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Sample records for abstracting instructions extent

  1. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    PubMed

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU. PMID:23314470

  2. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    PubMed

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  3. Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract (CSA) Instruction: A Decision Rule for Improving Instructional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealander, Karen A.; Johnson, Gae R.; Lockwood, Adam B.; Medina, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    A concrete-semiconcrete-abstract (CSA) instructional approach derived from discovery learning (DIS) was embedded in a direct instruction (DI) methodology to teach eight elementary students with math disabilities. One-minute abstract-level probes were the primary metric used to assess student performance on subtraction problems (minuends 0-9). A…

  4. The Instructional Effectiveness of Integrating Abstract and Realistic Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John H.

    This study examined the question of whether the integration of abstract and realistic visualization can improve the effectiveness of visualized instruction. Two methods of integrating visualizations were investigated. The first method used hybrid illustrations, i.e., a real color photograph into which a line drawing segment has been inserted. This…

  5. Understanding Economics. A Compendium of Instructional Units: Projects and Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powley, Sarah, Ed.

    Instructional units in economics developed by classroom teachers for use in grades K-12 are presented. Units are organized in two major sections--Personal and Family Financial Planning and Consumer Economics. The first section contains five units. Topics are: (1) Comparison Shopping, grade 12; (2) Teenage Buying Habits, grade 11; (3) Career…

  6. Television and Film in College English Instruction: A Bibliography of Research and Studies with Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svobodny, Dolly D., Comp.

    There are 62 abstracts in this compilation describing research and experimental teaching using television and film methods in college English instruction. The studies, most of them conducted since 1950, cover: (1) a comparison of televised instruction with face-to-face presentation, (2) a comparison of filmed or kinescoped courses with direct…

  7. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  8. Supporting Abstraction Processes in Problem Solving through Pattern-Oriented Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Orna; Haberman, Bruria

    2008-01-01

    Abstraction is a major concept in computer science and serves as a powerful tool in software development. Pattern-oriented instruction (POI) is a pedagogical approach that incorporates patterns in an introductory computer science course in order to structure the learning of algorithmic problem solving. This paper examines abstraction processes in…

  9. Abstracts from "Coastal Marsh Dieback in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, Causes, Consequences, and Remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Robert E.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Charron, Tammy Michelle

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, scientists discovered a new and unprecedented loss of salt marsh vegetation in coastal Louisiana and other areas along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This dieback of salt marsh vegetation, sometimes called the brown marsh phenomenon', primarily involved the rapid browning and dieback of smooth cordgrass (Spanina alterniflora). Coastal Louisiana has already undergone huge, historical losses of coastal marsh due to both human-induced and natural factors, and the current overall rate of wetland loss (25-35 sq mi 65-91 SQ KM each year) stands to threaten Louisiana's coastal ecosystem, infrastructure, and economy. On January 11-12, 2001, individuals from Federal and State agencies, universities, and the private sector met at the conference 'Coastal Marsh Dieback in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Extent, Causes, Consequences, and Remedies' to discuss and share information shout the marsh dieback. Presentations discussed trends in the progress of dieback during the summer of 2000 and in environmental conditions occurring at field study sites, possible causes including drought and Mississippi low flow' conditions, changes in soil conditions (salinity, the bioavailability of metals, pathogens, etc.), the potential for wetland loss that could occur if above and below normality occurs and is sustained over an extended period, advanced techniques for tracking the dieback via aerial photography and remote sensing, linkages of marsh hydrology to the dieback, and mechanisms of modeling dieback and recovery. In addition, presentations were made regarding development of a web site to facilitate information sharing and progress in preparation for requests for proposals based on an emergency appropriation by the U.S. Congress. All findings tended to support the idea that the dieback constituted a continuing environmental emergency and research and natural resource management efforts should be expended accordingly.

  10. The Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence of Instruction in Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan; Naidoo, Jayaluxmi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how master mathematics teachers use the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction in mathematics classrooms. Data was collected from a convenience sample of six master teachers by observations, video recordings of their teaching, and semi-structured interviews. Data collection also…

  11. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  12. Research and Studies About the Use of Television and Film in Foreign Language Instruction: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svobodny, Dolly D., Comp.

    A compilation of 90 abstracts describes research and experimental teaching using television and film methods in foreign language instruction. The studies cover (1) a comparison of televised instruction with face-to-face presentation, (2) a comparison of filmed or kinescoped courses with direct instruction, (3) other uses of television and film…

  13. Emerging Instructional Technologies: Exploring the Extent of Faculty Use of Web 2.0 Tools at a Midwestern Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Tareq; Lazarevic, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the several aspects of instructional use of emerging web-based technologies. The study first explores the extent of Web 2.0 technology integration into face-to-face classroom activities. In this phase, the main focus of research interests was on the types and dynamics of Web 2.0 tools used by…

  14. Reading Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 11 titles deal with the following topics: models for reading instruction for disabled readers based on humanistic education principles; the effects of levels and positions of questions on the comprehension and reading time of…

  15. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1983 (Vol. 43 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) spelling; (2) the effect of orientation instructions using a terminal value as an extrinsic motivator of listening comprehension; (3) a schematic method for…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources, Supplement XIV (1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  3. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  5. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  6. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  8. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  9. Finding an Article: Indexes and Abstracts. Library Instruction Series. Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Clara Kamerling

    The last of three library skills modules for college students, Unit III provides definitions of periodicals, indexes and abstracts, as well as discussion of how to select the appropriate index or abstract, how to interpret a citation, and how to locate bound journals, microfilms, and current issues of journals in the library. Copying and borrowing…

  10. Learner Perceptions on Instructional Design of Multimedia in Learning Abstract Concepts in Science at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulasekara, Geetha Udayangani; Jayatilleke, Buddhini Gayathri; Coomaraswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore learner perceptions on the instructional design features of interactive multimedia (IMM), which was especially designed to support the open and distance learners studying microbiology as a part of the BSc degree programme of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). The purpose of developing this IMM was to…

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources materials. Supplement 31, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. This publication contains abstracts and indexes to selected…

  12. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement II (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific…

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement III (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement I (1979-80).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific…

  15. Abstract Proceedings of the Florida Instructional Computing Conference (Orlando, Florida, January 21-24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roblyer, M. D., Ed.

    Current issues in educational uses for microcomputers are addressed in this collection of 139 abstracts of papers in which computer literacy and practical applications dominate. Topics discussed include factors related to computer use in the classroom, e.g., computer lab utilization; teaching geometry, science, math, and English via…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Includes May 1979 edition and Supplements 1-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracts/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 27, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 21 (1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 24 (l985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 25 (1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to hazardous wastes and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XX (1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 29, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  3. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 22 (1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XIX (1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  5. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 28, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and nonprint materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  6. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 26, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of governmental, private concerns, and…

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement 23 (1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  8. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VI (1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction as well as some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can…

  9. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VII (1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction as well as some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can…

  10. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IV (1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus, OH.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality control field can locate instructional materials to meet very general or highly specific requirements in…

  11. Effects of abstract versus concrete visual representations in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, William Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to different multimedia authoring tools and specialized software that facilitate the design and development of computer-based simulations, science teachers and instructional media designers have a variety of simulations to support instructional delivery. However, there is a lack of research on how instructional designers and science teachers can select, design, and implement science simulations most effectively based on the simulations' visual attributes. One of the design principles that play an important part in the simulation design process is the visual representation of on-screen objects used to describe science concepts or principles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abstract and concrete visual representation of electricity concepts and principles in an instructional simulation on students' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions of the simulation. The participants in this study were 39 elementary education pre-service teachers who were randomly assigned to either the concrete or the abstract treatment. The educational intervention was conducted over three 100-minute sessions. Since the sample violated the normality assumption, Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to verify whether the independent variable had significant effects on the three dependent variables. The data analysis found no statistically significant difference on learners' declarative knowledge, learning transfer, and perceptions about the simulation's attributes between those assigned to the concrete treatment and those assigned to the abstract treatment (p>.05). This finding did not favor one type of visual representation over the other.

  12. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) an alternative high school English curriculum and its relationship to student alienation and pupil control ideology; (2) an oral language program for fifth…

  13. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 17 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a model for the development of critical television viewing and listening skills in the public school setting; (2) English as a subject in the College of William and Mary; (3)…

  14. Remedial and Compensatory Reading Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 28 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) abled and disabled sixth grade readers' knowledge of story structure under three conditions, (2) the impact of typographical factors on the visual information…

  15. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Secondary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics: (1) a hierarchy of purposes for reading assignments applied to secondary school social studies; (2) the effects of sentence combining practice on reading comprehension; (3) the effects of…

  16. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1985 (Vol. 45 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) conceptualization of main idea by special admission college freshmen; (2) the interactive effects of field dependence and adjunct questions on learning from prose; (3) an art based…

  17. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts in part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 27 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of second language learning on achievement in English; (2) developmental aspects and effects of variables on prekindergarten, kindergarten, and…

  18. English Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information of recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) spelling as a cognitive-linguistic developmental process; (2) the impact of cursive writing models on spelling achievement; (3) an intelligent…

  19. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) the composing process of adult basic writing students; (2) an integrated approach to reading and writing for college students; (3) the teaching and learning of reading in the…

  20. Language Arts Skills and Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 14 titles deal with the following topics: observable behaviors and verbal responses elicited by a specific listening task; the relationship between oral spelling, auditory sequencing, and vocal rhythm; the effect of listening…

  1. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: Preschool and Elementary: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 47 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: a programed tutoring project in which older students tutored first grade students; oral reading miscues made by children in high, medium, and low reading groups;…

  2. Administrative Procedures Manual for Instructional Program in Medical Vocabulary and Medical Chart Abstracting for Tumor Registrars. Revised 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, VA.

    The manual provides the information required to administer the training program. The first three sections describe: (1) the requirements for and objectives of the tumor registrar training program; (2) the format (incorporating programed instruction and self-scoring practical exercises), student evaluation techniques, and contents of the…

  3. Teaching Problem Solving to Students Receiving Tiered Interventions Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence and Schema-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is a compilation of over 3,000 abstracts on print and non-print materials related to water quality and water resources education. Entries are included from all levels of governmental sources, private concerns, and educational institutions. Each entry includes: title, author, cross references, descriptors, and availability. (CLS)

  5. Conceptualizing ¬the Abstractions of Earthquakes Through an Instructional Sequence Using SeisMac and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M.

    2007-12-01

    Newsworthy earthquakes provide an engaging hook for students in Earth science classes, particularly when discussing their effects on people and the landscape. However, engaging students in an analysis of earthquakes that extends beyond death and damage, is frequently hampered by the abstraction of recorded ground motion data in the form of raw seismograms and the inability of most students to personally relate to ground accelerations. To overcome these challenges, an educational sequence has been developed using two software tools: SeisMac by Daniel Griscom, and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS and DLESE. This sequence presents a unique opportunity for Earth Science teachers to "create" foundational experiences for students as they construction a framework of understanding of abstract concepts. The first activity is designed to introduce the concept of a three-component seismogram and to directly address the very abstract nature of seismograms through a kinesthetic experience. Students first learn to take the pulse of their classroom through a guided exploration of SeisMac, which displays the output of the laptop's built-in Sudden Motion Sensor (a 3-component accelerometer). This exploration allows students to view a 3-component seismogram as they move or tap the laptop and encourages them to propose and carry out experiments to explain the meaning of the 3-component seismogram. Once completed students are then asked to apply this new knowledge to a real 3-component seismogram printed from REV. Next the activity guides students through the process of identifying P and S waves and using SeisMac to connect the physical motion of the laptop to the "wiggles" they see on the SeisMac display and then comparing those to the "wiggles" they see on their seismogram. At this point students are more fully prepared to engage in an S-P location exercise such as those included in many state standards

  6. Unipacs: A Language Arts Curriculum Theory, Abstractions, Statements in Context, and Language Change; And Instructional Packets: Symbol-Referent, Denotation and Connotation, Appropriateness, Dialect, Occasion, and Form and Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Based on the belief that the most appropriate focus of a language arts curriculum is the process and content of communication, these several unipacs (instructional packets) explore some essential elements of communication which should be incorporated into a curricular theory: (1) abstraction , which is the assertion that words may be classified as…

  7. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement 33, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to hazardous materials,…

  8. Teacher Characteristics and Teacher Education in Reading and English Language Arts Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 15 titles deal with the following topics: (1) teacher training of bilingual teacher aides; (2) teaching strategies for secondary school English teachers; (3) the effectiveness of inservice training that used the publication…

  9. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  10. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  11. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  12. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  13. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  14. Conference Abstracts: Microcomputers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides abstracts of five papers presented at the Fourth Annual Microcomputers in Education Conference. Papers considered microcomputers in science laboratories, Apple II Plus/e computer-assisted instruction in chemistry, computer solutions for space mechanics concerns, computer applications to problem solving and hypothesis testing, and…

  15. LOGO Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad

    Findings of a 1989 research study on LOGO-based instruction for teaching abstract concepts of geometry are reported in an effort to encourage mathematics teachers to use the LOGO language in computer-assisted instruction. Thirty-three ninth graders (19 males and 14 females) (6 white students and 27 black students) were involved in the controlled…

  16. Downscaling of inundation extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Filipe; Prigent, Catherine; Papa, Fabrice

    2014-05-01

    The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) provides multi-year monthly variations of the global surface water extent at about 25 kmx25 km resolution, from 1993 to 2007. It is derived from multiple satellite observations. Its spatial resolution is usually compatible with climate model outputs and with global land surface model grids but is clearly not adequate for local applications that require the characterization of small individual water bodies. There is today a strong demand for high-resolution inundation extent datasets, for a large variety of applications such as water management, regional hydrological modeling, or for the analysis of mosquitos-related diseases. This paper present three approaches to do downscale GIEMS: The first one is based on a image-processing technique using neighborhood constraints. The third approach uses a PCA representation to perform an algebraic inversion. The PCA-representation is also very convenient to perform temporal and spatial interpolation of complexe inundation fields. The third downscaling method uses topography information from Hydroshed Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Information such as the elevation, distance to river and flow accumulation are used to define a ``flood ability index'' that is used by the downscaling. Three basins will be considered for illustrative purposes: Amazon, Niger and Mekong. Aires, F., F. Papa, C. Prigent, J.-F. Cretaux and M. Berge-Nguyen, Characterization and downscaling of the inundation extent over the Inner Niger delta using a multi-wavelength retrievals and Modis data, J. of Hydrometeorology, in press, 2014. Aires, F., F. Papa and C. Prigent, A long-term, high-resolution wetland dataset over the Amazon basin, downscaled from a multi-wavelength retrieval using SAR, J. of Hydrometeorology, 14, 594-6007, 2013. Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W.B. Rossow, and E. Matthews. Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure

  17. Elegant Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new form of instruction called elegant instruction. Generally speaking, educational technologists assert that instruction ought to be effective and efficient. Some educational technologists might add that instruction should also satisfy learners. Incorporating the standard requirements and going beyond satisfaction,…

  18. Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

  19. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  20. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  1. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  2. Instructional Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    Since passage of Maryland State Senate Bill 795 and adoption of the Master Plan, considerable effort has gone into enhancing instruction and instructional support services in the Baltimore City Public School System. Describes various instructional elements, examining: the citywide curriculum framework; training on new curriculum materials;…

  3. Psychological Abstracts/BRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses particular problems and possible solutions in searching the Psychological Abstracts database, with special reference to its loading on BRS. Included are examples of typical searches, citations (with or without abstract/annotation), a tabulated searchguide to Psychological Abstracts on BRS and specifications for the database. (Author/JD)

  4. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  5. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  6. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  7. 40 CFR 86.411-78 - Maintenance instructions, vehicle purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of emission control systems. (2) Such instructions shall be in the English language and in clear, and to the extent practicable, nontechnical language. (b) The maintenance instructions required by...

  8. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  9. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  10. The Use of Visualizing in Comprehending Difficult Abstract Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlinn, James E.

    A study investigated the use of visualizing in remembering or understanding difficult abstract prose. Subjects, 40 students in two freshman developmental reading classes in a state college in North Carolina, received either instruction in drawing out images or in writing paraphrases as they read difficult material. Posttests of abstract reading…

  11. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  12. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  13. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  14. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  15. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  16. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  17. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  18. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  1. Thematic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Eileen, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles presented in this issue of a journal on giftedness in school-age children focus on interdisciplinary thematic instruction for gifted students. "Untangling the Web of Interdisciplinary Instruction" (Susan L. Beibelman and Sandy Hall-Chiles) explains the use of a curriculum webbing model to provide structure. "Interdisciplinary…

  2. Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Alex L., Ed.; Kali, Alex P., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    To examine literacy instruction in light of recent research and practice, this journal issue presents five articles focusing on the creation of a literate society where people appreciate literature and can use reading and writing to enrich their lives. The first article, "Literacy Instruction: An Alternative" (A. S. Bayer), presents an alternative…

  3. Haptic underestimation of angular extent.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, S; Marks, L E

    1998-01-01

    To what extent can individuals accurately estimate the angle between two surfaces through touch alone, and how does tactile judgment compare to visual judgment? Subjects' ability to estimate angle size for a variety of haptic and visual stimuli was examined in a series of nine experiments. Triangular wooden blocks and raised contour outlines comprising different angles and radii of curvature at the apex were used in experiments 1-4 and it was found that subjects consistently underestimated angular extent relative to visual baselines and that the degree of underestimation was inversely related to the actual size of the angle. Angle estimates also increased with increasing radius of curvature when actual angle size was held constant. In contrast, experiments 5-8 showed that subjects did not underestimate angular extent when asked to perform a haptic-visual match to a computerized visual image; this outcome suggests that visual input may 'recalibrate' the haptic system's internal metric for estimating angle. The basis of this cross-modal interaction was investigated in experiment 9 by varying the nature and extent of visual cues available in haptic estimation tasks. The addition of visual-spatial cues did not significantly reduce the magnitude of haptic underestimation. The experiments as a whole indicate that haptic underestimations of angle occur in a number of different stimulus contexts, but leave open the question of exactly what type of visual information may serve to recalibrate touch in this regard. PMID:10197190

  4. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  5. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  6. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  7. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  8. Introducing Abstract Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscell, Bob

    1973-01-01

    A functional approach involving collage, two-dimensional design, three-dimensional construction, and elements of Cubism, is used to teach abstract design in elementary and junior high school art classes. (DS)

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 36 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include the Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment; organizing and retrieving images; intelligent information retrieval using natural language processing; interdisciplinarity; libraries as publishers; indexing hypermedia; cognitive aspects of classification; computer-aided…

  10. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  11. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  12. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  13. Instructional Validity: Merging Curricular, Instructional and Test Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Janet S.; And Others

    This paper proposes that instructional validity (i.e., the extent to which teachers actually teach the skills that are tested) should be part of the test development process. The development of a district-wide ninth-grade math exam for General Mathematics I (GMI) in the Charleston County School District, South Carolina, is used to illustrate how a…

  14. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  15. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    Provided is a compilation of abstracts of currently available computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs. The guide contains the specifications of all operational CAI programs that have come under the surveillance of ENTELEK's CAI Information Exchange since its establishment in 1965. A total of 226 CAI programs by 160 authors at 38 CAI centers…

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  18. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  19. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  20. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  2. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  4. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  6. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  7. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  8. Does Instruction Work for Learning Pragmatics in the EFL Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcon Soler, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on a study which attempted to examine the efficacy of instruction at the pragmatic level. Specifically, the main purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent two instructional paradigms--explicit versus implicit instruction--affected learners' knowledge and ability to use request strategies. One hundred and thirty-two…

  9. The Heart of Implementation Fidelity: Instructional Design and Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulo, Violet A.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Given that there is no universal way to measure implementation fidelity, instructional designers developing instructional innovations may find themselves faced with the challenge of determining the extent to which teachers' implementation of an instructional model is faithful. This article contends that a faithful implementation is one in…

  10. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  11. Toward a Definition of Individualized Foreign Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Howard B.

    Abstracts of three papers on individuated instruction center on the need for a redefinition of terminology and continued research of its implications in the teaching of foreign languages. The abstracted papers include: (1) Howard Altman's "Toward A Definition of Individualized Instruction," (2) Barbara Gordon's "The Speech Community of the School…

  12. Meeting Abstracts - Nexus 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Of the abstracts accepted for publication, most are presented as posters, so interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The main poster presentation is Tuesday, October 27, 2015; posters are also displayed on Wednesday, October 28, 2015. The AMCP Nexus 2015 in Orlando, Florida, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs.  Abstracts were submitted in the following categories:  Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs.Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These abstracts describe a course of events; they do not test a hypothesis, but they may include data.

  13. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  16. Instructional Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Jody

    Instructional discussion is a classroom teaching method by which students move through material to a predetermined, new understanding by building on each other's contributions and by utilizing the more experienced learner's (the teacher's) past experiences with the material. This article describes both the characteristics and the planning of…

  17. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  19. SPELT (Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking): A Description and Analysis of Instructional Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes an instructional model, Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), that was developed to translate cognitive psychological theory and research into a practical instructional program. The extent to which SPELT conforms to current instructional design principles is examined, and macro versus micro instructional sequencing…

  20. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  1. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  2. Feel, Imagine and Learn!--Haptic Augmented Simulation and Embodied Instruction in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, In Sook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentials and effects of an embodied instructional model in abstract concept learning. This embodied instructional process included haptic augmented educational simulation as an instructional tool to provide perceptual experiences as well as further instruction to activate those previous…

  3. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  4. Economic Education Projects: Abstracts from the 1979-80 Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, George E., Ed.

    Over 175 economics education projects submitted to the 1979-1980 National Awards Program for Teaching Economics are abstracted. The aim of this annual competition is to discover outstanding classroom teaching practices while encouraging teachers to include and improve economics instruction in the classroom. Citations are contained in separate…

  5. American Educational Research Association Paper Abstracts, 1967 Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Ellis B., Ed.

    This document contains abstracts of approximately 300 papers presented at the 1967 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. A sampling of the varied subjects covered includes: dynamics of the school board role, concept learning, programed instruction, administrative behavior and organizational characteristics, correlates of…

  6. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  7. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  8. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  9. Abstracts and reviews.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, G H; Wollman, L; Woltmann, A G

    1966-09-01

    Abstract Eric Berne, M.D.: Games People Play. Grove Press, New York, 1964. 192 pages. Price $5.00. Reviewed by Hugo G. Beigel Finkle, Alex M., Ph.D., M.D. and Prian, Dimitry F. Sexual Potency in Elderly Men before and after Prostatectomy. J.A.M.A., 196: 2, April, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman Calvin C. Hernton: Sex and Racism In America. Grove Press, Inc. Black Cat Edition No. 113 (Paperback), 1966, 180 pp. Price $.95. Reviewed by Gus Woltmann Hans Lehfeldt, M.D., Ernest W. Kulka, M.D., H. George Liebman, M.D.: Comparative Study of Uterine Contraceptive Devices. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26: 5, 1965, pp. 679-688. Lawrence Lipton. The Erotic Revolution. Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, 1965. 322 pp., Price $7.50. Masters, William H., M.D. and Johnson, Virginia E. Human Sexual Response. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1966. 366 pages. Price $.10.00. Reviewed by Hans Lehfeldt Douglas P. Murphy, M.D. and Editha F. Torrano, M.D. Male Fertility in 3620 Childless Couples. Fertility and Sterility, 16: 3, May-June, 1965. Reviewed by Leo Wollman, M.D. Edwin M. Schur, Editor: The Family and the Sexual Revolution, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1964. 427 pgs. Weldon, Virginia F., M.D., Blizzard, Robert M., M.D., and Migeon, Claude, M.D. Newborn Girls Misdiagnosed as Bilaterally Chryptorchid Males. The New England Journal of Medicine, April 14, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman.

  10. Abstraction processes in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D R; Johnstone, T; Staggs, L

    1997-02-01

    Four experiments explored the extent the extent to which abstract knowledge may underlie subjects' performance when asked to judge the grammaticality of letter strings generated from an artificial grammar. In Experiment 1 and 2 subjects studied grammatical strings instantiated with one set of letters and were then tested on grammatical and ungrammatical strings formed either from the same or a changed letter-set. Even with a change of letter-set, subjects were found to be sensitive to a variety of violation of the grammar. In Experiments 3 and 4, the critical manipulation involved the way in which the training strings were studied: an incidental learning procedure was used for some subjects, and others engaged in an explicit code-breaking task to try to learn the rules of the grammar. When strings were generated from a biconditional (Experiment 4) but not from a standard finite-state grammar (Experiment 3), grammaticality judgements for test strings were independent of their surface similarity to specific studied strings. Overall, the results suggest that transfer in this simple memory task is mediated at least to some extent by abstract knowledge.

  11. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  12. Language abstractions for low level optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévai, Gergely; Gera, Zoltán; Kelemen, Zoltán

    2012-09-01

    In case of performance critical applications programmers are often forced to write code at a low abstraction level. This leads to programs that are hard to develop and maintain because the program text is mixed up by low level optimization tricks and is far from the algorithm it implements. Even if compilers are smart nowadays and provide the user with many automatically applied optimizations, practice shows that in some cases it is hopeless to optimize the program automatically without the programmer's knowledge. A complementary approach is to allow the programmer to fine tune the program but provide him with language features that make the optimization easier. These are language abstractions that make optimization techniques explicit without adding too much syntactic noise to the program text. This paper presents such language abstractions for two well-known optimizations: bitvectors and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data). The language features are implemented in the embedded domain specific language Feldspar which is specifically tailored for digital signal processing applications. While we present these language elements as part of Feldspar, the ideas behind them are general enough to be applied in other language definition projects as well.

  13. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  14. The Extent to Which Relaxation Techniques Are Taught at Community Colleges in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Anne

    As part of a study of the role of relaxation training in the reduction of student test anxiety, a survey of the deans of instruction at 102 California community colleges was conducted to determine the extent to which the colleges were teaching Centering, Meditation, Transcendental Meditation, Hypnotism, Yoga, and Relaxation. For each of these…

  15. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  16. Abstract shape analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract shape analysis abstract shape analysis is a method to learn more about the complete Boltzmann ensemble of the secondary structures of a single RNA molecule. Abstract shapes classify competing secondary structures into classes that are defined by their arrangement of helices. It allows us to compute, in addition to the structure of minimal free energy, a set of structures that represents relevant and interesting structural alternatives. Furthermore, it allows to compute probabilities of all structures within a shape class. This allows to ensure that our representative subset covers the complete Boltzmann ensemble, except for a portion of negligible probability. This chapter explains the main functions of abstract shape analysis, as implemented in the tool RNA shapes. RNA shapes It reports on some other types of analysis that are based on the abstract shapes idea and shows how you can solve novel problems by creating your own shape abstractions.

  17. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  18. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  19. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  20. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  1. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  2. 27 CFR 10.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 10.2 Section 10.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.2 Territorial extent. This...

  3. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This...

  4. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  5. Vocabulary Instruction in Commonly Used Kindergarten Core Reading Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tanya S.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which commonly used core reading curricular materials supported research-based pedagogical features for oral vocabulary instruction in kindergarten. A document analysis was completed for 12 weeks of instructional materials from the teacher's editions of the 4 most widely used curricula.…

  6. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  7. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Evaluation of Visuals for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Chris

    To what extent can photographic readability be formalized for use as a criterion in the evaluation of instructional materials? The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot test a readability index for evaluating photographic illustrations in instructional materials. The index uses an interdisciplinary battery of methods adapted from the…

  8. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  9. Bibliographic Instruction in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, H. Scott, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains nine articles written by Indiana librarians involved in bibliographic instruction: (1) "Information Management Education--Beyond BI (Bibliographic Instruction)" (Gillian S. Gremmels); (2) "Dealing with the New Technology: An Instructional Primer" (Patrick Max); (3) "Librarian/Teacher Partnerships for Better Library Instruction:…

  10. Instruction, Capacity, and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg

    This research report offers a theoretical frame for examining recent instructional improvement efforts. First, it develops a theoretical view of instruction and an analysis of the environments of instruction. It analyzes the relations between instruction and its environments and the circumstances under which intervenors must operate. The report…

  11. Investigations in Science Education, Vol. 7, No. 1. Expanded Abstracts and Critical Analyses of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    Presented are analytical abstracts, prepared by science educators, of research reports in the areas of instruction, mainstreaming, curriculum, classroom learning environment, and the educational use of planetaria. Each abstract includes bibliographical data, research design and procedure, purpose, research rationale, and an abstractor's analysis…

  12. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  13. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  14. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  15. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  16. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  17. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  18. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  19. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  20. Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Gandelman, Kuan; Lamson, Michael; Bramson, Candace; Matschke, Kyle; Salageanu, Joanne; Malhotra, Bimal

    2015-09-01

    ALO-02 capsules (ALO-02) contain pellets that consist of extended-release oxycodone that surrounds sequestered naltrexone. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose oral administration of ALO-02 40 mg BID in healthy volunteers. Secondary objectives were to characterize (1) the PK of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose administration of a comparator OxyContin (OXY-ER) 40 mg BID as well as an alternate regimen of ALO-02 80 mg QD, and (2) the safety and tolerability assessments. Healthy volunteers received three treatments on a background of oral naltrexone (50 mg). Noncompartmental PK parameters were calculated for oxycodone. All 12 subjects were male with a mean age (SD, range) of 44.6 years (7.6, 25-55). Single-dose PK results for ALO-02 indicate that median peak plasma oxycodone concentrations were reached by 12 hours compared to 4 hours for OXY-ER. Compared to OXY-ER, mean dose-normalized, single-dose Cmax values were approximately 27% and 23% lower for ALO-02 40 mg BID and ALO-02 80 mg QD treatments, respectively. Following multiple doses all treatments reached steady state by 3 days. At steady state, oxycodone peak-to-trough fluctuation was significantly lower for ALO-02 BID versus OXY-ER. Adverse events were consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 40 mg BID treatment provided a PK profile appropriate for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27137145

  1. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  2. Precis Writing: Suggestions for Instruction in Summarizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen D'Angelo; McKeveny, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    Offers suggestions for successful instruction in precis writing--a paraphrase or abstract that condenses an original composition but retains its information, essence, and point of view. Observes that this is a strategy that develops vocabulary, promotes critical reading and comprehension, and improves learning in general. (HOD)

  3. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  4. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  5. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  6. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  7. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  8. Facilitating Opportunity to Learn for Students with Disabilities with Instructional Feedback Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew T.; Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    "Opportunity to learn" refers to the extent to which teachers dedicate instructional time and content coverage to the intended curriculum using a range of cognitive processes, instructional practices, and grouping formats. This article describes the My Instructional Learning Opportunities Guidance System, a research-based online teacher…

  9. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  10. The Effects of Teacher Instructional Efficacy on Mathematical Skill Acquisition: The Students Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yack, Dennis R.; Shaw, Eugene R.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher instructional efficacy is an essential part of the mathematics learning process. When a mathematics teacher possesses a high level of instructional efficacy they can effectively influence a mathematics student's skill acquisition. This researcher examined what extent 5th-grade mathematics students perceive teacher instructional efficacy to…

  11. Increasing Reading Comprehension and Engagement through Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Davis, Marcia H.; Scafiddi, Nicole T.; Tonks, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Based on an engagement perspective of reading development, we investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of combining motivation support and strategy instruction (Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction--CORI) influenced reading outcomes for third-grade children. In CORI, five motivational practices were integrated with six cognitive…

  12. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Promoting Early Abstraction to Promote Early Literacy and Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Debbie A.; Saracina, Robin P.; Addison, Katherine T.

    2009-01-01

    A learning-set procedure was used to teach the oddity principle, insertions into series, and number conservation to 85 kindergarten children who did not grasp these abstractions. Control groups were given lessons in kindergarten literacy, numeracy, or art in sessions matched in timing and extent. The children who were taught the principles of…

  15. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  16. Understanding Broadscale Drivers of Coastal Wetland Extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, A. E.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services, but are threatened by sea level rise, anthropogenic disturbance, and changing sediment supply. Watershed characteristics, such as watershed area and upland land use, can mediate suspended sediment concentration; while estuarine characteristics, such as fetch, can determine the wave energy and erosion in a coastal area. These combined effects are mediated by local biogeomorphic feedbacks within wetlands to determine wetland extent. There has been little empirical or theoretical study of how broad-scale features of estuaries and watersheds influence wetland formation, persistence, and loss. As such, we cannot predict how wetland extent and resilience to sea level rise will respond to land use change and other human alterations. In this study, we ask, what factors control the broad-scale distribution of coastal wetlands? We examined relationships between coastal wetland extent and watershed/estuarine characteristics at multiple scales along the Eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States. Using existing GIS resources, we delineated the absolute and relative extents of coastal wetlands, and generated watershed and estuarine characteristics to serve as proxies of sediment input, the estuarine energy environment, and local wetland alteration. We found that present coastal wetland distributions reflect interactions across a wide range of spatial scales, ranging from local biogeomorphic processes, to estuarine-scale morphology that governs hydrodynamics, and to past and present watershed processes that influence sediment delivery. Coastal wetland extent scales with estuary size to the half power and the residuals reflect a bimodal distribution. The wetland extent distribution also displays multiple clusters, possibly signaling that local feedbacks drive wetland extent at some scales. When the results are broken up by region, this pattern is stronger in Northeastern United States. Using continental-scale variation in

  17. Using Growth Norms to Set Instructional Goals for Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…

  18. Concreteness Fading in Mathematics and Science Instruction: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; McNeil, Nicole M.; Son, Ji Y.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding debate concerns the use of concrete versus abstract instructional materials, particularly in domains such as mathematics and science. Although decades of research have focused on the advantages and disadvantages of concrete and abstract materials considered independently, we argue for an approach that moves beyond this dichotomy and…

  19. Instructional Materials for Exceptional Students: Language Arts. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

    This manual provides teachers with abstracts of instructional materials intended for use with mildly handicapped students in language arts classes. The materials are correlated with the intended outcomes of each course as specified in the state curriculum guidelines for grades 9-12. The abstracts are organized by subject matter and level: applied…

  20. Instructional Systems: Which One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, A. Maughan

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the mystical aura attached to the notion of a systems approach to instruction, briefly reviews some of the instructional systems which have been advanced, and suggests a method for successful implementation of the process. (LS)

  1. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  2. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  3. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  4. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  5. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  6. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  7. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  8. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  9. Differentiated Instruction. Fastback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin

    This fastback presents the essentials for understanding how to differentiate instruction to meet the learning needs of all students in today's classrooms. It focuses on: "The Need for Differentiated Instruction" (determining learning needs, deciding what to differentiate, and principles of differentiated instruction); "Strategies for…

  10. The Instructional Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  11. Developing Mobile Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Pastore, Raymond; Snider, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design class's experience developing instruction for the mobile web. The class was taught at a southeastern university in the United States in a master's level computer based instruction course. Two example projects are showcased and student reflections on design issues are highlighted. Additionally,…

  12. Internalizing Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the variety of types of products produced by instructional designers, discusses the role of the designer, lists the critical instructional design attributes needed by instructors who design and implement loosely structured instructional products, and discusses prototype evaluation methods for less flexible, instructor-centered products.…

  13. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  14. Instructional Program Review Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    The report describes the Instructional Program Review Process at Austin Community College (Texas). The report includes program review process timeline and schedule. The Instructional Program Review Process focuses on issues of need, cost, and effectiveness of instructional programs. It provides for identification of improvements, includes…

  15. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs consisted of.…

  16. Evaluating Instructional Development Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    The effectiveness of instructional development evaluation programs is assessed. It is suggested that although it is a basic tenet in instructional development that teaching improvement is closely linked to effective evaluation, it is ironical that most instructional development programs have themselves been evaluated only superficially, if at all.…

  17. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  18. Instructional Data, FY 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staatse, Holly

    These three reports present instructional data for Mercer County Community College for Summer and Fall 1980 and Spring 1981. The first report, covering summer sessions from 1974 through 1980, examines instructional hours, class size, student credit hours (SCRH), student contact hours (SCH), income/cost measures, instructional staff, full-time…

  19. Instructional Design: System Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Sleeman, Phillip J.

    This book is intended as a source for those who desire to apply a coherent system of instructional design, thereby insuring accountability. Chapter 1 covers the instructional design process, including: instructional technology; the role of evaluation; goal setting; the psychology of teaching and learning; task analysis; operational objectives;…

  20. Models for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, William, Ed.; Clark, Donald C., Ed.

    This book, consisting of five parts, provides a collection of source materials that will assist in implementing individualized instruction; provides examples of interrelated systems for individualizing instruction; and describes the components of individualized instructional systems, including flexible use of time, differentiated staffing, new…

  1. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  2. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  3. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  4. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  5. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  7. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  8. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  9. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  10. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  11. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  12. Testing and Evaluation in Reading and Communication Skills: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the effects of modality-based instruction in test taking skills upon young children's performance on standardized reading tests; (2) the effects of five…

  13. Reading Achievement: Characteristics Associated with Success and Failure: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1983 (Vol. 44 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 28 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) prekindergarten screening and first grade reading achievement; (2) the influence of the instructional environment on children's acquisition of reading; (3)…

  14. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  15. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  16. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  17. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON,MICHAEL L.; HO,CLIFFORD K.

    2000-10-16

    The abstraction model used for seepage into emplacement drifts in recent TSPA simulations has been presented. This model contributes to the calculation of the quantity of water that might contact waste if it is emplaced at Yucca Mountain. Other important components of that calculation not discussed here include models for climate, infiltration, unsaturated-zone flow, and thermohydrology; drip-shield and waste-package degradation; and flow around and through the drip shield and waste package. The seepage abstraction model is stochastic because predictions of seepage are necessarily quite uncertain. The model provides uncertainty distributions for seepage fraction fraction of waste-package locations flow rate as functions of percolation flux. In addition, effects of intermediate-scale flow with seepage and seep channeling are included by means of a flow-focusing factor, which is also represented by an uncertainty distribution.

  18. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  19. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  20. Initial Considerations When Applying an Instructional Sensitivity Framework: Partitioning the Variation between and within Classrooms for Two Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…

  1. Designing Learning as Well as Teaching: A Research-Based Model for Instruction that Emphasizes Learner Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Many teachers of higher education wish to provide instruction that supports student learning while not always finding it easy to implement the desire. The model for a unit of instruction described here provides a mental map to overlay decisions about instructional strategies in order to assess the extent to which they align with theories of…

  2. Extent and determinants of patients' unvoiced needs.

    PubMed

    Low, Lee Lan; Sondi, Sararaks; Azman, Abu Bakar; Goh, Pik Pin; Maimunah, A Hamid; Ibrahim, Mohd Yusof; Hassan, Muhammad Radzi Abu; Letchuman, Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Patients with issues or health problems usually plan to discuss their concerns with their health care providers. If these concerns were not presented or voiced during the health care provider-patient encounter, the patients are considered to have unvoiced needs. This article examines the extent and possible determinants of patients' unvoiced needs in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Ministry of Health Malaysia primary health facilities throughout the country. Of 1829 who participated, 5 did not respond to the question on planned issues. Of the 1824 respondents, 57.9% (95% confidence interval = 47.1-68.7) claimed to have issues/problems they planned to share, of whom 15.1% to 26.7% had unvoiced needs. Extent of unvoiced needs differed by employment status, perceived category of health care provider, and study center. Perceived category of health care provider, method of questionnaire administration, and study center were the only significant determinants of unvoiced needs. Unvoiced needs do exist in Malaysia and there is a need for health care providers to be aware and take steps to counter this.

  3. Designing Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Lorraine T.

    1974-01-01

    The author presents an instructional design model for teachers that evolves around a teacher-manager concept which recognizes management functions of: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (EA)

  4. ERIP application instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, D.M.

    1992-01-02

    This report provides background information and instructions to assist applicants in writing Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) applications. Initial feedback fro usage for the new instructions shows that the best instructions would not be read and followed by all applicants. Applications from more than thirty applicants who have received the new instructions indicated that few had read the instructions. Based on this feedback, the instructions have been further revised to include a title page and table of contents. A warning was also added to advise applicants of the potential penalty of delayed review if these instructions are not followed. This revision was intended to address the possibility that some applicants did not see or bother to follow the instructions which followed the background information about ERIP. Included are two examples of ERIP applications which have been prepared for handout at workshops or mailing to applicants. Writing of example applications was time consuming and more difficult than expected for several reasons: (1) Full disclosures can be lengthy, very detailed, and technical. This contrasts with the desire to prepare examples which are comparatively short and easy for the non-technical person to read. (2) Disclosures contain confidential information which should not be published. (3) It is difficult to imagine that applicants will study examples when they do not bother to read the basic instructions.

  5. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  6. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  7. Teaching Algebra-Based Concepts to Students with Learning Disabilities: The Effects of Preteaching Using a Gradual Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sarah Jean

    2013-01-01

    Research to identify validated instructional approaches to teach math to students with LD and those at-risk for failure in both core and supplemental instructional settings is necessary to assist teachers in closing the achievement gaps that exist across the country. The concrete-to-representational-to-abstract instructional sequence (CRA) has…

  8. Writing Abstracts for MLIS Research Proposals Using Worked Examples: An Innovative Approach to Teaching the Elements of Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrusek, Anita L.; Thiele, Harold E.; Yang, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined abstracts written by graduate students for their research proposals as a requirement for a course in research methods in a distance learning MLIS program. The students learned under three instructional conditions that involved varying levels of access to worked examples created from abstracts representing research in the LIS…

  9. From action to abstraction: Using the hands to learn math

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Miriam A.; Congdon, Eliza L.; Hemani-Lopez, Naureen; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children benefit from gesturing during math instruction. Here we ask whether gesturing promotes learning because it is itself a physical action, or because it uses physical action to represent abstract ideas. To address this question, we taught third-grade children a strategy for solving mathematical equivalence problems that was instantiated in one of three ways: (1) in the physical action children performed on objects, (2) in a concrete gesture miming that action, or (3) in an abstract gesture. All three types of hand movements helped children learn how to solve the problems on which they were trained. However, only gesture led to success on problems that required generalizing the knowledge gained. The results provide the first evidence that gesture promotes transfer of knowledge better than action, and suggest that the beneficial effects gesture has on learning may reside in the features that differentiate it from action. PMID:24503873

  10. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  11. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions. PMID:14976618

  12. Ukrainian Instructional Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Modern Language Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This is an annotated listing of 25 items that can be used in connection with instruction in Ukrainian language, culture, history, and literature. Items include surveys, journals, literary works, and other scholarly and instructional materials on the history and current status of the Ukraine and Ukrainian immigrants to Canada. (AM)

  13. Principal Instructional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Paula M.; Spencer, William A.

    Although the literature points to principals' central role in enhancing school effectiveness, the demonstration of a causal relationship between their instructional leadership and student achievement is difficult. Researchers have suggested that instructional leadership can influence teaching and classroom practices through the establishment of…

  14. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and Motivation in the Content-Based…

  15. Trends in Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W., Ed.

    This collection of five articles presents the viewpoints of experts on various aspects of the field of instructional technology (IT). Wesley C. Meierhenry traces the history of IT from its original emphasis on audiovisual media to its current concern with instructional design and the use of systems and systematic approaches. Henry T. Ingle…

  16. Creating Effective Multimedia Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Gregory C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents information on several critical themes related to multimedia instruction for those involved in the design, development, or use of computer delivered instruction. Addresses software product life cycle; systematic approach to design; multimedia design and development teams; production values; critical components of effective multimedia;…

  17. Instructions for Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seigel, Marika A.

    2009-01-01

    In the technical communication classroom, the received wisdom is that good instructions should "stay out of the way" of the users' engagement with technological systems. This article draws on Burke's concept of perspective by incongruity and on examples of instructions produced during the Women's Health Movement to demonstrate that sometimes…

  18. Direct Instruction News, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, Sara, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of a newsletter offer diverse kinds of information deemed to be of interest to Association for Direct Instruction (ADI) members--stories of successful implementations in different settings, write-ups of ADI awards, tips on "how to" deliver direct instruction (DI) more effectively, topical articles focused on particular types of…

  19. Perceptions of Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Wade W.; Gill, Peggy B.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction has influenced how higher education redefines teaching as universities understand the significance and move towards the paradigm of online teaching and learning. Despite the benefits of online teaching, many university faculty members tend to gravitate toward instructional practices that are most comfortable to them. The purpose…

  20. High Impact Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The key to improving student achievement isn't more teacher time--it's more teacher impact. But how do you decide which instructional practices will deliver the most bang for your buck? In this handbook, written for teachers but suitable for use by principals and instructional coaches, best-selling author Jim Knight presents the high-leverage…

  1. Computer Designed Instruction & Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on computer designed instruction and testing at the college level are discussed in 13 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching at New Mexico State University. Titles and authors are as follows: "Don't Bother Me with Instructional Design, I'm Busy Programming! Suggestions for More Effective Educational…

  2. Evaluation of Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Larry

    Arguing that there is a current tendency among librarians to talk more about the evaluation of bibliographic instruction than to actually do anything about it, this paper examines limitations of and considerations pertaining to evaluation and includes: (1) a brief discussion of the history of bibliographic instruction; (2) discussion of types of…

  3. Fundamentals of Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Monty L.

    2012-01-01

    Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…

  4. Diagnostic Assessment in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Garlie A.; Rice, Myrtle W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental program of interactive assessment and instruction called GUIDES to Learning and Instruction, which is designed for use in college level remedial and developmental programs in writing, reading, and study skills. Highlights include microcomputer administration of measurement; response formats; feedback; validity for…

  5. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  6. Videodisc Instruction in Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnine, Douglas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    How laser videodisc technology can be used to improve mathematics instruction is described, with note of the development of a videodisc curriculum on mastering fractions. Relevant research is reviewed, as well as how teachers can use the technology. The instructional design is described, and field-testing and revision reported. (MNS)

  7. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARTZ, DELPHINE; AND OTHERS

    THIS BULLETIN PRESENTS RECOMMENDATIONS WITH REGARD TO PROGRAM, PERSONNEL, AND FACILITIES FOR AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER. IT INCLUDES UTILIZATION, MATERIALS, FACILITIES, ORGANIZATION AND LAYOUTS FOR AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER. CASE STUDIES AND EXAMPLES ARE PROVIDED FOR MAKING THE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE USAGE OF THE CENTER WITHIN BOTH THE…

  8. The Instructional Development Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, Nelson J.

    The Instructional Development Laboratory of Florida State University's Center for Educational Design (CED) is described. Among the major projects of the Laboratory has been the design and implementation of the PLATO computer-assisted instruction system. Included in the report are descriptions of (1) the facilities layout of the Laboratory, (2) the…

  9. Instruction and Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caws, Peter

    1974-01-01

    Instruction, the facilitation of the idiocyncratic internalizing process of each student, and inquiry, a form of self-instruction engaged in by the faculty and by advanced students, are interrelated in the forum of the university. By elucidating the interrelationship, recommendations can be made for the improvement of the university. (JH)

  10. Quality in Instructional Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur, Ed.

    The result of an interdisciplinary conference on the qualities of an effective instructional television program, this book reports the ideas of various participants. Two papers by broadcasters represent the producer's view of ITV; one deals with instructional television in Sweden and the other with a Nigerian project. The scholar's view is…

  11. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  12. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  13. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  14. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  15. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  16. How to Survive Instructional Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Gilbert L.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews problems and successful techniques associated with various instructional systems including individualized instruction, personalized system of instruction, audiotutorial system, and others. Includes comments on behavioral objectives, mastery, and testing. (SK)

  17. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  18. Strategies for writing a competitive research abstract.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, R A

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on the process of preparing research abstracts for submission to scientific meetings of professional organizations. Perspectives on the process of specifying an abstract's focus, choosing a scientific meeting, selecting the type of presentation, developing an abstract, and writing an abstract in its form are presented.

  19. National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 45th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    Abstracts of papers presented to the 45th Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching are arranged according to the topic for the session at which they were presented. Series of sessions were devoted to test and instrument development, evaluation, learning theory, verbal behavior, instructional methods and…

  20. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. 50th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication provides abstracts of papers presented at the 50th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching held in Cincinnati, Ohio March 22-24, 1977. The entries represent a wide range of topics in the field of science education. Topics include instruction, teacher education, learning, enrollments, concept…

  1. Enhancing Early Numeracy by Promoting the Abstract Thought Involved in the Oddity Principle, Seriation, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Julie K.; Pasnak, Robert; Gadzichowski, Marinka; Ferral-Like, Melissa; Gallington, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Although many students who enter kindergarten are cognitively ready to meet the demands of the kindergarten mathematics curriculum, some students arrive without the early abstract reasoning abilities necessary to benefit from the instruction provided. Those who do not possess key cognitive abilities, including understandings of conservation,…

  2. The extent of the local hi halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, F. J.; Hobbs, L. M.; Shull, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-five high-latitude, OB stars have been observed in the Ly alpha and 21 cm lines of HI in an effort to map out the vertical distribution and extent of the local HI halo. The 25 stars for which a reliable HI colum density can be obtained from Ly alpha lie between 60 and 3100 pc from the plane. The principal result is that the total column density of HI at z 1 kpc is, on the average, 5 + or - 3 x 10 the 19th power/sq cm, or 15% of the total sub HI. At relatively low z the data toward some stars suggest a low effective scale height and fairly high average foreground density, while toward others the effective scale height is large and the average density is low. This can be understood as the result of irregularities in the interstellar medium. A model with half of the HI mass in clouds having radii of a few pc and a Gaussian vertical distribution with sigma sub 2 = 135 pc, and half of the mass in an exponential component with a scale height of 500 pc, gives a satisfactory fit to the data. The technique of comparing Ly alpha and 21 cm column densities is also used to discuss the problem of estimating the distance to several possibly subluminous stars.

  3. What is the extent of prokaryotic diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas P; Head, Ian M; Lunn, Mary; Woodcock, Stephen; Schloss, Patrick D; Sloan, William T

    2006-01-01

    The extent of microbial diversity is an intrinsically fascinating subject of profound practical importance. The term ‘diversity’ may allude to the number of taxa or species richness as well as their relative abundance. There is uncertainty about both, primarily because sample sizes are too small. Non-parametric diversity estimators make gross underestimates if used with small sample sizes on unevenly distributed communities. One can make richness estimates over many scales using small samples by assuming a species/taxa-abundance distribution. However, no one knows what the underlying taxa-abundance distributions are for bacterial communities. Latterly, diversity has been estimated by fitting data from gene clone libraries and extrapolating from this to taxa-abundance curves to estimate richness. However, since sample sizes are small, we cannot be sure that such samples are representative of the community from which they were drawn. It is however possible to formulate, and calibrate, models that predict the diversity of local communities and of samples drawn from that local community. The calibration of such models suggests that migration rates are small and decrease as the community gets larger. The preliminary predictions of the model are qualitatively consistent with the patterns seen in clone libraries in ‘real life’. The validation of this model is also confounded by small sample sizes. However, if such models were properly validated, they could form invaluable tools for the prediction of microbial diversity and a basis for the systematic exploration of microbial diversity on the planet. PMID:17028084

  4. The Rejection of Nonscientific Beliefs about Life: Effects of Instruction and Reasoning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Weser, John

    1990-01-01

    Investigated is the extent to which students' nonscientific beliefs change by comparing before and after instruction as a function of students' reasoning skill. Nonscientific beliefs discussed include special creation, orthogenesis, the soul, nonreductionism, vitalism, teleology, and nonemergentism. (KR)

  5. The distribution and extent of lunar swirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark S.; Boyd, Aaron K.; Blewett, David T.; Klima, Rachel L.

    2016-07-01

    The mysterious high-reflectance loops and ribbons known as swirls are not uncommon on the Moon, but are apparently unique to this body. We mapped their distribution and extent using ultraviolet-visible images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera. We find two main geographic groupings of swirls (South Pole-Aitken Basin and Marginis-King) and a host of smaller features including swirls near craters Abel, Crozier, Dewar, and Dufay X. All mapped swirls are associated with magnetic anomalies and swirls have magnetic field strengths shifted to higher values than their background, though there is not a 1:1 correspondence between the locations of swirls and magnetic anomalies. Swirls are also found in regions with iron abundances shifted to higher-than-background values, which could indicate that their formation is inhibited by low iron content. The most distinguishing characteristic of swirls is a low 321/415 nm ratio coupled with moderate to high reflectance, and swirls generally have high optical maturity (OMAT) parameter values, stronger 1-μm bands, and shallower normalized continuum slopes than their surroundings, consistent with a surface that has experienced less space weathering. However, some swirls cannot be discerned in OMAT or band-depth images. Areas with low 321/415 nm ratios but non-distinct visible-near-infrared properties could be related to the presence of fresh silicates or a glassy component that does not have a substantial abundance of embedded large submicroscopic iron grains (i.e., a difference in the agglutinate fraction of the soil). Swirl color properties vary with distance from Copernican and some Eratosthenian craters; their association with Eratostheninan craters suggests fresh material may be preserved longer in swirls than in non-swirl regions.

  6. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  7. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  8. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  9. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. PMID:21916951

  10. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  11. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  12. Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

  13. Curricular and Instructional Differentiation in Magnet Schools: Market Driven or Institutionally Entrenched?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Charles

    This paper examines market and institutional perspectives to provide a framework for exploring curricular and instructional differentiation in school choice. It reviews previous research on the relationship between school choice and curricular, and instructional differentiation and innovation, and explores the extent to which principals and…

  14. The Effects of Self-Care Instruction on Locus of Control in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Brodie; McClellan, Muriel S.

    1983-01-01

    A study focused on whether self-care instruction in health education can affect locus of control in fifth-grade students. Individual responsibility for self-care was encouraged. Results indicate that the instruction did increase the extent to which the children viewed health as the result of their own actions. (Author/PP)

  15. Information Communication Technology Pedagogical Integration in Mathematics Instruction among Teachers in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjala, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports finding of the study that sought to ascertain the extent of ICT-pedagogical integration in mathematics instruction among secondary school teachers in Kenya. Information was sought on professional development experiences and needs in computer technology use in mathematics instruction, the type of computer software used in…

  16. Crossing the Borders Again: Challenges in Comparing Quality Instruction in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeber, Anna O.; Newton, Kristie J.; Chambliss, Marylin J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although many studies have looked at the teaching of mathematics or at the teaching of reading, few have looked at teaching in both subjects and attempted to discuss characteristics of quality instruction across these two domains. In this article, we reflect on our attempts to do so. We focus on one aspect of instruction, the extent of…

  17. Relationship between the Instructional Leadership Behaviors of High School Principals and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarikaya, Nuray; Erdogan, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and to test the extent to which instructional leadership behaviors predict organizational commitment. The study is designed in relational method. The…

  18. The Distribution and Extent of Lunar Swirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.; Blewett, D. T.; Klima, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of high-reflectance loops and ribbons known as swirls are not uncommon on the Moon, but are apparently unique to this body. We mapped their distribution and extent using ultraviolet-visible images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera. We find swirls are much more extensive than previously known within the South Pole-Aitken Basin, and constitute a single grouping larger than the previously mapped swirls that extend from Mare Marginis to King crater. We also identify a host of smaller features including swirls near craters Abel, Crozier, Dewar, and Dufay X. All mapped swirls have magnetic field strengths shifted to higher values than their background, though there is not a 1:1 correspondence between the locations of swirls and all magnetic anomalies. Swirls are found in regions with iron abundances shifted to higher-than-background values; their formation may be inhibited by low iron content. The most distinguishing characteristic of swirls is a low 321/415 nm ratio coupled with moderate to high reflectance, and swirls generally have higher optical maturity (OMAT) parameter values, stronger 1-µm bands, and shallower normalized continuum slopes than their surroundings, consistent with materials that have experienced less space weathering. However, some swirls cannot be discerned in OMAT or band-depth images, and have only moderate reflectance. Areas with low 321/415 nm ratios but non-distinct visible-near-infrared properties could be related to the presence of a glassy component with limited embedded submicroscopic iron. Swirl color properties vary with distance from Copernican and some Eratosthenian craters; they have lower UV ratios, higher reflectance, and higher OMAT values close to these craters. The association with Eratosthenian craters may suggest swirls preserve fresh material exposed by impact craters longer than in non-swirl regions; the difference between swirls and Copernican craters implies that the majority of swirls have reached some

  19. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  20. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  1. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  2. Undergraduate Instruction in Geomathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Robert H.

    1969-01-01

    Advocates geomathematical instruction at the undergraduate level as a necessity. With the inclusion of pertinent mathematical approaches to conventional geological problems. Examples are described including one such attempt at the University of Southern California. (BC)

  3. Instructing for Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Bob

    1978-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of clarity and precision in stating objectives for learning a particular job task, a training consultant provides answers to the previous issue's questionnaire on writing instructional objectives. (MF)

  4. Diversifying Instruction and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The triarchic theory posits that intelligence has analytical, creative, and practical aspects. Instructional and assessment methods should encourage and evaluate all three kinds of abilities, a balanced approach that can reach all students. (SK)

  5. Writing Instructional Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Marian; Moose, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the main categories of instructional software, including drill/practice, tutorials, simulation/problem solving, games, and management, along with factors involved in their design. (Author/MBR)

  6. Instructional Strategies: A Preliminary Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; Wood, Norman D.

    This paper proposes that instruction consists of four relatively independent facets: learner aptitudes, content structure, delivery systems, and instructional strategies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a taxonomic vocabulary and a model for portraying instructional strategies. Instructional strategies are defined as sequences of two or…

  7. Programmed Instruction in Business and Industry, Current Information Sources, No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Covering the period since 1960, this annotated bibliography contains 97 items (most with abstracts) relevant to programed instruction in business and industry. The following appear: (1) 12 bibliographies, directories, and information sources, both foreign and domestic; (2) general considerations of programed instruction as a training technique (26…

  8. Formative Assessment: A Systematic and Artistic Process of Instruction for Supporting School and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Formative assessment is a potentially powerful instructional process because the practice of sharing assessment information that supports learning is embedded into the instructional process by design. If the potential of formative assessment is to be realized, it must transform from a collection of abstract theories and research methodologies and…

  9. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  10. Abstracted model for ceramic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Stockman, C

    1998-11-14

    Engineers are exploring several mechanisms to delay corrosive attack of the CAM (corrosion allowance material) by dripping water, including drip shields and ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings deposited with high-velocity oxyfuels (HVOF's) have exhibited a porosity of only 2% at a thickness of 0.15 cm. The primary goal of this document is to provide a detailed description of an abstracted process-level model for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) that has been developed to account for the inhibition of corrosion by protective ceramic coatings. A second goal was to address as many of the issues raised during a recent peer review as possible (direct reaction of liquid water with carbon steel, stress corrosion cracking of the ceramic coating, bending stresses in coatings of finite thickness, limitations of simple correction factors, etc.). During the periods of dry oxidation (T ≥ 100°C) and humid-air corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH < 8O%), it is assumed that the growth rate of oxide on the surface is diminished in proportion to the surface covered by solid ceramic. The mass transfer impedance imposed by a ceramic coating with gas-filled pores is assumed to be negligible. During the period of aqueous phase corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH ≥ 80%), it is assumed that the overall mass transfer resistance governing the corrosion rate is due to the combined resistance of ceramic coating & interfacial corrosion products. Two porosity models (simple cylinder & cylinder-sphere chain) are considered in estimation of the mass transfer resistance of the ceramic coating. It is evident that substantial impedance to 0₂ transport is encountered if pores are filled with liquid water. It may be possible to use a sealant to eliminate porosity. Spallation (rupture) of the ceramic coating is assumed to occur if the stress introduced by the expanding corrosion products at the ceramic- CAM interface exceeds fracture stress. Since this model does not account for the possibility of

  11. Impact of Technology on Teacher Efficacy and Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderNoor, Jeffrey Michael

    2014-01-01

    In light of the emerging emphasis on interpreting technology, this study investigated how teachers' technology self-efficacy influenced their use of technology in the classroom technology use. The secondary purpose was to examine the extent teacher technology self-efficacy was related to instructional time. The study findings answered questions of…

  12. The Role of Teacher Instructional Practices in Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Franke, Megan L.; Ing, Marsha; Chan, Angela; De, Tondra; Freund, Deanna; Battey, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Prior research on collaborative learning identifies student behaviors that significantly predict student achievement, such as giving explanations of one's thinking. Less often studied is the role of teachers' instructional practices in collaboration among students. This article investigates the extent to which teachers engage in practices that…

  13. Using a Parametric Solid Modeler as an Instructional Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a quasi-experimental study that brought 3D constraint-based parametric solid modeling technology into the high school mathematics classroom. This study used two intact groups; a control group and an experimental group, to measure the extent to which using a parametric solid modeler during instruction affects…

  14. Chemical Information Instruction in Academe: Who Is Leading the Charge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Culp, F. Bartow; Twiss-Brooks, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Chemical information instruction (CII) has been recommended by the ACS Committee on Professional Training as a necessary component of the chemistry curriculum for both undergraduate and graduate students. Surveys conducted by the ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF) Education Committee in 1984 and 1993 showed the extent that CII had become…

  15. Electronifying Oral Communication: Refining the Conceptual Framework for Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Roy

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines three issues that emerge from the literature on computer-mediated instruction and from the experience of teaching online oral communication courses: (1) To what extent can online courses realize economies of scale to reduce cost and increase enrollment? (2) What productive potential does tracking and monitoring online…

  16. Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us? Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banilower, Eric; Cohen, Kim; Pasley, Joan; Weiss, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This brief distills the research on science learning to inform a common vision of science instruction and to describe the extent to which K-12 science education currently reflects this vision. A final section on implications for policy makers and science education practitioners describes actions that could integrate the findings from research into…

  17. Instruction on the Web: Authoring Tutorials in HTML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Katherine M.

    One impact of the World Wide Web has been to level the playing field to a certain extent for publishing information by putting authoring and displaying tools in the hands of anyone who wants to use them. The University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Science & Engineering Library has taken advantage of the web's instructional possibilities by…

  18. Teachers Adapt Their Instruction According to Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a student's academic performance in first grade contributes to the active instruction given by a teacher to a particular student. To investigate this, 105 first graders were tested in mathematics and reading in the fall and spring of their first school year. At the same time points, their teachers filled in…

  19. Ethical Issues in Instructional Technology: An Exploratory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Thomas A.; Grant, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a framework for considering moral K-12 instructional technology. It seeks to examine the extent that development of technology policies consider and respect affected parties interests. Design/methodology/approach: Interpreting morality as an economic concept that involves a reconciliation of…

  20. Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

  1. Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

  2. Instructional Design and Project Management: Complementary or Divergent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to identify the extent to which organizations that develop educational/training products are committed to project management, as measured by their project management implementation maturity, as a methodology that is separate and distinct from the processes of instructional design. A Web survey was…

  3. Instructional Expenditures and Student Achievement: A Multiyear Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Maureen; Polnick, Barbara; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the extent to which instructional expenditures were related to student academic achievement for students enrolled in Texas public schools for the 2005-2006 through the 2009-2010 school years. Student performance on the state-mandated assessments for all school districts in Texas for these five school years was…

  4. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. On abstract degenerate neutral differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Eduardo; O'Regan, Donal

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a new abstract model of functional differential equations, which we call abstract degenerate neutral differential equations, and we study the existence of strict solutions. The class of problems and the technical approach introduced in this paper allow us to generalize and extend recent results on abstract neutral differential equations. Some examples on nonlinear partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  8. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  9. Instructional Effectiveness and Instructional Efficiency as Considerations for Data-Based Decision Making: An Evaluation of Interpersing Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Gary L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Watson, T. Steuart; Meadows, Tawnya J.; Weaver, Adam; Jac, Bertha

    2003-01-01

    The current study investigated the extent to which considering instructional time and student learning rate affects academic treatment decisions. Five second-grade students with difficulties in spelling were exposed to three spelling interventions (traditional drill and practice, interspersal training, and high-p sequencing). Using an alternating…

  10. Abstract models of molecular walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the

  11. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory.

  12. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Cognition and Instruction," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Melissa C.; Nelson, Kari Ross; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the journal "Cognition and Instruction" to discover trends from the past decade (2003-2012). They looked at trends in article topics, research methods, authorship, and article citations by analyzing keyword frequencies, performing phrase counts of article abstracts, classifying studies according to…

  13. Community and Place in Mathematics Instruction in Selected Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Clonch, Sandra; Howley, Craig; Perko, Heike; Klein, Robert; Foley, Greg; Belcher, Johnny; Pendarvis, Edwina; Howley, Marged; Miyafusa, Sumiko; Tusay, Mark; Jimerson, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics, which arguably is so abstract as to transcend place and community and even culture (according at least to a Platonic view of mathematics), will seem to some observers particularly ill-suited to instruction in place- or community- or culture-based approaches. Nevertheless, current thinking in mathematics education,…

  14. Intelligent Instructional Systems for Teaching Procedural Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    The scientific and technical publications summarized in this report describe research on intelligent instructional systems sponsored by the Personnel and Training Research Programs, Psychological Sciences Division, of the Office of Naval Research. Abstracts of the following papers are presented: (1) "Understanding Reflective Problem Solving" (W.…

  15. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  16. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  17. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  18. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  19. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  20. Chemistry Teachers' Journey through Modeling Instruction: From Workshop to Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Tasha

    This presentation will feature case study research that describes the difficulties that four high school chemistry teachers faced while implementing Modeling Instruction into their classrooms. Modeling Instruction is characterized by the development of understanding through cooperative inquiry and collective discourse on a path from concrete to abstract. The complications in transforming a classroom from traditional teacher centered methods to one which focuses on the use of student-centered Modeling Instruction will be thoroughly investigated through the stories of each of the participants. The study begins with observations of the teachers prior to the introduction of Modeling Instruction and follows them into the professional development in the summer, the initial use in the fall term, a follow-up workshop, and finally back into the classrooms. The enlightening findings highlight the difficulties teachers had in aligning the standards, and developing a scope and sequence, as well as reconciling their beliefs about student ability.

  1. Implicit sequence learning based on instructed task set.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, Robert; Frensch, Peter A; Cohen, Asher; Wenke, Dorit

    2012-09-01

    How does the way we code and control actions influence automatic skill acquisition processes? Wenke and Frensch (2005) showed that instructions can lead participants to code spatial responses based on color. Here, we tested in 3 experiments to what extent response labeling and instruction-based response coding can determine what is learned in implicit sequence learning. Instructions mapped 4 gray shape stimuli to 1 of the 4 keys each in a serial reaction task, referring to the keys in terms of either their color or their spatial location. In Experiments 1 and 2 we found that people in the color instruction conditions used color for action control and acquired sequence knowledge containing color: They were susceptible to irrelevant stimulus colors at transfer and could transfer color sequence knowledge to a new arrangement of response positions and fingers, whereas participants who had received spatial instructions could not. Implicit sequence learning was thus surprisingly flexible. Depending on whether an arbitrary nonspatial response feature was used or not used to explain the stimulus-response mappings, we either found or did not find evidence that this feature became part of action control and sequence learning. Furthermore, Experiment 3 suggested that response position might become part of the sequence knowledge even if instructions do not emphasize this response feature. Together, the findings suggest that implicit sequence learning is based on action control, which in turn strongly, but not entirely, depends on which response features are used to explain the stimulus-response mappings in the instructions.

  2. Climate Change Misconceptions: Can Instruction Help?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCuin, J. L.; Hayhoe, K.; Hayhoe, D.

    2014-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change is fraught with misconceptions. In some cases, these may arise due to the complexity of the topic: the difference between personal experience of short-term weather events, for example, as compared to long-term analysis of a climate trend. In others, myths may be deliberately introduced: that climate has ceased to change, or that changes have been proven to be due to natural causes. Whatever their origin, these misconceptions hold powerful implications for education on climate change and related science topics. Conceptual change theory demonstrates how pre-existing misconceptions persist under regular instruction and interfere with student acquisition of correct concepts. Here, we assess the extent to which incorporating corrective instruction on misconceptions related to the greenhouse effect and on the role of human activities in climate change affects student acquisition and retention of key scientific concepts. We investigate the efficacy of this approach using two reading passages: one that simply discusses the science, and another that provides both science and misconceptions-related information. Study subjects were drawn from a first year Atmospheric Sciences course at a large public university, yielding 197 students who successfully completed the pretest, instructional treatment, immediate posttest, delayed posttest, and a background survey. While both treatments produced significant gains in the posttest and delayed posttest overall, only the treatment that directly targeted misconceptions produced long-term gains on misconception-related questions. Our results support the conceptual change model's basic claim that misconceptions may persist through concept-based instruction, but may be uprooted by even a relatively brief reading passage that addresses them directly. However, our results also contain a striking anomaly: for questions involving the phrase "global warming," misconceptions-based instruction did not

  3. Abstracting Sequences: Reasoning That Is a Key to Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K; Gadzichowski, K Marinka; Gallington, Debbie A; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; West, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand sequences of items may be an important cognitive ability. To test this proposition, 8 first-grade children from each of 36 classes were randomly assigned to four conditions. Some were taught sequences that represented increasing or decreasing values, or were symmetrical, or were rotations of an object through 6 or 8 positions. Control children received equal numbers of sessions on mathematics, reading, or social studies. Instruction was conducted three times weekly in 15-min sessions for seven months. In May, the children taught sequences applied their understanding to novel sequences, and scored as well or better on three standardized reading tests as the control children. They outscored all children on tests of mathematics concepts, and scored better than control children on some mathematics scales. These findings indicate that developing an understanding of sequences is a form of abstraction, probably involving fluid reasoning, that provides a foundation for academic achievement in early education.

  4. Instruct coders' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, J.

    1971-01-01

    A manual designed both as an instructional manual for beginning coders and as a reference manual for the coding language INSTRUCT, is presented. The manual includes the major programs necessary to implement the teaching system and lists the limitation of current implementation. A detailed description is given of how to code a lesson, what buttons to push, and what utility programs to use. Suggestions for debugging coded lessons and the error messages that may be received during assembly or while running the lesson are given.

  5. Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang; de Boer, Frank S.; Grabe, Immo

    In this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the (object-oriented) programming language. Objects which are not (yet) created never play any role, neither in the specification nor in the verification of properties. Further, we show how to symbolically execute abstract object creation.

  6. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words. PMID:21954387

  7. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  8. A brief on writing a successful abstract.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.

  9. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands.

  10. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands. PMID:20044889

  11. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  12. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  13. Seeking Instructional Specificity: An Example from Analogical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    Broad instructional methods like "interactive engagement" have been shown to be effective, but such general characterization provides little guidance on the details of how to structure instructional materials. In this study, we seek instructional specificity by comparing two ways of using an analogy to learn a target physical principle:…

  14. An Instructional Model for Computer Assisted Instruction. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizenko, Albert J; Evans, Allyn A.

    An instructional model suitable for the implementation of the tutorial mode of a computer-assisted instruction program is described in this report. The general guidelines for the design of the model are presented. Course organization, instructional strategies, and learning paths are discussed. The model provided for the accommodation of high,…

  15. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  16. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  17. Use of Humor in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkaus, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Provides a summary of research on the benefits and uses of subject-matter-related humor in instructional materials, and cites comments of five experts on how to use humor in the design of instruction. Thirteen references are listed. (MER)

  18. Solar Energy. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  19. Computers in Composition Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shostak, Robert, Ed.

    This volume consists of nine conference papers and journal articles concerned with microcomputer applications in the teaching of writing. After a general introduction entitled "Computer-Assisted Composition Instruction: The State of the Art," by Robert Shostak, four papers are devoted to how computers may help with the writing process. In…

  20. Writing for Instructional Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Kenneth G.

    Writing considerations specific to instructional television (ITV) situations are discussed in this handbook written for the beginner, but designed to be of use to anyone creating an ITV script. Advice included in the handbook is based on information obtained from ITV wirters, literature reviews, and the author's personal experience. The ITV…

  1. The Instructional Development Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, D. Stewart

    The large-scale development of Time-Shared, Interactive, Computer-Controlled, Information Television (TICCIT) at Brigham Young University is described in this paper. The TICCIT project was designed to provide a market success example for computer-assisted instruction, particularly for junior or community colleges. The project incorporated a…

  2. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  3. Individualized Instruction and Unipacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…

  4. Management. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnyak, Dana

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year management programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  5. Organizing for Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The classroom should be organized for optimal pupil achievement. Learners should be free to view and read diverse forms and kinds of printed work in a relaxed atmosphere. An area in the classroom should be designated for large group instruction where pupils may work together as a unit. Another area in the classroom should be used to stress…

  6. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings) is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is…

  7. Orwell's Instructive Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Liam

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

  8. Alcohol Fuels. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of the descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  9. Signs for Instructional Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannapell, Barbara M.; And Others

    Illustrations depict 465 new manual signs for use in high school and college instruction of deaf students. The signs represent words or phrases, usually made up of many letters, which are important to the following subject matters; sciences and mathematics (general terms), biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, psychology, humanities (general…

  10. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  11. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World Wide Web in…

  12. Secondary Dance Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    This manual provides guidelines for dance teachers in secondary schools. A brief statement is made on the purpose and philosophy of dance education, and activities and instructional suggestions are presented for various dance forms: (1) group dance--folk/ethnic, square dance, and social dance; (2) aerobic dance; (3) jazz dance; (4) modern dance;…

  13. Instructional Facility Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalamazoo Valley Community Coll., MI.

    Data describing campus facility use for instructional and related purposes for one week of activity in Fall 1978 were collected and evaluated at Kalamazoo Valley Community College. Four measures of space utilization were used: (1) percent of available time used; (2) percent of available space used; (3) percent of scheduled space utilized; and (4)…

  14. Tennis: Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Lawn Tennis Association, New York, NY.

    This manual is a guide to group instruction of basic tennis. Chapter 1 discusses four premises. Chapter 2 illustrates basic strokes, including the forehand and backhand ground strokes, the forehand and backhand volleys, the lob and overhead smash, and the half-volley. Chapter 3 presents methods of teaching the strokes, some corrective techniques,…

  15. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  16. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  17. Theme: Laboratory Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

  18. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  19. Memory-Compatible Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that most teachers do not understand the nature of human memory. Presents an informal introduction to human memory, including information on long-term retention, prior knowledge, retrieval, and cues. States that instructors can design memory-compatible instruction that makes recording and retrieval of new knowledge easier. (TW)

  20. INNOVATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUSHMAN, M.L.; STURGES, A.W.

    THE CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN, THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA PROJECT FOR SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS, THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT, AND THE TEXAS SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. FINANCIAL SUPPORT COMPARISONS ARE MADE. METHODS OF IMPROVING INSTRUCTION ARE DIVIDED INTO TEACHER-CENTERED AND ADMINISTRATOR-CENTERED…

  1. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  2. Job Instruction Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  3. Sourcebook for Bibliographic Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusenbury, Carolyn, Ed.; And Others

    Direction and guidance are provided for establishing and maintaining bibliographic instruction (BI) programs. This document provides an overview of BI and BI programs and points readers to other sources of information. Five key topics were identified and the following papers are presented: (1) "An Introduction to Learning Theory" (Lori Arp); (2)…

  4. Individualistic Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet Can

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  5. Italienischunterricht (Italian Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moine, Virgile; And Others

    1965-01-01

    This issue of "Schulpraxis," a Swiss journal for language teaching, is devoted to Italian instruction in Switzerland. It includes: (1) an interpretation of the poem "Le morte chitarre" by Salvatore Quasimodo, conducted in a girls' school in German Switzerland, (2) a presentation of principles for an Italian textbook to be based on modern…

  6. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  7. Philosophies of Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    There are selected philosophies of reading instruction which are relevant in providing for individual differences among learners. These need to be studied in-depth by reading teachers in order to best provide for each pupil in the classroom. Pupils differ from each other in reading achievement, interests, and purposes, and it is a challenge to…

  8. Industry and Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallington, Clint

    This chapter examines the current state of instructional development (ID) in business and industry, emphasizing the differences between ID in industry and in education. The competency studies of both the American Society for Testing and Development (ASTD) and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) are considered, and…

  9. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  10. Conservation. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  11. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  12. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  14. Using Realia in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Seven articles in this issue focus on the use of realia in instruction. Authors discuss reasons why realia effectively motivate students and enhance learning; the place of realia in supervised occupational experience programs; the importance of real-life experiences to vocational agriculture; and student teaching as a reality experience. (SK)

  15. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  16. Instructional Microcomputer Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, B. R.

    Intended to aid teachers, administrators, and interested parents by informing them about the state of the educational microcomputer market, this report is meant to be a guide to school districts in the acquisition and maintenance of microcomputers and related instructional materials. Trends in educational computing technology are noted in relation…

  17. Simplifying Tennis Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasil, Jay

    2005-01-01

    How many physical education programs incorporate tennis into the curriculum? How many physical educators feel proficient enough to teach tennis? Equally important, do students truly make progress when tennis is taught? Tennis instruction in secondary physical education settings is often frustrating for students and teachers alike. Many physical…

  18. Adaptive Computerized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an artificially intelligent multimedia computerized instruction system capable of developing a conceptual image of what a student is learning while the student is learning it. It focuses on principles of learning and adaptive behavioral control systems theory upon which the system is designed and demonstrates multiple user modes.…

  19. STEM Education Related Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banning, James; Folkestad, James E.

    2012-12-01

    This article utilizes a bounded qualitative meta-study framework to examine the 101 dissertation abstracts found by searching the ProQuest Dissertation and Theses™ digital database for dissertations abstracts from 1990 through 2010 using the search terms education, science, technology, engineer, and STEM/SMET. Professional search librarians established the search criteria used to establish the database. The overarching research question for this study was: What can we learn from the examination of doctoral dissertations abstracts that focus on the STEM education found from 1990 through 2010? The study's findings provide an overview of doctoral research related to STEM education and the discussion section focuses on quality of abstracts, questions regarding the use of the pipeline metaphor, and location of instructional innovation.

  20. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  1. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  2. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  3. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  4. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  5. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  6. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  7. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  8. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  9. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  10. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  11. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  12. A Method for Automatically Abstracting Visual Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for automatically selecting key frames that can be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents. An abstracting algorithm developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is explained, and extensive examples of abstracted motion sequences are presented. (eight references) (LRW)

  13. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  14. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  15. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  16. Task-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…

  17. Student Models of Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magliaro, Susan G.; Shambaugh, Neal

    2006-01-01

    Mental models are one way that humans represent knowledge (Markman, 1999). Instructional design (ID) is a conceptual model for developing instruction and typically includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (i.e., ADDIE model). ID, however, has been viewed differently by practicing teachers and instructional designers…

  18. Academic and Military Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.

    This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and…

  19. Individualizing Instruction: Promise Versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Norman L., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" is divided into 30 sections which discuss individualizing instruction. Some of the topics included are: the advantages of individualizing instruction in general, the writing of daily learning objectives for use by the classroom teacher, individualizing instruction at Lincolnland Community College,…

  20. Using Video to Enhance Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Brooke

    The first of eight major sections in this report on the use of instructional video at the University of Washington focuses on the usefulness of video. The second section provides an overview of videotape and videodisc technology, and the third lists instructional goals which may be achieved through instructional video. Examples of the use of video…

  1. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  2. Expert Systems: Instructional Design Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Joellyn; Grabinger, R. Scott

    1989-01-01

    Description of the components of expert systems highlights their potential uses in the field of instructional design. Uses of expert systems are described for determining the cost-effectiveness of instructional media; as instructional management aids; as job aids; in helping to diagnose student problems; and as student feedback/evaluation systems.…

  3. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  4. Instructional Systems Study, Electronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Inst., Waukesha, WI.

    Because of shortcomings in the traditional approach to instruction and learning at Waukesha County Technical Institute in Wisconsin, this research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an alternate approach to instruction in electronics technology. The "Closed Loop Systems Approach to Instruction" developed for this study was derived…

  5. Integrated Middle School Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of the TARRGET model (Tasks, Autonomy, Recognition, Resources, Grouping, Evaluation, and Time) in restructuring middle school literacy instruction in urban schools. By changing the scheduling of reading and writing instruction, using literature as a basis for reading instruction, and emphasizing comprehension…

  6. 46 CFR 172.135 - Extent of damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 172.135—Extent of Damage Collision Penetration Longitudinal extent 0.495L 2/3 or 47.6 feet ((1/3)L 2/3... Excluding Any Damage Aft of a Point 0.3L Aft of the Forward Perpendicular Longitudinal extent L/10... or 19.7 feet (6m) whichever is shorter. Grounding Penetration At Any Other Longitudinal...

  7. 46 CFR 172.180 - Extent of damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 172.180—Extent of Damage Collision Penetration Longitudinal extent 0.495L2/3 or 47.6 feet ((1/3)L2/3... Excluding Any Damage Aft of a Point 0.3L Aft of the Forward Perpendicular Longitudinal extent 0.495L2/3 or... (2m) whichever is shorter. Grounding Penetration At Any Other Longitudinal Position...

  8. Math & the Dyslexic: Making the Abstract Concrete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzen, Kay

    1983-01-01

    Math historian Morris Kline suggests that math instruction should be made concrete and that teachers should not turn kids off by making intuitively understood concepts complex through the use of fancy language. He advocates using pictorial representations and examples of actual physical occurrences. The dyslexic student has special difficulties in…

  9. 48 CFR 828.7102 - Extent of indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Indemnification of Contractors, Medical Research or Development Contracts 828.7102 Extent of indemnification. (a) A contract for medical research or...

  10. 48 CFR 828.7102 - Extent of indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Indemnification of Contractors, Medical Research or Development Contracts 828.7102 Extent of indemnification. (a) A contract for medical research or...

  11. A Comparative Study of Academic Achievement and Problem-Solving Abilities of Black Pupils at the Intermediate Level in Computer-Supported Instruction and Self-Contained Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Donald Gene

    The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between intermediate grade black pupils in an individualized, computer-supported instructional program and intermediate grade black pupils who were in a traditional, self-contained classroom instructional program. Specifically, the basic problem was that of determining the extent to which an…

  12. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  13. The Effects of Professional Development Activities on Principals' Perceived Instructional Leadership Practices: Multi-Country Data Analysis Using TALIS 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Emine; Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which professional development predicts principals' instructional leadership in order to identify whether a relationship exists between the duration of principals' participation in distinct professional development activities and their perceived practice of instructional leadership while…

  14. Improving Middle School Professional Development by Examining Middle School Teachers' Application of Literacy Strategies and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, William Dee; Young, Carl A.; Rickelman, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explore the effects of professional development on middle school teachers' understanding and application of literacy strategies supporting and enhancing instruction across the curriculum. This study investigated the extent to which reading and writing strategies, along with sound instructional design, were…

  15. Using Student Self-Ratings to Assess the Alignment of Instructional Design Competencies and Courses in a Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; English, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This research examined students' self-reported proficiency in Instructional Design (ID) competencies using IBSTPI and AECT standards in order to assess the extent to which these standards are integrated in a university's graduate ID program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 34 students who completed Advanced Instructional Design…

  16. Asking Students about the Importance of Safety Skills Instruction: A Preliminary Analysis of What They Think Is Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Krupp, Michael; Spooner, Fred; Zakas, Tracie-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of safety skills instruction is well acknowledged and available data suggest individuals with varying disabilities sustain injuries from accidents at a rate that is comparable to or may exceed the normative population, many students do not receive systematic safety skills instruction. Findings on the extent to which…

  17. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods.

    PubMed

    Friend, J

    1989-01-01

    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  18. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  19. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    PubMed

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  20. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  1. Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakubova, Gulnoza; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Shinaberry, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the…

  2. Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Jugnu; Morin, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy…

  3. 32 CFR 728.12 - Extent of care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extent of care. 728.12 Section 728.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR... § 728.12 Extent of care. Members who are away from their duty stations or are on duty where there is...

  4. 38 CFR 21.3303 - Extent of training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extent of training. 21.... Chapter 35 Special Restorative Training § 21.3303 Extent of training. (a) Length of special restorative training. Ordinarily, special restorative training may not exceed 12 months. When the...

  5. It Is All Relative: How Young Children Encode Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments tested the ability of 4- and 8-year-old children to encode the extent of a target dowel and later discriminate between the target and a foil having a novel extent. By manipulating the heights of containers in which we presented the stimuli we tested whether children used the relation between the dowels and containers for encoding…

  6. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  7. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  8. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  9. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  10. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  11. 46 CFR 287.24 - Extent of tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extent of tax liability. 287.24 Section 287.24 Shipping... OPERATORS ESTABLISHMENT OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.24 Extent of tax liability. (a) Declared value excess-profits tax. Gain which is includible in gross income under § 287.23 shall be included in...

  12. 26 CFR 2.1-24 - Extent of tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Extent of tax liability. 2.1-24 Section 2.1-24 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-24 Extent of tax liability. (a) Declared value excess-profits...

  13. Gambling among College Students: Extent and Social Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebayo, Bob

    In winter 1994, Alberta Vocational College (Canada) conducted a study to explore the extent of gambling among college students; examine the preferences, frequency, intensity, duration, and maximum wagers associated with gambling activities; identify gambling-related problems; and create awareness of the extent of gambling participation and…

  14. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  15. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  16. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  17. 10 CFR 52.25 - Extent of activities permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of activities permitted. 52.25 Section 52.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.25 Extent of activities permitted. If the activities authorized by §...

  18. The Extent and Nature of Educational Policy Bargaining. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Steven M.; And Others

    This report examines the extent of policy bargaining, as well as factors that might explain variation in its extent. Results of interviews in 6 districts with over 15,000 enrollment indicate that bargaining is more extensive than predicted in the curriculum, student placement, and teacher selection areas. States without the teacher strike option…

  19. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  20. An Investigation of the Impact of Manipulative Type and Instructional Guidance on Preschoolers' Symbolic Development of Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonneau, Kira J.

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based instructional strategies promote physical interaction with manipulatives to represent abstract concepts. As a means to improve student achievement in mathematics, educational researchers and practitioners often recommend instructional strategies that capitalize on the assumed benefits of manipulatives. Recent research has indicated…

  1. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  2. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  3. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  4. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  5. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  6. Feel, imagine and learn! - Haptic augmented simulation and embodied instruction in physics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, In Sook

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentials and effects of an embodied instructional model in abstract concept learning. This embodied instructional process included haptic augmented educational simulation as an instructional tool to provide perceptual experiences as well as further instruction to activate those previous experiences with perceptual simulation. In order to verify the effectiveness of this instructional model, haptic augmented simulation with three different haptic levels (force and kinesthetic, kinesthetic, and non-haptic) and instructional materials (narrative and expository) were developed and their effectiveness tested. 220 fifth grade students were recruited to participate in the study from three elementary schools located in lower SES neighborhoods in Bronx, New York. The study was conducted for three consecutive weeks in regular class periods. The data was analyzed using ANCOVA, ANOVA, and MANOVA. The result indicates that haptic augmented simulations, both the force and kinesthetic and the kinesthetic simulations, was more effective than the non-haptic simulation in providing perceptual experiences and helping elementary students to create multimodal representations about machines' movements. However, in most cases, force feedback was needed to construct a fully loaded multimodal representation that could be activated when the instruction with less sensory modalities was being given. In addition, the force and kinesthetic simulation was effective in providing cognitive grounding to comprehend a new learning content based on the multimodal representation created with enhanced force feedback. Regarding the instruction type, it was found that the narrative and the expository instructions did not make any difference in activating previous perceptual experiences. These findings suggest that it is important to help students to make a solid cognitive ground with perceptual anchor. Also, sequential abstraction process would deepen

  7. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  8. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  9. Scheduling scaffolding: the extent and arrangement of assistance during training impacts test performance.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Goldstone, Robert L; Hanson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Various kinds of assistance, including prompts, worked examples, direct instruction, and modeling, are widely provided to learners across educational and training programs. Yet, the effectiveness of assistance during training on long-term learning is widely debated. The authors examined how the extent and schedule of assistance during training on a novel mouse movement task impacted unassisted test performance. Learners received different schedules of assistance during training, including constant assistance, no assistance, probabilistic assistance, alternating assistance, and faded assistance. Constant assistance led to better performance during training than no assistance. However, constant assistance during training resulted in the worst unassisted test performance. Faded assistance during training resulted in the best test performance. This suggests that fading may allow learners to create an internal model of the assistance without depending on the assistance in a manner that impedes successful transfer to unassisted circumstances.

  10. Vibrato and tremor extent spectrum: algorithm and applications.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Maurílio N; Silva, José Eduardo de C; Yehia, Hani C

    2011-07-01

    This work investigated the measurement of vibrato and tremor extent values. Related works have not explored the possibility of measuring extent in the spectra of fundamental frequency (f(0)) low-frequency undulations. It is shown here that by canceling average (DC) values and baseline drifts of f(0) contours, as well as weighting the respective spectra by the time window DC value, extent measures can be promptly obtained in the frequency domain. The method is illustrated with measurements from synthetic and human data. PMID:21786861

  11. Viewing Instructions Accompanying Action Observation Modulate Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; McCormick, Sheree A.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Action observation interventions may have the potential to contribute to improved motor function in motor (re)learning settings by promoting functional activity and plasticity in the motor regions of the brain. Optimal methods for delivering such interventions, however, have yet to be established. This experiment investigated the effect on corticospinal excitability of manipulating the viewing instructions provided to participants (N = 21) prior to action observation. Specifically, motor evoked potential responses measured from the right hand muscles following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left motor cortex were compared when participants were instructed to observe finger-thumb opposition movement sequences: (i) passively; (ii) with the intent to imitate the observed movement; or (iii) whilst simultaneously and actively imagining that they were performing the movement as they observed it. All three action observation viewing instructions facilitated corticospinal excitability to a greater extent than did observation of a static hand. In addition, the extent to which corticospinal excitability was facilitated was greater during combined observation and imagery, compared to passive observation. These findings have important implications for the design of action observation interventions in motor (re)learning settings, where instructions that encourage observers to simultaneously imagine themselves performing the observed movement may offer the current optimal method for improving motor function through action observation. PMID:26869901

  12. Categorization of sentence types in medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Larry; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of machine learning techniques in the classification of sentence type. 7253 structured abstracts and 204 unstructured abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials from MedLINE were parsed into sentences and each sentence was labeled as one of four types (Introduction, Method, Result, or Conclusion). Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Classifier models were generated and evaluated on cross-validated data. Treating sentences as a simple "bag of words", the SVM model had an average ROC area of 0.92. Adding a feature of relative sentence location improved performance markedly for some models and overall increasing the average ROC to 0.95. Linear classifier performance was significantly worse than the SVM in all datasets. Using the SVM model trained on structured abstracts to predict unstructured abstracts yielded performance similar to that of models trained with unstructured abstracts in 3 of the 4 types. We conclude that classification of sentence type seems feasible within the domain of RCT's. Identification of sentence types may be helpful for providing context to end users or other text summarization techniques.

  13. Abstract folding space analysis based on helices

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiabin; Backofen, Rolf; Voß, Björn

    2012-01-01

    RNA has many pivotal functions especially in the regulation of gene expression by ncRNAs. Identification of their structure is an important requirement for understanding their function. Structure prediction alone is often insufficient for this task, due to algorithmic problems, parameter inaccuracies, and biological peculiarities. Among the latter, there are base modifications, cotranscriptional folding leading to folding traps, and conformational switching as in the case of riboswitches. All these require more in-depth analysis of the folding space. The major drawback, which all methods have to cope with, is the exponential growth of the folding space. Therefore, methods are often limited in the sequence length they can analyze, or they make use of heuristics, sampling, or abstraction. Our approach adopts the abstraction strategy and remedies some problems of existing methods. We introduce a position-specific abstraction based on helices that we term helix index shapes, or hishapes for short. Utilizing a dynamic programming framework, we have implemented this abstraction in the program RNAHeliCes. Furthermore, we developed two hishape-based methods, one for energy barrier estimation, called HiPath, and one for abstract structure comparison, termed HiTed. We demonstrate the superior performance of HiPath compared to other existing methods and the competitive accuracy of HiTed. RNAHeliCes, together with HiPath and HiTed, are available for download at http://www.cyanolab.de/software/RNAHeliCes.htm. PMID:23104999

  14. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor about lung carcinoid tumors? Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of disease The ... those that can’t be removed completely Resectable lung carcinoid tumors Resectable carcinoid tumors haven’t spread ...

  15. Future development of instructional television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.

  16. Understanding Possibilities and Limitations of Abstract Chemical Representations for Achieving Conceptual Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, David M. J.; Elen, Jan; Schraepen, Beno; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2014-03-01

    When learning with abstract and scientific multiple external representations (MERs), low prior knowledge learners are said to have difficulties in using these MERs to achieve conceptual understanding. Yet little is known about what these limitations precisely entail. In order to understand this, we presented 101 learners with low prior knowledge of abstract scientific MERs to see (a) how many, and what kind of ideas (propositions) learners remembered from these MERs and (b) what the impact of these ideas is on conceptual understanding of the content. Propositional analysis indicates that learners created flawed internal representations. The discussion analyses the potentials that the learners have in using abstract representations to increase their understanding of scientific information and possible effects of instruction.

  17. Double-Shell Tank Construction: Extent of Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2014-05-13

    This presentation covers: quick recap of Hanford DSTs and the contribution of construction difficulties which led to the leak in tank AY-102; approach to Extent of Condition reviews; typical DST construction sequence; presentation of construction information resulting from extent of condition reviews of other DST farms with comparison to tank AY-102; and overall conclusion and impact of issues on the other DST tank farms.

  18. 46 CFR 172.235 - Extent of damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Damage Collision Penetration Longitudinal extent 0.495 L2/3 or 47.6 feet. (1/3 L2/3 or 14.5 m), whichever... without limit. Grounding Penetration Forward of a Point 0.3L Aft of the Forward Perpendicular Longitudinal... Penetration at Any Other Longitudinal Position Longitudinal extent L/10 or 16.4 feet (5 m), whichever is...

  19. Instruction-level performance modeling and characterization of multimedia applications

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Cameron, K.W.

    1999-06-01

    One of the challenges for characterizing and modeling realistic multimedia applications is the lack of access to source codes. On-chip performance counters effectively resolve this problem by monitoring run-time behaviors at the instruction-level. This paper presents a novel technique of characterizing and modeling workloads at the instruction level for realistic multimedia applications using hardware performance counters. A variety of instruction counts are collected from some multimedia applications, such as RealPlayer, GSM Vocoder, MPEG encoder/decoder, and speech synthesizer. These instruction counts can be used to form a set of abstract characteristic parameters directly related to a processor`s architectural features. Based on microprocessor architectural constraints and these calculated abstract parameters, the architectural performance bottleneck for a specific application can be estimated. Meanwhile, the bottleneck estimation can provide suggestions about viable architectural/functional improvement for certain workloads. The biggest advantage of this new characterization technique is a better understanding of processor utilization efficiency and architectural bottleneck for each application. This technique also provides predictive insight of future architectural enhancements and their affect on current codes. In this paper the authors also attempt to model architectural effect on processor utilization without memory influence. They derive formulas for calculating CPI{sub 0}, CPI without memory effect, and they quantify utilization of architectural parameters. These equations are architecturally diagnostic and predictive in nature. Results provide promise in code characterization, and empirical/analytical modeling.

  20. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  1. Estimation of Flood Inundation Extent Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, I.; Chang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Establishing the flood and inundation forecasting systems may provide the flood disaster and extent information that will be helpful to deal with some contingencies and emergencies, then alleviate the risk and losses of the flood disasters. The conventional simulations of flood inundation extent need a huge amount of data and computing time by using a series of numerical models; moreover, it is necessary to simulate some different conditions beforehand. It is really difficult to reach on-line simulation and forecast of the inundation extent. The main purpose of this study is to propose the methodology of the inundation extent estimation model in the small watershed by using artificial neural network. In order to solve the lack of the observed hydrological data, this study uses the flood inundation potential maps as the training data of neural networks; then, innovates the methodology for building the inundation extent estimation model. For evaluating the practicability and accuracy of the proposed approach is tested in Fong-Shan City in Southern Taiwan as a case study. The results show that the ANN can be applied with high accuracy to the study of estimating flood inundation extent.

  2. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  3. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  4. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  5. Cue abstraction and exemplar memory in categorization.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Peter; Jones, Sari; Olsson, Henrik; Winman, Anders

    2003-09-01

    In this article, the authors compare 3 generic models of the cognitive processes in a categorization task. The cue abstraction model implies abstraction in training of explicit cue-criterion relations that are mentally integrated to form a judgment, the lexicographic heuristic uses only the most valid cue, and the exemplar-based model relies on retrieval of exemplars. The results from 2 experiments showed that, in lieu of the lexicographic heuristic, most participants spontaneously integrate cues. In contrast to single-system views, exemplar memory appeared to dominate when the feedback was poor, but when the feedback was rich enough to allow the participants to discern the task structure, it was exploited for abstraction of explicit cue-criterion relations. PMID:14516225

  6. Generalizations of the abstract boundary singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whale, Ben E.; Ashley, Michael J. S. L.; Scott, Susan M.

    2015-07-01

    The abstract boundary singularity theorem was first proven by Ashley and Scott. It links the existence of incomplete causal geodesics in strongly causal, maximally extended spacetimes to the existence of abstract boundary essential singularities, i.e., non-removable singular boundary points. We give two generalizations of this theorem: the first to continuous causal curves and the distinguishing condition, the second to locally Lipschitz curves in manifolds such that no inextendible locally Lipschitz curve is totally imprisoned. To do this we extend generalized affine parameters from C1 curves to locally Lipschitz curves.

  7. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  8. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  9. 46 CFR 133.80 - Emergency instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency instructions. 133.80 Section 133.80 Shipping... Requirements for All OSVs § 133.80 Emergency instructions. (a) General. Copies of clear instructions must be... emergency. (b) Emergency instructions. Illustrations and instructions in English and any other...

  10. Content-based Instruction for African Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshi, Lioba

    2001-01-01

    Examines content-based instruction for African languages and considers Schleicher's (2000) expatiation of goal-based instruction for African languages. Focuses on the parameters for content-based instruction, the profile of a content-based instructional program, the nature of content-based instruction, the first steps for African languages, and…

  11. Imaginative Instruction: What Master Storytellers Can Teach Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Good instructional storytelling engages students' attention and cognitive abilities to the end of more effective learning, and instructional researchers have discussed whether the principles of storytelling could lead to the same or similar results if applied to educational situations beyond only telling traditional stories. But despite this…

  12. Instructional Design and Online Instruction: Practices and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ahmed

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of practices and perceptions related to instructional design and online learning, including changes that come with online learning, merits and challenges, and concerns about quality learning. Recommendations are offered in the following areas: appropriateness of the Internet; course content; instructional styles; student…

  13. Direct Instruction Revisited: A Key Model for Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magliaro, Susan G.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.

    2005-01-01

    Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly the radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the direct instruction (DI) approach to teaching is now well into its third decade of influencing curriculum, instruction, and research. It is also in its third decade of controversy. Our purpose is to present the DI…

  14. Learning from Programmed Instruction: Examining Implications for Modern Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jason K.; Yanchar, Stephen C.; Osguthorpe, Russell T.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a theoretical examination of several parallels between contemporary instructional technology (as manifest in one of its most current manifestations, online learning) and one of its direct predecessors, programmed instruction. We place particular focus on the underlying assumptions of the two movements. Our analysis suggests…

  15. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  16. Effects of Instructional Events in Computer-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Klein, James; Sullivan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Forty years ago, Robert Gagne published the first edition of his book The Conditions of Learning (1965) in which he proposed nine events of instruction that provide a sequence for organizing a lesson. These events remain the foundation of current instructional design practice (Reiser, 2002; Richey, 2000). They represent desirable conditions in an…

  17. Direct Instruction? Don't I Instruct Directly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peryon, Charleen D.

    A teaching method particularly effective with children who are hard to teach arithmetic and reading is described. Known as a direct instructional system for teaching arithmetic and reading, it is a set of materials in which everything the teacher says and does is specified. This technique is effective in small group instruction. Specific…

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.