntax).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    Some of the assertions made by Chomsky in "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax" are considered. In particular, the notion of a "competence" model in linguistics is criticized. Formal postulates for a conceptually-based linguistic theory are presented. (Author/JD)

  4. Shape, Material, and Syntax: Interacting Forces in Children's Learning In Novel Words for Objects and Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Landau, Barbara; Gelman, Rochel

    1999-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of ontological and syntactic information in children's learning of words for physical entities, such as objects and substances. Results reveal a strong and changing developmental interaction for the use of ontologically relevant perceptual information, labels, and syntax. (Author/VWL)

  5. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  6. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  7. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  8. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  9. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  10. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  11. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  12. Energy Research Abstracts. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations. ERA coverage of non-report literature is limited to that generated by Department of Energy activity. ERA is comprehensive in its subject scope, encompassing the DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technological programs resulting from its broadmore » charter for energy sources, conservation, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation. Corporate, author, subject, report number, and contract number indexes are included. ERA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research intitutions, industrial firms, and publishers of scientific information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain ERA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. ERA is available to the public on a subscription basis for 24 semimonthly issues including a semiannual index and an annual index. All citations announced in ERA exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  13. Using Arden Syntax for the Generation of Intelligent Intensive Care Discharge Letters.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Stefan; Castellanos, Ixchel; Albermann, Matthias; Schuettler, Christina; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Staudigel, Martin; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Discharge letters are an important means of communication between physicians and nurses from intensive care units and their colleagues from normal wards. The patient data management system (PDMS) used at our local intensive care units provides an export tool to create discharge letters by inserting data items from electronic medical records into predefined templates. Local intensivists criticized the limitations of this tool regarding the identification and the further processing of clinically relevant data items for a flexible creation of discharge letters. As our PDMS supports Arden Syntax, and the demanded functionalities are well within the scope of this standard, we set out to investigate the suitability of Arden Syntax for the generation of discharge letters. To provide an easy-to-understand facility for integrating data items into document templates, we created an Arden Syntax interface function which replaces the names of previously defined variables with their content in a way that permits arbitrary custom formatting by clinical users. Our approach facilitates the creation of flexible text sections by conditional statements, as well as the integration of arbitrary HTML code and dynamically generated graphs. The resulting prototype enables clinical users to apply the full set of Arden Syntax language constructs to identify and process relevant data items in a way that far exceeds the capabilities of the PDMS export tool. The generation of discharge letters is an uncommon area of application for Arden Syntax, considerably differing from its original purpose. However, we found our prototype well suited for this task and plan to evaluate it in clinical production after the next major release change of our PDMS.

  14. Walkability and walking for transport: characterizing the built environment using space syntax.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cerin, Ester; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2016-11-24

    Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be associated with walking behavior. However, the availability of geographical data necessary to construct it remains a limitation. Building on the concept of space syntax, we propose an alternative walkability index, space syntax walkability (SSW). This study examined associations of the full walkability index and SSW with walking for transport (WT). Data were collected in 2003-2004 from 2544 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCD) in Adelaide, Australia. Participants reported past week WT frequency. Full walkability (consisting of net residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and SSW (consisting of gross population density and a space syntax measure of street integration) were calculated for each CCD using geographic information systems and space syntax software. Generalized linear models with negative binomial variance and logarithmic link functions were employed to examine the associations of each walkability index with WT frequency, adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Two walkability indices were closely correlated (ρ = 0.76, p < 0.01). The associations of full walkability and SSW with WT frequency were positive, with regression coefficients of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.19), respectively. SSW employs readily-available geographic data, yet is comparable to full walkability in its association with WT. The concept and methods of space syntax provide a novel approach to further understanding how urban design influences walking behaviors.

  15. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  16. Fifth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts).

    Treesearch

    Janette R. Thompson; Richard C. Schultz; J.W. Van Sambeek

    1993-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of planted trees, seedling propagation, physiology, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration for oaks are described in 30 abstracts.

  17. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  18. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  19. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes abstracts of special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include digital imagery; text summarization; browsing; digital libraries; icons and the Web; information management; curricula planning; interfaces; information systems; theories; scholarly and scientific communication; global development; archives; document delivery;…

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  1. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  2. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  3. The role of stimulus-specific adaptation in songbird syntax generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenbach, Jason D.

    Sequential behaviors are an important part of the behavioral repertoire of many animals and understanding how neural circuits encode and generate such sequences is a long-standing question in neuroscience. The Bengalese finch is a useful model system for studying variable action sequences. The songs of these birds consist of well-defined vocal elements (syllables) that are strung together to form sequences. The ordering of the syllables within the sequence is variable but not random - it shows complex statistical patterns (syntax). While often thought to be first-order, the syntax of the Bengalese finch song shows a distinct form of history dependence where the probability of repeating a syllable decreases as a function of the number of repetitions that have already occurred. Current models of the Bengalese finch song control circuitry offer no explanation for this repetition adaptation. The Bengalese finch also uses real-time auditory feedback to control the song syntax. Considering these facts, we hypothesize that repetition adaptation in the Bengalese finch syntax may be caused by stimulus-specific adaptation - a wide-spread phenomenon where neural responses to a specific stimulus become weaker with repeated presentations of the same stimulus. We begin by proposing a computational model for the song-control circuit where an auditory feedback signal that undergoes stimulus-specific adaptation helps drive repeated syllables. We show that this model does indeed capture the repetition adaptation observed in Bengalese finch syntax; along the way, we derive a new probabilistic model for repetition adaptation. Key predictions of our model are analyzed in light of experiments performed by collaborators. Next we extend the model in order to predict how the syntax will change as a function of brain temperature. These predictions are compared to experimental results from collaborators where portions of the Bengalese finch song circuit are cooled in awake and behaving birds

  4. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  5. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  7. Fault Tree Analysis: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is a top-down approach to the identification of process hazards. It is as one of the best methods for systematically identifying an graphically displaying the many ways some things can go wrong. This bibliography references 266 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts. fault tree analysis, risk an probability theory, in the basic index or major subject terms. An abstract is included with most citations, followed by the applicable subject terms.

  8. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilities to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Codemore » also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  9. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  10. Using features of Arden Syntax with object-oriented medical data models for guideline modeling.

    PubMed

    Peleg, M; Ogunyemi, O; Tu, S; Boxwala, A A; Zeng, Q; Greenes, R A; Shortliffe, E H

    2001-01-01

    Computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) can deliver patient-specific decision support at the point of care. CIGs base their recommendations on eligibility and decision criteria that relate medical concepts to patient data. CIG models use expression languages for specifying these criteria, and define models for medical data to which the expressions can refer. In developing version 3 of the GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF3), we used existing standards as the medical data model and expression language. We investigated the object-oriented HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a default data model. We developed an expression language, called GEL, based on Arden Syntax's logic grammar. Together with other GLIF constructs, GEL reconciles incompatibilities between the data models of Arden Syntax and the HL7 RIM. These incompatibilities include Arden's lack of support for complex data types and time intervals, and the mismatch between Arden's single primary time and multiple time attributes of the HL7 RIM.

  11. Standards-Based Procedural Phenotyping: The Arden Syntax on i2b2.

    PubMed

    Mate, Sebastian; Castellanos, Ixchel; Ganslandt, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Kraus, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping, or the identification of patient cohorts, is a recurring challenge in medical informatics. While there are open source tools such as i2b2 that address this problem by providing user-friendly querying interfaces, these platforms lack semantic expressiveness to model complex phenotyping algorithms. The Arden Syntax provides procedural programming language construct, designed specifically for medical decision support and knowledge transfer. In this work, we investigate how language constructs of the Arden Syntax can be used for generic phenotyping. We implemented a prototypical tool to integrate i2b2 with an open source Arden execution environment. To demonstrate the applicability of our approach, we used the tool together with an Arden-based phenotyping algorithm to derive statistics about ICU-acquired hypernatremia. Finally, we discuss how the combination of i2b2's user-friendly cohort pre-selection and Arden's procedural expressiveness could benefit phenotyping.

  12. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  13. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  14. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  15. Children and Computers Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of reports of eight research studies on computer uses in children's education are presented. Topics covered include (1) LOGO computer language; (2) computer graphics for art instruction; (3) animation; (4) problem solving; (5) children's use of symbols; (6) an evaluation of a Chapter 1 program involving children's computer use; (7) peer…

  16. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  17. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  18. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  19. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  20. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  2. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  3. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  5. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  6. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  7. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  8. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  9. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  10. Syntax diagrams for body wave nomenclature, with generalizations for terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Apollo network on the Moon constitutes the beginning of planetary seismology. In the next few decades, we may see seismometers deployed on the Moon again, on Mars, and perhaps on other terrestrial planets or satellites. Any seismological software for computation of body wave travel times on other planets should be highly versatile and be prepared for a huge variety of velocity distributions and internal structures. A suite of trial models for a planet might, for example, contain models with and without solid inner cores. It would then be useful if the software could detect physically meaningless phase names automatically without actually carrying out any computation. It would also be useful if the program were prepared to deal with features like fully solid cores, internal oceans, and varying depths of mineralogical phase changes like the olivine-spinel transition. Syntax diagrams are a standard method to describe the syntax of programming languages. They represent a graphical way to define which letter or phrase is allowed to follow a given sequence of letters. Syntax diagrams may be stored in data structures that allow automatic evaluation of a given letter sequence. Such diagrams are presented here for a generalized body wave nomenclature. Generalizations are made to overcome earth-specific notations which incorporate discontinuity depths into phase names or to distinguish olivine transitions from ice-ice transitions (as expected on the Galilean Satellites).

  11. A behavior analytic analogue of learning to use synonyms, syntax, and parts of speech.

    PubMed

    Chase, Philip N; Ellenwood, David W; Madden, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Matching-to-sample and sequence training procedures were used to develop responding to stimulus classes that were considered analogous to 3 aspects of verbal behavior: identifying synonyms and parts of speech, and using syntax. Matching-to-sample procedures were used to train 12 paired associates from among 24 stimuli. These pairs were analogous to synonyms. Then, sequence characteristics were trained to 6 of the stimuli. The result was the formation of 3 classes of 4 stimuli, with the classes controlling a sequence response analogous to a simple ordering syntax: first, second, and third. Matching-to-sample procedures were then used to add 4 stimuli to each class. These stimuli, without explicit sequence training, also began to control the same sequence responding as the other members of their class. Thus, three 8-member functionally equivalent sequence classes were formed. These classes were considered to be analogous to parts of speech. Further testing revealed three 8-member equivalence classes and 512 different sequences of first, second, and third. The study indicated that behavior analytic procedures may be used to produce some generative aspects of verbal behavior related to simple syntax and semantics.

  12. Clinical decision support systems at the Vienna General Hospital using Arden Syntax: Design, implementation, and integration.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Christian; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Seeling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The Allgemeines Krankenhaus Informations Management (AKIM) project was started at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) several years ago. This led to the introduction of a new hospital information system (HIS), and the installation of the expert system platform (EXP) for the integration of Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). In this report we take a look at the milestones achieved and the challenges faced in the creation and modification of CDSSs, and their integration into the HIS over the last three years. We introduce a three-stage development method, which is followed in nearly all CDSS projects at the Medical University of Vienna and the VGH. Stage one comprises requirements engineering and system conception. Stage two focuses on the implementation and testing of the system. Finally, stage three describes the deployment and integration of the system in the VGH HIS. The HIS provides a clinical work environment for healthcare specialists using customizable graphical interfaces known as parametric medical documents. Multiple Arden Syntax servers are employed to host and execute the CDSS knowledge bases: two embedded in the EXP for production and development, and a further three in clinical routine for production, development, and quality assurance. Three systems are discussed; the systems serve different purposes in different clinical areas, but are all implemented with Arden Syntax. MONI-ICU is an automated surveillance system for monitoring healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care setting. TSM-CDS is a CDSS used for risk prediction in the formation of cutaneous melanoma metastases. Finally, TacroDS is a CDSS for the manipulation of dosages for tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent used after kidney transplantation. Problems in development and integration were related to data quality or availability, although organizational difficulties also caused delays in development and integration. Since the inception of the AKIM

  13. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  14. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Development in Initally Caries-Free Naval Recruits" (Abstract #898) , 13. M. R. WIRTHLIN* and E. B. HANCOCK - " Regeneration After Biologic Treat- ment of...These variables can be grouped into four categories: oral condition (N-7), clinical attendance (N=4), personal characteristics (N=4), and record...Histologic examination of the pulp tissue in these teeth were related to the clinical criteria prior to extraction. Clinical criteria associated

  15. Abstract shapes of RNA.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Voss, Björn; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The function of a non-protein-coding RNA is often determined by its structure. Since experimental determination of RNA structure is time-consuming and expensive, its computational prediction is of great interest, and efficient solutions based on thermodynamic parameters are known. Frequently, however, the predicted minimum free energy structures are not the native ones, leading to the necessity of generating suboptimal solutions. While this can be accomplished by a number of programs, the user is often confronted with large outputs of similar structures, although he or she is interested in structures with more fundamental differences, or, in other words, with different abstract shapes. Here, we formalize the concept of abstract shapes and introduce their efficient computation. Each shape of an RNA molecule comprises a class of similar structures and has a representative structure of minimal free energy within the class. Shape analysis is implemented in the program RNAshapes. We applied RNAshapes to the prediction of optimal and suboptimal abstract shapes of several RNAs. For a given energy range, the number of shapes is considerably smaller than the number of structures, and in all cases, the native structures were among the top shape representatives. This demonstrates that the researcher can quickly focus on the structures of interest, without processing up to thousands of near-optimal solutions. We complement this study with a large-scale analysis of the growth behaviour of structure and shape spaces. RNAshapes is available for download and as an online version on the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server.

  16. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  17. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  18. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  19. A Metric on Phylogenetic Tree Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Plazzotta, G.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The shapes of evolutionary trees are influenced by the nature of the evolutionary process but comparisons of trees from different processes are hindered by the challenge of completely describing tree shape. We present a full characterization of the shapes of rooted branching trees in a form that lends itself to natural tree comparisons. We use this characterization to define a metric, in the sense of a true distance function, on tree shapes. The metric distinguishes trees from random models known to produce different tree shapes. It separates trees derived from tropical versus USA influenza A sequences, which reflect the differing epidemiology of tropical and seasonal flu. We describe several metrics based on the same core characterization, and illustrate how to extend the metric to incorporate trees’ branch lengths or other features such as overall imbalance. Our approach allows us to construct addition and multiplication on trees, and to create a convex metric on tree shapes which formally allows computation of average tree shapes. PMID:28472435

  20. Does geographical variability influence five-year MACCE rates in the multicentre SYNTAX revascularisation trial?

    PubMed

    Roy, Andrew K; Chevalier, Bernard; Lefèvre, Thierry; Louvard, Yves; Segurado, Ricardo; Sawaya, Fadi; Spaziano, Marco; Neylon, Antoinette; Serruys, Patrick A; Dawkins, Keith D; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Colombo, Antonio; Feldman, Ted; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-20

    The use of multiple geographical sites for randomised cardiovascular trials may lead to important heterogeneity in treatment effects. This study aimed to determine whether treatment effects from different geographical recruitment regions impacted significantly on five-year MACCE rates in the SYNTAX trial. Five-year SYNTAX results (n=1,800) were analysed for geographical variability by site and country for the effect of treatment (CABG vs. PCI) on MACCE rates. Fixed, random, and linear mixed models were used to test clinical covariate effects, such as diabetes, lesion characteristics, and procedural factors. Comparing five-year MACCE rates, the pooled odds ratio (OR) between study sites was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), and countries 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45-0.73). By homogeneity testing, no individual site (X2=93.8, p=0.051) or country differences (X2=25.7, p=0.080) were observed. For random effects models, the intraclass correlation was minimal (ICC site=5.1%, ICC country=1.5%, p<0.001), indicating minimal geographical heterogeneity, with a hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59-0.83). Baseline risk (smoking, diabetes, PAD) did not influence regional five-year MACCE outcomes (ICC 1.3%-5.2%), nor did revascularisation of the left main vs. three-vessel disease (p=0.241), across site or country subgroups. For CABG patients, the number of arterial (p=0.49) or venous (p=0.38) conduits used also made no difference. Geographic variability has no significant treatment effect on MACCE rates at five years. These findings highlight the generalisability of the five-year outcomes of the SYNTAX study.

  1. Efficient Inference for Trees and Alignments: Modeling Monolingual and Bilingual Syntax with Hard and Soft Constraints and Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Much recent work in natural language processing treats linguistic analysis as an inference problem over graphs. This development opens up useful connections between machine learning, graph theory, and linguistics. The first part of this dissertation formulates syntactic dependency parsing as a dynamic Markov random field with the novel…

  2. Eighth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts). 2001 September 9-12; Hiwassee, GA.

    Treesearch

    S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; W.J. Ostrosina; J.G. Isebrands

    2002-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of planted trees, seedling propagation, physiology, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration for oaks are described in 21 abstracts.

  3. Sixth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts); 1995 September 18-20; Tomahawk, WI.

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Teclaw

    1996-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of planted trees, seedling propagation, physiology, genetics, acorn germination ,and natural regeneration for oaks are described in 29 abstracts.

  4. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  5. Empirical analysis of knowledge bases to support structured output in the Arden syntax.

    PubMed

    Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Structured output has been suggested for the Arden Syntax to facilitate interoperability. Tabulate the components of WRITE statements in a corpus of medical logic modules (MLMs)in order to validate requiring structured output. WRITE statements were tabulated in 258 MLMs from 2 organizations. In a total of 351 WRITE statements, email destinations (226) predominated, and 39 orders and 40 coded output elements also were tabulated. Free-text strings predominated as the message data. Arden WRITE statements contain considerable potentially structured data now included as free text. A future, normative structured WRITE statement must address a variety of data types and destinations.

  6. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  7. Automatic generation of the index of productive syntax for child language transcripts.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Khairun-nisa; Liu, Yang; Iglesias, Aquiles; Solorio, Thamar; Dollaghan, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The index of productive syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough (Applied Psycholinguistics 11:1-22, 1990) is a measure of syntactic development in child language that has been used in research and clinical settings to investigate the grammatical development of various groups of children. However, IPSyn is mostly calculated manually, which is an extremely laborious process. In this article, we describe the AC-IPSyn system, which automatically calculates the IPSyn score for child language transcripts using natural language processing techniques. Our results show that the AC-IPSyn system performs at levels comparable to scores computed manually. The AC-IPSyn system can be downloaded from www.hlt.utdallas.edu/~nisa/ipsyn.html .

  8. The Development of Variable MLM Editor and TSQL Translator Based on Arden Syntax in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan-Ching; Chang, Polun

    2003-01-01

    The Arden Syntax standard has been utilized in the medical informatics community in several countries during the past decade. It is never used in nursing in Taiwan. We try to develop a system that acquire medical expert knowledge in Chinese and translates data and logic slot into TSQL Language. The system implements TSQL translator interpreting database queries referred to in the knowledge modules. The decision-support systems in medicine are data driven system where TSQL triggers as inference engine can be used to facilitate linking to a database. PMID:14728414

  9. The development of variable MLM editor and TSQL translator based on Arden Syntax in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan Ching; Chang, Polun

    2003-01-01

    The Arden Syntax standard has been utilized in the medical informatics community in several countries during the past decade. It is never used in nursing in Taiwan. We try to develop a system that acquire medical expert knowledge in Chinese and translates data and logic slot into TSQL Language. The system implements TSQL translator interpreting database queries referred to in the knowledge modules. The decision-support systems in medicine are data driven system where TSQL triggers as inference engine can be used to facilitate linking to a database.

  10. Tree Mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2011-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems, but it can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high-mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. Regionally high mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forests in an area are made up of older, senescent stands.

  11. Tree Mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  12. The Spatial Distribution of Dead Trees across Arkansas Timberlands

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; James M. Guldin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract -- Dead trees are an important part of the forest ecosystem and their attributes have been studied at the stand scale. However, their distribution over a large region has rarely been examined. In this study, the distribution and dynamics of sound wood in dead trees and the ratio of dead to live trees across the Arkansas landscape were...

  13. Using Arden Syntax to Identify Registry-Eligible Very Low Birth Weight Neonates from the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Rosenau, Paul T.; Storer, Matthew B.; Anderson, Beth; Horbar, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Condition-specific registries are essential resources for supporting epidemiological, quality improvement, and clinical trial studies. The identification of potentially eligible patients for a given registry often involves a manual process or use of ad hoc software tools. With the increased availability of electronic health data, such as within Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems, there is potential to develop healthcare standards based approaches for interacting with these data. Arden Syntax, which has traditionally been used to represent medical knowledge for clinical decision support, is one such standard that may be adapted for the purpose of registry eligibility determination. In this feasibility study, Arden Syntax was explored for its ability to represent eligibility criteria for a registry of very low birth weight neonates. The promising performance (100% recall; 97% precision) of the Arden Syntax approach at a single institution suggests that a standards-based methodology could be used to robustly identify registry-eligible patients from EHRs. PMID:25954412

  14. Language and theory of mind in autism spectrum disorder: the relationship between complement syntax and false belief task performance.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Bowler, Dermot M

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and traditional location change and unexpected contents false belief tasks. Consistent with predictions, the correlation between complement syntax score and location change task performance was significantly stronger within the ASD group than within the comparison group. However, contrary to predictions, complement syntax score was not significantly correlated with unexpected contents task performance within either group. Possible explanations for this pattern of results are considered.

  15. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  16. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  17. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  18. Value of the SYNTAX score for periprocedural myocardial infarction according to WHO and the third universal definition of myocardial infarction: insights from the TWENTE trial.

    PubMed

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Lam, Ming Kai; Sen, Hanim; de Man, Frits H A F; Louwerenburg, J Hans W; Stoel, Martin G; van Houwelingen, K Gert; Linssen, Gerard C M; van der Palen, Job; Doggen, Carine J M; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2016-07-20

    The SYNTAX score is a tool to quantify the complexity of coronary artery disease. We investigated the relation between the SYNTAX score and the occurrence of a periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) according to the historical definition of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the recently updated universal definition of MI. The SYNTAX score was calculated in 1,243 patients enrolled in TWENTE, a randomised trial which assessed second-generation drug-eluting stents. PMI was defined by the WHO definition and the third universal definition of MI. Patients were divided into tertiles of the SYNTAX score: ≤7 (n=430); >7 and <15 (n=390); ≥15 (n=423). PMI according to the WHO definition occurred more frequently in patients in the highest SYNTAX score tertile (7.3% vs. 3.1% vs. 1.6%, p<0.001) compared to the mid and lowest tertile. Similar findings were seen for universal PMI (9.9% vs. 7.7% vs. 3.7%, p<0.01). After multivariate analysis, SYNTAX score was a significant independent correlate of PMI for both definitions: the highest SYNTAX score tertile had an almost five times higher risk for WHO PMI, and a three times higher risk for universal PMI. In a broad patient population treated with second-generation DES, the SYNTAX score was able to stratify the risk of PMI.

  19. Analysis of spatial configuration of the Palace Museum: an application of the axial-based space syntax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Feng

    2006-10-01

    Movement in a spatial system is produced and determined by the structure of the complex space itself, rather than special attractors within the whole spatial system. Based on this theory of space syntax, tourists' convergence and dispersal in the Palace Museum should be originated by the distribution of the internal constructions form. This article presents an application of the space syntax approach to the Palace Museum. After analyzing its internal spatial configuration, as a conclusion, the paper provides some rational advices so as to facilitate tourists as well as protect our invaluable cultural heritage.

  20. Exploring item and higher order factor structure with the Schmid-Leiman solution: syntax codes for SPSS and SAS.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Preising, Katja

    2005-02-01

    To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  1. Glacier and landslide feedbacks to topographic relief in the Himalayan syntaxes

    PubMed Central

    Korup, Oliver; Montgomery, David R.; Hewitt, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Despite longstanding research on the age and formation of the Tibetan Plateau, the controls on the erosional decay of its margins remain controversial. Pronounced aridity and highly localized rock uplift have traditionally been viewed as limits to the dissection of the plateau by bedrock rivers. Recently, however, glacier dynamics and landsliding have been argued to retard headward fluvial erosion into the plateau interior by forming dams and protective alluvial fill. Here, we report a conspicuous clustering of hundreds of natural dams along the Indus and the Tsangpo Rivers where these cross the Himalayan syntaxes. The Indus is riddled by hundreds of dams composed of debris from catastrophic rock avalanches, forming the largest concentration of giant landslide dams known worldwide, whereas the Tsangpo seems devoid of comparable landslide dams. In contrast, glacial dams such as river-blocking moraines in the headwaters of both rivers are limited to where isolated mountain ranges intersect the regional snowline. We find that to first-order, high local topographic relief along both rivers corresponds to conspicuously different knickzones and differences in the type and potential longevity of these dams. In both syntaxes, glacier and landslide dams act as a negative feedback in response to fluvial dissection of the plateau margins. Natural damming protects bedrock from river incision and delays headward knickpoint migration, thereby helping stabilize the southwestern and southeastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau in concert with the effects of upstream aridity and localized rock uplift. PMID:20212156

  2. Oscillatory brain activity differentially reflects false belief understanding and complementation syntax processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yao; Farrar, M Jeffrey; Keil, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    False belief understanding (FBU) enables people to consider conflicting beliefs about the same situation. While language has been demonstrated to be a correlate of FBU, there is still controversy about the extent to which a specific aspect of language, complementation syntax, is a necessary condition for FBU. The present study tested an important notion from the debate proposing that complementation syntax task is redundant to FBU measures. Specifically, we examined electrophysiological correlates of false belief, false complementation, and their respective true conditions in adults using electroencephalography (EEG), focusing on indices of oscillatory brain activity and large-scale connectivity. The results showed strong modulation of parieto-occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-20 Hz) power by the experimental manipulations, with heightened sustained alpha power reflective of effortful internal processing observed in the false compared to the true conditions and reliable beta power reductions sensitive to mentalizing and/or syntactic demands in the belief versus the complementation conditions. In addition, higher coupling between parieto-occipital regions and widespread frontal sites in the beta band was found for the false-belief condition selectively. The result of divergence in beta oscillatory activity and in connectivity between false belief and false complementation does not support the redundancy hypothesis.

  3. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  4. Five-year outcomes of staged percutaneous coronary intervention in the SYNTAX study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Stuart; Oldroyd, Keith G; Preda, Istvan; Holmes, David R; Colombo, Antonio; Morice, Marie-Claude; Leadley, Katrin; Dawkins, Keith D; Mohr, Friedrich W; Serruys, Patrick W; Feldman, Ted E

    2015-04-01

    The SYNTAX study compared PCI with TAXUS Express stents to CABG for the treatment of de novo 3-vessel and/or left main coronary disease. This study aimed to determine patient characteristics and five-year outcomes after a staged PCI strategy compared to single-session PCI. In the SYNTAX trial, staged procedures were discouraged but were allowed within 72 hours or, if renal insufficiency or contrast-induced nephropathy occurred, within 14 days (mean 9.8±18.1 days post initial procedure). A total of 125 (14%) patients underwent staged PCI. These patients had greater disease severity and/or required a more complex procedure. MACCE was significantly increased in staged patients (48.1% vs. 35.5%, p=0.004), as was the composite of death/stroke/MI (32.2% vs. 19%, p=0.0007). Individually, cardiac death and stroke occurred more frequently in the staged PCI group (p=0.03). Repeat revascularisation was significantly higher in staged patients (32.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.035), as was stent thrombosis (10.9% vs. 4.7%, p=0.005). There is a higher incidence of MACCE in patients undergoing staged compared to single-session PCI for 3-vessel and/or left main disease over the first five years of follow-up. However, these patients had more comorbidities and more diffuse disease.

  5. Effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic syntax in Western music.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Torpey, Dana; Woldorff, Marty

    2005-12-01

    The effects of selective attention on the neural response to the violation of musical syntax were investigated in the present study. Musical chord progressions were played to nonmusicians while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The five-chord progressions included 61% harmonically expected cadences (I-I(6)-IV-V-I), 26% harmonically unexpected cadences (I-I(6)-IV-V-N(6)), and 13% with one of the five chords having an intensity fadeout across its duration. During the attended condition, subjects responded by pressing a button upon detecting a fadeout in volume; during the unattended condition, subjects were given reading comprehension materials and instructed to ignore all auditory stimuli. In response to the harmonic deviant, an Early Anterior Negativity (EAN) was observed at 150-300 ms in both attention conditions, but it was much larger in amplitude in the attended condition. A second scalp-negative deflection was also identified at 380-600 ms following the harmonic deviants; this Late Negativity onset earlier during the attended condition. These results suggest strong effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic syntax.

  6. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca’s Area: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026

  7. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several studies of child language that have been conducted with the goal of helping to adjudicate between the alternative approaches to language development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:185-203. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Somali Syntax,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    they - go The Vietnamese people should be allowed the right of determining their own destiny . 174" a.- ] !- ’--- _ (373) Anaa warrameya. I/SP (baa... embryo of a form of prepositional government which is the same for verbs and nouns alike and which is developing on the basis of a spatial noun

  9. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  10. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  11. What Makes a Tree a Tree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on trees, focusing on the parts of trees and how they differ from other plants; (2) eight activities; and (3) ready-to-copy pages dealing with tree identification and tree rings. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  12. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    approach for applying model checking to unbounded systems is to extract finite state models from them using conservative abstraction techniques. Prop...36 2.5.1 Multiple Reference Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.5.2 Adding Monitor Processes...model checking to complex pieces of code like device drivers depends on the use of abstraction methods. An abstraction method extracts a small finite

  13. Abstractions for DNA circuit design.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Matthew R; Youssef, Simon; Cardelli, Luca; Phillips, Andrew

    2012-03-07

    DNA strand displacement techniques have been used to implement a broad range of information processing devices, from logic gates, to chemical reaction networks, to architectures for universal computation. Strand displacement techniques enable computational devices to be implemented in DNA without the need for additional components, allowing computation to be programmed solely in terms of nucleotide sequences. A major challenge in the design of strand displacement devices has been to enable rapid analysis of high-level designs while also supporting detailed simulations that include known forms of interference. Another challenge has been to design devices capable of sustaining precise reaction kinetics over long periods, without relying on complex experimental equipment to continually replenish depleted species over time. In this paper, we present a programming language for designing DNA strand displacement devices, which supports progressively increasing levels of molecular detail. The language allows device designs to be programmed using a common syntax and then analysed at varying levels of detail, with or without interference, without needing to modify the program. This allows a trade-off to be made between the level of molecular detail and the computational cost of analysis. We use the language to design a buffered architecture for DNA devices, capable of maintaining precise reaction kinetics for a potentially unbounded period. We test the effectiveness of buffered gates to support long-running computation by designing a DNA strand displacement system capable of sustained oscillations.

  14. Subduction and Slab Advance at Orogen Syntaxes: Predicting Exhumation Rates and Thermochronometric Ages with Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd A.; Whipp, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The change in plate boundary orientation and subducting plate geometry along orogen syntaxes may have major control on the subduction and exhumation dynamics at these locations. Previous work documents that the curvature of subducting plates in 3D at orogen syntaxes forces a buckling and flexural stiffening of the downgoing plate. The geometry of this stiffened plate region, also called indenter, can be observed in various subduction zones around the world (e.g. St. Elias Range, Alaska; Cascadia, USA; Andean syntaxis, South America). The development of a subducting, flexurally stiffened indenter beneath orogen syntaxes influences deformation in the overriding plate and can lead to accelerated and focused rock uplift above its apex. Moreover, the style of deformation in the overriding plate is influenced by the amount of trench or slab advance, which is the amount of overall shortening not accommodated by underthrusting. While many subduction zones exhibit little to no slab advance, the Nazca-South America subduction and especially the early stages of the India-Eurasia collision provide end-member examples. Here, we use a transient, lithospheric-scale, thermomechanical 3D model of an orogen syntaxis to investigate the effects of subducting a flexurally stiffened plate geometry and slab advance on upper plate deformation. A visco-plastic upper-plate rheology is used, along with a buckled, rigid subducting plate. The free surface of the thermomechanical model is coupled to a landscape evolution model that accounts for erosion by fluvial and hillslope processes. The cooling histories of exhumed rocks are used to predict the evolution of low-temperature thermochronometer ages on the surface. With a constant overall shortening for all simulations, the magnitude of slab advance is varied stepwise from no advance, with all shortening accommodated by underthrusting, to full slab advance, i.e. no motion on the megathrust. We show that in models where most shortening is

  15. Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

  16. Comparison of Syntax Training for Students with Developmental Disabilities Utilizing Clinician-Directed versus Self-Determined Session Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Gonzalez, Lori; Schuster, John W.; Huebner, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The ability to make choices, plan, and self-evaluate are among the primary skills included in the development of self-determination. This study was designed to determine if a teaching paradigm, which incorporates key elements of self-determination, is as effective and more efficient in teaching syntax than a traditional, clinician-directed…

  17. Language and Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Relationship between Complement Syntax and False Belief Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and…

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Reading Disabilities and Oral Syntax and the Temporal Aspects of that Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Marsha Rose

    Fifteen eight- and nine-year-old boys with reading disabilities and 15 with normal reading ability participated in a study of the relationships among reading disabilities, oral syntax, and temporal functioning ability (sequencing and the ability to perceive relationships in time). Each subject was given an individual battery of tests which…

  19. The role of syntax in complex networks: Local and global importance of verbs in a syntactic dependency network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk

    2011-10-01

    Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.

  20. Argument Realization in Second Language Acquisition of French and Spanish: A View from the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on monolingual (L1) and bilingual (2L1) language acquisition is exploring the idea that children's early deviant structures involving omission of obligatory subjects and objects might be due not so much to performance limitations or purely syntactic deficits, but rather to an immature interface between syntax and discourse. For…

  1. Trees are good, but…

    Treesearch

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  2. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-08-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing children in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of (morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics.

  4. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Gustavo Inheta; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-12-07

    To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese considering the linguistic and cultural reality of the language. The AST assesses the early morphosyntactic development in children aged 3 to 7 in terms of understanding and expression of various types of structures such as sentences, pronouns, verbal voices, comparisons, prepositions and verbal desinence as to number, mode and tense. The process of translation and cultural adaptation followed four steps: 1) preparation of two translations; 2) synthesis of consensual translations; 3) backtranslation; and 4) verification of equivalence between the initial translations and backtranslations that resulted in the final translated version. The whole process of translation and cultural adaptation revealed the presence of equivalence and reconciliation of the translated items and an almost complete semantic equivalence between the two translations and the absence of consistent translation difficulties. The AST was translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, constituting the first step towards validation and standardization of the test.

  5. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  6. Predictors of Peak Troponin Level in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Prior Aspirin Use and SYNTAX Score

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Hemal A.; Sanghani, Dharmesh R.; Lee, David; Julliard, Kell N.; Fernaine, George A.

    2015-01-01

    The peak troponin level has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) mortality and adverse CV events. The association of peak troponin with CV risk factors and severity and complexity of coronary artery disease remains unknown. We assessed the predictors of peak troponin in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aims to determine the predictors of peak troponin in ACS. Cardiac catheterization (CC) reports and electronic medical records from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 219 patients were eligible for the study. All major CV risk factors, comorbidities, laboratory data, CC indications, and coronary lesion characteristics were included. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were done. On multivariate linear regression analysis, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (p = 0.001, β = 65.16) and increasing synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with Taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score (p = 0.002, β = 1.15) were associated with higher peak troponin. The Pearson correlation between SYNTAX score and peak troponin was r = 0.257, p = 0.001. History of daily aspirin use was associated with lower peak troponin (p = 0.002, β = −24.32). Prior statin use (p = 0.321, β = −8.98) and the presence of CV risk factors were not associated with peak troponin. Coronary artery disease severity and complexity, urgency of CC, and prior aspirin use are associated with peak troponin levels in ACS. Our findings may help predict patient population with ACS who would be at a greater risk for short- and long-term CV morbidity and mortality due to elevated peak troponin. PMID:26900312

  7. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  8. Trees in the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Richard; Forbatha, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Strategies for using trees in classroom instruction are provided. Includes: (1) activities (such as tree identification, mapping, measuring tree height/width); (2) list of asthetic, architectural, engineering, climate, and wildlife functions of trees; (3) tree discussion questions; and (4) references. (JN)

  9. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  10. Community Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Katie Himanga; Douglas Jones; Jean Miller; Janette Monear; Gail Steinman; Katherine Widin

    2001-01-01

    Tree Trust has been helping people plant trees in their communities since 1976. Our goal is to educate people about the importance of trees in their community and guide them through the process of successful tree-planting projects. Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said ?to exist as a nation, to prosper as a state, and to live as a people, we must have trees?....

  11. Simple street tree sampling

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  12. Urban park tree inventories

    Treesearch

    Joe R. McBride; David J. Nowak

    1989-01-01

    A survey of published reports on urban park tree inventories in the United States and the United Kingdom reveal two types of inventories: (1) Tree Location Inventories and (2) Generalized Information Inventories. Tree location inventories permit managers to relocate specific park trees, along with providing individual tree characteristics and condition data. In...

  13. Folding Automaton for Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, N.; Thiagarajan, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we observed the definition of folding technique in graph theory and we derived the corresponding automaton for trees. Also derived some propositions on symmetrical structure tree, non-symmetrical structure tree, point symmetrical structure tree, edge symmetrical structure tree along with finite number of points. This approach provides to derive one edge after n’ number of foldings.

  14. (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will review the application of NASA developed remote sensing technology towards the monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards. The overview will be followed by recent data on three specific natural hazard applications.

  15. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  16. Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that evaluated features of TEXNET abstracting software, compared the use of keywords and phrases that were automatically extracted, tested hypotheses about relations between abstractors' backgrounds and their reactions to abstracting assistance software, and obtained ideas for further features to be developed in TEXNET.…

  17. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVI, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) music in the biology classroom; (2) pairing English as a second language and freshman composition students in writing activities; (3) moot court exercises in…

  18. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  19. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  20. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  1. Abstracts of Research Papers 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drowatzky, John N., Ed.

    This publication includes the abstracts of 199 research papers presented at the 1970 American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation convention in Seattle, Washington. Abstracts from symposia on environmental quality education, obesity, motor development, research methods, and laboratory equipment are also included. Each…

  2. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  3. The Efficacy of Consensus Tree Methods for Summarizing Phylogenetic Relationships from a Posterior Sample of Trees Estimated from Morphological Data

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Joseph E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Consensus trees are required to summarize trees obtained through MCMC sampling of a posterior distribution, providing an overview of the distribution of estimated parameters such as topology, branch lengths, and divergence times. Numerous consensus tree construction methods are available, each presenting a different interpretation of the tree sample. The rise of morphological clock and sampled-ancestor methods of divergence time estimation, in which times and topology are coestimated, has increased the popularity of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) consensus tree method. The MCC method assumes that the sampled, fully resolved topology with the highest clade credibility is an adequate summary of the most probable clades, with parameter estimates from compatible sampled trees used to obtain the marginal distributions of parameters such as clade ages and branch lengths. Using both simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate that MCC trees, and trees constructed using the similar maximum a posteriori (MAP) method, often include poorly supported and incorrect clades when summarizing diffuse posterior samples of trees. We demonstrate that the paucity of information in morphological data sets contributes to the inability of MCC and MAP trees to accurately summarise of the posterior distribution. Conversely, majority-rule consensus (MRC) trees represent a lower proportion of incorrect nodes when summarizing the same posterior samples of trees. Thus, we advocate the use of MRC trees, in place of MCC or MAP trees, in attempts to summarize the results of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of morphological data. PMID:29106675

  4. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. Seventh workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts); 1998 September 27-29; South Lake Tahoe, CA.

    Treesearch

    D.D. McCreary; J.G. Isebrands

    1999-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of planted trees, seedling propagation, physiology, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration for oaks are described in 17 abstracts.

  6. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  7. IcyTree: rapid browser-based visualization for phylogenetic trees and networks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary: IcyTree is an easy-to-use application which can be used to visualize a wide variety of phylogenetic trees and networks. While numerous phylogenetic tree viewers exist already, IcyTree distinguishes itself by being a purely online tool, having a responsive user interface, supporting phylogenetic networks (ancestral recombination graphs in particular), and efficiently drawing trees that include information such as ancestral locations or trait values. IcyTree also provides intuitive panning and zooming utilities that make exploring large phylogenetic trees of many thousands of taxa feasible. Availability and Implementation: IcyTree is a web application and can be accessed directly at http://tgvaughan.github.com/icytree. Currently supported web browsers include Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome. IcyTree is written entirely in client-side JavaScript (no plugin required) and, once loaded, does not require network access to run. IcyTree is free software, and the source code is made available at http://github.com/tgvaughan/icytree under version 3 of the GNU General Public License. Contact: tgvaughan@gmail.com PMID:28407035

  8. Late Cenozoic Climate Change and its Implications on the Denudation of Orogen Syntaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd

    2017-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Despite the influence of climatic conditions on erosion rates, information about paleoclimate evolution is often not available and thus not considered when denudation histories are interpreted. In this study, we analyze output from paleoclimate simulations conducted with ECHAM5-wiso at T159 (ca. 80x80km) resolution. Specifically, we analyze simulations of pre-industrial (PI, pre-1850), Mid-Holocene (MH, ca. 6ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21ka) and Pliocene (PLIO, ca. 3ka) climates and focus on a selection of orogen syntaxes as study regions (e.g. Himalaya, SE Alaska, Cascadia, and Central Andes). For the selected region, we carry out a cluster analysis using a hybrid of hierarchical and k-means clustering procedures using mean annual temperature (MAT), temperature amplitude, mean annual precipitation (MAP), precipitation amplitude and u-wind and v-wind in different months to provide a general overview of paleoclimates in the study regions. Additionally, we quantify differences between paleoclimates by applying two-group linear discrimination analyses to the simulation output for a similar selection of variables. Results indicate the largest differences to the PI climate are observed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. These global trends can be observed for most locations in the investigated areas, but the strength varies regionally and the trends in precipitation are less uniform than trends in temperatures. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate, and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes, and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest Pacific. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas

  9. Longitudinal Profiles of Expressive Vocabulary, Syntax, and Pragmatic Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly; Estigarribia, Bruno; Sideris, John; Roberts, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS) are the two leading genetic causes of intellectual disability, and FXS is the most common known genetic condition associated with autism. Both FXS and DS are associated with significant language impairment, but little is known about expressive language across domains over time or the role of autism in language development in FXS. Aims To compare three domains of language production (vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics) over time within and across groups of boys with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD, FXS-O), boys with DS, and typically developing (TD) boys. Methods & Procedures Twenty-nine boys with FXS-O, 40 boys with FXS-ASD, 34 boys with DS, and 48 younger TD boys of similar nonverbal mental age living in the United States participated. The Antonyms, Syntax Construction, and Pragmatic Judgment subtests of the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language were administered annually over three years. Outcomes & Results TD boys scored higher than all other groups on all three subtests, boys with FXS-O and FXS-ASD scored higher than boys with DS in Syntax Construction, and boys with FXS-O scored higher than boys with FXS-ASD in Pragmatic Judgment. Within-group patterns varied between groups. Overall the TD group showed significantly more change over time than all other groups. Conclusions & Implications Findings suggest that expressive language skills and growth across various domains are more impaired in boys with FXS and DS than would be expected based on nonverbal mental age, that for boys with DS syntax is more impaired than would be expected based on intellectual disability, and that autism status affects pragmatic language in boys with FXS. Findings suggest that language production across domains should be addressed during assessment and intervention for boys with FXS and boys with DS, with differing group profiles also suggesting potentially different areas of focus. PMID:23889838

  10. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  11. Urban tree growth modeling

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  12. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  13. Keeping trees as assets

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  14. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    PubMed

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shared Syntax in Language Production and Language Comprehension—An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During speaking and listening syntactic processing is a crucial step. It involves specifying syntactic relations between words in a sentence. If the production and comprehension modality share the neuronal substrate for syntactic processing then processing syntax in one modality should lead to adaptation effects in the other modality. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants either overtly produced or heard descriptions of pictures. We looked for brain regions showing adaptation effects to the repetition of syntactic structures. In order to ensure that not just the same brain regions but also the same neuronal populations within these regions are involved in syntactic processing in speaking and listening, we compared syntactic adaptation effects within processing modalities (syntactic production-to-production and comprehension-to-comprehension priming) with syntactic adaptation effects between processing modalities (syntactic comprehension-to-production and production-to-comprehension priming). We found syntactic adaptation effects in left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area [BA] 45), left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and bilateral supplementary motor area (BA 6) which were equally strong within and between processing modalities. Thus, syntactic repetition facilitates syntactic processing in the brain within and across processing modalities to the same extent. We conclude that that the same neurobiological system seems to subserve syntactic processing in speaking and listening. PMID:21934094

  16. The Intonation-Syntax Interface in the Speech of Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Huber, Jessica E.; Snow, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effect of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the intonational marking of final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries and investigated whether the effect of PD on intonation was sex-specific. Method Eight women and 8 men with PD and 16 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage at comfortable pitch, rate, and loudness. Nuclear tones from final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries in clauses and lists were extracted. Measures of F0 were made on each tone contour. Results Individuals with PD demonstrated impaired differentiation of syntactic boundary finality/nonfinality with contour direction. They produced a lower proportion of falling contours in final boundaries and a higher proportion of falling contours in nonfinal boundaries than control participants. While not mediated by syntax, the effect of PD on F0 standard deviation (F0 SD) and pitch range (PRST) was sex-specific. Women with PD produced greater F0 SD and PRST than men with PD and women without PD. Men with PD produced lower PRST than men without PD. Conclusions Impaired intonational marking of syntactic boundaries likely contributes to dysprosody and reduced communicative effectiveness in PD. The effect of PD on intonation was sex-specific. The results were not fully explained by PD-related motor execution impairments. PMID:20699346

  17. Syntax-directed content analysis of videotext: application to a map detection recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradhye, Hrishikesh; Herson, James A.; Myers, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Video is an increasingly important and ever-growing source of information to the intelligence and homeland defense analyst. A capability to automatically identify the contents of video imagery would enable the analyst to index relevant foreign and domestic news videos in a convenient and meaningful way. To this end, the proposed system aims to help determine the geographic focus of a news story directly from video imagery by detecting and geographically localizing political maps from news broadcasts, using the results of videotext recognition in lieu of a computationally expensive, scale-independent shape recognizer. Our novel method for the geographic localization of a map is based on the premise that the relative placement of text superimposed on a map roughly corresponds to the geographic coordinates of the locations the text represents. Our scheme extracts and recognizes videotext, and iteratively identifies the geographic area, while allowing for OCR errors and artistic freedom. The fast and reliable recognition of such maps by our system may provide valuable context and supporting evidence for other sources, such as speech recognition transcripts. The concepts of syntax-directed content analysis of videotext presented here can be extended to other content analysis systems.

  18. The study of a space configuration using space syntax analysis Case study: an elderly housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana, Yosica; Triwardhani, Arindra J.; Isnaeni Djimantoro, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The improvement in various aspect leads to prolong the life span of human life, which increasing the number of elderly in the urban areas in return. But the increasing population is not supported by the provision of adequate housing facilities for them. Most of the elderly house in Jakarta, is designed just like for common people without relizing thatthey had physical and mentally degradation following the age. Therefore, the elderly house need to design with special attention to their daily activity mobility which applied in effective room configuration. The connectivity between the activities is most important element to order the room configuration. This research conduct to search the room configuration in elderly house which can improve their productivity and live quality by using the space syntax theory. The research methods by using the syntactic plug-in in Grasshooper software and analyse the integration, choice, control value and entrophy in the activity configuration. The result show that the effective and efficient for elderly house is cluster centralized pattern. The lobby and reception take the important role as the integration aspect and the spatial awareness according to elderly activity.

  19. Event-related brain potentials to violations of arithmetic syntax represented by place value structure.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Dénes; Soltész, Fruzsina

    2010-05-01

    We dissociated ERP markers of semantic (numerical distance) vs. syntactic (place value) incongruence in the domain of arithmetic. Participants verified additions with four-digit numbers. Semantic incongruencies elicited the N400 ERP effect. A centro-parietal (putative P600) effect to place value violations was not related to arithmetic syntax. Rather, this effect was an enlarged P3b reflecting different surprise values of place value vs. non-place value violations. This potential confound should be considered in numerical cognition experiments. The latency of the N400 and P3a effects were differentially affected by place value analysis. The amplitude of the P3a and that of a fronto-central positive effect (FP600) was sensitive to place value analysis and digit content. Results suggest that ERPs can index the syntactical analysis of multi-digit numbers. Both ERP and behavioral data confirmed that multi-digit numbers were decomposed into their constituent digits, rather than evaluated holistically. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards sustainable transportation: identification of the spatial configuration of rental housing area using space syntax method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwanuddin, Irfan; Andoni, Heri; Nurdini, Allis

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of several higher education infrastructures in Bandung city caused the significant increase of inhabitants in the certain region. This resulting in the fast growth of rental housing, while the region’s structure itself is mostly organic and having some cul-de-sac areas. This kind of structure is considered as unideal for a residential area in the context of public transportation accessibility. Based on that, this study aimed to identify the structure of a rental housing complex in Bandung regarding its accessibility for public transport, using space syntax method. There were three main findings revealed from this study. The most segregated area was also the least integrated. There was a significant range of spatial hierarchy between the shallowest and the deepest area. There was an only small area in the case study that considered as accessible regarding the distance to public transport. This condition may lead to certain urban problems such as traffic congestion or excessive fossil fuel usage. These findings could act as a suggestion to the government for policy regarding the regulation for rental housing areas in order to minimize the growth rate of private vehicle possession so as to support the development of sustainable transportation of a city.

  1. Measuring accessibility of sustainable transportation using space syntax in Bojonggede area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawinata, B. A.; Mariana, Y.; Wijaksono, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of regional space as a result of the increase of planned and unplanned settlements in the Bojonggede area have an impact on the road network pattern system. Changes in road network patterns will have an impact on the permeability of the area. Permeability measures the extent to which road network patterns provide an option in traveling. If the permeability increases the travel distance decreases and the route of travel choice increases, permeability like this can create an easy access system and physically integrated. This study aims to identify the relationship of physical characteristics of residential area and road network pattern to the level of space permeability in Bojonggede area. By conducting this research can be a reference for the arrangement of circulation, accessibility, and land use in the vicinity of Bojonggede. This research uses quantitative method and space syntax method to see global integration and local integration on the region which become the parameter of permeability level. The results showed that the level of permeability globally and locally high in Bojonggede physical area is the physical characteristics of the area that has a grid pattern of road network grid.

  2. Bridging semantics and syntax with graph algorithms—state-of-the-art of extracting biomedical relations

    PubMed Central

    Uzuner, Özlem; Szolovits, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Research on extracting biomedical relations has received growing attention recently, with numerous biological and clinical applications including those in pharmacogenomics, clinical trial screening and adverse drug reaction detection. The ability to accurately capture both semantic and syntactic structures in text expressing these relations becomes increasingly critical to enable deep understanding of scientific papers and clinical narratives. Shared task challenges have been organized by both bioinformatics and clinical informatics communities to assess and advance the state-of-the-art research. Significant progress has been made in algorithm development and resource construction. In particular, graph-based approaches bridge semantics and syntax, often achieving the best performance in shared tasks. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical relation extraction continue to pose interesting challenges and present opportunities for great improvement and fruitful research. In this article, we place biomedical relation extraction against the backdrop of its versatile applications, present a gentle introduction to its general pipeline and shared resources, review the current state-of-the-art in methodology advancement, discuss limitations and point out several promising future directions. PMID:26851224

  3. Dissociation of lexical syntax and semantics: evidence from focal cortical degeneration.

    PubMed

    Garrard, P; Carroll, E; Vinson, D; Vigliocco, G

    2004-10-01

    The question of whether information relevant to meaning (semantics) and structure (syntax) relies on a common language processor or on separate subsystems has proved difficult to address definitively because of the confounds involved in comparing the two types of information. At the sentence level syntactic and semantic judgments make different cognitive demands, while at the single word level, the most commonly used syntactic distinction (between nouns and verbs) is confounded with a fundamental semantic difference (between objects and actions). The present study employs a different syntactic contrast (between count nouns and mass nouns), which is crossed with a semantic difference (between naturally occurring and man-made substances) applying to words within a circumscribed semantic field (foodstuffs). We show, first, that grammaticality judgments of a patient with semantic dementia are indistinguishable from those of a group of age-matched controls, and are similar regardless of the status of his semantic knowledge about the item. In a second experiment we use the triadic task in a group of age-matched controls to show that similarity judgments are influenced not only by meaning (natural vs. manmade), but also implicitly by syntactic information (count vs. mass). Using the same task in a patient with semantic dementia we show that the semantic influences on the syntactic dimension are unlikely to account for this pattern in normals. These data are discussed in relation to modular vs. nonmodular models of language processing, and in particular to the semantic-syntactic distinction.

  4. Syntax and intentionality: An automatic link between language and theory-of-mind

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Brent; Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank; Knobe, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Three studies provided evidence that syntax influences intentionality judgments. In Experiment 1, participants made either speeded or unspeeded intentionality judgments about ambiguously intentional subjects or objects. Participants were more likely to judge grammatical subjects as acting intentionally in the speeded relative to the reflective condition (thus showing an intentionality bias), but grammatical objects revealed the opposite pattern of results (thus showing an unintentionality bias). In Experiment 2, participants made an intentionality judgment about one of the two actors in a partially symmetric sentence (e.g., “John exchanged products with Susan”). The results revealed a tendency to treat the grammatical subject as acting more intentionally than the grammatical object. In Experiment 3 participants were encouraged to think about the events that such sentences typically refer to, and the tendency was significantly reduced. These results suggest a privileged relationship between language and central theory-of-mind concepts. More specifically, there may be two ways of determining intentionality judgments: (1) an automatic verbal bias to treat grammatical subjects (but not objects) as intentional (2) a deeper, more careful consideration of the events typically described by a sentence. PMID:25058414

  5. Meditations on secondary revascularisation in the aftermath of the SYNTAX trial.

    PubMed

    Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W

    2009-05-01

    Many patients will experience a return of symptoms after their initial revascularisation procedure necessitating secondary revascularisation (SR). The options for this second procedure are inherently influenced by the primary method adopted for revascularisation. Patients with single vessel disease are most suited to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for both primary and secondary revascularisation. The arrival of drug eluting stents, and evidence from trials of highly select populations has threatened the place of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as the preferred method of revascularisation in those with multivessel disease. At present, and without robust evidence, PCI is increasingly being used to treat highly complex lesions, such that many question whether CABG is still has a role in primary revascularisation. The consequence for SR is that currently it is increasingly likely to be in response to in-stent restenosis, whereby previously it was performed in those with prior CABG. The recent SYNTAX trial has reaffirmed the position of CABG in the treatment of those with complex coronary disease. Consequently we believe that matters have turned a full circle, and expect that SR in the future is most likely to be in form of PCI on patients 8-15 years post primary CABG.

  6. Tree Data (TD)

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Tree Data (TD) methods are used to sample individual live and dead trees on a fixed-area plot to estimate tree density, size, and age class distributions before and after fire in order to assess tree survival and mortality rates. This method can also be used to sample individual shrubs if they are over 4.5 ft tall. When trees are larger than the user-specified...

  7. SYNTAX score based on coronary computed tomography angiography may have a prognostic value in patients with complex coronary artery disease: An observational study from a retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Joo; Han, Kyunghwa; Chang, Suyon; Kim, Jin Young; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-09-01

    The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score is an invasive coronary angiography (ICA)-based score for quantifying the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although the SYNTAX score was originally developed based on ICA, recent publications have reported that coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a feasible modality for the estimation of the SYNTAX score.The aim of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of the SYNTAX score, based on CCTA for the prediction of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients with complex CAD.The current study was approved by the institutional review board of our institution, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective cohort study. We included 251 patients (173 men, mean age 66.0 ± 9.29 years) who had complex CAD [3-vessel disease or left main (LM) disease] on CCTA. SYNTAX score was obtained on the basis of CCTA. Follow-up clinical outcome data regarding composite MACCEs were also obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict the risk of MACCEs based on clinical variables, treatment, and computed tomography (CT)-SYNTAX scores.During the median follow-up period of 1517 days, there were 48 MACCEs. Univariate Cox hazards models demonstrated that MACCEs were associated with advanced age, low body mass index (BMI), and dyslipidemia (P < .2). In patients with LM disease, MACCEs were associated with a higher SYNTAX score. In patients with CT-SYNTAX score ≥23, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention had significantly lower hazard ratios than patients who were treated with medication alone. In multivariate Cox hazards model, advanced age, low BMI, and higher SYNTAX score showed an increased hazard ratio for MACCE, while treatment with CABG showed a lower hazard ratio (P < .2).On the basis of our results, CT-SYNTAX score

  8. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  9. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  10. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  11. PubFinder: a tool for improving retrieval rate of relevant PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm

    2005-07-01

    Since it is becoming increasingly laborious to manually extract useful information embedded in the ever-growing volumes of literature, automated intelligent text analysis tools are becoming more and more essential to assist in this task. PubFinder (www.glycosciences.de/tools/PubFinder) is a publicly available web tool designed to improve the retrieval rate of scientific abstracts relevant for a specific scientific topic. Only the selection of a representative set of abstracts is required, which are central for a scientific topic. No special knowledge concerning the query-syntax is necessary. Based on the selected abstracts, a list of discriminating words is automatically calculated, which is subsequently used for scoring all defined PubMed abstracts for their probability of belonging to the defined scientific topic. This results in a hit-list of references in the descending order of their likelihood score. The algorithms and procedures implemented in PubFinder facilitate the perpetual task for every scientist of staying up-to-date with current publications dealing with a specific subject in biomedicine.

  12. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Treesearch

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  13. Fault-Tree Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  14. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  15. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  16. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  17. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  18. Journalism Abstracts. Volume 25, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins, Ed.

    Collected from 55 universities in the United States and Canada, and published by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, this volume contains 339 abstracts of research dissertations and theses accepted for graduate degrees in journalism and mass communications from July 1, 1986 through June 30, 1987. Only research…

  19. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  20. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  1. Signal and Noise in the Evolution of the Continental Lithosphere: Lessons from the Himalayan Syntaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.; Meltzer, A.

    2012-12-01

    A number of multidisciplinary research projects have focused their attention on the Himalaya-Tibet orogen with the goal of gaining fundamental insights into mountain-building from this large and still-active system. These studies have led to important insights into both the orogen itself as well as the dynamics of collision in general. However, this greater level of scrutiny has also led to new questions and an understanding of how complex this orogen is in present dynamics and in its evolution. A question we would like to raise is the degree to which observations we make today reflect fundamental processes, the understanding of which can be exported to other orogenies in time and space, as opposed to reflecting contingencies in the evolution of the Himalaya-Tibet system's geology and tectonics that, while important, are perhaps not exportable to other orogens. In Tibet and especially the Himalaya, there are certainly some remarkable along-strike consistencies in structure, geology, geomorphology, and tectonic history that that would seem to amount to a strong indication that fundamental processes have been and are at work. However, the view from the extensive eastern and western syntaxes is not quite the same, where there is significant spatial variability in such features as Moho depth, distribution of shear-wave polarization, 3D distribution of crustal strain, the degrees and timing of exhumation and metamorphism, and the distribution of lower-crustal eclogite. Does this lateral variability represent geological noise, or are these features telling us something about initial and other boundary conditions? Given the current complexity of the arc terranes that make up large parts of southern Tibet, the diversity in these arc terranes as they faced the incoming India lithosphere could have constituted an equally diverse array of starting conditions for the collision: understanding the transition from convergence to collision and its impact on subsequent evolution of

  2. Abstract numeric relations and the visual structure of algebra.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition, it has often been assumed that skilled users of these formalisms treat situations in terms of semantic properties encoded in an abstract syntax that governs the use of notation without particular regard to the details of the physical structure of the equation itself (Anderson, 2005; Hegarty, Mayer, & Monk, 1995). We explore how the notational structure of verbal descriptions or algebraic equations (e.g., the spatial proximity of certain words or the visual alignment of numbers and symbols in an equation) plays a role in the process of interpreting or constructing symbolic equations. We propose in particular that construction processes involve an alignment of notational structures across representation systems, biasing reasoners toward the selection of formal notations that maintain the visuospatial structure of source representations. For example, in the statement "There are 5 elephants for every 3 rhinoceroses," the spatial proximity of 5 and elephants and 3 and rhinoceroses will bias reasoners to write the incorrect expression 5E = 3R, because that expression maintains the spatial relationships encoded in the source representation. In 3 experiments, participants constructed equations with given structure, based on story problems with a variety of phrasings. We demonstrate how the notational alignment approach accounts naturally for a variety of previously reported phenomena in equation construction and successfully predicts error patterns that are not accounted for by prior explanations, such as the left to right transcription heuristic.

  3. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  4. SYNTAX, CONCEPTS, AND LOGIC IN THE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION: EVIDENCE FROM EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Drury, John E.; Portner, Paul; Walenski, Matthew; Ullman, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Logic has been intertwined with the study of language and meaning since antiquity, and such connections persist in present day research in linguistic theory (formal semantics) and cognitive psychology (e.g., studies of human reasoning). However, few studies in cognitive neuroscience have addressed logical dimensions of sentence-level language processing, and none have directly compared these aspects of processing with syntax and lexical/conceptual-semantics. We used ERPs to examine a violation paradigm involving “Negative Polarity Items” or NPIs (e.g., ever/any), which are sensitive to logical/truth-conditional properties of the environments in which they occur (e.g., presence/absence of negation in: John hasn’t ever been to Paris, versus: John has *ever been to Paris). Previous studies examining similar types of contrasts found a mix of effects on familiar ERP components (e.g., LAN, N400, P600). We argue that their experimental designs and/or analyses were incapable of separating which effects are connected to NPI-licensing violations proper. Our design enabled statistical analyses teasing apart genuine violation effects from independent effects tied solely to lexical/contextual factors. Here unlicensed NPIs elicited a late P600 followed in onset by a late left anterior negativity (or “L-LAN”), an ERP profile which has also appeared elsewhere in studies targeting logical semantics. Crucially, qualitatively distinct ERP-profiles emerged for syntactic and conceptual semantic violations which we also tested here. We discuss how these findings may be linked to previous findings in the ERP literature. Apart from methodological recommendations, we suggest that the study of logical semantics may aid advancing our understanding of the underlying neurocognitive etiology of ERP components. PMID:20138065

  5. Syntax in language and music: what is the right level of comparison?

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental “syntax.” Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between “language syntax” and “music syntax” can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology (“phonological syntax”), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called “syntax” can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals. PMID:26191034

  6. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 2. Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Please choose a list of switches, or type ’"ok.’’ -- [3,5,7]. Changed the switch: parse-. tree --------------------------------- > ON Changed the switch...argument of the verb, especially in the passive (The car was found parked on Elm Street). Other verbs are clearer: They reported the car stolen doesn’t...object slot in the passive object passobj, as in the tree above. Strings, LXiRs and Disjunctive Rules In general, there are three basic types of rules in

  7. Channel-dynamic control on the establishment of riparian trees after large floods in northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1989-01-01

    Abstract - Large floods in northwestern California in the past two decades have mobilized extensive areas of valley floors, removed streamside trees, and widened channels. Channel cross sections were surveyed to illustrate an hypothesis on the linkage between sediment transport, colonization of channel margins by trees, and streambank recovery. Riparian trees, e.g.,...

  8. Modeling Tree Mortality Following Wildfire in Pinus ponderosa Forests in the Central Sierra Nevada of California

    Treesearch

    Jon C. Regelbrugge

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. We modeled tree mortality occurring two years following wildfire in Pinus ponderosa forests using data from 1275 trees in 25 stands burned during the 1987 Stanislaus Complex fires. We used logistic regression analysis to develop models relating the probability of wildfire-induced mortality with tree size and fire severity for Pinus ponderosa, Calocedrus...

  9. Rx for wounded trees

    Treesearch

    Hal Marx

    1976-01-01

    This booklet offers guidelines on how to care for trees to keep them healthy and to protect them from wounds. It also prescribes ways to prevent, recognize, and minimize damage by decay that most often sets in after tree wounding.

  10. Trees and highway safety.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  11. Relative Suffix Trees.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Andrea; Gagie, Travis; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni

    2018-05-01

    Suffix trees are one of the most versatile data structures in stringology, with many applications in bioinformatics. Their main drawback is their size, which can be tens of times larger than the input sequence. Much effort has been put into reducing the space usage, leading ultimately to compressed suffix trees. These compressed data structures can efficiently simulate the suffix tree, while using space proportional to a compressed representation of the sequence. In this work, we take a new approach to compressed suffix trees for repetitive sequence collections, such as collections of individual genomes. We compress the suffix trees of individual sequences relative to the suffix tree of a reference sequence. These relative data structures provide competitive time/space trade-offs, being almost as small as the smallest compressed suffix trees for repetitive collections, and competitive in time with the largest and fastest compressed suffix trees.

  12. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  13. Chem-Is-Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides details on the chemical composition of trees including a definition of wood. Also includes an activity on anthocyanins as well as a discussion of the resistance of wood to solvents and chemicals. Lists interesting products from trees. (DDR)

  14. Decision-Tree Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  15. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  16. Tracking Training-Related Plasticity by Combining fMRI and DTI: The Right Hemisphere Ventral Stream Mediates Musical Syntax Processing.

    PubMed

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Gschwind, Markus; James, Clara E

    2018-04-01

    As a functional homolog for left-hemispheric syntax processing in language, neuroimaging studies evidenced involvement of right prefrontal regions in musical syntax processing, of which underlying white matter connectivity remains unexplored so far. In the current experiment, we investigated the underlying pathway architecture in subjects with 3 levels of musical expertise. Employing diffusion tensor imaging tractography, departing from seeds from our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on music syntax processing in the same participants, we identified a pathway in the right ventral stream that connects the middle temporal lobe with the inferior frontal cortex via the extreme capsule, and corresponds to the left hemisphere ventral stream, classically attributed to syntax processing in language comprehension. Additional morphometric consistency analyses allowed dissociating tract core from more dispersed fiber portions. Musical expertise related to higher tract consistency of the right ventral stream pathway. Specifically, tract consistency in this pathway predicted the sensitivity for musical syntax violations. We conclude that enduring musical practice sculpts ventral stream architecture. Our results suggest that training-related pathway plasticity facilitates the right hemisphere ventral stream information transfer, supporting an improved sound-to-meaning mapping in music.

  17. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  18. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  19. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  20. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  1. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  2. Decoding tree DNA

    Treesearch

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1986-01-01

    Check the laboratory reports after your next physical. You'll find information on a number of biochemical processes. Procedures like those used in the medical sciences are yielding valuable information about genetic differences among trees and tree pests. New procedures that provide ways to isolate and move genes are advancing progress in tree improvement. These...

  3. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing.

    PubMed

    Amichetti, Nicole M; White, Alison G; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults' comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  4. Multiple Solutions to the Same Problem: Utilization of Plausibility and Syntax in Sentence Comprehension by Older Adults with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Amichetti, Nicole M.; White, Alison G.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question in psycholinguistic theory is whether equivalent success in sentence comprehension may come about by different underlying operations. Of special interest is whether adult aging, especially when accompanied by reduced hearing acuity, may shift the balance of reliance on formal syntax vs. plausibility in determining sentence meaning. In two experiments participants were asked to identify the thematic roles in grammatical sentences that contained either plausible or implausible semantic relations. Comprehension of sentence meanings was indexed by the ability to correctly name the agent or the recipient of an action represented in the sentence. In Experiment 1 young and older adults’ comprehension was tested for plausible and implausible sentences with the meaning expressed with either an active-declarative or a passive syntactic form. In Experiment 2 comprehension performance was examined for young adults with age-normal hearing, older adults with good hearing acuity, and age-matched older adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss for plausible or implausible sentences with meaning expressed with either a subject-relative (SR) or an object-relative (OR) syntactic structure. Experiment 1 showed that the likelihood of interpreting a sentence according to its literal meaning was reduced when that meaning expressed an implausible relationship. Experiment 2 showed that this likelihood was further decreased for OR as compared to SR sentences, and especially so for older adults whose hearing impairment added to the perceptual challenge. Experiment 2 also showed that working memory capacity as measured with a letter-number sequencing task contributed to the likelihood that listeners would base their comprehension responses on the literal syntax even when this processing scheme yielded an implausible meaning. Taken together, the results of both experiments support the postulate that listeners may use more than a single uniform processing strategy for

  5. Morpho-syntactic processing of Arabic plurals after aphasia: dissecting lexical meaning from morpho-syntax within word boundaries.

    PubMed

    Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.

  6. Transformation of Arden Syntax's medical logic modules into ArdenML for a business rules management system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chai Young; Choi, Jong-Ye; Jeong, Seong Jik; Cho, Kyunghee; Koo, Yong Duk; Bae, Jin Hee; Kim, Sukil

    2016-05-16

    Arden Syntax is a Health Level Seven International (HL7) standard language that is used for representing medical knowledge as logic statements. Arden Syntax Markup Language (ArdenML) is a new representation of Arden Syntax based on XML. Compilers are required to execute medical logic modules (MLMs) in the hospital environment. However, ArdenML may also replace the compiler. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that MLMs, encoded in ArdenML, can be transformed into a commercial rule engine format through an XSLT stylesheet and made executable in a target system. The target rule engine selected was Blaze Advisor. We developed an XSLT stylesheet to transform MLMs in ArdenML into Structured Rules Language (SRL) in Blaze Advisor, through a comparison of syntax between the two languages. The stylesheet was then refined recursively, by building and applying rules collected from the billing and coding guidelines of the Korean health insurance service. Two nurse coders collected and verified the rules and two information technology (IT) specialists encoded the MLMs and built the XSLT stylesheet. Finally, the stylesheet was validated by importing the MLMs into Blaze Advisor and applying them to claims data. The language comparison revealed that Blaze Advisor requires the declaration of variables with explicit types. We used both integer and real numbers for numeric types in ArdenML. "IF∼THEN" statements and assignment statements in ArdenML become rules in Blaze Advisor. We designed an XSLT stylesheet to solve this issue. In addition, we maintained the order of rule execution in the transformed rules, and added two small programs to support variable declarations and action statements. A total of 1489 rules were reviewed during this study, of which 324 rules were collected. We removed duplicate rules and encoded 241 unique MLMs in ArdenML, which were successfully transformed into SRL and imported to Blaze Advisor via the XSLT stylesheet. When applied to 73

  7. The application of rules in morphology, syntax and number processing: a case of selective deficit of procedural or executive mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Demonet, Jean-François; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Declarative memory is a long-term store for facts, concepts and words. Procedural memory subserves the learning and control of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, including the mental grammar. In this study, we report a single-case study of a mild aphasic patient who showed procedural deficits in the presence of preserved declarative memory abilities. We administered several experiments to explore rule application in morphology, syntax and number processing. Results partly support the differentiation between declarative and procedural memory. Moreover, the patient's performance varied according to the domain in which rules were to be applied, which underlines the need for more fine-grained distinctions in cognition between procedural rules.

  8. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  9. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  10. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  11. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    compact. self -contained transducer unit for 151) Field of Stucek............... 73/71 5 US, 67.5 R. electromagnetic generation and detection of...BSTRACT SPONSORED PROGRAMS FROM THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 1191 (111 4,115,616 Heitz et &1. (45 Sep. 19, 1978 154) SELF -SEALING...ioseph E. Rutz; Wiliam J.O’Brien (221 Filed: F . (57 ABSTRACT A self -sealing multi-laminated fuel line composite mate. rial composed of (a) a plastic

  12. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  13. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  14. Incremental prognostic value of the SYNTAX score to late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images for patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Saito, Naka; Kirigaya, Hidekuni; Gyotoku, Daiki; Iinuma, Naoki; Kusakawa, Yuka; Iguchi, Kohei; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Futaki, Masaaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Taguri, Masataka; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of the SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and cardiac surgery) score has recently been demonstrated in patients with stable multivessel or left main coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study determines whether adding the SYNTAX score to Framingham risk score (FRS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and presence of myocardial infarction (MI) by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging can improve the risk stratification in patients with stable CAD. We calculated the SYNTAX score in 161 patients with stable CAD (mean age: 66 ± 10 years old). During a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, 56 (35 %) of 161 patients developed cardiovascular events defined as cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, cerebral infarction, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization due to heart failure and revascularization. Multivariate Cox regression analysis selected triglycerides [hazard ratio (HR): 1.005 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.008), p < 0.008], presence of LGE [HR: 6.329 (95 % CI: 2.662-15.05), p < 0.001] and the SYNTAX score [HR: 1.085 (95 % CI: 1.044-1.127), p < 0.001] as risk factors for future cardiovascular events. Adding the SYNTAX score to FRS, EF and LGE significantly improved the net reclassification index (NRI) [40.4 % (95 % CI: 18.1-54.8 %), p < 0.05] with an increase in C-statistics of 0.089 (from 0.707 to 0.796). An increase in C-statistics and significant improvement of NRI showed that adding the SYNTAX score to the FRS, LVEF and LGE incrementally improved risk stratification in patient with stable CAD.

  15. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    SciTech Connect

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementingmore » step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.« less

  16. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    DOEpatents

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2017-03-21

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementing step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.

  17. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    DOEpatents

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2017-11-21

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementing step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.

  18. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  19. Using Space Syntax to Assess Safety in Public Areas - Case Study of Tarbiat Pedestrian Area, Tabriz-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihangir Çamur, Kübra; Roshani, Mehdi; Pirouzi, Sania

    2017-10-01

    In studying the urban complex issues, simulation and modelling of public space use considerably helps in determining and measuring factors such as urban safety. Depth map software for determining parameters of the spatial layout techniques; and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for analysing and evaluating the views of the pedestrians on public safety were used in this study. Connectivity, integration, and depth of the area in the Tarbiat city blocks were measured using the Space Syntax Method, and these parameters are presented as graphical and mathematical data. The combination of the results obtained from the questionnaire and statistical analysis with the results of spatial arrangement technique represents the appropriate and inappropriate spaces for pedestrians. This method provides a useful and effective instrument for decision makers, planners, urban designers and programmers in order to evaluate public spaces in the city. Prior to physical modification of urban public spaces, space syntax simulates the pedestrian safety to be used as an analytical tool by the city management. Finally, regarding the modelled parameters and identification of different characteristics of the case, this study represents the strategies and policies in order to increase the safety of the pedestrians of Tarbiat in Tabriz.

  20. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  1. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  2. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain EAPA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis, which includes 12 monthly issues plus the annual index. All items announced in EAPA exist as separate records on the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  3. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Geiselhart, Sabine; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2018-04-18

    Tree nuts are considered as part of a healthy diet due to their high nutritional quality. However, they are also a potent source of allergenic proteins inducing IgE mediated hypersensitivity often causing serious, life-threatening reactions. The reported prevalence of tree nut allergy is up to 4.9% worldwide. The general term "tree nuts" comprises a number of nuts, seeds, and drupes, derived from trees from different botanical families. For hazelnut and walnut several allergens have been identified which are already partly applied in component resolved diagnosis, while for other tree nuts such as macadamia, coconut, and Brazil nut only individual allergens were identified and data on additional allergenic proteins are missing. This review summarizes the current knowledge on tree nut allergens and describes their physicochemical and immunological characterization and clinical relevance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Tree Testing of Hierarchical Menu Structures for Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thai; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    To address the need for greater evidence-based evaluation of Health Information Technology (HIT) systems we introduce a method of usability testing termed tree testing. In a tree test, participants are presented with an abstract hierarchical tree of the system taxonomy and asked to navigate through the tree in completing representative tasks. We apply tree testing to a commercially available health application, demonstrating a use case and providing a comparison with more traditional in-person usability testing methods. Online tree tests (N=54) and in-person usability tests (N=15) were conducted from August to September 2013. Tree testing provided a method to quantitatively evaluate the information structure of a system using various navigational metrics including completion time, task accuracy, and path length. The results of the analyses compared favorably to the results seen from the traditional usability test. Tree testing provides a flexible, evidence-based approach for researchers to evaluate the information structure of HITs. In addition, remote tree testing provides a quick, flexible, and high volume method of acquiring feedback in a structured format that allows for quantitative comparisons. With the diverse nature and often large quantities of health information available, addressing issues of terminology and concept classifications during the early development process of a health information system will improve navigation through the system and save future resources. Tree testing is a usability method that can be used to quickly and easily assess information hierarchy of health information systems. PMID:24582924

  5. Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

  6. Modeling individual tree survial

    Treesearch

    Quang V. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Information provided by growth and yield models is the basis for forest managers to make decisions on how to manage their forests. Among different types of growth models, whole-stand models offer predictions at stand level, whereas individual-tree models give detailed information at tree level. The well-known logistic regression is commonly used to predict tree...

  7. In search of decoding the syntax of the bioelements in human hair - A critical overview.

    PubMed

    Momčilović, Berislav; Prejac, Juraj; Skalny, Anatoly Viktorovich; Mimica, Ninoslav

    2018-04-12

    . We also put forward the idea of how children's autism may be related to a disproportional growth rate of various organs and tissues if children are fed up to their maximal genetic growth capacity. Finally, we have suggested the hypothesis on how the syntax or integration of the internal metabolic wiring of the bioelements in the body may occur. We have suggested the hypothetical existence of two complex distinct five-bioelement "rotors", the P-rotor and the N-rotor, where the P-rotor integrates the mileau interior (Na, K) ions with the perception/excitability (Mg, Ca) ions. Thus, the complex five element interdependence is cross related to P which provides the energy from the phosphorus of the DNA nucleotide backbone. The hair multi-bioelement profile analysis allows us to envisage the more complex structural metabolic features that bioelements are playing in our bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. WD1145+017 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) WD1145 is a 17th magnitude white dwarf star 570 light years away in Virgo that was discovered to have a disintegrating planetoid in close orbit by Andrew Vanderburg, a graduate student at Harvard CfA, while data mining the elucidate the nature of its rather bizarre transit light curves. I obtained multiple observations of WD1145 over the course of a year, and found a series of complex transit light curves that could only be interpreted as a ring complex or torus in close orbit around WD1145. Combined with data from other amateur astronomers, professional observations, and satellite data, it became clear that WD1145 has a small planetoid in close orbit at the Roche limit and is breaking apart, forming a ring of debris material that is then raining down on the white dwarf. The surface of the star is "polluted" by heavy metals, determined by spectroscopic data. Given that in the intense gravitational field of a white dwarf any heavy metals could not for long last on the surface, this confirms that we are tracking in real time the destruction of a small planet by its host star.

  9. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  10. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  11. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize amore » composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.« less

  13. Trees and networks before and after Darwin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive geological strata were represented as trees in a popular textbook from 1840, while in 1858 Bronn presented a system of animals, as evidenced by the fossil record, in a form of a tree. Darwin's 1859 tree and its subsequent elaborations by Haeckel came to be accepted in many but not all areas of biological sciences, while network diagrams were used in others. Beginning in the early 1960s trees were inferred from protein and nucleic acid sequences, but networks were re-introduced in the mid-1990s to represent lateral genetic transfer, increasingly regarded as a fundamental mode of evolution at least for bacteria and archaea. In

  14. Effectiveness of a Computer-Based Syntax Program in Improving the Morphosyntax of Students Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of LanguageLinks: Syntax Assessment and Intervention (LL), produced by Laureate Learning Systems, Inc., as a supplemental classroom activity, affected morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in participants who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) and use American…

  15. Prosody-Syntax Integration in a Second Language: Contrasting Event-Related Potentials from German and Chinese Learners of English Using Linear Mixed Effect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickels, Stefanie; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    The role of prosodic information in sentence processing is not usually addressed in second language (L2) instruction, and neurocognitive studies on prosody-syntax interactions are rare. Here we compare event-related potentials (ERP) of Chinese and German learners of English L2 to those of native English speakers and show how first language (L1)…

  16. Vocabulary, Syntax, and Narrative Development in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Early Parental Talk about the "There-and-Then" Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…

  17. Views of Nature and the Human-Nature Relations: An Analysis of the Visual Syntax of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks--Diachronic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…

  18. Clitic-Doubled Left Dislocation and Focus Fronting in L2 Spanish: A Case of Successful Acquisition at the Syntax-Discourse Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Kempchinsky, Paula; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study tests the Interface Hypothesis by looking into processes at the syntax-discourse interface, teasing apart acquisition of syntactic, semantic and discourse knowledge. Adopting Lopez's (2009) pragmatic features [[plus or minus]a(naphor)] and [[plus or minus]c(ontrast)], which in combination account for the constructions of…

  19. Are trees long-lived?

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  20. Pairing Words with Syntactic Frames: Syntax, Semantics, and Count-Mass Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, William D.; Healy, Alice F.; McDonnel, Samantha J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined English speakers' choices of count or mass compatible frames for nouns varying in imageability (concrete, abstract) and noun class (count, mass). Pairing preferences with equative ("much/many") and non-equative ("less/fewer") constructions were compared for groups of teenagers, young adults, and older adults. Deviations…

  1. Brain Embodiment of Syntax and Grammar: Discrete Combinatorial Mechanisms Spelt Out in Neuronal Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience has greatly improved our understanding of the brain basis of abstract lexical and semantic processes. The neuronal devices underlying words and concepts are distributed neuronal assemblies reaching into sensory and motor systems of the cortex and, at the cognitive level, information binding in such widely dispersed circuits is…

  2. TreeCmp: Comparison of Trees in Polynomial Time

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Borys

    2012-01-01

    When a phylogenetic reconstruction does not result in one tree but in several, tree metrics permit finding out how far the reconstructed trees are from one another. They also permit to assess the accuracy of a reconstruction if a true tree is known. TreeCmp implements eight metrics that can be calculated in polynomial time for arbitrary (not only bifurcating) trees: four for unrooted (Matching Split metric, which we have recently proposed, Robinson-Foulds, Path Difference, Quartet) and four for rooted trees (Matching Cluster, Robinson-Foulds cluster, Nodal Splitted and Triple). TreeCmp is the first implementation of Matching Split/Cluster metrics and the first efficient and convenient implementation of Nodal Splitted. It allows to compare relatively large trees. We provide an example of the application of TreeCmp to compare the accuracy of ten approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction with trees up to 5000 external nodes, using a measure of accuracy based on normalized similarity between trees.

  3. iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several methods have been designed to infer species trees from gene trees while taking into account gene tree/species tree discordance. Although some of these methods provide consistent species tree topology estimates under a standard model, most either do not estimate branch lengths or are computationally slow. An exception, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch, is consistent for the species tree topology, estimates branch lengths, and is computationally fast. However, GLASS systematically overestimates divergence times, leading to biased estimates of species tree branch lengths. By assuming a multispecies coalescent model in which multiple lineages are sampled from each of two taxa at L independent loci, we derive the distribution of the waiting time until the first interspecific coalescence occurs between the two taxa, considering all loci and measuring from the divergence time. We then use the mean of this distribution to derive a correction to the GLASS estimator of pairwise divergence times. We show that our improved estimator, which we call iGLASS, consistently estimates the divergence time between a pair of taxa as the number of loci approaches infinity, and that it is an unbiased estimator of divergence times when one lineage is sampled per taxon. We also show that many commonly used clustering methods can be combined with the iGLASS estimator of pairwise divergence times to produce a consistent estimator of the species tree topology. Through simulations, we show that iGLASS can greatly reduce the bias and mean squared error in obtaining estimates of divergence times in a species tree. PMID:22216756

  4. Tree nut oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  5. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  6. A tree hurts, too

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    This booklet outlines what happens most of the time as decay develops in a living tree. The drawings are designed to give an accurate general presentation of the decay process by focusing only on the major portions of an extremely complex process that involves the interactions among microorganisms, environmental factors, and the tree. The better we understand these...

  7. Grading hardwood trees

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  8. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including…

  9. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  10. Moon tree ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-03

    Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise stands with Rosemary Roosa, daughter of late Apollo 14 astronaut Stuart Roosa, beside a 'moon tree' planted at the INFINITY science center on Feb. 3, 2011. The moon tree is a descendent of seeds carried into space by Stuart Roosa on the Apollo 14 mission in 1971.

  11. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  12. Tree growth visualization

    Treesearch

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  13. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  14. Tree planting in reclamation

    Treesearch

    Glen G. Kizer

    1980-01-01

    While fifteen years ago we depended on trees as the primary tool of reclamation, today regulators, based on soil loss studies, have determined that trees are not sufficient to prevent erosion by themselves. This is particularly true during the first 10-15 years after mining. While ten (10) years ago most permits listed forest as a postmining land use, today only ten (...

  15. The tree BVOC index

    Treesearch

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  16. Individual tree control

    Treesearch

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  17. Dependency Tree Annotation Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    formats, and it provides numerous options for customizing how dependency trees are displayed. Built entirely in Java , it can run on a wide range of...tree can be saved as an image, .mxe (a mxGraph editing file), a .conll file, and several other file formats. DTE uses the open source Java version

  18. Reclamation: what about trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, C.A.; Ashby, W.C.

    A five-year research programme was started in 1978 in the Botany Department of Southern Illinois University to evaluate the effect of reclamation practices on tree survival and growth. The project was initiated as a direct result of reports from Illinois and Indiana of tree-planting failures on mined lands reclaimed to current regulation standards.

  19. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  20. Pitch Syntax Violations Are Linked to Greater Skin Conductance Changes, Relative to Timbral Violations - The Predictive Role of the Reward System in Perspective of Cortico-subcortical Loops.

    PubMed

    Gorzelańczyk, Edward J; Podlipniak, Piotr; Walecki, Piotr; Karpiński, Maciej; Tarnowska, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    According to contemporary opinion emotional reactions to syntactic violations are due to surprise as a result of the general mechanism of prediction. The classic view is that, the processing of musical syntax can be explained by activity of the cerebral cortex. However, some recent studies have indicated that subcortical brain structures, including those related to the processing of emotions, are also important during the processing of syntax. In order to check whether emotional reactions play a role in the processing of pitch syntax or are only the result of the general mechanism of prediction, the comparison of skin conductance levels reacting to three types of melodies were recorded. In this study, 28 subjects listened to three types of short melodies prepared in Musical Instrument Digital Interface Standard files (MIDI) - tonally correct, tonally violated (with one out-of-key - i.e., of high information content), and tonally correct but with one note played in a different timbre. The BioSemi ActiveTwo with two passive Nihon Kohden electrodes was used. Skin conductance levels were positively correlated with the presented stimuli (timbral changes and tonal violations). Although changes in skin conductance levels were also observed in response to the change in timbre, the reactions to tonal violations were significantly stronger. Therefore, despite the fact that timbral change is at least as equally unexpected as an out-of-key note, the processing of pitch syntax mainly generates increased activation of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. These results suggest that the cortico-subcortical loops (especially the anterior cingulate - limbic loop) may play an important role in the processing of musical syntax.

  1. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Early parental talk about the there-and-then matters

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input––talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized––in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children’s language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child’s own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the two groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  2. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis: a monthly abstract journal. Abstracts 1-225

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M..

    1983-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available to DOE offices and contractors on request, and on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The subscription rate for the 12 monthly issues plus the annual index is $70.00 for domestic subscribers and $87.50 for subscribers outside the North American continent.« less

  3. Arden Syntax Clinical Foundation Framework for Event Monitoring in Intensive Care Units: Report on a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Zeckl, Julia; Adlassnig, Katharina; Blacky, Alexander; Koller, Walter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2017-01-01

    The creation of clinical decision support systems has received a strong impulse over the last years, but their integration into a clinical routine has lagged behind, partly due to a lack of interoperability and trust by physicians. We report on the implementation of a clinical foundation framework in Arden Syntax, comprising knowledge units for (a) preprocessing raw clinical data, (b) the determination of single clinical concepts, and (c) more complex medical knowledge, which can be modeled through the composition and configuration of knowledge units in this framework. Thus, it can be tailored to clinical institutions or patients' caregivers. In the present version, we integrated knowledge units for several infection-related clinical concepts into the framework and developed a clinical event monitoring system over the framework that employs three different scenarios for monitoring clinical signs of bloodstream infection. The clinical event monitoring system was tested using data from intensive care units at Vienna General Hospital, Austria.

  4. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  5. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Holte, Robert C; Choueiry, Berthe Y

    2003-07-29

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense.

  6. Geophysical abstracts 167, October-December 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  7. Geophysical abstracts 164, January-March 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. A new table of contents, alphabetically arranged, has been adapted to show more clearly the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  8. Geophysical abstracts 166, July-September 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  9. Geophysical abstracts 165, April-June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  10. Additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Brkovic, Voin; Dobric, Milan; Beleslin, Branko; Giga, Vojislav; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Orlic, Dejan; Tomasevic, Miloje; Stepanovic, Jelena; Ostojic, Miodrag

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated additive prognostic value of the SYNTAX score over GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, CADILLAC and PAMI risk scores in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). All six scores were calculated in 209 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing pPCI. Primary end-point was the major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE--composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke); secondary end point was cardiovascular mortality. Patients were stratified according to the SYNTAX score tertiles (≤12; between 12 and 19.5; >19.5). The median follow-up was 20 months. Rates of MACE and cardiovascular mortality were highest in the upper tertile of the SYNTAX score (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). SYNTAX score was independent multivariable predictor of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE, and PAMI risk scores. However, the SYNTAX score did not improve the Cox regression models of MACE and cardiovascular mortality when added to the CADILLAC score. The SYNTAX score has predictive value for MACE and cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Furthermore, SYNTAX score improves prognostic performance of well-established GRACE, TIMI, ZWOLLE and PAMI clinical scores, but not the CADILLAC risk score. Therefore, long-term survival in patients after STEMI depends less on detailed angiographical characterization of coronary lesions, but more on clinical characteristics, myocardial function and basic angiographic findings as provided by the CADILLAC score.

  11. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  12. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 3. Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    parses, in a second experiment. This procedure used PUNDIT’s Selection Pattern Query and Response ( SPQR ) component JLang19881. We first used SPQR in...messages pattern. SPQR continues the analysis of the ISR. from each domain, and the resulting output is and the parsing of the sentence is allowed to...UNISYS P. 0. Box 517, Paoli, PA 19301 ABSTRACT knowledge. This paper presents SPQR (Selectional Pat- One obvious benefit of acquiring domain- tern Queries

  13. Boolean logic tree of graphene-based chemical system for molecular computation and intelligent molecular search query.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Tao; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-05-06

    The most serious, and yet unsolved, problem of constructing molecular computing devices consists in connecting all of these molecular events into a usable device. This report demonstrates the use of Boolean logic tree for analyzing the chemical event network based on graphene, organic dye, thrombin aptamer, and Fenton reaction, organizing and connecting these basic chemical events. And this chemical event network can be utilized to implement fluorescent combinatorial logic (including basic logic gates and complex integrated logic circuits) and fuzzy logic computing. On the basis of the Boolean logic tree analysis and logic computing, these basic chemical events can be considered as programmable "words" and chemical interactions as "syntax" logic rules to construct molecular search engine for performing intelligent molecular search query. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced logic program based on molecules for application in biosensing, nanotechnology, and drug delivery.

  14. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  15. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding themore » best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.« less

  16. The Abstraction Process of Limit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Memnun, Dilek; Aydin, Bünyamin; Özbilen, Ömer; Erdogan, Günes

    2017-01-01

    The RBC+C abstraction model is an effective model in mathematics education because it gives the opportunity to analyze research data through cognitive actions. For this reason, we aim to examine the abstraction process of the limit knowledge of two volunteer participant students using the RBC+C abstraction model. With this aim, the students'…

  17. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  18. Tips to Understanding and Writing Manuscript Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    An abstract represents a short summary of key elements of the manuscript. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the function, contents, and types of manuscript abstracts. The essay concludes with a few tips for authors to writing effective abstracts.

  19. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  20. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    PubMed

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  1. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  2. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  3. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  4. Abstracting GIS Layers from Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Difference Vegetative Index ( NDVI ) 2-20 2.2.10 Separating Trees from Grass . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22 2.3 Spatial Analysis...2-18 2.10. Example of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ( NDVI ) applied to a hyperspectral image. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20...3.5. Example of applying NDVI to a SOM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.6. Visualization of the NIR scatter tree ID algorithm. . . . . . . . 3-9 ix

  5. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  6. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  7. A hierarchical SVG image abstraction layer for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Gang; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-03-01

    As medical imaging rapidly expands, there is an increasing need to structure and organize image data for efficient analysis, storage and retrieval. In response, a large fraction of research in the areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has focused on structuring information to bridge the "semantic gap", a disparity between machine and human image understanding. An additional consideration in medical images is the organization and integration of clinical diagnostic information. As a step towards bridging the semantic gap, we design and implement a hierarchical image abstraction layer using an XML based language, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Our method encodes features from the raw image and clinical information into an extensible "layer" that can be stored in a SVG document and efficiently searched. Any feature extracted from the raw image including, color, texture, orientation, size, neighbor information, etc., can be combined in our abstraction with high level descriptions or classifications. And our representation can natively characterize an image in a hierarchical tree structure to support multiple levels of segmentation. Furthermore, being a world wide web consortium (W3C) standard, SVG is able to be displayed by most web browsers, interacted with by ECMAScript (standardized scripting language, e.g. JavaScript, JScript), and indexed and retrieved by XML databases and XQuery. Using these open source technologies enables straightforward integration into existing systems. From our results, we show that the flexibility and extensibility of our abstraction facilitates effective storage and retrieval of medical images.

  8. Structural Equation Model Trees

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  9. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  10. Decision Tree Phytoremediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    aromatic hydrocarbons, and landfill leachates . Phytoremediation has been used for point and nonpoint source hazardous waste control. 1.2 Types of... Phytoremediation Prepared by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group Phytoremediation Work Team December 1999 Decision Tree...1999 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phytoremediation Decision Tree 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Treesearch

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  12. Tree Defects: A Photo Guide

    Treesearch

    Alex L Shigo

    1983-01-01

    This guide shows, in 110 photos, how discoloration and decay form in trees. An expanded concept of tree decay is given. After wounding, trees form boundaries to resist the spread of pathogens. The boundary-setting defense process is called compartmentalization, and model of the process is CODIT. The expanded concept and the model are used to reexamine many other tree...

  13. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  14. Causes of Death Following PCI Versus CABG in Complex CAD: 5-Year Follow-Up of SYNTAX.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Milan; Head, Stuart J; Parasca, Catalina A; Serruys, Patrick W; Mohr, Friedrich W; Morice, Marie-Claude; Mack, Michael J; Ståhle, Elisabeth; Feldman, Ted E; Dawkins, Keith D; Colombo, Antonio; Kappetein, A Pieter; Holmes, David R

    2016-01-05

    There are no data available on specific causes of death from randomized trials that have compared coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The purpose of this study was to investigate specific causes of death, and its predictors, after revascularization for complex coronary disease in patients. An independent Clinical Events Committee consisting of expert physicians who were blinded to the study treatment subclassified causes of death as cardiovascular (cardiac and vascular), noncardiovascular, or undetermined according to the trial protocol. Cardiac deaths were classified as sudden cardiac, related to myocardial infarction (MI), and other cardiac deaths. In the randomized cohort, there were 97 deaths after CABG and 123 deaths after PCI during a 5-year follow-up. After CABG, 49.4% of deaths were cardiovascular, with the greatest cause being heart failure, arrhythmia, or other causes (24.6%), whereas after PCI, the majority of deaths were cardiovascular (67.5%) and as a result of MI (29.3%). The cumulative incidence rates of all-cause death were not significantly different between CABG and PCI (11.4% vs. 13.9%, respectively; p = 0.10), whereas there were significant differences in terms of cardiovascular (5.8% vs. 9.6%, respectively; p = 0.008) and cardiac death (5.3% vs. 9.0%, respectively; p = 0.003), which were caused primarily by a reduction in MI-related death with CABG compared with PCI (0.4% vs. 4.1%, respectively; p <0.0001). Treatment with PCI versus CABG was an independent predictor of cardiac death (hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 2.33; p = 0.045). The difference in MI-related death was seen largely in patients with diabetes, 3-vessel disease, or high SYNTAX (TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries) trial scores. During a 5-year follow-up, CABG in comparison with PCI was associated with a significantly reduced rate of MI

  15. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 3. Air Force Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    boost plenum which houses the camshaft . The compressed mixture is metered by a throttle to intake valves of the engine. The engine is constructed from...difficulties associated with a time-tagged fault tree . In particular, recent work indicates that the multi-layer perception architecture can give good fdi...Abstract: In the past decade, wastepaper recycling has gained a wider acceptance. Depletion of tree stocks, waste water treatment demands and

  16. The resilience of upland-oak forest canopy trees to chronic and acute precipitation manipulations

    Treesearch

    Paul J. Hanson; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Stand D. Wullschleger; Donald e. Todd; Robert M. Auge

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—Implications of chronic (±33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12...

  17. Crown Health of Reserve Hardwood Trees Following Reproduction Cutting in the Ouachita Mountains

    Treesearch

    Dale A. Starkey; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Monitoring the health of reserve hardwood trees is being performed as part of the Ecosystem Management Research Project on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas. A suite of crown variables (diameter, live crown ratio, density, dieback, and foliage transparency) was used to detect significant changes in reserve tree health...

  18. Tree/Wood Quality in Slash Pine Following Longterm Cattle Grazing

    Treesearch

    B.E. Cutter; K. Hunt; J.D. Haywood

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. Tree height, diameter, and grade were measured on 14 cattle grazing trial plots located on the Palustris Experimental Forest in Louisiana’s Kisatchie National Forest. These plots had been established in the early 1960s. Mensurational data was gathered on 28 trees from grazed sites and another 28 from ungrazed plots. Increment cores were...

  19. Proceedings of the 12th Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, August 1975.

    Treesearch

    USDA FS

    1976-01-01

    Presents 20 papers concerning recent research in forest genetics, physiology, and allied fields. Species discussed include cottonwood, white spruce, jack pine, white pine, aspen, and others. Emphasizes the role of tree improvement in increasing wood-fiber production. Includes abstracts from papers presented at the 15th Canadian Tree Improvement Association Meeting...

  20. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  1. Reinforcement Learning Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings. PMID:26903687

  2. Investigating how students communicate tree-thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Carrie Jo

    explicit lecture instruction and the computer simulation had a higher level of representational competence and were better able to understand abstract-style phylogenetic trees than students who only completed the simulation. Students who received explicit lecture instruction had a slightly more scientific association of phylogenetic terms than students who received did not receive lecture instruction. My findings suggest that technological instruction alone is not as beneficial as lecture instruction.

  3. Placental Vascular Tree as Biomarker of Autism/ASD Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Autism /ASD Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carolyn M. Salafia, M.D., M.S...2010 – 14 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Placental Vascular Tree as Biomarker of Autism /ASD Risk...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism Spectrum

  4. An Economic Approach to Planting Trees for Carbon Storage

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Parks; David O. Hall; Bengt Kristrom; Omar R. Masera; Robert J. Multon; Andrew J. Plantinga; Joel N. Swisher; Jack K. Winjum

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: Methods are described for evaluating economic and carbon storage aspects of tree planting projects (e.g., plantations for restoration, roundwood, bioenergy, and nonwood products). Total carbon (C) stock is dynamic and comprises C in vegetation, decomposing matter, soil, products, and fuel substituted. An alternative (reference) case is...

  5. Comparison of African American Children's Performances on a Minimal Competence Core for Morphosyntax and the Index of Productive Syntax.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Ida J; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Swartzlander, Elaina; Morris, Lekeitha R

    2016-02-01

    This study is a response to the need for evidence-based measures of spontaneous oral language to assess African American children under the age of 4 years. We determined if pass/fail status on a minimal competence core for morphosyntax (MCC-MS) was more highly related to scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)-the measure of convergent criterion validity-than to scores on 3 measures of divergent validity: number of different words (Watkins, Kelly, Harbers, & Hollis, 1995), Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeney, & Wilson, 1997), and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997). Archival language samples for 68 African American 3-year-olds were analyzed to determine MCC-MS pass/fail status and the scores on measures of convergent and divergent validity. Higher IPSyn scores were observed for 60 children who passed the MCC-MS than for 8 children who did not. A significant positive correlation, rpb = .73, between MCC-MS pass/fail status and IPSyn scores was observed. This coefficient was higher than MCC-MS correlations with measures of divergent validity: rpb = .13 (Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised), rpb = .42 (number of different words in 100 utterances), and rpb = .46 (Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised). The MCC-MS has convergent criterion validity with the IPSyn. Although more research is warranted, both measures can be potentially used in oral language assessments of African American 3-year-olds.

  6. Separating Business Logic from Medical Knowledge in Digital Clinical Workflows Using Business Process Model and Notation and Arden Syntax.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Leitich, Harald; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-based clinical guidelines have a major positive effect on the physician's decision-making process. Computer-executable clinical guidelines allow for automated guideline marshalling during a clinical diagnostic process, thus improving the decision-making process. Implementation of a digital clinical guideline for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B as a computerized workflow, thereby separating business logic from medical knowledge and decision-making. We used the Business Process Model and Notation language system Activiti for business logic and workflow modeling. Medical decision-making was performed by an Arden-Syntax-based medical rule engine, which is part of the ARDENSUITE software. We succeeded in creating an electronic clinical workflow for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B, where institution-specific medical decision-making processes could be adapted without modifying the workflow business logic. Separation of business logic and medical decision-making results in more easily reusable electronic clinical workflows.

  7. Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that, since mathematics is essentially a self-contained system, mathematical objects may best be described as "abstract-apart." On the other hand, fundamental mathematical ideas are closely related to the real world and their learning involves empirical concepts. These concepts may be called "abstract-general" because they embody…

  8. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  9. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  10. User-Extensible Graphics Using Abstract Structure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Flex 6 The Algol68 model of the graphical abstract structure 5 The creation of a PictureDefinition 6 The making of a picture from a PictureDefinition 7...data together with the operations that can be performed on that data. i 7! ś I _ § 4, The Alqol68 model of the graphical abstract structure Every

  11. Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov Websites

    ADS Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service Please use this form to report bugs or send comments to the ADS Abstract Project. Thank you for your feedback. ❉ Required field Your Name: ❉ Your E

  12. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  13. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  14. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  15. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  16. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  17. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  18. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  19. Abstracts of BESRL Research Publications, FY 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma E.

    Publications abstracted include Technical Research Reports 1156 and 1157, Technical Research Notes 199 through 210, Research Studies 68-4 through 68-6 and 69-1 through 6910, and Research Memorandums 68-8 through 68-13. Included are descriptions of 19 Work Units covering activities reported in the 33 abstracted publications, a list of regular…

  20. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. Findings In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. Conclusion ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files. PMID:19646243

  1. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  2. Use of Speaker’s Gaze and Syntax in Verb Learning

    PubMed Central

    Nappa, Rebecca; Wessel, Allison; McEldoon, Katherine L.; Gleitman, Lila R.; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Speaker eye gaze and gesture are known to help child and adult listeners establish communicative alignment and learn object labels. Here we consider how learners use these cues, along with linguistic information, to acquire abstract relational verbs. Test items were perspective verb pairs (e.g., chase/flee, win/lose), which pose a special problem for observational accounts of word learning because their situational contexts overlap very closely; the learner must infer the speaker’s chosen perspective on the event. Two cues to the speaker’s perspective on a depicted event were compared and combined: (a) the speaker’s eye gaze to an event participant (e.g., looking at the Chaser vs. looking at the Flee-er) and (b) the speaker’s linguistic choice of which event participant occupies Subject position in his utterance. Participants (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) were eye-tracked as they watched a series of videos of a man describing drawings of perspective events (e.g., a rabbit chasing an elephant). The speaker looked at one of the two characters and then uttered either an utterance that was referentially uninformative (He’s mooping him) or informative (The rabbit’s mooping the elephant/The elephant’s mooping the rabbit) because of the syntactic positioning of the nouns. Eye-tracking results showed that all participants regardless of age followed the speaker’s gaze in both uninformative and informative contexts. However, verb-meaning choices were responsive to speaker’s gaze direction only in the linguistically uninformative condition. In the presence of a linguistically informative context, effects of speaker gaze on meaning were minimal for the youngest children to nonexistent for the older populations. Thus children, like adults, can use multiple cues to inform verb-meaning choice but rapidly learn that the syntactic positioning of referring expressions is an especially informative source of evidence for these decisions. PMID:24465183

  3. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  4. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  5. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  6. How to Prune Trees

    Treesearch

    Peter Bedker; Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of pruning is to produce strong, healthy, attractive plants. By understanding how, when and why to prune, and by following a few simple principles, this objective can be achievedHow to Prune Trees (Revised 2012) Agency Publisher: Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Price forestry USA List Price:$4.00 Sale...

  7. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the…

  8. The Fig Tree's Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1988-01-01

    Describes the dramatization of Katherine Anne Porter's story,"The Fig Tree's Lessons." Discusses the process by which this story was made accessible to an audience of 8- to 12-year-old children. Notes that this program attempts to avoid the simplification of the profound human experience of dealing with death. (KO)

  9. The Sacred Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).

    Designed as a text for high school students and adults, this illustrated book presents ethical concepts and teachings of Native societies throughout North America concerning the nature and possibilities of human existence. The final component of a course in self-discovery and development, the book begins with the legend of the "Sacred Tree"…

  10. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  11. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  12. Christmas Tree Pest Manual

    Treesearch

    Department of Entomology Michigan State University

    1998-01-01

    This manual can help you identify and control damaging Christmas tree pests in the North Central region of the United States. Most of the information also applies to the northeastern states and to the southern portions of the Canadian Provinces that border these states. You do not have to be a pest specialist to use this information; we wrote the manual in everyday...

  13. Trees for Ohio

    Treesearch

    Ernest J. Gebhart

    1980-01-01

    Other members of this panel are going to reveal the basic statistics about the coal strip mining industry in Ohio so I will confine my remarks to the revegetation of the spoil banks. So it doesn't appear that Ohio confined its tree planting efforts to spoil banks alone, I will rely on a few statistics.

  14. Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

  15. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. High mortality can be an indicator of forest health problems. On aregional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease impacts. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands. The approach...

  16. Temperate Tree Fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North America has four native temperate tree fruit genera that have each played key cultural roles due to their edible fruit, medicinal uses, as well as their value as hardwood: Malus (apple), Prunus (cherry, plum, peach, etc.), Diospyros (persimmon), and Asimina (paw paw). Native North American spe...

  17. Digging Deeper with Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)

  18. Oak Tree Planting Project

    Treesearch

    Sherryl L. Nives; William D. Tietje; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    An Oak Tree Planting Project was conducted during 1989/90 in San Luis Obispo County by the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program (IHRMP)/Central Coast. The local media and an IHRMP workshop were used to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Outreach...

  19. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  20. Fault Tree Analysis.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Lisa M; Khorzad, Rebeca; Rowe, Theresa A; Abecassis, Zachary A; Apley, Daniel W; Barnard, Cynthia; Holl, Jane L

    The purpose of this study was to use fault tree analysis to evaluate the adequacy of quality reporting programs in identifying root causes of postoperative bloodstream infection (BSI). A systematic review of the literature was used to construct a fault tree to evaluate 3 postoperative BSI reporting programs: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and The Joint Commission (JC). The literature review revealed 699 eligible publications, 90 of which were used to create the fault tree containing 105 faults. A total of 14 identified faults are currently mandated for reporting to NSQIP, 5 to CMS, and 3 to JC; 2 or more programs require 4 identified faults. The fault tree identifies numerous contributing faults to postoperative BSI and reveals substantial variation in the requirements and ability of national quality data reporting programs to capture these potential faults. Efforts to prevent postoperative BSI require more comprehensive data collection to identify the root causes and develop high-reliability improvement strategies.

  1. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 3. Abstracts 5,201- 5,330

    SciTech Connect

    Hardgrove, B.J.; Warren, F.L. comps.

    1962-03-01

    Abstracts of astronautics information covering the period March 1962 are presented. The 129 abstracts cover the subject of spaceflight and applicable data and techniques. Author, subject, and source indexes are included. (M.C.G.)

  2. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. Abstracts Vol. III, No. 1. Abstracts 3,082- 3,184

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1961-01-01

    Abstracts are presented on astronautics. The abstracts are generally restricted to spaceflight and to applicable techniques and data. The publication covers the period of January 1961. 102 references. (J.R.D.)

  3. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  4. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  5. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  6. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  7. The Re-Think Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  8. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  9. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  10. New Life From Dead Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)

  11. Tree decay an expanded concept

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    This publication is the final one in a series on tree decay developed in cooperation with Harold G. Marx, Research Application Staff Assistant, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to...

  12. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  13. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  14. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  15. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  16. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  17. The Value of the SYNTAX Score II in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicola; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Biagioni, Corina; Salinas, Pablo; Aldazábal, Andrés; Cerrato, Enrico; Gonzalo, Nieves; Del Trigo, María; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Escaned, Javier

    2017-11-27

    The predictive value of the SYNTAX score (SS) for clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is very limited and could potentially be improved by the combination of anatomic and clinical variables, the SS-II. We aimed to evaluate the value of the SS-II in predicting outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI. A total of 402 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral TAVI were included. Preprocedural TAVI angiograms were reviewed and the SS-I and SS-II were calculated using the SS algorithms. Patients were stratified in 3 groups according to SS-II tertiles. The coprimary endpoints were all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, cerebrovascular event, or myocardial infarction at 1 year. Increased SS-II was associated with higher 30-day mortality (P=.036) and major bleeding (P=.015). The 1-year risk of death and MACE was higher among patients in the 3rd SS-II tertile (HR, 2.60; P=.002 and HR, 2.66; P<.001) and was similar among patients in the 2nd tertile (HR, 1.27; P=.507 and HR, 1.05; P=.895) compared with patients in the 1st tertile. The highest SS-II tertile was an independent predictor of long-term mortality (P=.046) and MACE (P=.001). The SS-II seems more suited to predict clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI than the SS-I. Increased SS-II was associated with poorer clinical outcomes at 1 and 4 years post-TAVI, independently of the presence of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Syntax, concepts, and logic in the temporal dynamics of language comprehension: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Drury, John E; Portner, Paul; Walenski, Matthew; Ullman, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    Logic has been intertwined with the study of language and meaning since antiquity, and such connections persist in present day research in linguistic theory (formal semantics) and cognitive psychology (e.g., studies of human reasoning). However, few studies in cognitive neuroscience have addressed logical dimensions of sentence-level language processing, and none have directly compared these aspects of processing with syntax and lexical/conceptual-semantics. We used ERPs to examine a violation paradigm involving "Negative Polarity Items" or NPIs (e.g., ever/any), which are sensitive to logical/truth-conditional properties of the environments in which they occur (e.g., presence/absence of negation in: John hasn't ever been to Paris, versus: John has *ever been to Paris). Previous studies examining similar types of contrasts found a mix of effects on familiar ERP components (e.g., LAN, N400, P600). We argue that their experimental designs and/or analyses were incapable of separating which effects are connected to NPI-licensing violations proper. Our design enabled statistical analyses teasing apart genuine violation effects from independent effects tied solely to lexical/contextual factors. Here unlicensed NPIs elicited a late P600 followed in onset by a late left anterior negativity (or "L-LAN"), an ERP profile which has also appeared elsewhere in studies targeting logical semantics. Crucially, qualitatively distinct ERP-profiles emerged for syntactic and conceptual semantic violations which we also tested here. We discuss how these findings may be linked to previous findings in the ERP literature. Apart from methodological recommendations, we suggest that the study of logical semantics may aid advancing our understanding of the underlying neurocognitive etiology of ERP components. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What Does the Sleeping Brain Say? Syntax and Semantics of Sleep Talking in Healthy Subjects and in Parasomnia Patients.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Gay, Frederick; Baldayrou, Etienne; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gayraud, Frederique; Devevey, Alain

    2017-11-01

    Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness, and abuse. Two hundred thirty-two subjects (aged 49.5 ± 20 years old; 41% women; 129 with rapid eye movement [REM] sleep behavior disorder and 87 with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 15 healthy subjects, and 1 patient with sleep apnea speaking in non-REM sleep) uttered 883 speech episodes, containing 59% nonverbal utterance (mumbles, shouts, whispers, and laughs) and 3349 understandable words. The most frequent word was "No": negations represented 21.4% of clauses (more in non-REM sleep). Interrogations were found in 26% of speech episodes (more in non-REM sleep), and subordinate clauses were found in 12.9% of speech episodes. As many as 9.7% of clauses contained profanities (more in non-REM sleep). Verbal abuse lasted longer in REM sleep and was mostly directed toward insulting or condemning someone, whereas swearing predominated in non-REM sleep. Men sleep-talked more than women and used a higher proportion of profanities. Apparent turn-taking in the conversation respected the usual language gaps. Sleep talking parallels awake talking for syntax, semantics, and turn-taking in conversation, suggesting that the sleeping brain can function at a high level. Language during sleep is mostly a familiar, tensed conversation with inaudible others, suggestive of conflicts. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    PubMed

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  1. MODELING TREE LEVEL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...

  2. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  3. Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Building a Consensus MUL-Tree

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yun; Jansson, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A multi-labeled phylogenetic tree, or MUL-tree, is a generalization of a phylogenetic tree that allows each leaf label to be used many times. MUL-trees have applications in biogeography, the study of host–parasite cospeciation, gene evolution studies, and computer science. Here, we consider the problem of inferring a consensus MUL-tree that summarizes a given set of conflicting MUL-trees, and present the first polynomial-time algorithms for solving it. In particular, we give a straightforward, fast algorithm for building a strict consensus MUL-tree for any input set of MUL-trees with identical leaf label multisets, as well as a polynomial-time algorithm for building a majority rule consensus MUL-tree for the special case where every leaf label occurs at most twice. We also show that, although it is NP-hard to find a majority rule consensus MUL-tree in general, the variant that we call the singular majority rule consensus MUL-tree can be constructed efficiently whenever it exists. PMID:22963134

  4. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  5. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  6. SUMO Target Tree Info

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sevanto, Sanna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickman, Turin L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Adam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grossiord, Charlotte [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research; Adams, Henry [Oklahoma State University; Borrego, Isaac [USGS Southwest Biological Science Center; McDowell, Nate [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2018-01-01

    Information regarding species, plot, treatment, and chamber associated with each Tree_ID for use with all other raw data files. The Los Alamos Survival-Mortality experiment (SUMO) is located on Frijoles Mesa near Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, at an elevation of 2150 m. The experiment is located in a pinon-juniper woodland near the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest ecotone. The tree community at SUMO is dominated by pinon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.) with Gambel oak (Quercus gambelli Nutt.), and the occasional ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C.Lawson). Soils are Hackroy clay loam and range in depth from 40 to 80 cm above a parent material of volcanic tuff. Data released by Los Alamos National Lab for public use under LA-UR-18-23656.

  7. Consequences of Common Topological Rearrangements for Partition Trees in Phylogenomic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Bui Quang; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In phylogenomic analysis the collection of trees with identical score (maximum likelihood or parsimony score) may hamper tree search algorithms. Such collections are coined phylogenetic terraces. For sparse supermatrices with a lot of missing data, the number of terraces and the number of trees on the terraces can be very large. If terraces are not taken into account, a lot of computation time might be unnecessarily spent to evaluate many trees that in fact have identical score. To save computation time during the tree search, it is worthwhile to quickly identify such cases. The score of a species tree is the sum of scores for all the so-called induced partition trees. Therefore, if the topological rearrangement applied to a species tree does not change the induced partition trees, the score of these partition trees is unchanged. Here, we provide the conditions under which the three most widely used topological rearrangements (nearest neighbor interchange, subtree pruning and regrafting, and tree bisection and reconnection) change the topologies of induced partition trees. During the tree search, these conditions allow us to quickly identify whether we can save computation time on the evaluation of newly encountered trees. We also introduce the concept of partial terraces and demonstrate that they occur more frequently than the original “full” terrace. Hence, partial terrace is the more important factor of timesaving compared to full terrace. Therefore, taking into account the above conditions and the partial terrace concept will help to speed up the tree search in phylogenomic inference. PMID:26448206

  8. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  9. Olfactory language and abstraction across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Burenhult, Niclas; Stensmyr, Marcus; de Valk, Josje; Hansson, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    Olfaction presents a particularly interesting arena to explore abstraction in language. Like other abstract domains, such as time, odours can be difficult to conceptualize. An odour cannot be seen or held, it can be difficult to locate in space, and for most people odours are difficult to verbalize. On the other hand, odours give rise to primary sensory experiences. Every time we inhale we are using olfaction to make sense of our environment. We present new experimental data from 30 Jahai hunter-gatherers from the Malay Peninsula and 30 matched Dutch participants from the Netherlands in an odour naming experiment. Participants smelled monomolecular odorants and named odours while reaction times, odour descriptors and facial expressions were measured. We show that while Dutch speakers relied on concrete descriptors, i.e. they referred to odour sources (e.g. smells like lemon), the Jahai used abstract vocabulary to name the same odours (e.g. musty). Despite this differential linguistic categorization, analysis of facial expressions showed that the two groups, nevertheless, had the same initial emotional reactions to odours. Critically, these cross-cultural data present a challenge for how to think about abstraction in language. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain’. PMID:29915007

  10. Exact solutions for species tree inference from discordant gene trees.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chieh; Górecki, Paweł; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has to overcome the grant challenge of inferring accurate species trees from evolutionary histories of gene families (gene trees) that are discordant with the species tree along whose branches they have evolved. Two well studied approaches to cope with this challenge are to solve either biologically informed gene tree parsimony (GTP) problems under gene duplication, gene loss, and deep coalescence, or the classic RF supertree problem that does not rely on any biological model. Despite the potential of these problems to infer credible species trees, they are NP-hard. Therefore, these problems are addressed by heuristics that typically lack any provable accuracy and precision. We describe fast dynamic programming algorithms that solve the GTP problems and the RF supertree problem exactly, and demonstrate that our algorithms can solve instances with data sets consisting of as many as 22 taxa. Extensions of our algorithms can also report the number of all optimal species trees, as well as the trees themselves. To better asses the quality of the resulting species trees that best fit the given gene trees, we also compute the worst case species trees, their numbers, and optimization score for each of the computational problems. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our exact algorithms using empirical and simulated data sets, and analyze the quality of heuristic solutions for the studied problems by contrasting them with our exact solutions.

  11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  12. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  13. On the Power of Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.; Kamin, Samuel N.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated applications of static analysis place increased burden on the reliability of the analysis techniques. Often, the failure of the analysis technique to detect some information my mean that the time or space complexity of the generated code would be altered. Thus, it is important to precisely characterize the power of static analysis techniques. We follow the approach of Selur et. al. who studied the power of strictness analysis techniques. Their result can be summarized by saying 'strictness analysis is perfect up to variations in constants.' In other words, strictness analysis is as good as it could be, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values. We use this approach to characterize a broad class of analysis techniques based on abstract interpretation including, but not limited to, strictness analysis. For the first-order case, we consider abstract interpretations where the abstract domain for data values is totally ordered. This condition is satisfied by Mycroft's strictness analysis that of Sekar et. al. and Wadler's analysis of list-strictness. For such abstract interpretations, we show that the analysis is complete in the sense that, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values with the same abstraction, it gives the best possible information. We further generalize these results to typed lambda calculus with pairs and higher-order functions. Note that products and function spaces over totally ordered domains are not totally ordered. In fact, the notion of completeness used in the first-order case fails if product domains or function spaces are added. We formulate a weaker notion of completeness based on observability of values. Two values (including pairs and functions) are considered indistinguishable if their observable components are indistinguishable. We show that abstract interpretation of typed lambda calculus programs is complete up to this notion of indistinguishability. We use denotationally

  14. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  16. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable.

  17. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Treesearch

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  18. Tree diversity in relation to tree height: alternative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J

    2017-03-01

    Marks et al. (Ecol. Lett., 19, 2016, 743-751) show that tree diversity increases with tree height in North America and argue it reflects habitat 'suitability'. This finding conflicts with classical results, lacks controls for covariates of tree height, and can be explained alternatively using the modified Janzen-Connell effect and regional variance in habitats. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  20. Water Pollution Abstracts. Volume 43, Number 4, Abstracts 645-849.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER POLLUTION, *ABSTRACTS, PURIFICATION, WASTES(INDUSTRIAL), CONTROL, SEWAGE, WATER SUPPLIES, PUBLIC HEALTH, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, DEGRADATION, DAMS...ESTUARIES, PLANKTON, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, VIRUSES, SEA WATER , MICROBIOLOGY, UNITED KINGDOM.