Science.gov

Sample records for abstracts initially identified

  1. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I.; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J.; Calixto-Romo, M. Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  2. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J; Calixto-Romo, M Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  3. Identifying SRD Variables Among "Miscellaneous" ASAS Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinonez, M.; Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The International Variable Star Index (VSX) contains a large number of stars observed and analyzed by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). While ASAS is a powerful tool in terms of the sheer volume of data it collects, its automated light curve analysis is not always robust enough to reliably identify stars that are not strictly regular in their magnitude variations. As a consequence, it was suspected that potentially many variable stars of the semiregular type were instead added to the VSX under a miscellaneous (MISC) classification. A subset of these semiregular stars, known as SRD variables, has a well-defined set of parameters regarding their classification - they are of the F, G, or K spectral type, their amplitudes of light variation are between 0.1 and 4 magnitudes, and their periods of variation can span 30 to 1,100 days. Furthermore, SRD variables are giants or supergiants, and therefore typically distant with small proper motions. A search was made through stars listed as MISC in the VSX using the above parameters, as well detailed light curve analyses via the AAVSO's VStar program, in order to find ASAS SRDs that were misclassified as MISC. This study of 90 stars has yielded five new SRDs to date. In addition, some data pertaining to several stars that were not confirmed to be of the SRD type were found to contain errors, and have since been revised accordingly in VSX.

  4. Field Initiated Studies Program: Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    Projects funded in 1993 as part of the Field-Initiated Studies program of the U.S. Department of Education are described, including information on research objective, project design, principal investigators, amount of award, and report availability. Program titles and locations of principal investigator are: "Promoting Equity in Teacher Education…

  5. Possibilities of identifying cyber attack in noisy space of n-dimensional abstract system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jašek, Roman; Dvořák, Jiří; Janková, Martina; Sedláček, Michal

    2016-06-01

    This article briefly mentions some selected options of current concept for identifying cyber attacks from the perspective of the new cyberspace of real system. In the cyberspace, there is defined n-dimensional abstract system containing elements of the spatial arrangement of partial system elements such as micro-environment of cyber systems surrounded by other suitably arranged corresponding noise space. This space is also gradually supplemented by a new image of dynamic processes in a discreet environment, and corresponding again to n-dimensional expression of time space defining existence and also the prediction for expected cyber attacksin the noise space. Noises are seen here as useful and necessary for modern information and communication technologies (e.g. in processes of applied cryptography in ICT) and then the so-called useless noises designed for initial (necessary) filtering of this highly aggressive environment and in future expectedly offensive background in cyber war (e.g. the destruction of unmanned means of an electromagnetic pulse, or for destruction of new safety barriers created on principles of electrostatic field or on other principles of modern physics, etc.). The key to these new options is the expression of abstract systems based on the models of microelements of cyber systems and their hierarchical concept in structure of n-dimensional system in given cyberspace. The aim of this article is to highlight the possible systemic expression of cyberspace of abstract system and possible identification in time-spatial expression of real environment (on microelements of cyber systems and their surroundings with noise characteristics and time dimension in dynamic of microelements' own time and externaltime defined by real environment). The article was based on a partial task of faculty specific research.

  6. U.S. initiatives for improving the quality of life using optics (Abstract only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Duncan T.

    2003-11-01

    The United States has had incredible growth, which has had a direct impact on the quality of life for Americans, during the last decade. Much of this growth has been fueled by the investments that we have made in science and technology, and particularly in initiatives such as the one on nanotechnology and information technology. There is a belief in the U.S. that optics and photonics can have a direct baring on the quality of life, whether it be homeland security, life science instrumentation, or systems that can help the aging population. Further, the lack of science and math teachers in the K-12 education system has been identified as a barrier to continued economic growth. A second barrier may be the lack of sufficient numbers of technically trained workers. A comparsion between the U.S. and other countries will be made. (Abstract only available)

  7. Identifying crop vulnerability to groundwater abstraction: modelling and expert knowledge in a GIS.

    PubMed

    Procter, Chris; Comber, Lex; Betson, Mark; Buckley, Dennis; Frost, Andy; Lyons, Hester; Riding, Alison; Voyce, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Water use is expected to increase and climate change scenarios indicate the need for more frequent water abstraction. Abstracting groundwater may have a detrimental effect on soil moisture availability for crop growth and yields. This work presents an elegant and robust method for identifying zones of crop vulnerability to abstraction. Archive groundwater level datasets were used to generate a composite groundwater surface that was subtracted from a digital terrain model. The result was the depth from surface to groundwater and identified areas underlain by shallow groundwater. Knowledge from an expert agronomist was used to define classes of risk in terms of their depth below ground level. Combining information on the permeability of geological drift types further refined the assessment of the risk of crop growth vulnerability. The nature of the mapped output is one that is easy to communicate to the intended farming audience because of the general familiarity of mapped information. Such Geographic Information System (GIS)-based products can play a significant role in the characterisation of catchments under the EU Water Framework Directive especially in the process of public liaison that is fundamental to the setting of priorities for management change. The creation of a baseline allows the impact of future increased water abstraction rates to be modelled and the vulnerability maps are in a format that can be readily understood by the various stakeholders. This methodology can readily be extended to encompass additional data layers and for a range of groundwater vulnerability issues including water resources, ecological impacts, nitrate and phosphorus. PMID:16963176

  8. [Overtreatment: Initiatives to identify ineffective and inappropriate medical interventions].

    PubMed

    Wild, Claudia; Mayer, Julia

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of international initiatives rise to the challenge of reduction of medical overuse. Increasingly, these activities are promoted by physicians and clinicians, and aim to identify and avoid inappropriate health interventions. This article places the Choosing Wisely initiative within the context of less well-known activities, 13 all together, and briefly describes their characteristics; in addition, similarities and differences regarding their methods are elaborated. PMID:26883771

  9. The Quest for Identifying BY Draconis Stars within a Data Set of 3,548 Candidate Cepheid Variable Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A spreadsheet of 3,548 automatically classified candidate Cepheid variable stars from the ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) photometry data was provided to AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers) members for analysis. It was known that the computer filters had significantly overpopulated the list. Patrick Wils originally investigated a small subset of the data using 2MASS, PPMXL, and ROTSE data, and discovered that the vast majority of the 84 candidates he surveyed appeared to have been misidentified, demonstrating the need to reclassify these variables. The most common misidentification seemed to be of BY Draconis stars (K and M spotted dwarfs), which led to an ongoing project to systematically identify BY Draconis stars from this data set. The stars are sorted using the International Variable Star Index (VSX) information and ASAS light curves to search for prior reclassification by other authors in the time since the initial population of the candidate list (e.g. using ROTSE data), along with infrared photometry (2MASS) and proper motion (PPMXL) data. An analysis of light curves and phase plots using the AAVSO software vstar is the final step in identifying potential BY Draconis stars. The goal of this project has been to submit updated identifications for these stars to VSX. This final presentation on this project will identify the last set of reclassified BY Draconis stars and discuss future directions for this research.

  10. Initiatives to identify and mitigate medication errors in England.

    PubMed

    Cousins, David; Gerrett, David; Richards, Natalie; Jadeja, Mitulsinh M

    2015-04-01

    In response to the EU Directive on Pharmacovigilance, the National Health Service (NHS) in England and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the UK have formed a partnership to work together to simplify and increase medication error reporting, improve data report quality, maximise learning and guide practice to minimise harm from medication errors by sharing incident data. This initiative will facilitate implementation of new requirements for medication error reporting and reduce the need for duplicate data entry by frontline staff. The initiative is also intended to provide new types of feedback from the National Reporting and Learning System run by the NHS England and from the Yellow Card Scheme run by the MHRA and to improve learning at the local level by clarifying medication safety roles and identifying key safety contacts to allow better communication between local and national levels. Finally, the partnership has established a new National Medication Safety Network to provide a forum for discussing potential and recognised safety issues, and for identifying trends and actions to improve the safe use of medicines. This article describes the initiative, the structure of which may act as a template for other countries. PMID:25735854

  11. Abstract-concept learning carryover effects from the initial training set in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tamo; Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S; Bodily, Kent D; Sturz, Bradley R

    2009-02-01

    Three groups of pigeons were trained in a same/different task with 32, 64, or 1,024 color-picture stimuli. They were tested with novel transfer pictures. The training-testing cycle was repeated with training-set doublings. The 32-item group learned the same/different task as rapidly as a previous 8-item group and transferred better than the 8-item group at the 32-item training set. The 64- and 1,024-item groups learned the task only somewhat slower than other groups, but their transfer was better and equivalent to baseline performances. These results show that pigeons trained with small sets (e.g., 8 items) have carryover effects that hamper transfer when the training set is expanded. Without carryover effects (i.e., initial transfer from the 32- and 64-item groups), pigeons show the same degree of transfer as rhesus and capuchin monkeys at these same set sizes. This finding has implications for the general ability of abstract-concept learning across species with different neural architectures. PMID:19236147

  12. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  13. An Initial-Abstraction, Constant-Loss Model for Unit Hydrograph Modeling for Applicable Watersheds in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of representative hydrographs from design storms, which are known as design hydrographs, provides for cost-effective, riskmitigated design of drainage structures such as bridges, culverts, roadways, and other infrastructure. During 2001?07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, investigated runoff hydrographs, design storms, unit hydrographs,and watershed-loss models to enhance design hydrograph estimation in Texas. Design hydrographs ideally should mimic the general volume, peak, and shape of observed runoff hydrographs. Design hydrographs commonly are estimated in part by unit hydrographs. A unit hydrograph is defined as the runoff hydrograph that results from a unit pulse of excess rainfall uniformly distributed over the watershed at a constant rate for a specific duration. A time-distributed, watershed-loss model is required for modeling by unit hydrographs. This report develops a specific time-distributed, watershed-loss model known as an initial-abstraction, constant-loss model. For this watershed-loss model, a watershed is conceptualized to have the capacity to store or abstract an absolute depth of rainfall at and near the beginning of a storm. Depths of total rainfall less than this initial abstraction do not produce runoff. The watershed also is conceptualized to have the capacity to remove rainfall at a constant rate (loss) after the initial abstraction is satisfied. Additional rainfall inputs after the initial abstraction is satisfied contribute to runoff if the rainfall rate (intensity) is larger than the constant loss. The initial abstraction, constant-loss model thus is a two-parameter model. The initial-abstraction, constant-loss model is investigated through detailed computational and statistical analysis of observed rainfall and runoff data for 92 USGS streamflow-gaging stations (watersheds) in Texas with contributing drainage areas from 0.26 to 166 square miles. The analysis is

  14. An initial-abstraction, constant-loss model for unit hydrograph modeling for applicable watersheds in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of representative hydrographs from design storms, which are known as design hydrographs, provides for cost-effective, riskmitigated design of drainage structures such as bridges, culverts, roadways, and other infrastructure. During 2001?07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, investigated runoff hydrographs, design storms, unit hydrographs,and watershed-loss models to enhance design hydrograph estimation in Texas. Design hydrographs ideally should mimic the general volume, peak, and shape of observed runoff hydrographs. Design hydrographs commonly are estimated in part by unit hydrographs. A unit hydrograph is defined as the runoff hydrograph that results from a unit pulse of excess rainfall uniformly distributed over the watershed at a constant rate for a specific duration. A time-distributed, watershed-loss model is required for modeling by unit hydrographs. This report develops a specific time-distributed, watershed-loss model known as an initial-abstraction, constant-loss model. For this watershed-loss model, a watershed is conceptualized to have the capacity to store or abstract an absolute depth of rainfall at and near the beginning of a storm. Depths of total rainfall less than this initial abstraction do not produce runoff. The watershed also is conceptualized to have the capacity to remove rainfall at a constant rate (loss) after the initial abstraction is satisfied. Additional rainfall inputs after the initial abstraction is satisfied contribute to runoff if the rainfall rate (intensity) is larger than the constant loss. The initial abstraction, constant-loss model thus is a two-parameter model. The initial-abstraction, constant-loss model is investigated through detailed computational and statistical analysis of observed rainfall and runoff data for 92 USGS streamflow-gaging stations (watersheds) in Texas with contributing drainage areas from 0.26 to 166 square miles. The analysis is

  15. Abstract Model of the SATS Concept of Operations: Initial Results and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    An abstract mathematical model of the concept of operations for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) is presented. The Concept of Operations consist of several procedures that describe nominal operations for SATS, Several safety properties of the system are proven using formal techniques. The final goal of the verification effort is to show that under nominal operations, aircraft are safely separated. The abstract model was written and formally verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  16. (abstract) Using GPS Measurements to Identify Global Ionospheric Storms in Near Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Rao, A. M.; Pi, X.; Wilson, B. D.; Yuan, D. N.; Reyes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere, eventually dissipating energy into the ionosphere and atmosphere. As a terminator, the ionosphere responds to magnetic storms, which is very important in understanding the energy coupling process between the Sun and the Earth and in forecasting space weather changes.The worldwide GPS network, for the first time, makes near real-time global ionospheric TEC measurements a possibility. Based on these measurements, global ionospheric TEC maps are generated with time resolution of from 5 minutes to hours. Using these maps, we can analyze the global evolution of ionospheric storms on temporal and spatial scales, which have been dificult to study before. We find that for certain types of storms (such as TID-driven), it is possible to identify them near onset and issue warning signals during the early stages. Main attention has been paid on northern hemispheric winter storms. Their common features and physical mechanisms are being investigated.

  17. What's New?: Identifying Innovation Arising from School Collaboration Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatter, Ron; Castle, Frances; Cooper, Deborah; Evans, Jennifer; Woods, Philip A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we ask "how can we judge whether a policy initiative produces innovation?". We focus first on the concept of innovation, touching on some aspects of its recent development, noting a resurgence of interest in it over the past few years in the schools policy field in England and proposing a tentative definition. We, then, refer to…

  18. Obama's American Graduation Initiative: Race, Conservative Modernization, and a Logic of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Pasque, Penny A.

    2011-01-01

    The American Graduation Initiative stands as the cornerstone of the Obama administration's higher education agenda. To investigate the state of the politics of education in the Age of Obama, this article employs critical discourse analysis to unveil the hidden meanings and ideological commitments inherent in Obama's policy discourse. Read within…

  19. Excited-state hydrogen atom abstraction initiates the photochemistry of β-2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Jesús; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiřĺ

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on nucleotides in solution is an important step towards a comprehensive description of the photochemistry of nucleic acids and their constituents. Apart from having implications for mutagenesis and DNA photoprotection mechanisms, the photochemistry of cytidines is a central element in UV-assisted syntheses of pyrimidine nucleotides under prebiotically plausible conditions. In this contribution, we present UV-irradiation experiments of β-2′-deoxycytidine in aqueous solution involving H–D exchange followed by NMR spectroscopic analysis of the photoproducts. We further elucidate the outcome of these experiments by means of high-level quantum chemical calculations. In particular, we show that prolonged UV-irradiation of cytidine may lead to H–C1′ hydrogen atom abstraction by the carbonyl oxygen atom of cytosine. This process may enable photoanomerisation and nucleobase loss, two previously unexplained photoreactions observed in pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:27182431

  20. SkfB Abstracts a Hydrogen Atom from Cα on SkfA To Initiate Thioether Cross-Link Formation.

    PubMed

    Bruender, Nathan A; Bandarian, Vahe

    2016-08-01

    Sulfur to α-carbon thioether-containing peptides (sactipeptides) are ribosomally synthesized post-translationally modified peptides with bacteriocidal activities. The thioether cross-link, which is required for biological activity, is installed by a member of the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) superfamily in the peptide substrate. Herein, we show that the radical SAM enzyme, SkfB, utilizes the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical generated from the reductive cleavage of SAM to abstract a hydrogen atom from the α-carbon of the amino acid at position 12 in the substrate, SkfA, to initiate the installation of a thioether cross-link. The insights from this work can be applied to all radical SAM sactipeptide maturases. PMID:27410522

  1. Is this the right patient? An educational initiative to improve compliance with two patient identifiers.

    PubMed

    Mollon, Deene' L; Fields, Willa L

    2009-05-01

    A rehabilitation nursing unit implemented an educational initiative to improve compliance with two patient identifiers. The education consisted of a poster presentation and then, 2 months later, a mandatory in-service education program. Compliance with two patient identifiers improved, although more improvement was demonstrated after the mandatory in-service. The results of this performance improvement project suggest that investing time and money in safety initiatives improves staff practice patterns. PMID:19489521

  2. Computer-Based Information Search and Analysis of References to the Initial Teaching Alphabet in the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Data Base, Exceptional Child Education Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts and the Language and Language Behavior Abstracts Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Erik

    In order to provide comprehensive information about all known applications of and viewpoints on the Initial Teaching Alphabet, the Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation has compiled a series of annotated bibliographies that were prepared by means of computer-based information searches and subsequent analysis of the data obtained. The data banks…

  3. Applying for Initial AACSB Accreditation: An Exploratory Study to Identify Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot, Kirk C.; Franklin, Geralyn; Austin, Walt W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors identified the type and magnitude of costs colleges and schools incur when seeking Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International accreditation. This issue is important to the 156 schools and colleges currently seeking initial accreditation by AACSB and to the thousands of schools worldwide that could seek…

  4. Initial Progress of Children Identified with Disabilities in Michigan's Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lauren A.; Stone, C. Addison; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Corey, Douglas Lyman; Zeng, Ji

    2008-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined initial evidence of progress in reading for 1,512 children with and without identified speech-language and/or learning disabilities (LD-SLD) in the context of the explicit literacy instruction provided in Michigan's Reading First (RF)schools. The findings suggested that children with LD-SLD labels…

  5. Systematic analysis of the PTEN 5′ leader identifies a major AUU initiated proteoform

    PubMed Central

    Tzani, Ioanna; Ivanov, Ivaylo P.; Andreev, Dmitri E.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Dean, Kellie A.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Atkins, John F.; Loughran, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence for translation within the 5′ leaders of many human genes is rapidly emerging, especially, because of the advent of ribosome profiling. In most cases, it is believed that the act of translation rather than the encoded peptide is important. However, the wealth of available sequencing data in recent years allows phylogenetic detection of sequences within 5′ leaders that have emerged under coding constraint and therefore allow for the prediction of functional 5′ leader translation. Using this approach, we previously predicted a CUG-initiated, 173 amino acid N-terminal extension to the human tumour suppressor PTEN. Here, a systematic experimental analysis of translation events in the PTEN 5′ leader identifies at least two additional non-AUG-initiated PTEN proteoforms that are expressed in most human cell lines tested. The most abundant extended PTEN proteoform initiates at a conserved AUU codon and extends the canonical AUG-initiated PTEN by 146 amino acids. All N-terminally extended PTEN proteoforms tested retain the ability to downregulate the PI3K pathway. We also provide evidence for the translation of two conserved AUG-initiated upstream open reading frames within the PTEN 5′ leader that control the ratio of PTEN proteoforms. PMID:27249819

  6. Analysis of nascent RNA identifies a unified architecture of initiation regions at mammalian promoters and enhancers.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Martins, André L; Danko, Charles G; Waters, Colin T; Siepel, Adam; Lis, John T

    2014-12-01

    Despite the conventional distinction between them, promoters and enhancers share many features in mammals, including divergent transcription and similar modes of transcription factor binding. Here we examine the architecture of transcription initiation through comprehensive mapping of transcription start sites (TSSs) in human lymphoblastoid B cell (GM12878) and chronic myelogenous leukemic (K562) ENCODE Tier 1 cell lines. Using a nuclear run-on protocol called GRO-cap, which captures TSSs for both stable and unstable transcripts, we conduct detailed comparisons of thousands of promoters and enhancers in human cells. These analyses identify a common architecture of initiation, including tightly spaced (110 bp apart) divergent initiation, similar frequencies of core promoter sequence elements, highly positioned flanking nucleosomes and two modes of transcription factor binding. Post-initiation transcript stability provides a more fundamental distinction between promoters and enhancers than patterns of histone modification and association of transcription factors or co-activators. These results support a unified model of transcription initiation at promoters and enhancers. PMID:25383968

  7. An integrated approach towards identifying age-related mechanisms of slip initiated falls

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2008-01-01

    The causes of slip and fall accidents, both in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic factors and their associations are not yet fully understood. Successful intervention solutions for reducing slip and fall accidents require a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved. Before effective fall prevention strategies can be put into practice, it is central to examine the chain of events in an accident, comprising the exposure to hazards, initiation of events and the final outcome leading to injury and disability. These events can be effectively identified and analyzed by applying epidemiological, psychophysical, biomechanical and tribological research principles and methodologies. In this manuscript, various methods available to examine fall accidents and their underlying mechanisms are presented to provide a comprehensive array of information to help pinpoint the needs and requirements of new interventions aimed at reducing the risk of falls among the growing elderly population. PMID:17768070

  8. 2,5-dichlorothiophenol on Cu(111): Initial adsorption site and scanning tunnel microscope-based abstraction of hydrogen at high intramolecular selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bommisetty V.; Kwon, Ki-Young; Liu, Anwei; Bartels, Ludwig

    2003-11-01

    We investigated the adsorption of 2,5-di-chloro-thio-phenol (DCTP) on Cu(111) at 15 K and the formation of the thiolate upon electronic and thermal excitation. Initially, the sulfur atom of DCTP adsorbs at an on-top site and the molecule is able to rotate through six almost identical surface orientations. Attachment or removal of electrons from anywhere within the molecule at several hundred mV bias leads to the abstraction of the hydrogen atom from the thiol group in a nonthermal one-electron process with perfect selectivity. The resultant thiolate is locked into position on the surface.

  9. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  10. Chemical Screening Identifies EUrd as a Novel Inhibitor Against Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Ohtsu, Naoki; Echizenya, Smile; Otsuguro, Satoko; Ogura, Ryosuke; Natsumeda, Manabu; Isogawa, Mizuho; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Sakaitani, Masahiro; Matsuda, Akira; Maenaka, Katsumi; Fujii, Yukihiko; Kondo, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant human cancers, frequently recurs despite multimodal treatment with surgery and chemo/radiotherapies. GBM-initiating cells (GICs) are the likely cell-of-origin in recurrences, as they proliferate indefinitely, form tumors in vivo, and are resistant to chemo/radiotherapies. It is therefore crucial to find chemicals that specifically kill GICs. We established temozolomide (the standard medicine for GBM)-resistant GICs (GICRs) and used the cells for chemical screening. Here, we identified 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-d-ribopentofuranosyl) uracil (EUrd) as a selective drug for targeting GICRs. EUrd induced the death in GICRs more effectively than their parental GICs, while it was less toxic to normal neural stem cells. We demonstrate that the cytotoxic effect of EUrd on GICRs partly depended on the increased expression of uridine-cytidine kinase-like 1 (UCKL1) and the decreased one of 5'-nucleotidase cytosolic III (NT5C3), which regulate uridine-monophosphate synthesis positively and negatively respectively. Together, these findings suggest that EUrd can be used as a new therapeutic drug for GBM with the expression of surrogate markers UCKL1 and NT5C3. Stem Cells 2016;34:2016-2025. PMID:27090194

  11. Insertional Mutagenesis Identifies a STAT3/Arid1b/β-catenin Pathway Driving Neurofibroma Initiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianqiang; Keng, Vincent W; Patmore, Deanna M; Kendall, Jed J; Patel, Ami V; Jousma, Edwin; Jessen, Walter J; Choi, Kwangmin; Tschida, Barbara R; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Fan, Danhua; Schwartz, Eric B; Fuchs, James R; Zou, Yuanshu; Kim, Mi-Ok; Dombi, Eva; Levy, David E; Huang, Gang; Cancelas, Jose A; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Spinner, Robert J; Largaespada, David A; Ratner, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    To identify genes and signaling pathways that initiate Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) neurofibromas, we used unbiased insertional mutagenesis screening, mouse models, and molecular analyses. We mapped an Nf1-Stat3-Arid1b/β-catenin pathway that becomes active in the context of Nf1 loss. Genetic deletion of Stat3 in Schwann cell progenitors (SCPs) and Schwann cells (SCs) prevents neurofibroma formation, decreasing SCP self-renewal and β-catenin activity. β-catenin expression rescues effects of Stat3 loss in SCPs. Importantly, P-STAT3 and β-catenin expression correlate in human neurofibromas. Mechanistically, P-Stat3 represses Gsk3β and the SWI/SNF gene Arid1b to increase β-catenin. Knockdown of Arid1b or Gsk3β in Stat3(fl/fl);Nf1(fl/fl);DhhCre SCPs rescues neurofibroma formation after in vivo transplantation. Stat3 represses Arid1b through histone modification in a Brg1-dependent manner, indicating that epigenetic modification plays a role in early tumorigenesis. Our data map a neural tumorigenesis pathway and support testing JAK/STAT and Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitors in neurofibroma therapeutic trials. PMID:26904939

  12. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  13. Identifying initial molecular targets of PDT: protein and lipid oxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Kim, Junhwan; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Xue, Liang-yan; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Anderson, Vernon E.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) generates singlet oxygen (1O2) which oxidizes biomolecules in the immediate vicinity of its formation. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 localizes to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and the primary targets of Pc 4-PDT are expected to be lipids and proteins of those membranes. The initial damage then causes apoptosis in cancer cells via the release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) from mitochondria into the cytosol, followed by the activation of caspases. That damage also triggers the induction of autophagy, an attempt by the cells to eliminate damaged organelles, or when damage is too extensive, to promote cell death. Cyt-c is bound to the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial inner membrane through association with cardiolipin (CL), a phospholipid containing four unsaturated fatty acids and thus easily oxidized by 1O2 or by other oxidizing agents. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidation of CL loosens its association with Cyt-c, and that the peroxidase activity of Cyt-c can oxidize CL. In earlier studies of Cyt-c in homogeneous medium by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS, we showed that 1O2 generated by Pc 4-PDT oxidized histidine, methionine, tryptophan, and unexpectedly phenylalanine but not tyrosine. Most of the oxidation products were known to be formed by other oxidizing agents, such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical anion, and peroxynitrite. However, two products of histidine were unique to 1O2 and may be useful for reporting the action of 1O2 in cells and tissues. These products, as well as CL oxidation products, have now been identified in liposomes and mitochondria after Pc 4-PDT. In mitochondria, the PDT dose-dependent oxidations can be related to specific changes in mitochondrial function, Bcl-2 photodamage, and Cyt-c release. Thus, the role of PDT-generated 1O2 in oxidizing Cyt-c and CL and the interplay between protein and lipid targets may be highly relevant to understanding one mechanism for cell killing by PDT.

  14. The Talents Dovetail: Initiative for Identifying Gifted and Talented Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talents Unlimited, Inc., Mobile, AL.

    The Talents Unlimited (TU) critical and creative thinking skills model is designed to help teachers recognize and nurture the multiple talents of all children. Research based on the work of Calvin Taylor, has identified high-level talent areas of productive thinking, communication, forecasting, decision making, and planning, in which all excel to…

  15. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  16. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  17. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V

    2015-08-25

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell-material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  18. Unbiased phosphoproteomic method identifies the initial effects of a methacrylic acid copolymer on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Michael Dean; Wells, Laura A.; Lisovsky, Alexandra; Guo, Hongbo; Isserlin, Ruth; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Mahou, Redouan; Emili, Andrew; Sefton, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    An unbiased phosphoproteomic method was used to identify biomaterial-associated changes in the phosphorylation patterns of macrophage-like cells. The phosphorylation differences between differentiated THP1 (dTHP1) cells treated for 10, 20, or 30 min with a vascular regenerative methacrylic acid (MAA) copolymer or a control methyl methacrylate (MM) copolymer were determined by MS. There were 1,470 peptides (corresponding to 729 proteins) that were differentially phosphorylated in dTHP1 cells treated with the two materials with a greater cellular response to MAA treatment. In addition to identifying pathways (such as integrin signaling and cytoskeletal arrangement) that are well known to change with cell–material interaction, previously unidentified pathways, such as apoptosis and mRNA splicing, were also discovered. PMID:26261332

  19. Identifying the most crucial parameters of the initial curvature profile for primordial black hole formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Harada, Tomohiro; Polnarev, A.G.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: harada@rikkyo.ac.jp E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-01-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) are an important tool in cosmology to probe the primordial spectrum of small-scale curvature perturbations that reenter the cosmological horizon during radiation domination epoch. We numerically solve the evolution of spherically symmetric highly perturbed configurations to clarify the criteria of PBHs formation using an extremely wide class of curvature profiles characterized by five parameters, (in contrast to only two parameters used in all previous papers) which specify the curvature profiles not only at the central region but also at the outer boundary of configurations. It is shown that formation or non-formation of PBHs is determined essentialy by only two master parameters one of which can be presented as an integral of curvature over initial configurations and the other is presented in terms of the position of the boundary and the edge of the core.

  20. Applying deep learning technology to automatically identify metaphase chromosomes using scanning microscopic images: an initial investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Lu, Xianglan; Yan, Shiju; Tan, Maxine; Cheng, Samuel; Li, Shibo; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Automated high throughput scanning microscopy is a fast developing screening technology used in cytogenetic laboratories for the diagnosis of leukemia or other genetic diseases. However, one of the major challenges of using this new technology is how to efficiently detect the analyzable metaphase chromosomes during the scanning process. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a computer aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning technology, which can identify the metaphase chromosomes with high accuracy. The CAD scheme includes an eight layer neural network. The first six layers compose of an automatic feature extraction module, which has an architecture of three convolution-max-pooling layer pairs. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd pair contains 30, 20, 20 feature maps, respectively. The seventh and eighth layers compose of a multiple layer perception (MLP) based classifier, which is used to identify the analyzable metaphase chromosomes. The performance of new CAD scheme was assessed by receiver operation characteristic (ROC) method. A number of 150 regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to test the performance of our new CAD scheme. Each ROI contains either interphase cell or metaphase chromosomes. The results indicate that new scheme is able to achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.886+/-0.043. This investigation demonstrates that applying a deep learning technique may enable to significantly improve the accuracy of the metaphase chromosome detection using a scanning microscopic imaging technology in the future.

  1. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  2. Tumor-initiating and -propagating cells: cells that we would like to identify and control.

    PubMed

    Tysnes, Berit Bølge

    2010-07-01

    Identification of the cell types capable of initiating and sustaining growth of the neoplastic clone in vivo is a fundamental problem in cancer research. It is likely that tumor growth can be sustained both by rare cancer stem-like cells and selected aggressive clones and that the nature of the mutations, the cell of origin, and its environment will contribute to tumor propagation. Genomic instability, suggested as a driving force in tumorigenesis, may be induced by genetic and epigenetic changes. The feature of self-renewal in stem cells is shared with tumor cells, and deviant function of the stem cell regulatory networks may, in complex ways, contribute to malignant transformation and the establishment of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. Understanding the nature of the more quiescent cancer stem-like cells and their niches has the potential to develop novel cancer therapeutic protocols including pharmacological targeting of self-renewal pathways. Drugs that target cancer-related inflammation may have the potential to reeducate a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Because most epigenetic modifications may be reversible, DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors can be used to induce reexpression of genes that have been silenced epigenetically. Design of therapies that eliminate cancer stem-like cells without eliminating normal stem cells will be important. Further insight into the mechanisms by which pluripotency transcription factors (e.g., OCT4, SOX2, and Nanog), polycomb repressive complexes and microRNA balance selfrenewal and differentiation will be essential for our understanding of both embryonic differentiation and human carcinogenesis and for the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:20651980

  3. Tumor-Initiating and -Propagating Cells: Cells That We Would Like to Identify and Control1

    PubMed Central

    Tysnes, Berit Bølge

    2010-01-01

    Identification of the cell types capable of initiating and sustaining growth of the neoplastic clone in vivo is a fundamental problem in cancer research. It is likely that tumor growth can be sustained both by rare cancer stem-like cells and selected aggressive clones and that the nature of the mutations, the cell of origin, and its environment will contribute to tumor propagation. Genomic instability, suggested as a driving force in tumorigenesis, may be induced by genetic and epigenetic changes. The feature of self-renewal in stem cells is shared with tumor cells, and deviant function of the stem cell regulatory networks may, in complex ways, contribute to malignant transformation and the establishment of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. Understanding the nature of the more quiescent cancer stem-like cells and their niches has the potential to develop novel cancer therapeutic protocols including pharmacological targeting of self-renewal pathways. Drugs that target cancer-related inflammation may have the potential to reeducate a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Because most epigenetic modifications may be reversible, DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors can be used to induce reexpression of genes that have been silenced epigenetically. Design of therapies that eliminate cancer stem-like cells without eliminating normal stem cells will be important. Further insight into the mechanisms by which pluripotency transcription factors (e.g., OCT4, SOX2, and Nanog), polycomb repressive complexes and microRNA balance selfrenewal and differentiation will be essential for our understanding of both embryonic differentiation and human carcinogenesis and for the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:20651980

  4. IDENTIFYING AND TARGETING TUMOR-INITIATING CELLS IN THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Lewis, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (exclusive of skin cancer), and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Although conventional and targeted therapies have improved survival rates, there are still considerable challenges in treating breast cancer, including treatment resistance, disease recurrence, and metastasis. Treatment resistance can be either de novo - due to traits that tumor cells possess prior to treatment, or acquired, - due to traits that tumor cells gain in response to treatment. A recently proposed mechanism of de novo resistance invokes existence of a specialized subset of cancer cells defined as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells (CSC). TICs have the capacity to self-renew and regenerate new tumors that consist of all clonally-derived cell types present in the parental tumor. There are data to suggest that TICs are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, and survive treatment in spite of dramatic shrinkage of the tumor. Residual TICs can then eventually regrow resulting in disease relapse. It is also hypothesized that TIC may be responsible for metastatic disease. If these hypotheses are correct, targeting TICs may be imperative to achieve cure. In this review, we discuss evidence for breast TICs and their apparent resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as to various targeted therapies. We also address the potential impact of breast TIC plasticity and metastatic potential on therapeutic strategies. Finally, we describe several genes and signaling pathways that appear important for TIC function that may represent promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25876646

  5. [Initially suspected killing with a political background identified as accidental carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehmke, Stephan; Birngruber, Christoph; Kreutz, Kerstin; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2005-01-01

    During a parish fair the police was called to a conflict between two rival right-wing youth groups in the early morning hours. Shortly afterwards a burning car was discovered near the marquee with a charred male body on the driver's seat. It was assumed that there was a connection between the two events. At autopsy no injuries were found that were not attributable to postmortem consumption by the fire. The BAC value was 1.76 per thousand, the CO-Hb concentration 78%. The body could be identified by comparing pre- and postmortem X-rays of the molars and premolars of the right upper jaw. Reconstruction of the course of events and classification as an accident was possible only after calling in technical experts: The victim had gone back to his car to take a nap and kept the engine running because of the cold temperature. The car had been fitted improperly with a sport exhaust pipe, which caused both the carbon monoxide poisoning and the fire. PMID:15757215

  6. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  7. Initial assessment of the pathogenic mechanisms of the recently identified Alzheimer risk Loci.

    PubMed

    Holton, Patrick; Ryten, Mina; Nalls, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Weale, Michael E; Hernandez, Dena; Crehan, Helen; Gibbs, J Raphael; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Myers, Amanda J; Corneveaux, Jason J; Huentelman, Matthew J; Dillman, Allissa; Cookson, Mark R; Reiman, Eric M; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Guerreiro, Rita

    2013-03-01

    Recent genome wide association studies have identified CLU, CR1, ABCA7 BIN1, PICALM and MS4A6A/MS4A6E in addition to the long established APOE, as loci for Alzheimer's disease. We have systematically examined each of these loci to assess whether common coding variability contributes to the risk of disease. We have also assessed the regional expression of all the genes in the brain and whether there is evidence of an eQTL explaining the risk. In agreement with other studies we find that coding variability may explain the ABCA7 association, but common coding variability does not explain any of the other loci. We were not able to show that any of the loci had eQTLs within the power of this study. Furthermore the regional expression of each of the loci did not match the pattern of brain regional distribution in Alzheimer pathology. Although these results are mainly negative, they allow us to start defining more realistic alternative approaches to determine the role of all the genetic loci involved in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23360175

  8. Initial Assessment of the Pathogenic Mechanisms of the recently identified Alzheimer Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Patrick; Ryten, Mina; Nalls, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Weale, Michael E.; Hernandez, Dena; Crehan, Helen; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Myers, Amanda J.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Dillman, Allissa; Cookson, Mark R.; Reiman, Eric M.; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Guerreiro, Rita

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent genome wide association studies have identified CLU, CR1, ABCA7 BIN1, PICALM and MS4A6A/MS4A6E in addition to the long established APOE, as loci for Alzheimer’s disease. We have systematically examined each of these loci to assess whether common coding variability contributes to the risk of disease. We have also assessed the regional expression of all the genes in the brain and whether there is evidence of an eQTL explaining the risk. In agreement with other studies we find that coding variability may explain the ABCA7 association, but common coding variability does not explain any of the other loci. We were not able to show that any of the loci had eQTLs within the power of this study. Furthermore the regional expression of each of the loci did not match the pattern of brain regional distribution in Alzheimer pathology. Although these results are mainly negative, they allow us to start defining more realistic alternative approaches to determine the role of all the genetic loci involved in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23360175

  9. Identifying generalities in data sets using periodic Hopfield networks : initial status report.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Backer, Alejandro

    2004-12-01

    We present a novel class of dynamic neural networks that is capable of learning, in an unsupervised manner, attractors that correspond to generalities in a data set. Upon presentation of a test stimulus, the networks follow a sequence of attractors that correspond to subsets of increasing size or generality in the original data set. The networks, inspired by those of the insect antennal lobe, build upon a modified Hopfield network in which nodes are periodically suppressed, global inhibition is gradually strengthened, and the weight of input neurons is gradually decreased relative to recurrent connections. This allows the networks to converge on a Hopfield network's equilibrium within each suppression cycle, and to switch between attractors in between cycles. The fast mutually reinforcing excitatory connections that dominate dynamics within cycles ensures the robust error-tolerant behavior that characterizes Hopfield networks. The cyclic inhibition releases the network from what would otherwise be stable equilibriums or attractors. Increasing global inhibition and decreasing dependence on the input leads successive attractors to differ, and to display increasing generality. As the network is faced with stronger inhibition, only neurons connected with stronger mutually excitatory connections will remain on; successive attractors will consist of sets of neurons that are more strongly correlated, and will tend to select increasingly generic characteristics of the data. Using artificial data, we were able to identify configurations of the network that appeared to produce a sequence of increasingly general results. The next logical steps are to apply these networks to suitable real-world data that can be characterized by a hierarchy of increasing generality and observe the network's performance. This report describes the work, data, and results, the current understanding of the results, and how the work could be continued. The code, data, and preliminary results are

  10. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  11. Identifying initiation and elongation inhibitors of dengue virus RNA polymerase in a high-throughput lead-finding campaign.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas M; Lim, Siew Pheng; Yue, Kimberley; Busby, Scott A; Arora, Rishi; Seh, Cheah Chen; Wright, S Kirk; Nutiu, Razvan; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Wan, Kah Fei; Beer, David; Shi, Pei-Yong; Benson, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most significant mosquito-borne viral pathogen in the world and is the cause of dengue fever. The DENV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is conserved among the four viral serotypes and is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. During initiation of viral RNA synthesis, the polymerase switches from a "closed" to "open" conformation to accommodate the viral RNA template. Inhibitors that lock the "closed" or block the "open" conformation would prevent viral RNA synthesis. Herein, we describe a screening campaign that employed two biochemical assays to identify inhibitors of RdRp initiation and elongation. Using a DENV subgenomic RNA template that promotes RdRp de novo initiation, the first assay measures cytosine nucleotide analogue (Atto-CTP) incorporation. Liberated Atto fluorophore allows for quantification of RdRp activity via fluorescence. The second assay uses the same RNA template but is label free and directly detects RdRp-mediated liberation of pyrophosphates of native ribonucleotides via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ability of inhibitors to bind and stabilize a "closed" conformation of the DENV RdRp was further assessed in a differential scanning fluorimetry assay. Last, active compounds were evaluated in a renilla luciferase-based DENV replicon cell-based assay to monitor cellular efficacy. All assays described herein are medium to high throughput, are robust and reproducible, and allow identification of inhibitors of the open and closed forms of DENV RNA polymerase. PMID:25252731

  12. Identifying Armed Respondents to Domestic Violence Restraining Orders and Recovering Their Firearms: Process Evaluation of an Initiative in California

    PubMed Central

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a law enforcement initiative to screen respondents to domestic violence restraining orders for firearm ownership or possession and recover their firearms. Methods. The initiative was implemented in San Mateo and Butte counties in California from 2007 through 2010. We used descriptive methods to evaluate the screening process and recovery effort in each county, relying on records for individual cases. Results. Screening relied on an archive of firearm transactions, court records, and petitioner interviews; no single source was adequate. Screening linked 525 respondents (17.7%) in San Mateo County to firearms; 405 firearms were recovered from 119 (22.7%) of them. In Butte County, 88 (31.1%) respondents were linked to firearms; 260 firearms were recovered from 45 (51.1%) of them. Nonrecovery occurred most often when orders were never served or respondents denied having firearms. There were no reports of serious violence or injury. Conclusions. Recovering firearms from persons subject to domestic violence restraining orders is possible. We have identified design and implementation changes that may improve the screening process and the yield from recovery efforts. Larger implementation trials are needed. PMID:24328660

  13. Approved Instructional Resources Series: A National Initiative to Identify Quality Emergency Medicine Blog and Podcast Content for Resident Education.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michelle; Joshi, Nikita; Grock, Andrew; Swaminathan, Anand; Morley, Eric J; Branzetti, Jeremy; Taira, Taku; Ankel, Felix; Yarris, Lalena M

    2016-05-01

    Background Emergency medicine (EM) residency programs can provide up to 20% of their planned didactic experiences asynchronously through the Individualized Interactive Instruction (III) initiative. Although blogs and podcasts provide potential material for III content, programs often struggle with identifying quality online content. Objective To develop and implement a process to curate quality EM content on blogs and podcasts for resident education and III credit. Methods We developed the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) Series on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. Monthly, an editorial board identifies, peer reviews, and writes assessment questions for high-quality blog/podcast content. Eight educators rate each post using a standardized scoring instrument. Posts scoring ≥ 30 of 35 points are awarded an AIR badge and featured in the series. Enrolled residents can complete an assessment quiz for III credit. After 12 months of implementation, we report on program feasibility, enrollment rate, web analytics, and resident satisfaction scores. Results As of June 2015, 65 EM residency programs are enrolled in the AIR Series, and 2140 AIR quizzes have been completed. A total of 96% (2064 of 2140) of participants agree or strongly agree that the activity would improve their clinical competency, 98% (2098 of 2140) plan to use the AIR Series for III credit, and 97% (2077 of 2140) plan to use it again in the future. Conclusions The AIR Series is a national asynchronous EM curriculum featuring quality blogs and podcasts. It uses a national expert panel and novel scoring instrument to peer review web-based educational resources. PMID:27168891

  14. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED) personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I) tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other arthropod

  15. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2–7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED) personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I) tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other arthropod

  16. "In the Middle of Difficulty Lies Opportunity"--Using a Case Study to Identify Critical Success Factors Contributing to the Initiation of International Collaborative Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that contribute to the successful initiation of international collaborative projects intended to support the development of education for librarianship and information sciences. It discusses the widespread failure to analyse the Critical Success Factors in international collaborative projects and proposes a case study…

  17. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  18. Stress responses. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify the target of a memory-enhancing compound.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David

    2015-05-29

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates messenger RNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity, and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action, we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the amino-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wild-type cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity toward its substrate, the translation initiation factor eIF2, in vitro. Thus, ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  19. Refining prognosis and identifying targetable pathways for high-risk endometrial cancer; a TransPORTEC initiative.

    PubMed

    Stelloo, Ellen; Bosse, Tjalling; Nout, Remi A; MacKay, Helen J; Church, David N; Nijman, Hans W; Leary, Alexandra; Edmondson, Richard J; Powell, Melanie E; Crosbie, Emma J; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda; Pollock, Pamela M; Smit, Vincent T; Creutzberg, Carien L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether molecular analysis can be used to refine risk assessment, direct adjuvant therapy, and identify actionable alterations in high-risk endometrial cancer. TransPORTEC, an international consortium related to the PORTEC3 trial, was established for translational research in high-risk endometrial cancer. In this explorative study, routine molecular analyses were used to detect prognostic subgroups: p53 immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability and POLE proofreading mutation. Furthermore, DNA was analyzed for hotspot mutations in 13 additional genes (BRAF, CDKNA2, CTNNB1, FBXW7, FGFR2, FGFR3, FOXL2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, and PTEN) and protein expression of ER, PR, PTEN, and ARID1a was analyzed. Rates of distant metastasis, recurrence-free, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. In total, samples of 116 high-risk endometrial cancer patients were included: 86 endometrioid; 12 serous; and 18 clear cell. For endometrioid, serous, and clear cell cancers, 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 68%, 27%, and 50% (P=0.014) and distant metastasis rates 23%, 64%, and 50% (P=0.001), respectively. Four prognostic subgroups were identified: (1) a group of p53-mutant tumors; (2) microsatellite instable tumors; (3) POLE proofreading-mutant tumors; and (4) a group with no specific molecular profile (NSMP). In group 3 (POLE-mutant; n=14) and group 2 (microsatellite instable; n=19) patients, no distant metastasis occurred, compared with 50% distant metastasis rate in group 1 (p53-mutant; n=36) and 39% in group 4 (NSMP; P<0.001). Five-year recurrence-free survival was 93% and 95% for group 3 (POLE-mutant) and group 2 (microsatellite instable) vs 42% (group 1, p53-mutant) and 52% (group 4, NSMP; P<0.001). Targetable FBXW7 and FGFR2 mutations (6%), alterations in the PI3K-AKT pathway (60%) and hormone receptor positivity (45%) were frequently found. In conclusion, molecular analysis

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  2. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  4. Translational profiling identifies a cascade of damage initiated in motor neurons and spreading to glia in mutant SOD1-mediated ALS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuying; Sun, Ying; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Ferraiuolo, Laura; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Zou, Yiyang; Drenner, Kevin; Wang, Yin; Ditsworth, Dara; Tokunaga, Seiya; Kopelevich, Alex; Kaspar, Brian K.; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) provokes noncell autonomous paralytic disease. By combining ribosome affinity purification and high-throughput sequencing, a cascade of mutant SOD1-dependent, cell type-specific changes are now identified. Initial mutant-dependent damage is restricted to motor neurons and includes synapse and metabolic abnormalities, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and selective activation of the PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK) arm of the unfolded protein response. PERK activation correlates with what we identify as a naturally low level of ER chaperones in motor neurons. Early changes in astrocytes occur in genes that are involved in inflammation and metabolism and are targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and liver X receptor transcription factors. Dysregulation of myelination and lipid signaling pathways and activation of ETS transcription factors occur in oligodendrocytes only after disease initiation. Thus, pathogenesis involves a temporal cascade of cell type-selective damage initiating in motor neurons, with subsequent damage within glia driving disease propagation. PMID:26621731

  5. Initial and secondary oxidation products on the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface identified by atomic force microscopy and first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Jo Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel

    2014-03-31

    We investigate the initial and secondary oxidation products on the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface at room-temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and density functional theory calculations. At the initial oxidation stages, we find that there are two types of bright spots in AFM images. One of them is identified as a Si adatom with one O atom inserted into one of the backbonds, while the other is ascribed to a Si adatom with two inserted O atoms. We observe that the latter one turns into the secondary oxidation product by a further coming O{sub 2} molecule, which appears as a more protruded bright spot. The atomic configuration of this product is identified as Si adatom whose top and all three backbonds make bonds with O atoms. The appearances of initial and secondary oxidation products are imaged as bright and dark sites by scanning tunneling microscopy, respectively. It is revealed that AFM gives us the topographic information close to the real atomic corrugation of adsorbed structures on the semiconductor surfaces.

  6. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  7. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  8. An integrative computational systems biology approach identifies differentially regulated dynamic transcriptome signatures which drive the initiation of human T helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A proper balance between different T helper (Th) cell subsets is necessary for normal functioning of the adaptive immune system. Revealing key genes and pathways driving the differentiation to distinct Th cell lineages provides important insight into underlying molecular mechanisms and new opportunities for modulating the immune response. Previous computational methods to quantify and visualize kinetic differential expression data of three or more lineages to identify reciprocally regulated genes have relied on clustering approaches and regression methods which have time as a factor, but have lacked methods which explicitly model temporal behavior. Results We studied transcriptional dynamics of human umbilical cord blood T helper cells cultured in absence and presence of cytokines promoting Th1 or Th2 differentiation. To identify genes that exhibit distinct lineage commitment dynamics and are specific for initiating differentiation to different Th cell subsets, we developed a novel computational methodology (LIGAP) allowing integrative analysis and visualization of multiple lineages over whole time-course profiles. Applying LIGAP to time-course data from multiple Th cell lineages, we identified and experimentally validated several differentially regulated Th cell subset specific genes as well as reciprocally regulated genes. Combining differentially regulated transcriptional profiles with transcription factor binding site and pathway information, we identified previously known and new putative transcriptional mechanisms involved in Th cell subset differentiation. All differentially regulated genes among the lineages together with an implementation of LIGAP are provided as an open-source resource. Conclusions The LIGAP method is widely applicable to quantify differential time-course dynamics of many types of datasets and generalizes to any number of conditions. It summarizes all the time-course measurements together with the associated uncertainty for

  9. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  10. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  11. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  12. A complex MLL rearrangement identified five years after initial MDS diagnosis results in out-of-frame fusions without progression to acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Claus; Kowarz, Eric; Yip, Sze-Fai; Wan, Thomas Shek-Kong; Chan, Tai-Kwong; Dingermann, Theo; Chan, Li-Chong; Marschalek, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL gene are uncommon in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), and few studies of their molecular structures and oncogenic mechanisms exist. Here, we present a case of de novo MDS with a normal karyotype at initial diagnosis and a mild clinical course. Five years after the initial diagnosis, investigators identified a complex rearrangement of the MLL gene without progression to acute leukemia. The 5' part of the MLL gene is fused out of frame with the LOC100131626 gene, and the 3' part of the MLL gene out of frame with the TCF12 gene. Rapid amplification of complementary DNA 3' ends yielded two main fusion transcripts, which is in concordance with the two described isoforms of the LOC100131626 gene. For both isoform-fusion transcripts, the open reading frame terminates shortly after the breakpoint that is predicted to form two de facto truncated MLL proteins and disrupts the open reading frame of the LOC100131626, TCF12, and UBE4A genes. Neither dimerization nor a transcriptional activation domain, each of which is causally linked to MLL protein-mediated transformation, is present. This and other unusual MLL rearrangements probably represent a subclass of MLL gene abnormalities that have intrinsically no ability or only a weak ability to transform hematopoeitic cells and are identified only in the context of other hematopoetic malignancies. PMID:22137486

  13. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  15. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  16. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  17. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  18. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  19. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  20. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  1. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  2. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  3. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  4. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  5. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  6. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  7. A Cryo-Electron Microscopy Study Identifies the Complete H16.V5 Epitope and Reveals Global Conformational Changes Initiated by Binding of the Neutralizing Antibody Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunwook; Brendle, Sarah A.; Bywaters, Stephanie M.; Guan, Jian; Ashley, Robert E.; Yoder, Joshua D.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a worldwide health threat and an etiologic agent of cervical cancer. To understand the antigenic properties of HPV16, we pursued a structural study to elucidate HPV capsids and antibody interactions. The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of a mature HPV16 particle and an altered capsid particle were solved individually and as complexes with fragment of antibody (Fab) from the neutralizing antibody H16.V5. Fitted crystal structures provided a pseudoatomic model of the virus-Fab complex, which identified a precise footprint of H16.V5, including previously unrecognized residues. The altered-capsid–Fab complex map showed that binding of the Fab induced significant conformational changes that were not seen in the altered-capsid structure alone. These changes included more ordered surface loops, consolidated so-called “invading-arm” structures, and tighter intercapsomeric connections at the capsid floor. The H16.V5 Fab preferentially bound hexavalent capsomers likely with a stabilizing effect that directly correlated with the number of bound Fabs. Additional cryo-EM reconstructions of the virus-Fab complex for different incubation times and structural analysis provide a model for a hyperstabilization of the capsomer by H16.V5 Fab and showed that the Fab distinguishes subtle differences between antigenic sites. IMPORTANCE Our analysis of the cryo-EM reconstructions of the HPV16 capsids and virus-Fab complexes has identified the entire HPV.V5 conformational epitope and demonstrated a detailed neutralization mechanism of this clinically important monoclonal antibody against HPV16. The Fab bound and ordered the apical loops of HPV16. This conformational change was transmitted to the lower region of the capsomer, resulting in enhanced intercapsomeric interactions evidenced by the more ordered capsid floor and “invading-arm” structures. This study advances the understanding of the neutralization mechanism used

  8. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  9. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  10. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert; Rees, Chris A.; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff; Kazembe, Peter N.; Kim, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. Methods A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected program data. Results Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5,293/5,615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics, and 49.4% (6,871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71), and inadequate number of HIV counselors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Conclusions Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardized PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure, and human resources. PMID:26806378

  11. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  12. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  13. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  14. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  15. Distal spike initiation zone location estimation by morphological simulation of ionic current filtering demonstrated in a novel model of an identified Drosophila motoneuron.

    PubMed

    Günay, Cengiz; Sieling, Fred H; Dharmar, Logesh; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Wolfram, Verena; Marley, Richard; Baines, Richard A; Prinz, Astrid A

    2015-05-01

    Studying ion channel currents generated distally from the recording site is difficult because of artifacts caused by poor space clamp and membrane filtering. A computational model can quantify artifact parameters for correction by simulating the currents only if their exact anatomical location is known. We propose that the same artifacts that confound current recordings can help pinpoint the source of those currents by providing a signature of the neuron's morphology. This method can improve the recording quality of currents initiated at the spike initiation zone (SIZ) that are often distal to the soma in invertebrate neurons. Drosophila being a valuable tool for characterizing ion currents, we estimated the SIZ location and quantified artifacts in an identified motoneuron, aCC/MN1-Ib, by constructing a novel multicompartmental model. Initial simulation of the measured biophysical channel properties in an isopotential Hodgkin-Huxley type neuron model partially replicated firing characteristics. Adding a second distal compartment, which contained spike-generating Na+ and K+ currents, was sufficient to simulate aCC's in vivo activity signature. Matching this signature using a reconstructed morphology predicted that the SIZ is on aCC's primary axon, 70 μm after the most distal dendritic branching point. From SIZ to soma, we observed and quantified selective morphological filtering of fast activating currents. Non-inactivating K+ currents are filtered ∼3 times less and despite their large magnitude at the soma they could be as distal as Na+ currents. The peak of transient component (NaT) of the voltage-activated Na+ current is also filtered more than the magnitude of slower persistent component (NaP), which can contribute to seizures. The corrected NaP/NaT ratio explains the previously observed discrepancy when the same channel is expressed in different cells. In summary, we used an in vivo signature to estimate ion channel location and recording artifacts, which

  16. Distal Spike Initiation Zone Location Estimation by Morphological Simulation of Ionic Current Filtering Demonstrated in a Novel Model of an Identified Drosophila Motoneuron

    PubMed Central

    Günay, Cengiz; Sieling, Fred H.; Dharmar, Logesh; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Wolfram, Verena; Marley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Studying ion channel currents generated distally from the recording site is difficult because of artifacts caused by poor space clamp and membrane filtering. A computational model can quantify artifact parameters for correction by simulating the currents only if their exact anatomical location is known. We propose that the same artifacts that confound current recordings can help pinpoint the source of those currents by providing a signature of the neuron’s morphology. This method can improve the recording quality of currents initiated at the spike initiation zone (SIZ) that are often distal to the soma in invertebrate neurons. Drosophila being a valuable tool for characterizing ion currents, we estimated the SIZ location and quantified artifacts in an identified motoneuron, aCC/MN1-Ib, by constructing a novel multicompartmental model. Initial simulation of the measured biophysical channel properties in an isopotential Hodgkin-Huxley type neuron model partially replicated firing characteristics. Adding a second distal compartment, which contained spike-generating Na+ and K+ currents, was sufficient to simulate aCC’s in vivo activity signature. Matching this signature using a reconstructed morphology predicted that the SIZ is on aCC’s primary axon, 70 μm after the most distal dendritic branching point. From SIZ to soma, we observed and quantified selective morphological filtering of fast activating currents. Non-inactivating K+ currents are filtered ∼3 times less and despite their large magnitude at the soma they could be as distal as Na+ currents. The peak of transient component (NaT) of the voltage-activated Na+ current is also filtered more than the magnitude of slower persistent component (NaP), which can contribute to seizures. The corrected NaP/NaT ratio explains the previously observed discrepancy when the same channel is expressed in different cells. In summary, we used an in vivo signature to estimate ion channel location and recording artifacts

  17. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  18. An integrated genomic approach identifies that the PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway is involved in breast cancer tumor initiation.

    PubMed

    Smit, Linda; Berns, Katrien; Spence, Katherine; Ryder, W David; Zeps, Nik; Madiredjo, Mandy; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Bernards, René; Clarke, Robert B

    2016-01-19

    Therapy resistance is one of the major impediments to successful cancer treatment. In breast cancer, a small subpopulation of cells with stem cell features, named breast cancer stem cells (BCSC), is responsible for metastasis and recurrence of the tumor. BCSC have the unique ability to grow under non-adherent conditions in "mammospheres". To prevent breast cancer recurrence and metastasis it will be crucial to eradicate BCSC.We used shRNA genetic screening to identify genes that upon knockdown enhance mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells. By integration of these results with gene expression profiles of mammospheres and NOTCH-activated cells, we identified FOXO3A. Modulation of FOXO3A activity results in a change in mammosphere formation, expression of mammary stem cell markers and breast cancer initiating potential. Importantly, lack of FOXO3A expression in breast cancer patients is associated with increased recurrence rate. Our findings provide evidence for a role for FOXO3A downstream of NOTCH and AKT that may have implications for therapies targeting BCSCs. PMID:26595803

  19. An integrated genomic approach identifies that the PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway is involved in breast cancer tumor initiation

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Linda; Berns, Katrien; Spence, Katherine; Ryder, W. David; Zeps, Nik; Madiredjo, Mandy; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Bernards, René; Clarke, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Therapy resistance is one of the major impediments to successful cancer treatment. In breast cancer, a small subpopulation of cells with stem cell features, named breast cancer stem cells (BCSC), is responsible for metastasis and recurrence of the tumor. BCSC have the unique ability to grow under non-adherent conditions in “mammospheres”. To prevent breast cancer recurrence and metastasis it will be crucial to eradicate BCSC. We used shRNA genetic screening to identify genes that upon knockdown enhance mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells. By integration of these results with gene expression profiles of mammospheres and NOTCH-activated cells, we identified FOXO3A. Modulation of FOXO3A activity results in a change in mammosphere formation, expression of mammary stem cell markers and breast cancer initiating potential. Importantly, lack of FOXO3A expression in breast cancer patients is associated with increased recurrence rate. Our findings provide evidence for a role for FOXO3A downstream of NOTCH and AKT that may have implications for therapies targeting BCSCs. PMID:26595803

  20. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  1. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  2. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  3. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Modified Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Patients in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a novel infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. MERS later spread to other countries in the Arabian Peninsula, followed by an outbreak in South Korea in 2015. At least 26 countries have reported MERS cases, and these numbers may increase over time. Due to international travel opportunities, all countries are at risk of imported cases of MERS, even if outbreaks do not spread globally. Therefore, it is essential for emergency department (ED) personnel to be able to rapidly assess MERS risk and take immediate actions if indicated. The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED and later adjusted for measles, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for use in initial detection and management of patients under investigation for MERS. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk factors, including travel to countries with current MERS transmission and contact with patients with confirmed MERS within 14 days, patients are risk stratified by type of exposure coupled with symptoms of fever and respiratory illness. If criteria are met, patients must be immediately placed into airborne infection isolation (or a private room until this type of isolation is available) and the emergency practitioner must alert the hospital infection prevention and control team and the local public health department. The 3I tool will facilitate rapid categorization and triggering of appropriate time-sensitive actions for patients presenting to the ED at risk for MERS. PMID:26587081

  4. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  5. A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry “greenwashing” from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  6. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  7. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  8. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  9. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  12. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  13. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  15. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  16. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  18. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  19. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  20. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  1. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  2. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  3. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  4. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  5. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  6. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  7. Identifying evaluation considerations for the recovery and restoration from the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill: An initial appraisal of stakeholder concerns and values.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Jordan, Stephen J; Kurtz, Janis C; Benson, William H

    2015-07-01

    Understanding what can be achieved and what should be avoided by environmental management decisions requires an understanding of values, or what is cared about in a decision. Decision analysis provides tools and processes for constructing objectives that transparently reflect the values being considered in environmental management decisions. The present study demonstrates parts of the initial decision analysis steps for identifying a decision context and constructing objectives for the recovery and long-term restoration of the Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. From a review of multiple reports, including those developed by policy makers and nongovernmental organizations, a preliminary structuring of concerns and considerations into objectives was derived to highlight features of importance in the recovery from the spill and long-term restoration. The fundamental objectives constructed for the long-term restoration context reflect broader concerns regarding well-being and quality of life. When developed through stakeholder engagement processes, clarifying objectives can potentially 1) lend insight into the values that can be affected, 2) meaningfully include stakeholders in the decision-making process, 3) enhance transparency and communication, and 4) develop high-impact management strategies reflecting broad public interests. This article is a US government work and is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25581135

  8. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    von Elm, Erik; Costanza, Michael C; Walder, Bernhard; Tramèr, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after initial rejection are less well understood. We set out to estimate the proportion of abstracts submitted to meetings that are eventually published as full reports, and to explore factors that are associated with meeting acceptance and successful publication. Methods Studies analysing acceptance of abstracts at biomedical meetings or their subsequent full publication were searched in MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and by hand searching of bibliographies and proceedings. We estimated rates of abstract acceptance and of subsequent full publication, and identified abstract and meeting characteristics associated with acceptance and publication, using logistic regression analysis, survival-type analysis, and meta-analysis. Results Analysed meetings were held between 1957 and 1999. Of 14945 abstracts that were submitted to 43 meetings, 46% were accepted. The rate of full publication was studied with 19123 abstracts that were presented at 234 meetings. Using survival-type analysis, we estimated that 27% were published after two, 41% after four, and 44% after six years. Of 2412 abstracts that were rejected at 24 meetings, 27% were published despite rejection. Factors associated with both abstract acceptance and subsequent publication were basic science and positive study outcome. Large meetings and those held outside the US were more likely to accept abstracts. Abstracts were more likely to be published subsequently if presented either orally, at small meetings, or at a US meeting. Abstract acceptance itself was strongly associated with full publication. Conclusions About one third of abstracts submitted to biomedical meetings were published as full reports. Acceptance at meetings and

  9. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  10. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Identifies TBX5 as Candidate Gene for Osteochondrosis Providing a Functional Link to Cartilage Perfusion as Initial Factor

    PubMed Central

    Rangkasenee, Noppawan; Murani, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald M.; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Luther, Henning; Hofer, Andreas; Stoll, Monika; Witten, Anika; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is an orthopedic syndrome of the joints that occurs in children and adolescents and domestic animals, particularly pigs, horses, and dogs. OC is the most frequent cause of leg weakness in rapidly growing pigs causing animal welfare issues and economic losses. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using the Porcine 60k SNPChip in animals of the breed Large White (n = 298) to identify chromosome regions and candidate genes associated with OC lesion scores. A total of 19 SNPs on chromosomes (SSC) 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 18 were significantly associated with OC lesion scores (p-values ≤ 10−5). The SNPs MARC0098684, MARC00840086, MARC0093124, and ASGA0062794 at SSC14 36.1–38.2 Mb encompass a region of six linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. The most significant SNP ASGA0062794 is located in a LD block spanning 465 kb and covering the gene encoding T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5). A SNP (c.54T > C) identified in TBX5 was significantly associated with OC lesion scores in a single-marker analysis. TBX5 c.54T > C showed highest LD with ASGA00627974 (r2 = 0.96) and superior association with OC lesion scores over other SNPs when included in the genome scan, whereas its treatment as an additional fixed effect in the GWAS statistical model led to a drop of significance of nearby markers. Moreover, real-time PCR showed different transcript abundance of TBX5 in healthy and defect cartilage. The results imply that the association signal obtained on SCC14 is largely attributable to TBX5 c.54T > C likely to be in LD with a regulatory polymorphism of TBX5. The transcription factor TBX5 interacts with GJA5 and MEF2C both being involved in vascularization. This study provides evidence for epistatic interaction of TBX5 and MEF2C, thus supporting deficiency of blood supply to growth cartilage as being fundamental for the initiation of OC. PMID:23675383

  12. Identifying Growth of Structures in the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt: Initial Time Series Results and Evaluation of Precipitable Water Vapor Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Lohman, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we combine InSAR observations with independent satellite-based measurements of precipitable water vapor in an attempt to identify aseismic deformation in a fold and thrust belt. We use the precipitable water vapor data to assess the magnitude of deformation that may be induced by atmospheric noise that is correlated in time given a particular data set. The Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (ZFTB) of western and southwestern Iran accommodates active collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Current convergence rates between Arabia and Eurasia are 25-36 mm/yr, with roughly half of the shortening accommodated in the ZFTB. While rates of seismicity in the ZFTB are high, large (>Mw 7.0) surface rupturing earthquakes are rare, and calculations of seismic moment rates suggest that only 10-30% of the total shortening is accommodated seismically. Thus, a significant amount of strain must be accommodated aseismically, presumably though the deformation of the large whale-back anticlines characteristic of the ZFTB. In this work, we present the initial results of an InSAR time series analysis in the Bandar-e-Abbas region of the southern ZFTB. We aim to identify interseismic strain accumulation and growth of the folds in order to better our understanding of the relative roles of seismic and aseismic deformation on the formation of long lived geologic structures. We implement the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) time series approach to calculate line of sight (LOS) surface velocities from ENVISAT and ERS descending Tracks 435 and 163 between February 1993 and September 2010. A key assumption of SBAS is that correlated atmospheric noise is random in sign over time and should have zero effect on the time series if the number of scenes is large enough. To investigate if the seasonal distribution of available dates induces a biased atmospheric noise signal that may contribute to our computed LOS velocities, we use MODIS and MERIS precipitable water vapor data to analyze

  13. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  14. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  15. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  16. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Meeting the Whole Child Initiatives through Standardized and Competency-Based Education Systems in Terms of Achievement and Meeting the Whole Child Initiatives: Comparing Professional Perceptions and Identified Measurable Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional education (TE) largely uses a standardized (SbE) approach while alternatives (nTE) tend to more of a competency (CbE), or student-centered approach. This comparative analysis examines essential aspects of such pedagogies in determining the effectiveness of schooling systems in meeting the Whole Child Initiative (Souza, 1999; Carter et…

  18. Initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro: Pulse-chase experiments identify the first labeled species as topologically unwound

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, P.A.; Seo, Yeon Soo; Hurwitz, J. )

    1989-06-01

    A distinct unwound form of DNA containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin is produced in replication reactions carried out in mixtures containing crude fractions prepared from HeLa cells. This species, termed form U{sub R}, comigrates on chloroquine-containing agarose gels with the upper part of the previously described heterogeneous highly unwound circular DNA, form U. As with form U, formation of form U{sub R} is dependent upon the SV40 tumor (T) antigen. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that the first species to incorporate labeled deoxyribonucleotides comigrates with form U{sub R}. Restriction analyses of the products of the pulse-chase experiments show that initiation occurs at the SV40 origin and then proceeds outward in a bidirectional manner. These experiments establish form U{sub R} as the earliest detectable substrate for SV40 DNA replication and suggest that SV40 DNA replication initiates on an unwound species.

  19. Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts. PMID:18466880

  20. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  1. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  2. Promoter-level expression clustering identifies time development of transcriptional regulatory cascades initiated by ErbB receptors in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mina, Marco; Magi, Shigeyuki; Jurman, Giuseppe; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Furlanello, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) time-course has been proposed by the FANTOM5 Consortium to extend the understanding of the sequence of events facilitating cell state transition at the level of promoter regulation. To identify the most prominent transcriptional regulations induced by growth factors in human breast cancer, we apply here the Complexity Invariant Dynamic Time Warping motif EnRichment (CIDER) analysis approach to the CAGE time-course datasets of MCF-7 cells stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG). We identify a multi-level cascade of regulations rooted by the Serum Response Factor (SRF) transcription factor, connecting the MAPK-mediated transduction of the HRG stimulus to the negative regulation of the MAPK pathway by the members of the DUSP family phosphatases. The finding confirms the known primary role of FOS and FOSL1, members of AP-1 family, in shaping gene expression in response to HRG induction. Moreover, we identify a new potential regulation of DUSP5 and RARA (known to antagonize the transcriptional regulation induced by the estrogen receptors) by the activity of the AP-1 complex, specific to HRG response. The results indicate that a divergence in AP-1 regulation determines cellular changes of breast cancer cells stimulated by ErbB receptors. PMID:26179713

  3. Promoter-level expression clustering identifies time development of transcriptional regulatory cascades initiated by ErbB receptors in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Marco; Magi, Shigeyuki; Jurman, Giuseppe; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Furlanello, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) time-course has been proposed by the FANTOM5 Consortium to extend the understanding of the sequence of events facilitating cell state transition at the level of promoter regulation. To identify the most prominent transcriptional regulations induced by growth factors in human breast cancer, we apply here the Complexity Invariant Dynamic Time Warping motif EnRichment (CIDER) analysis approach to the CAGE time-course datasets of MCF-7 cells stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG). We identify a multi-level cascade of regulations rooted by the Serum Response Factor (SRF) transcription factor, connecting the MAPK-mediated transduction of the HRG stimulus to the negative regulation of the MAPK pathway by the members of the DUSP family phosphatases. The finding confirms the known primary role of FOS and FOSL1, members of AP-1 family, in shaping gene expression in response to HRG induction. Moreover, we identify a new potential regulation of DUSP5 and RARA (known to antagonize the transcriptional regulation induced by the estrogen receptors) by the activity of the AP-1 complex, specific to HRG response. The results indicate that a divergence in AP-1 regulation determines cellular changes of breast cancer cells stimulated by ErbB receptors. PMID:26179713

  4. Taxonomic abstraction in psychobiology.

    PubMed

    Evans, S H; Chafetz, M D; Gage, F H

    1984-10-01

    If a body of knowledge in a scientific discipline is to be extended beyond empirical observation and into the realm of laws and principles, one of the fundamental requirements is a taxonomy which supports the systematic integration of observations. Psychobiology benefits from taxonomies provided by biology and chemistry, which include not only object oriented taxonomies such as species or chemical elements, but also process oriented taxonomies, such as oxidation, metabolism, phototaxis, or predation. Psychobiology has yet to provide equivalent taxonomies for its behavioral observations, although the common use of terms such as fear, anger, arousal, stress, and memory might lead one to suppose that these are based on a well established taxonomy of behavioral measures. In this report the logical and quantitative requirements for treating behavioral measures in terms of taxonomic classes are reviewed. A sample of studies representing recent research in psychobiology was examined to assess interest in such a taxonomy and to identify elements of current practice which might contribute to its development. Recent practice displays some evidence of interest in behavioral classes, in choice of language, and in frequent use of multiple dependent measures. Multivariate methods, which might elicit from such data evidence contributing to the development of a taxonomy, are rarely used. Recommendations are given on some appropriate analytic methods for data resulting from current practice and for new exploratory paradigms which could aim directly at the establishment of taxonomic classes for behaviors. PMID:6512516

  5. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  6. Serum-dependent transcriptional networks identify distinct functional roles for H-Ras and N-Ras during initial stages of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared transcriptional profiles corresponding to the initial cell cycle stages of mouse fibroblasts lacking the small GTPases H-Ras and/or N-Ras with those of matching, wild-type controls. Results Serum-starved wild-type and knockout ras fibroblasts had very similar transcriptional profiles, indicating that H-Ras and N-Ras do not significantly control transcriptional responses to serum deprivation stress. In contrast, genomic disruption of H-ras or N-ras, individually or in combination, determined specific differential gene expression profiles in response to post-starvation stimulation with serum for 1 hour (G0/G1 transition) or 8 hours (mid-G1 progression). The absence of N-Ras caused significantly higher changes than the absence of H-Ras in the wave of transcriptional activation linked to G0/G1 transition. In contrast, the absence of H-Ras affected the profile of the transcriptional wave detected during G1 progression more strongly than did the absence of N-Ras. H-Ras was predominantly functionally associated with growth and proliferation, whereas N-Ras had a closer link to the regulation of development, the cell cycle, immunomodulation and apoptosis. Mechanistic analysis indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) mediates the regulatory effect of N-Ras on defense and immunity, whereas the pro-apoptotic effects of N-Ras are mediated through ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Conclusions Our observations confirm the notion of an absolute requirement for different peaks of Ras activity during the initial stages of the cell cycle and document the functional specificity of H-Ras and N-Ras during those processes. PMID:19895680

  7. Summer 2015 Internship Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) visually shows the expression of proteins by fluorescing when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. The GFP in this experiment was used to identify cells actively releasing viruses. The experiment focused on the effect of microgravity on the GFP expression of Akata B-cells infected with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Two flasks were prepared with 30 million cells each and two bioreactors were prepared with 50 million cells each. All four cultures were incubated for 16 days and fed every four days. Cellometer readings were taken on the feeding days to find cell size, viability, and GFP expression. In addition, the cells were treated with Propodium monoazide (PMA) and run through real time PCR to determine viral load on the feeding days. On the International Space Station air samples are taken to analyze the bacterial and fungal organisms in the air. The Sartorius Portable Airport is being investigated for potential use on the ISS to analyze for viral content in the air. Multiple samples were taken around Johnson Space Center building 37 and in Clear Lake Pediatric Clinic. The filter used was the gelatin membrane filter and the DNA was extracted directly from the filter. The DNA was then run through real time PCR for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and EBV as well as GAPDH to test for the presence of DNA. The results so far have shown low DNA yield and no positive results for VZV or EBV. Further inquiry involves accurately replicating an atmosphere with high viral load from saliva as would be found on the ISS to run the air sampler in. Another line of research is stress hormones that may be correlated to the reactivation of latent viruses. The stress hormones from saliva samples are analyzed rather than blood samples. The quantity found in saliva shows the quantity of the hormones actually attached to cells and causing a reaction, whereas in the blood the quantity of hormones is the total amount released to cause a reaction. The particular

  8. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  9. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  10. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  11. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  12. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  13. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  14. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  15. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  16. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  17. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  18. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  19. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  20. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  1. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  2. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  4. Identifying Initial Suit-Body Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, Yaritza

    2016-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity EVA suits like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit EMU are the key component used by the crew to perform EVA operations. The crew is trained extensively in the EMU to be able to perform their EVA's effectively. This extensive training can cause problems and even lead to injury if any abnormal forces are used. In the case of a bad design, if the humans movement exceeds the suits design parameters it can result in unusual wear and tear of the suit components, or may result in failed tasks when the human is not able to perform a task the necessary way. This study is intended to quantify suit-body contact and suited range of upper extremity motions while wearing a pressurized EMU suit as compared to their unsuited trials. This study also compares the effect in mobility of the suited subject in free standing versus constrained standing for upper extremity movements.

  5. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  6. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  7. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  8. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  9. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  10. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Abstracts of 386 papers and plenary presentations are included. The plenary sessions related to the national technology initiative. The other sessions covered the following NDE topics: corrosion, electromagnetic arrays, elastic wave scattering and backscattering/noise, civil structures, material properties, holography, shearography, UT wave propagation, eddy currents, coatings, signal processing, radiography, computed tomography, EM imaging, adhesive bonds, NMR, laser ultrasonics, composites, thermal, magnetic measurements, nonlinear acoustics, interface modeling and characterization, UT transducers, new techniques, joined materials, probes and systems, fatigue cracks and fracture, imaging and sizing, NDE in engineering and process control, acoustics of cracks, and sensors. An author index is included. (DLC)

  11. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  12. On quantitative effects of RNA shape abstraction.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Markus E; Scheid, Anika

    2009-11-01

    Over the last few decades, much effort has been taken to develop approaches for identifying good predictions of RNA secondary structure. This is due to the fact that most computational prediction methods based on free energy minimization compute a number of suboptimal foldings and we have to identify the native folding among all these possible secondary structures. Using the abstract shapes approach as introduced by Giegerich et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 32(16):4843-4851, 2004), each class of similar secondary structures is represented by one shape and the native structures can be found among the top shape representatives. In this article, we derive some interesting results answering enumeration problems for abstract shapes and secondary structures of RNA. We compute precise asymptotics for the number of different shape representations of size n and for the number of different shapes showing up when abstracting from secondary structures of size n under a combinatorial point of view. A more realistic model taking primary structures into account remains an open challenge. We give some arguments why the present techniques cannot be applied in this case. PMID:19756808

  13. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  14. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  15. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  16. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  17. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  18. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  19. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  20. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  1. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  2. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  3. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  4. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  5. Abstract concepts: data from a Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2013-02-01

    Do humans and nonhumans share the ability to form abstract concepts? Until the 1960s, many researchers questioned whether avian subjects could form categorical constructs, much less more abstract formulations, including concepts such as same-different or exact understanding of number. Although ethologists argued that nonhumans, including birds, had to have some understanding of divisions such as prey versus predator, mate versus nonmate, food versus nonfood, or basic relational concepts such as more versus less, simply in order to survive, no claims were made that these abilities reflected cognitive processes, and little formal data from psychology laboratories could initially support such claims. Researchers like Anthony Wright, however, succeeded in obtaining such data and inspired many others to pursue these topics, with the eventual result that several avian species are now considered "feathered primates" in terms of cognitive processes. Here I review research on numerical concepts in the Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), demonstrating that at least one subject, Alex, understood number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, in ways comparing favorably to those of apes and young human children. He not only understood such concepts, but also appeared to learn them in ways more similar to humans than to apes. PMID:23089384

  6. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  7. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  8. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  9. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  10. Directory of Energy Information Administration Model Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-16

    This directory partially fulfills the requirements of Section 8c, of the documentation order, which states in part that: The Office of Statistical Standards will annually publish an EIA document based on the collected abstracts and the appendices. This report contains brief statements about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models active through March 1985 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these proprietary models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  11. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  12. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  13. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  14. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  15. Abstracted Workow Framework with a Structure from Motion Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Adam J.

    In scientific and engineering disciplines, from academia to industry, there is an increasing need for the development of custom software to perform experiments, construct systems, and develop products. The natural mindset initially is to shortcut and bypass all overhead and process rigor in order to obtain an immediate result for the problem at hand, with the misconception that the software will simply be thrown away at the end. In a majority of the cases, it turns out the software persists for many years, and likely ends up in production systems for which it was not initially intended. In the current study, a framework that can be used in both industry and academic applications mitigates underlying problems associated with developing scientific and engineering software. This results in software that is much more maintainable, documented, and usable by others, specifically allowing new users to extend capabilities of components already implemented in the framework. There is a multi-disciplinary need in the fields of imaging science, computer science, and software engineering for a unified implementation model, which motivates the development of an abstracted software framework. Structure from motion (SfM) has been identified as one use case where the abstracted workflow framework can improve research efficiencies and eliminate implementation redundancies in scientific fields. The SfM process begins by obtaining 2D images of a scene from different perspectives. Features from the images are extracted and correspondences are established. This provides a sufficient amount of information to initialize the problem for fully automated processing. Transformations are established between views, and 3D points are established via triangulation algorithms. The parameters for the camera models for all views / images are solved through bundle adjustment, establishing a highly consistent point cloud. The initial sparse point cloud and camera matrices are used to generate a dense

  16. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  17. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  18. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  19. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  20. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  1. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  2. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  3. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  4. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet K.

    2014-01-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and non-peer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, we review the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, we describe the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, we present a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  5. Preparing and presenting effective abstracts and posters in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet K

    2014-12-01

    Presenting an abstract and a poster gives scientists from all fields, including psychiatry, an important opportunity to introduce their research to others. Researchers and mental health professionals at all levels of career development can use several media resources to assist them with the technical aspects of preparing an abstract or a poster. This article will focus on major principles associated with preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster at a scientific meeting. A literature search using NIH PubMed was conducted to identify peer and nonpeer-reviewed articles that provide methods for effective abstract and poster presentation for the period of 1966 to June 2014. First, the author reviews the purpose and relative importance of abstracts and posters in academic settings. Next, the author describes the qualities of an effective abstract and poster and common pitfalls that may occur. Finally, the author presents a systematic approach to preparing and presenting an abstract and a poster in a scientific setting. Several sources consistently suggest that readability, organization, and succinctness are qualities that make an effective and successful abstract and poster. Mental health professionals in all stages of their career development may benefit from following these guidelines in presenting their scientific work. PMID:25085499

  6. Directory of Energy Information Administration model abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-11

    This report contains brief statements from the model managers about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models ''active'' through March 1987 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). A basic model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being sufficiently important to require sustained support and public scrutiny. An auxiliary model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being used only occasionally in analyses, and therefore requires minimal levels of documentation. A developing model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being under development and yet of sufficient interest to require a basic level of documentation at a future date. EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these ''proprietary'' models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  7. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  8. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  9. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  10. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  11. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  12. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  13. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  14. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  15. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  16. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  17. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  18. Mining Heterogeneous Social Networks for Egocentric Information Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Te; Lin, Shou-De

    Social network is a powerful data structure that allows the depiction of relationship information between entities. However, real-world social networks are sometimes too complex for human to pursue further analysis. In this work, an unsupervised mechanism is proposed for egocentric information abstraction in heterogeneous social networks. To achieve this goal, we propose a vector space representation for heterogeneous social networks to identify combination of relations as features and compute statistical dependencies as feature values. These features, either linear or eyelie, intend to capture the semantic information in the surrounding environment of the ego. Then we design three abstraction measures to distill representative and important information to construct the abstracted graphs for visual presentation. The evaluations conducted on a real world movie datasct and an artificial crime dataset demonstrate that the abstractions can indeed retain significant information and facilitate more accurate and efficient human analysis.

  19. Abstract context representations in primate amygdala and prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saez, A.; Rigotti, M.; Ostojic, S.; Fusi, S.; Salzman, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode rules, goals and other abstract information thought to underlie cognitive, emotional, and behavioral flexibility. Here we show that the amygdala, a brain area traditionally thought to mediate emotions, also encodes abstract information that could underlie this flexibility. Monkeys performed a task in which stimulus-reinforcement contingencies varied between two sets of associations, each defining a context. Reinforcement prediction required identifying a stimulus and knowing the current context. Behavioral evidence indicated that monkeys utilized this information to perform inference and adjust their behavior. Neural representations in both amygdala and PFC reflected the linked sets of associations implicitly defining each context, a process requiring a level of abstraction characteristic of cognitive operations. Surprisingly, when errors were made, the context signal weakened substantially in the amygdala. These data emphasize the importance of maintaining abstract cognitive information in the amygdala to support flexible behavior. PMID:26291167

  20. Abstract Context Representations in Primate Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Saez, A; Rigotti, M; Ostojic, S; Fusi, S; Salzman, C D

    2015-08-19

    Neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode rules, goals, and other abstract information thought to underlie cognitive, emotional, and behavioral flexibility. Here we show that the amygdala, a brain area traditionally thought to mediate emotions, also encodes abstract information that could underlie this flexibility. Monkeys performed a task in which stimulus-reinforcement contingencies varied between two sets of associations, each defining a context. Reinforcement prediction required identifying a stimulus and knowing the current context. Behavioral evidence indicated that monkeys utilized this information to perform inference and adjust their behavior. Neural representations in both amygdala and PFC reflected the linked sets of associations implicitly defining each context, a process requiring a level of abstraction characteristic of cognitive operations. Surprisingly, when errors were made, the context signal weakened substantially in the amygdala. These data emphasize the importance of maintaining abstract cognitive information in the amygdala to support flexible behavior. PMID:26291167

  1. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  2. Abstracted Workow Framework with a Structure from Motion Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Adam J.

    In scientific and engineering disciplines, from academia to industry, there is an increasing need for the development of custom software to perform experiments, construct systems, and develop products. The natural mindset initially is to shortcut and bypass all overhead and process rigor in order to obtain an immediate result for the problem at hand, with the misconception that the software will simply be thrown away at the end. In a majority of the cases, it turns out the software persists for many years, and likely ends up in production systems for which it was not initially intended. In the current study, a framework that can be used in both industry and academic applications mitigates underlying problems associated with developing scientific and engineering software. This results in software that is much more maintainable, documented, and usable by others, specifically allowing new users to extend capabilities of components already implemented in the framework. There is a multi-disciplinary need in the fields of imaging science, computer science, and software engineering for a unified implementation model, which motivates the development of an abstracted software framework. Structure from motion (SfM) has been identified as one use case where the abstracted workflow framework can improve research efficiencies and eliminate implementation redundancies in scientific fields. The SfM process begins by obtaining 2D images of a scene from different perspectives. Features from the images are extracted and correspondences are established. This provides a sufficient amount of information to initialize the problem for fully automated processing. Transformations are established between views, and 3D points are established via triangulation algorithms. The parameters for the camera models for all views / images are solved through bundle adjustment, establishing a highly consistent point cloud. The initial sparse point cloud and camera matrices are used to generate a dense

  3. Finance Formula. Abstract II: Research & Resources on Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This one-page abstract summarizes results of a final report of a federally funded project titled, "An Analysis of State Special Education Finance Formulas." Five major types of formulas were identified: flat grant, minimum foundation program, percentage equalizing, percentage matching, and full state funding of the excess cost of special…

  4. Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System: History, Scope, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, scope, and applications of the Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System, a computerized database that uniquely identifies chemical substances on the basis of their molecular structures. Explains searching the system is and discusses its use as an international resource. (66 references) (Author/LRW)

  5. Intern Abstract for Spring 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, William

    2016-01-01

    The Human Interface Branch - EV3 - is evaluating Organic lighting-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an upgrade for current displays on future spacecraft. OLEDs have many advantages over current displays. Conventional displays require constant backlighting which draws a lot of power, but with OLEDs they generate light themselves. OLEDs are lighter, and weight is always a concern with space launches. OLEDs also grant greater viewing angles. OLEDs have been in the commercial market for almost ten years now. What is not known is how they will perform in a space-like environment; specifically deep space far away from the Earth's magnetosphere. In this environment, the OLEDs can be expected to experience vacuum and galactic radiation. The intern's responsibility has been to prepare the OLED for a battery of tests. Unfortunately, it will not be ready for testing at the end of the internship. That being said much progress has been made: a) Developed procedures to safely disassemble the tablet. b) Inventoried and identified critical electronic components. c) 3D printed a testing apparatus. d) Wrote software in Python that will test the OLED screen while being radiated. e) Built circuits to restart the tablet and the test pattern, and ensure it doesn't fall asleep during radiation testing. f) Built enclosure that will house all of the electronics Also, the intern has been working on a way to take messages from a simulated Caution and Warnings system, process said messages into packets, send audio packets to a multicast address that audio boxes are listening to, and output spoken audio. Currently, Cautions and Warnings use a tone to alert crew members of a situation, and then crew members have to read through their checklists to determine what the tone means. In urgent situations, EV3 wants to deliver concise and specific alerts to the crew to facilitate any mitigation efforts on their part. Significant progress was made on this project: a) Open channel with the simulated Caution

  6. Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

    2010-06-01

    Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

  7. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given

  8. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  9. Experience and Abstract Reasoning in Learning Backward Induction

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Daniel R.; Vostroknutov, Alexander; Rustichini, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Backward induction is a benchmark of game theoretic rationality, yet surprisingly little is known as to how humans discover and initially learn to apply this abstract solution concept in experimental settings. We use behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to study the way in which subjects playing in a sequential game of perfect information learn the optimal backward induction strategy for the game. Experimental data from our two studies support two main findings: First, subjects converge to a common process of recursive inference similar to the backward induction procedure for solving the game. The process is recursive because earlier insights and conclusions are used as inputs in later steps of the inference. This process is matched by a similar pattern in brain activation, which also proceeds backward, following the prediction error: brain activity initially codes the responses to losses in final positions; in later trials this activity shifts to the starting position. Second, the learning process is not exclusively cognitive, but instead combines experience-based learning and abstract reasoning. Critical experiences leading to the adoption of an improved solution strategy appear to be stimulated by brain activity in the reward system. This indicates that the negative affect induced by initial failures facilitates the switch to a different method of solving the problem. Abstract reasoning is combined with this response, and is expressed by activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Differences in brain activation match differences in performance between subjects who show different learning speeds. PMID:22363254

  10. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  11. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  12. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  13. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  14. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  15. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  16. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  17. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  18. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  19. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  20. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  1. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  2. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  3. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  4. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  5. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  6. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  7. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  8. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  9. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  10. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  11. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  12. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  13. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  14. Proposed Initiatives in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervine, Kay; Sproull, Lee

    This document presents a compilation of suggested research and development initiatives abstracted from current educational R&D planning and policy documents. The objectives is to create a reasonably thorough picture of the current state of proposed possibilities and priorities in educational R&D. Each initiative abstract includes, whenever…

  15. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  16. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  17. Writing, reviewing, and presenting an abstract.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts afford an opportunity to report data at professional meetings and, when published, in the literature. Accordingly, they should be prepared with great care. When writing an abstract, anticipate questions the reviewer will ask when judging it and provide complete answers. The presentation of an abstract should follow similar thought processes. State why a problem or question is important, how you addressed it, what you found, and how your findings can be applied to the issue at hand. Slides and text should provide coordinated visual and auditory input, respectively, to ensure complete comprehension. PMID:1816248

  18. New Light on Old Horizon: Constructing Mathematical Concepts, Underlying Abstraction Processes, and Sense Making Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The initial assumption of this article is that there is an overemphasis on abstraction-from-actions theoretical approaches in research on knowing and learning mathematics. This article uses a critical reflection on research on students' ways of constructing mathematical concepts to distinguish between abstraction-from-actions theoretical…

  19. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  20. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of current literature and research project summaries. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aquatic environment. This is...

  1. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  2. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  3. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  4. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  5. Sourcebook of Restructuring Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A., Ed.

    This three-part sourcebook identifies school restructuring initiatives with a national scope and presents comprehensive information about them. Part 1 identifies and describes national restructuring programs (e.g., Coalition of Essential Schools, Learning Tomorrow, Success for All). Each program description provides an overview of the program as…

  6. Abstract framework for the theory of statistical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronzi, A. C.; Mondaini, C. F.; Rosa, R. M. S.

    2016-06-01

    An abstract framework for the theory of statistical solutions is developed for general evolution equations, extending the theory initially developed for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The motivation for this concept is to model the evolution of uncertainties on the initial conditions for systems which have global solutions that are not known to be unique. Both concepts of statistical solution in trajectory space and in phase space are given, and the corresponding results of existence of statistical solution for the associated initial value problems are proved. The wide applicability of the theory is illustrated with the very incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, a reaction-diffusion equation, and a nonlinear wave equation, all displaying the property of global existence of weak solutions without a known result of global uniqueness.

  7. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  8. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  9. The Motor System Contributes to Comprehension of Abstract Language

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Meng, Wanjin; Yao, Ru; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    If language comprehension requires a sensorimotor simulation, how can abstract language be comprehended? We show that preparation to respond in an upward or downward direction affects comprehension of the abstract quantifiers “more and more” and “less and less” as indexed by an N400-like component. Conversely, the semantic content of the sentence affects the motor potential measured immediately before the upward or downward action is initiated. We propose that this bidirectional link between motor system and language arises because the motor system implements forward models that predict the sensory consequences of actions. Because the same movement (e.g., raising the arm) can have multiple forward models for different contexts, the models can make different predictions depending on whether the arm is raised, for example, to place an object or raised as a threat. Thus, different linguistic contexts invoke different forward models, and the predictions constitute different understandings of the language. PMID:24086463

  10. Fluorescence Quenching of Benzaldehyde in Water by Hydrogen Atom Abstraction.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Katharyn; Bunz, Uwe H F; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We computed the mechanism of fluorescence quenching of benzaldehyde in water through relaxed potential energy surface scans. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations along the protonation coordinate from water to benzaldehyde reveal that photoexcitation to the bright ππ* (S3 ) state is immediately followed by ultrafast decay to the nπ* (S1 ) state. Evolving along this state, benzaldehyde (BA) abstracts a hydrogen atom, resulting in a BAH(.) and OH(.) radical pair. Benzaldehyde does not act as photobase in water, but abstracts a hydrogen atom from a nearby solvent molecule. The system finally decays back to the ground state by non-radiative decay and an electron transfers back to the OH(.) radical. Proton transfer from BAH(+) to OH(-) restores the initial situation, BA in water. PMID:27305520

  11. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  12. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  13. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  14. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  15. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  16. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  17. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  18. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  19. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  4. Hydrogeological Conditions of a Crystalline Aquifer: Simulation of Optimal Abstraction Rates under Scenarios of Reduced Recharge

    PubMed Central

    Fynn, Obed Fiifi; Chegbeleh, Larry Pax; Nude, Prosper M.; Asiedu, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    A steady state numerical groundwater flow model has been calibrated to characterize the spatial distribution of a key hydraulic parameter in a crystalline aquifer in southwestern Ghana. This was to provide an initial basis for characterizing the hydrogeology of the terrain with a view to assisting in the large scale development of groundwater resources for various uses. The results suggest that the structural entities that control groundwater occurrence in the area are quite heterogeneous in their nature and orientation, ascribing hydraulic conductivity values in the range of 4.5 m/d to over 70 m/d to the simulated aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneities, coupled possibly with topographical trends, have led to the development of five prominent groundwater flowpaths in the area. Estimated groundwater recharge at calibration ranges between 0.25% and 9.13% of the total annual rainfall and appears to hold significant promise for large-scale groundwater development to support irrigation schemes. However, the model suggests that with reduced recharge by up to 30% of the current rates, the system can only sustain increased groundwater abstraction by up to 150% of the current abstraction rates. Prudent management of the resource will require a much more detailed hydrogeological study that identifies all the aquifers in the basin for the assessment of sustainable basin yield. PMID:24453882

  5. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  6. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  7. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  8. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  9. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  10. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  11. Mr. Birmingham and His New Star (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The year 2016 sees two anniversaries connected with the Irish astronomer John Birmingham (1816-1884): the 200th anniversary of his birth and the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the nova outburst in T Coronae Borealis.

  12. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of Social Work in…

  13. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  14. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  15. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  16. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  17. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  18. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  19. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  20. Static Abstractions and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    The element of static abstractions (SAs)--any pseudoheuristic listing of derived nominals whose purpose is to define good structure in prose writing--is one of the important historical components of the current traditional rhetoric inherited from the nineteenth century. SAs, of which unity, coherence, and emphasis are the best known examples, have…

  1. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  2. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  3. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  4. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  5. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  6. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  7. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  8. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  9. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry programs. (TW)

  10. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  11. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  13. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  14. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  15. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  16. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  17. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  18. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts." Each…

  19. Mathematical Abstraction in the Solving of Ill-Structured Problems by Elementary School Students in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jee Yun; Kim, Min Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Ill-structured problems can be regarded as one of the measures that meet recent social needs emphasizing students' abilities to solve real-life problems. This study aimed to analyze the mathematical abstraction process in solving such problems, and to identify the mathematical abstraction level ([I] Recognition of mathematical structure through…

  20. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1992, phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Sacknoff, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of 346 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1992 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 346, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1992 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  1. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1991 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. Carl; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of 301 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1991 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 301, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1991 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  2. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1990 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The research objectives of the 280 projects placed under contract in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1990 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 program are described. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses in response to NASA's 1990 SBIR Phase 1 Program Solicitation. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 280, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. The document also includes Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference in the 1990 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA field center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number.

  3. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  4. Abstract Mindsets Increase Believability of Spatially Distant Online Messages

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, Hande; Hartmann, Tilo; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence from online credibility research reveals that online users rely on heuristic processes to evaluate the credibility of online information. The current paper, which is based on the construal level theory (CLT), proposes that congruency between the psychological distance of a stimulus and the way it is mentally construed can act as a heuristic for believability. According to CLT, psychologically close (e.g., spatially, temporally, socially) stimuli are represented concretely whereas psychologically distant stimuli are represented abstractly. The level of mental construals and the psychological distance of information have been shown to influence people’s truth judgments in offline contexts. This study tests whether congruency between the construal level of people’s mindsets (abstract vs. concrete) and the psychological distance implied in an online message (far vs. close) enhances message believability. By partially confirming CLT predictions, we found that believability of an online news item about a distant location increased when people maintained an abstract mindset rather than a concrete one. The effect of a concrete mindset on believability was not significant for the close psychological distance condition. Our findings provide initial evidence that congruency between the construal level of people’s mindsets and psychological distance cues in online messages can act as a heuristic for believability. We discuss the potential of applying the CLT framework to the growing literature on online cognitive heuristics in the area of online information credibility. PMID:27468272

  5. Abstract Mindsets Increase Believability of Spatially Distant Online Messages.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Hande; Hartmann, Tilo; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence from online credibility research reveals that online users rely on heuristic processes to evaluate the credibility of online information. The current paper, which is based on the construal level theory (CLT), proposes that congruency between the psychological distance of a stimulus and the way it is mentally construed can act as a heuristic for believability. According to CLT, psychologically close (e.g., spatially, temporally, socially) stimuli are represented concretely whereas psychologically distant stimuli are represented abstractly. The level of mental construals and the psychological distance of information have been shown to influence people's truth judgments in offline contexts. This study tests whether congruency between the construal level of people's mindsets (abstract vs. concrete) and the psychological distance implied in an online message (far vs. close) enhances message believability. By partially confirming CLT predictions, we found that believability of an online news item about a distant location increased when people maintained an abstract mindset rather than a concrete one. The effect of a concrete mindset on believability was not significant for the close psychological distance condition. Our findings provide initial evidence that congruency between the construal level of people's mindsets and psychological distance cues in online messages can act as a heuristic for believability. We discuss the potential of applying the CLT framework to the growing literature on online cognitive heuristics in the area of online information credibility. PMID:27468272

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  20. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  1. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  2. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  3. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  4. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  5. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  6. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  7. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  8. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  9. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  10. Language abstractions for low level optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévai, Gergely; Gera, Zoltán; Kelemen, Zoltán

    2012-09-01

    In case of performance critical applications programmers are often forced to write code at a low abstraction level. This leads to programs that are hard to develop and maintain because the program text is mixed up by low level optimization tricks and is far from the algorithm it implements. Even if compilers are smart nowadays and provide the user with many automatically applied optimizations, practice shows that in some cases it is hopeless to optimize the program automatically without the programmer's knowledge. A complementary approach is to allow the programmer to fine tune the program but provide him with language features that make the optimization easier. These are language abstractions that make optimization techniques explicit without adding too much syntactic noise to the program text. This paper presents such language abstractions for two well-known optimizations: bitvectors and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data). The language features are implemented in the embedded domain specific language Feldspar which is specifically tailored for digital signal processing applications. While we present these language elements as part of Feldspar, the ideas behind them are general enough to be applied in other language definition projects as well.

  11. Abstracts from the 2016 Annual Louisiana American College of Physicians Associates Meeting.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lee S; Davis, William

    2016-01-01

    Each year medical students in Louisiana and residents from the eight Internal Medicine training programs in Louisiana are invited to submit abstracts for the Annual Louisiana American College of Physicians (ACP) Associates Meeting. The content of these abstracts includes clinical case vignettes or research activities. The abstracts have all identifying features removed (i.e., names, institutional affiliations, etc.) before being sent to physician judges. Each judge scores each abstract independently and then the scores from all judges are averaged and ranked. This year we are excited to be able to publish most highly ranked abstracts presented at this year's competition. These abstracts (17 oral; 14 poster) were presented at the Associates Meeting held at LSU Health Sciences Center in Baton Rouge on January 19, 2016. We would like to thank the Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society and appreciate its efforts to publicize the hard work of these trainees. PMID:27389375

  12. Abstracts From The Annual Louisiana American College Of Physicians Associates Meeting.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lee S; Davis, William

    2015-01-01

    Each year medical students in Louisiana and residents from the eight Internal Medicine training programs in Louisiana are invited to submit abstracts for the Annual Louisiana American College of Physicians (ACP) Associates Meeting. The content of these abstracts includes clinical case vignettes or research activities. The abstracts have all identifying features removed (i.e., names, institutional affiliations, etc.) before being sent to physician judges. Each judge scores each abstract independently and then the scores from all judges are averaged and ranked. This year we are excited to be able to publish the 26 most highly ranked abstracts presented at this year's competition. These abstracts (15 oral; 12 poster) were presented at the Associates Meeting held at Tulane University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans on January 27, 2015. We would like to thank the Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society and appreciate its efforts to publicize the hard work of these trainees. PMID:27159462

  13. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  14. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  15. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  16. The Core Skills Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A British initiative that aims to identify, develop, and assess core skills in post-16 courses and qualifications is summarized in this bulletin. The first section discusses expectations regarding what core skills can achieve. The following section focuses on other purposes to which core skills could contribute, such as broadening the post-16…

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  18. Initiating a Developmental Motor Skills Program for Identified Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Valerie Terrill

    A physical education specialist at an elementary school in one of the fastest growing sections of the country developed and implemented a developmental motor skills program for primary school students. The program focused on: (1) developing a method of referring students for testing; (2) providing a specialized motor diagnostic test; (3) improving…

  19. Fluorine atom abstraction by Si(100). I. Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, M. R.; Gosalvez-Blanco, D.; Pullman, D. P.; Tsekouras, A. A.; Li, Y. L.; Yang, J. J.; Laughlin, K. B.; Eckman, S. C.; Bertino, M. F.; Ceyer, S. T.

    1999-08-01

    In the interaction of low energy F2 with Si(100) at 250 K, a dissociative chemisorption mechanism called atom abstraction is identified in which only one of the F atoms is adsorbed while the other F atom is scattered into the gas phase. The dynamics of atom abstraction are characterized via time-of-flight measurements of the scattered F atoms. The F atoms are translationally hyperthermal but only carry a small fraction (˜3%) of the tremendous exothermicity of the reaction. The angular distribution of F atoms is unusually broad for the product of an exothermic reaction. These results suggest an "attractive" interaction potential between F2 and the Si dangling bond with a transition state that is not constrained geometrically. These results are in disagreement with the results of theoretical investigations implying that the available potential energy surfaces are inadequate to describe the dynamics of this gas-surface interaction. In addition to single atom abstraction, two atom adsorption, a mechanism analogous to classic dissociative chemisorption in which both F atoms are adsorbed onto the surface, is also observed. The absolute probability of the three scattering channels (single atom abstraction, two atom adsorption, and unreactive scattering) for an incident F2 are determined as a function of F2 exposure. The fluorine coverage is determined by integrating the reaction probabilities over F2 exposure, and the reaction probabilities are recast as a function of fluorine coverage. Two atom adsorption is the dominant channel [P2=0.83±0.03(95%, N=9)] in the limit of zero coverage and decays monotonically to zero. Single atom abstraction is the minor channel (P1=0.13±0.03) at low coverage but increases to a maximum (P1=0.35±0.08) at about 0.5 monolayer (ML) coverage before decaying to zero. The reaction ceases at 0.94±0.11(95%, N=9) ML. Thermal desorption and helium diffraction confirm that the dangling bonds are the abstraction and adsorption sites. No Si lattice

  20. Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) communication style in initial meetings of small groups; (2) gender orientation, communicative competency, and communication satisfaction in acquaintance dyads; (3) attitudinal,…

  1. Mass Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 58 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: value, attitude, and behavior change initiated by interpersonal and mass media; television and the school; bridal magazines from 1967 to 1977; interpersonal…

  2. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  3. Overview of the biomedical and environmental programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 6 chapters presented by the six divisions involved in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The introduction is not covered by an abstract and deals with the environmental, health and safety considerations of energy technology decisions, the major initiatives now being taken by these 6 divisions, and recent major accomplishments in the biomedical and environmental science program. (KRM)

  4. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  5. Solar thermal components. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozman, W. R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts literature and technical papers on components applied to solar thermal energy utilization. The quarterly volumes are divided into ten categories: material properties; flat plat collectors; concentrating collectors; thermal storage; heat pumps; coolers and heat exchangers; solar ponds and distillation; greenhouses; process pleat; and irrigation pumps. Each quarterly volume is compiled from a wide variety of data bases, report literature, technical briefs, journal articles and other traditional and non traditional sources. The Technology Application Center maintains a library containing many of the articles and publications referenced in the series.

  6. Software Security - The Dangers of Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollmann, Dieter

    Software insecurity can be explained as a potpourri of hacking methods, ranging from the familiar, e.g. buffer overruns, to the exotic, e.g. code insertion with Chinese characters. From such an angle software security would just be a collection of specific countermeasures. We will observe a common principle that can guide a structured presentation of software security and give guidance for future research directions: There exists a discrepancy between the abstract programming concepts used by software developers and their concrete implementation on the given execution platform. In support of this thesis, five case studies will be discussed, viz characters, integers, variables, atomic transactions, and double linked lists.

  7. The Lyncis Two for One Special (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The pulsating delta Scuti star AN Lyn and the near contact binary UU Lyn are conveniently located at high declination in the northern constellation of Lynx. These variable stars are about 15 arc minutes apart in the sky and differ in average brightness by roughly one magnitude. This combination makes it fairly straightforward to secure photometric data on both stars at the same time using a common set of comparison stars. We present observations made at the BYU West Mountain Observatory during the spring of 2015 and outline some preliminary conclusions that can be drawn about these distinctly different variable stars.

  8. Knowledge Abstraction in Chinese Chess Endgame Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Nian; Liu, Pangfeng; Hsu, Shun-Chin; Hsu, Tsan-Sheng

    Retrograde analysis is a well known approach to construct endgame databases. However, the size of the endgame databases are too large to be loaded into the main memory of a computer during tournaments. In this paper, a novel knowledge abstraction strategy is proposed to compress endgame databases. The goal is to obtain succinct knowledge for practical endgames. A specialized goal-oriented search method is described and applied on the important endgame KRKNMM. The method of combining a search algorithm with a small size of knowledge is used to handle endgame positions up to a limited depth, but with a high degree of correctness.

  9. Collaborations with Arne on Cataclysmic Variables (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, P.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The start of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2002 marked the beginning of a 14-year-long collaboration with Arne on the photometry of cataclysmic variables. Starting with the USNO Flagstaff station, and continuing with AAVSOnet, Arne and the AAVSO members contributed ground based followup of SDSS candidate CVs to determine their orbital periods and characteristics. In addition, many scientific studies using spacecraft observations with HST, XMM, and GALEX were enabled and improved due to their contemporaneous ground-based photometry. Some of the primary results in the 39 publications resulting from this long term collaboration will be summarized.

  10. A method for automatically abstracting visual documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Visual documents - motion sequences on film, video-tape, and digital recordings - constitute a major source of information for the Space Agency, as well as all other government and private sector entities. This article describes a method for automatically selecting key frames from visual documents. These frames may in turn be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents in visual libraries, hypermedia systems, and training guides. The performance of the abstracting algorithm reduces 51 minutes of video sequences to 134 frames; a reduction of information in the range of 700:1.

  11. Neural Representations of Emotion Are Organized around Abstract Event Features

    PubMed Central

    Skerry, Amy E.; Saxe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Summary Research on emotion attribution has tended to focus on the perception of overt expressions of at most five or six basic emotions. However, our ability to identify others' emotional states is not limited to perception of these canonical expressions. Instead, we make fine-grained inferences about what others feel based on the situations they encounter, relying on knowledge of the eliciting conditions for different emotions. In the present research, we provide convergent behavioral and neural evidence concerning the representations underlying these concepts. First, we find that patterns of activity in mentalizing regions contain information about subtle emotional distinctions conveyed through verbal descriptions of eliciting situations. Second, we identify a space of abstract situation features that well captures the emotion discriminations subjects make behaviorally and show that this feature space outperforms competing models in capturing the similarity space of neural patterns in these regions. Together, the data suggest that our knowledge of others' emotions is abstract and high dimensional, that brain regions selective for mental state reasoning support relatively subtle distinctions between emotion concepts, and that the neural representations in these regions are not reducible to more primitive affective dimensions such as valence and arousal. PMID:26212878

  12. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  13. Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

  14. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  15. Initial Abstraction and Curve Numbers in a Semiarid Watershed in Southeastern Arizona

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number estimates of direct runoff from rainfall for semiarid catchments can be inaccurate. Investigation of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (Southeastern Arizona) and its 10 nested catchments determined that the inaccuracy is due to an ...

  16. Quantum Hamiltonians with Weak Random Abstract Perturbation. I. Initial Length Scale Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Denis; Golovina, Anastasia; Veselić, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We study random Hamiltonians on finite-size cubes and waveguide segments of increasing diameter. The number of random parameters determining the operator is proportional to the volume of the cube. In the asymptotic regime where the cube size, and consequently the number of parameters as well, tends to infinity, we derive deterministic and probabilistic variational bounds on the lowest eigenvalue, i.e. the spectral minimum, as well as exponential off-diagonal decay of the Green function at energies above, but close to the overall spectral bottom.

  17. Reflective Teachers: Tensions between Abstractions and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; Niles, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The teacher as reflective practitioner of rhetoric of teacher education reform is balanced against the realities of promoting teacher reflection. Crucial conditions to promote reflection are identified. (Author/MT)

  18. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  19. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  20. eta Carinae Continues to Evolve (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eta Carinae affords us a unique opportunity to study the pre-supernova evolution of the most massive stars. For at least the last half century, it has maintained a 5.5-year spectroscopic cycle that culminates with abrupt decreases in the strong stellar wind emission features. Over the last 15 years, the star has brightened at an accelerated rate and altered its spectrum, in addition to the spectroscopic cycle, indicating an ongoing change in state. We present Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy and synthetic photometry from the most recent spectroscopic event (2014.5) that shows notable differences with past events and provides clues to the on-going evolution of the star.

  1. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  2. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  3. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  4. EE Cep Winks in Full Color (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We observe the long period (5.6 years) Eclipsing Binary Variable Star EE Cep during its 2014 eclipse. It was observed on every clear night from the Maria Mitchell Observatory as well as remote sites for a total of 25 nights. Each night consisted of a detailed time series in BVRI looking for short term variations for a total of >10,000 observations. The data was transformed to the Standard System. In addition, a time series was captured during the night of the eclipse. This data provides an alternate method to determine Time of Minimum than traditionally performed. The TOM varied with color. Several strong correlations are seen between colors substantiating the detection of variations on a time scale of hours. The long term light curve shows five interesting and different Phases with different characteristics.

  5. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  6. Predicting free choices for abstract intentions.

    PubMed

    Soon, Chun Siong; He, Anna Hanxi; Bode, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-04-01

    Unconscious neural activity has been repeatedly shown to precede and potentially even influence subsequent free decisions. However, to date, such findings have been mostly restricted to simple motor choices, and despite considerable debate, there is no evidence that the outcome of more complex free decisions can be predicted from prior brain signals. Here, we show that the outcome of a free decision to either add or subtract numbers can already be decoded from neural activity in medial prefrontal and parietal cortex 4 s before the participant reports they are consciously making their choice. These choice-predictive signals co-occurred with the so-called default mode brain activity pattern that was still dominant at the time when the choice-predictive signals occurred. Our results suggest that unconscious preparation of free choices is not restricted to motor preparation. Instead, decisions at multiple scales of abstraction evolve from the dynamics of preceding brain activity. PMID:23509300

  7. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  8. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  9. There Are Many Ways to See the Forest for the Trees: A Tour Guide for Abstraction.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Erin M; Henderson, Marlone D; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-09-01

    Abstraction is a useful process for broadening mental horizons, integrating new experiences, and communicating information to others. Much attention has been directed at identifying the causes and consequences of abstraction across the subdisciplines of psychology. Despite this attention, an integrative review of the methods that are used for studying abstraction is missing from the literature. The current article aims to fill this gap in several ways. First, we highlight the different ways in which abstraction has been defined in the literature and then suggest an integrative definition. Second, we provide a tour of the different ways abstraction has been manipulated and measured over the years. Finally, we highlight considerations for researchers in choosing methods for their own research. PMID:26173209

  10. New abstraction networks and a new visualization tool in support of auditing the SNOMED CT content.

    PubMed

    Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan

    2012-01-01

    Medical terminologies are large and complex. Frequently, errors are hidden in this complexity. Our objective is to find such errors, which can be aided by deriving abstraction networks from a large terminology. Abstraction networks preserve important features but eliminate many minor details, which are often not useful for identifying errors. Providing visualizations for such abstraction networks aids auditors by allowing them to quickly focus on elements of interest within a terminology. Previously we introduced area taxonomies and partial area taxonomies for SNOMED CT. In this paper, two advanced, novel kinds of abstraction networks, the relationship-constrained partial area subtaxonomy and the root-constrained partial area subtaxonomy are defined and their benefits are demonstrated. We also describe BLUSNO, an innovative software tool for quickly generating and visualizing these SNOMED CT abstraction networks. BLUSNO is a dynamic, interactive system that provides quick access to well organized information about SNOMED CT. PMID:23304293

  11. New Abstraction Networks and a New Visualization Tool in Support of Auditing the SNOMED CT Content

    PubMed Central

    Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan

    2012-01-01

    Medical terminologies are large and complex. Frequently, errors are hidden in this complexity. Our objective is to find such errors, which can be aided by deriving abstraction networks from a large terminology. Abstraction networks preserve important features but eliminate many minor details, which are often not useful for identifying errors. Providing visualizations for such abstraction networks aids auditors by allowing them to quickly focus on elements of interest within a terminology. Previously we introduced area taxonomies and partial area taxonomies for SNOMED CT. In this paper, two advanced, novel kinds of abstraction networks, the relationship-constrained partial area subtaxonomy and the root-constrained partial area subtaxonomy are defined and their benefits are demonstrated. We also describe BLUSNO, an innovative software tool for quickly generating and visualizing these SNOMED CT abstraction networks. BLUSNO is a dynamic, interactive system that provides quick access to well organized information about SNOMED CT. PMID:23304293

  12. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  13. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD. PMID:25255899

  14. Extracting rate changes in transcriptional regulation from MEDLINE abstracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Time delays are important factors that are often neglected in gene regulatory network (GRN) inference models. Validating time delays from knowledge bases is a challenge since the vast majority of biological databases do not record temporal information of gene regulations. Biological knowledge and facts on gene regulations are typically extracted from bio-literature with specialized methods that depend on the regulation task. In this paper, we mine evidences for time delays related to the transcriptional regulation of yeast from the PubMed abstracts. Results Since the vast majority of abstracts lack quantitative time information, we can only collect qualitative evidences of time delays. Specifically, the speed-up or delay in transcriptional regulation rate can provide evidences for time delays (shorter or longer) in GRN. Thus, we focus on deriving events related to rate changes in transcriptional regulation. A corpus of yeast regulation related abstracts was manually labeled with such events. In order to capture these events automatically, we create an ontology of sub-processes that are likely to result in transcription rate changes by combining textual patterns and biological knowledge. We also propose effective feature extraction methods based on the created ontology to identify the direct evidences with specific details of these events. Our ontologies outperform existing state-of-the-art gene regulation ontologies in the automatic rule learning method applied to our corpus. The proposed deterministic ontology rule-based method can achieve comparable performance to the automatic rule learning method based on decision trees. This demonstrates the effectiveness of our ontology in identifying rate-changing events. We also tested the effectiveness of the proposed feature mining methods on detecting direct evidence of events. Experimental results show that the machine learning method on these features achieves an F1-score of 71.43%. Conclusions The manually

  15. Business and Organizational Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) identifying problem formation behaviors within the process of organizational change; (2) using the communication audit to determine decision style, satisfaction, and communication…

  16. Reading, Comprehension, and Memory Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the influence of additional supportive context upon the reader's ability to identify the main idea of a paragraph; effects of metaphors and paraphrases as…

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  18. Strengthening Structured Abstracts for Education Research: The Need for Claim-Based Structured Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Yin, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy recommendations involving the putative primacy of randomized clinical trials in educational settings have reignited research paradigm debates. The authors of this article use the vehicle of strengthening structured journal abstracts to point out the argumentative character of all education research claims. They offer suggestions to…

  19. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  20. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the conference were to examine current technologies, research efforts, and advanced ideas, and to identify technical barriers which affect the advancement of electrochemical energy storage systems for space applications. Papers were presented and workshops were conducted in four technical areas: advanced concepts, hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers, the nickel electrode, and advanced rechargeable batteries.

  1. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  2. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  3. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  4. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  5. Types: A data abstraction package in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, S. )

    1990-08-01

    TYPES is a collection of Fortran programs which allow the creation and manipulation of abstract data objects'' without the need for a preprocessor. Each data object is assigned a type'' as it is created which implies participation in a set of characteristic operations. Available types include scalars, logicals, ordered sets, stacks, queues, sequences, trees, arrays, character strings, block text, histograms, virtual and allocatable memories. A data object may contain integers, reals, or other data objects in any combination. In addition to the type specific operations, a set of universal utilities allows for copying input/output to disk, naming, editing, displaying, user input, interactive creation, tests for equality of contents or structure, machine to machine translation or source code creation for and data object. TYPES is available on VAX/VMS, SUN 3, SPARC, DEC/Ultrix, Silicon Graphics 4D and Cray/Unicos machines. The capabilities of the package are discussed together with characteristic applications and experience in writing the GVerify package.

  6. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  7. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  8. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B.

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  9. Going Over to the Dark Side (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) This is the tale of my continuing journey transforming from a visual to a CCD photometrist. It is my hope that sharing my experiences will help and encourage others to consider taking the same path. It has been hard, but fun; a wonderful opportunity as a newly retired physician to expand my horizons. However, my brain did have to make the switch from Biology to Physics. The major barrier that concerned me was cost, but change itself was also a challenge. Other issues included dealing with the complexity of technical systems and a myriad of details. My solution was to be patient and think small to insure success and then build upon all those little victories. The pedagogical component of this project was critical as well. It began with a good mentor and continued via networking with other members at meetings, taking CHOICE courses, and most importantly: practice, practice, practice. Each plateau suggested many new possibilities. I think “The Force” is now with me! The adventure continues.

  10. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  11. A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

    2010-04-01

    We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. PMID:20171146

  12. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O’Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and thus guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in two masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets’ first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar co-activated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. PMID:26618911

  13. The primacy of abstract syllables in Chinese word production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that they are also activated automatically by word perception. Therefore, in contrast to Indo-European languages, syllables but not necessarily subsyllabic components such as initial consonants can be perceptually primed in production. We tested this prediction in 2 masked-priming experiments. To isolate relevant phonological activation originating in primes, we used single character masked primes whose corresponding tones and lexical meanings always differed from those of the targets' first morphemes. Related primes potentially activated the atonal first syllables or the first consonants of target words. To strongly engage production-specific processes, we used pictures as prompts for disyllabic target words. Facilitation relative to unrelated controls was observed only in the syllable sharing condition. If anything, sharing of initial consonants had a negative valence, perhaps indicative of competition among similar coactivated words or syllables. These findings corroborate the view that abstract syllables are the first selected, proximate phonological units in Chinese word production, and that phonemic segments play a subordinate role. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618911

  14. The long learning route to abstract letter units.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian

    2009-02-01

    This is a review of theory and evidence on how abstract letter units (ALUs) are initially learnt by the developing individual. Despite the predominance of the lower-case form of letters in the print environment, naming identification of upper case has precedence over lower case among preschool children. Such children showed a significant lag in extending their categories of upper-case variants to include the corresponding lower-case forms that are visually dissimilar. As late as 11 years of age children gave longer naming latencies for the lower-case than the upper-case forms. Initial learning of ALUs proceeded slowly over many months, consistent with the "common contexts" hypothesis but not consistent with the early acquisition predicted by the "common letter name" hypothesis. Evidence from cross-case transfer in a training experiment indicated that prior to acquiring full use of ALUs the children had formed representations of words that were letter based but specific to lower-case forms. PMID:18649251

  15. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    PubMed Central

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D.; Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., “printed schedule”); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., “conditional schedule”); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., “thin schedule”). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  16. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D; Amsel, Ben D; DeLong, Katherine A; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., "printed schedule"); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., "conditional schedule"); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., "thin schedule"). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  17. Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcaini, Paolo; Gargantini, Angelo; Riccobene, Elvinia

    2010-01-01

    A model review is a validation technique aimed at determining if a model is of sufficient quality and allows defects to be identified early in the system development, reducing the cost of fixing them. In this paper we propose a technique to perform automatic review of Abstract State Machine (ASM) formal specifications. We first detect a family of typical vulnerabilities and defects a developer can introduce during the modeling activity using the ASMs and we express such faults as the violation of meta-properties that guarantee certain quality attributes of the specification. These meta-properties are then mapped to temporal logic formulas and model checked for their violation. As a proof of concept, we also report the result of applying this ASM review process to several specifications.

  18. Abstract linguistic structure correlates with temporal activity during naturalistic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Jonathan R; Stabler, Edward P; Van Wagenen, Sarah E; Luh, Wen-Ming; Hale, John T

    2016-01-01

    Neurolinguistic accounts of sentence comprehension identify a network of relevant brain regions, but do not detail the information flowing through them. We investigate syntactic information. Does brain activity implicate a computation over hierarchical grammars or does it simply reflect linear order, as in a Markov chain? To address this question, we quantify the cognitive states implied by alternative parsing models. We compare processing-complexity predictions from these states against fMRI timecourses from regions that have been implicated in sentence comprehension. We find that hierarchical grammars independently predict timecourses from left anterior and posterior temporal lobe. Markov models are predictive in these regions and across a broader network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that while linear effects are wide-spread across the language network, certain areas in the left temporal lobe deal with abstract, hierarchical syntactic representations. PMID:27208858

  19. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: IYA 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divinagracia, P. P.

    2009-03-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is a global effort initiated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day and nighttime sky and, thereby, engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. The vision of the IYA celebration is for everyone to realize the impact of astronomy and other fundamental sciences on our daily lives, and understand how scientific knowledge can contribute to a more equitable and peaceful society. Various global projects were initiated to help achieve the goals of the IYA 2009. An opening ceremony was held last January 15 to 16, 2009 at the UNESCO Headquarters at Paris, France to mark the beginning of the IYA celebrations. Attendance for the said ceremony was by invitation only. In the Philippines, Dr. Cynthia Celebre, Chief of the Space Sciences and Astronomy Section of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, and the Single Point of Contact in the Philippines for the IYA, and I, as the student representative of the Philippines, were invited to attend the opening ceremony. We also participated in a symposium with the theme "The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture" which was also held at the UNESCO Headquarters at Paris, France last January 19 to 23 this year.

  20. Abstract categories of functions in anterior parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of function is critical for selecting objects to meet action goals, even when the affordances of those objects are not mechanical-for instance, both a painting and a vase can decorate a room. To identify neural representations of such abstract function concepts, we asked participants in an fMRI scanner to view a variety of objects and evaluate their utility to each of four goals (two Decoration goals: dress up for a night out and decorate a house, and two Protection goals: protect your body from the cold and keep objects dry in a flooded basement). These task conditions differed in the kind of functional evaluation participants had to perform over objects, but did not vary in the objects themselves. We performed a searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to identify cortical representations in which neural patterns were more similar for the pairs of similar-goal than dissimilar-goal task conditions (Decorate vs. Protect). We report such effects in anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL) close to regions typically reported for processing tool-related actions, and thought to be important for representing how they are manipulated. However, the current study design fully controlled for manipulation similarity, which predicted orthogonal relationships among the conditions. We conclude that the aIPL likely has nearby, but distinct, representations of both manipulation and function knowledge, and thereby may have a broader role in understanding how objects can be used, representing not just physical affordances but also abstract functional criteria such as esthetic value or purpose categories such as decorate. This pattern of localization has implications for how semantic knowledge is organized in the brain. PMID:25592369

  1. Thirty-seventh ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology: Abstracts of papers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts only are given for papers presented during the following topical sessions: Opportunities for collaboration: Industry, academic, national laboratories; Developments in sensor technology; Analysis in containment facilities; Improving the quality of environmental data; Process analysis; Field analysis; Radiological separations; Interactive analytical seminars; Measurements and chemical industry initiatives; and Isotopic measurements and mass spectroscopy.

  2. Photometry Transforms Generation with PTGP (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, G.; Menzies, K.; Silvis, G.; Harris, B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Historically the development of photometry transformation coefficients required extensive manual effort and the use of large spreadsheets. A new release—version 5.0—of the Photometry Transformations Generation Program (PTGP) achieves the goal of generating transformation coefficients without the use of spreadsheets—saving considerable time and ensuring data accuracy. PTGP version 5.0 works directly with VSP to retrieve the most recent standard star reference magnitudes (currently for M67 and NGC7790). It then processes instrument magnitude file(s) downloaded from vphot or exported from AIP4WIN or MAXIM. Either AUID or “Boulder” star identifications can be used for AIP4WIN and MAXIM. When using VPHOT data or “Boulder” star identifications, PTGP determines the AUID names for each of the reference standard stars. All standard transforms are calculated. Plots of each transform's data can be reviewed, and individual star observations added/deleted. Transform sets can be saved for further use. Transform sets can be compared and selected sets averaged. The averaged sets can be exported in a file format compatible with the AAVSO TA tool. The presentation will provide a brief overview and demonstration of the tool. It will also discuss the implications of using PYTHON for the development—both benefits and potential problems. The program runs on both PCs and Macs. A subsequent presentation will discuss the use of VPHOT and PTGP to generate transforms and the testing of the impacts of varying key VPHOT and PTGP parameters.

  3. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  4. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G.

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  5. Hydrogen Attachment/Abstraction Dissociation (HAD) of Gas-Phase Peptide Ions for Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Sekiya, Sadanori; Nishikaze, Takashi; Kodera, Kei; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Wada, Motoi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Dissociation of gas-phase peptide ions through interaction with low-energy hydrogen (H) radical (∼0.15 eV) was observed with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The H radical generated by thermal dissociation of H2 molecules passing through a heated tungsten capillary (∼2000 °C) was injected into the ion trap containing target peptide ions. The fragmentation spectrum showed abundant c-/z- and a-/x-type ions, attributable to H attachment/abstraction to/from peptide ion. Because the low-energy neutral H radical initiated the fragmentation, the charge state of the precursor ion was maintained during the dissociation. As a result, precursor ions of any charge state, including singly charged positive and negative ions, could be analyzed for amino acid sequence. The sequence coverage exceeding 90% was obtained for both singly protonated and singly deprotonated substance P peptide. This mass spectrometry also preserved labile post-translational modification bonds. The modification sites of triply phosphorylated peptide (kinase domain of insulin receptor) were identified with the sequence coverage exceeding 80%. PMID:27002918

  6. Vibrationally Driven Hydrogen Abstraction Reaction by Bromine Radical in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Shalowski, Michael A.; Crim, F. Fleming

    2013-06-01

    Previously, we have shown that preparing reactants in specific vibrational states can affect the product state distribution and branching ratios in gas phase reactions. In the solution phase, however, no vibrational mediation study has been reported to date. In this work, we present our first attempt of vibrationally mediated bimolecular reaction in solution. Hydrogen abstraction from a solvent by a bromine radical can be a good candidate to test the effect of vibrational excitation on reaction dynamics because this reaction is highly endothermic and thus we can suppress any thermally initiated reaction in our experiment. Br radical quickly forms CT (charge transfer) complex with solvent molecule once it is generated from photolysis of a bromine source. The CT complex strongly absorbs visible light, which allows us to use electronic transient absorption for tracking Br radical population. For this experiment, we photolyze bromoform solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent with 267 nm to generate Br radical and excite the C-H stretch overtone of DMSO with 1700 nm a few hundred femtoseconds after the photolysis. Then, we monitor the population of Br-DMSO complex with 400 nm as a function of delay time between two pump beams and probe beam. As a preliminary result, we observed the enhancement of loss of Br-DMSO complex population due to the vibrational excitation. We think that increased loss of Br-DMSO complex is attributed to more loss of Br radical that abstracts hydrogen from DMSO and it is the vibrational excitation that promotes the reaction. To make a clear conclusion, we will next utilize infrared probing to directly detect HBr product formation.

  7. Clad Degradation- Summary and Abstraction for LA

    SciTech Connect

    D. Stahl

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this model report is to develop the summary cladding degradation abstraction that will be used in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Most civilian commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. The model addressed in this report is intended to describe the postulated condition of commercial Zircaloy-clad fuel as a function of postclosure time after it is placed in the repository. Earlier total system performance assessments analyzed the waste form as exposed UO{sub 2}, which was available for degradation at the intrinsic dissolution rate. Water in the waste package quickly became saturated with many of the radionuclides, limiting their release rate. In the total system performance assessments for the Viability Assessment and the Site Recommendation, cladding was analyzed as part of the waste form, limiting the amount of fuel available at any time for degradation. The current model is divided into two stages. The first considers predisposal rod failures (most of which occur during reactor operation and associated activities) and postdisposal mechanical failure (from static loading of rocks) as mechanisms for perforating the cladding. Other fuel failure mechanisms including those caused by handling or transportation have been screened out (excluded) or are treated elsewhere. All stainless-steel-clad fuel, which makes up a small percentage of the overall amount of fuel to be stored, is modeled as failed upon placement in the waste packages. The second stage of the degradation model is the splitting of the cladding from the reaction of water or moist air and UO{sub 2}. The splitting has been observed to be rapid in comparison to the total system performance assessment time steps and is modeled to be instantaneous. After the cladding splits, the rind buildup inside the cladding widens the split, increasing the diffusion area from the fuel rind to the waste package interior. This model report summarizes

  8. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2015-08-01

    The stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane of initial data are built and analysed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and PH1. This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova and Shevchenko (ApJ, 769, 152, 2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be "embedded" in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the "distance" to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman and Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets. Results of this study will appear in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 310 "Complex planetary systems".

  9. Directory of Energy Information Administration model abstracts 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This directory contains descriptions about each basic and auxiliary model, including the title, acronym, purpose, and type, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. For developing models, limited information is provided. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 44 EIA models active as of February 1, 1988; 16 of which operate on personal computers. Models that run on personal computers are identified by ''PC'' as part of the acronyms. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical listing of all basic and auxiliary EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies EIA models by type (basic or auxiliary). Appendix C lists developing models and contact persons for those models. A basic model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being sufficiently important to require sustained support and public scrutiny. An auxiliary model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being used only occasionally in analyses, and therefore requires minimal levels of documentation. A developing model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being under development and yet of sufficient interest to require a basic level of documentation at a future date. EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these ''proprietary'' models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here.

  10. FISCAL YEAR 1976/CONTROL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE(Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organiz...

  11. FISCAL YEAR 1976/HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE (Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organi...

  12. A Review of Errors in the Journal Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    (percentage) of abstracts that involved with errors, the most erroneous part of the abstract, and the types and frequency of errors. Also the purpose expanded to compare the results with those of the previous…

  13. A Search for Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars in the General Field Population (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D.; Albrow, M.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) The study of pulsating Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars in globular clusters is a new field of stellar research. The initial discovery of three rapidly pulsating EHB stars in w Centauri was announced at the Fourth Meeting on Hot Subdwarfs and Related Objects held in Shanghai in July 2009. A fourth sdB pulsator was discovered in the remaining photometry data soon afterwards; all were discovered in data obtained by the New Techology Telescope. In March 2013, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was utilized on five consecutive orbits to obtain far-UV imagery of NGC 2808’s core, revealing six sdB pulsators with periods 85 to 149 seconds and UV amplitudes from 2.0 to 6.8%. To date (April 2014), these ten EHB pulsators in w Centauri and NGC 2808 form a unique class of EHB variable closely clustered around Teff ~ 50,000 K. This talk describes an initial candidate search for EHB rapidly pulsating sdB stars in the general galactic field population. The search was conducted with the 1-m McLellan telescope at the Mt. John University Observatory (MJUO) at Lake Tekapo, New Zealand. Observations were conducted utilizing a special high speed f/8 frame-transfer camera called the Puoko-nui. The candidate set of stars was taken from the Edinburgh-Cape Blue Object Survey based on the selection criteria of a (B-V) value of -0.32 to -0.36, corresponding to the desired temperature range Teff ranging from 40,000 to 64,000 K. The objective of this search was to determine whether smaller size telescopes could identify promising sets of candidate sdB pulsators which could be followed up with larger professional systems.

  14. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  15. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  16. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  17. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts Online (ERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 14 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); Educational Research Abstract; Abstract number; Source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and Issue (journal…

  18. Guidelines for Abstracting Technical Literature on Instructional System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sanford P.; And Others

    Guidelines are presented for the preparation of abstracts of technical literature on instructional systems development (ISD). Although specifically created for abstracting information during the preparation of a technical data file on ISD, the guidelines are sufficiently general to apply to other areas in which abstracts of technical literature…

  19. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  20. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  1. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  2. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  3. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  4. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  5. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  6. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  7. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  8. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  9. SEER*Educate: Use of Abstracting Quality Index Scores to Monitor Improvement of All Employees.

    PubMed

    Potts, Mary S; Scott, Tim; Hafterson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Integral parts of the Seattle-Puget Sound's Cancer Surveillance System registry's continuous improvement model include the incorporation of SEER*Educate into its training program for all staff and analyzing assessment results using the Abstracting Quality Index (AQI). The AQI offers a comprehensive measure of overall performance in SEER*Educate, which is a Web-based application used to personalize learning and diagnostically pinpoint each staff member's place on the AQI continuum. The assessment results are tallied from 6 abstracting standards within 2 domains: incidence reporting and coding accuracy. More than 100 data items are aligned to 1 or more of the 6 standards to build an aggregated score that is placed on a continuum for continuous improvement. The AQI score accurately identifies those individuals who have a good understanding of how to apply the 6 abstracting standards to reliably generate high quality abstracts. PMID:27556839

  10. CSNF WASTE FORM DEGRADATION: SUMMARY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. CUNNANE

    2004-08-31

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the development and validation of models that can be used to calculate the release of radionuclides from commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) following a hypothetical breach of the waste package and fuel cladding in the repository. The purpose also includes describing the uncertainties associated with modeling the radionuclide release for the range of CSNF types, exposure conditions, and durations for which the radionuclide release models are to be applied. This document was developed in accordance with Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]). This document considers radionuclides to be released from CSNF when they are available for mobilization by gas-phase mass transport, or by dissolution or colloid formation in water that may contact the fuel. Because other reports address limitations on the dissolved and colloidal radionuclide concentrations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944], Table 2-1), this report does not address processes that control the extent to which the radionuclides released from CSNF are mobilized and transported away from the fuel either in the gas phase or in the aqueous phase as dissolved and colloidal species. The scope is limited to consideration of degradation of the CSNF rods following an initial breach of the cladding. It considers features of CSNF that limit the availability of individual radionuclides for release into the gaseous or aqueous phases that may contact the fuel and the processes and events expected to degrade these CSNF features. In short, the purpose is to describe the characteristics of breached fuel rods and the degradation processes expected to influence radionuclide release.

  11. Abstracts of State Authorizing and Oversight Laws and Regulations. A Study of State Oversight in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helliwell, Carolyn B.; And Others

    Herein are contained abstracts of state laws and regulations governing postsecondary education in three sectors: public, private degree-granting, and private nondegree-granting. With some exceptions, all obtainable statutes having the force of law are included. The statutes are arranged by state. Each abstract includes basic identifying data,…

  12. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  13. Does Mathematical Learning Occur in Going from Concrete to Abstract or in Going from Abstract to Concrete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract "and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. It is generally accepted that development goes from concrete toward the abstract; but dialectical theorists maintain just the opposite: development consists of an ascension from the abstract to the concrete. In this article, we…

  14. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  15. DNA damage by the sulfate radical anion: hydrogen abstraction from the sugar moiety versus one-electron oxidation of guanine.

    PubMed

    Roginskaya, Marina; Mohseni, Reza; Ampadu-Boateng, Derrick; Razskazovskiy, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    The products of oxidative damage to double-stranded (ds) DNA initiated by photolytically generated sulfate radical anions SO4(•-) were analyzed using reverse-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Relative efficiencies of two major pathways were compared: production of 8-oxoguanine (8oxoG) and hydrogen abstraction from the DNA 2-deoxyribose moiety (dR) at C1,' C4,' and C5' positions. The formation of 8oxoG was found to account for 87% of all quantified lesions at low illumination doses. The concentration of 8oxoG quickly reaches a steady state at about one 8oxoG per 100 base pairs due to further oxidation of its products. It was found that another guanine oxidation product identified as 2-amino-5-(2'-alkylamino)-4H-imidazol-4-one (X) was released in significant quantities from its tentative precursor 2-amino-5-[(2'-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)amino]-4H-imidazol-4-one (dIz) upon treatment with primary amines in neutral solutions. The linear dose dependence of X release points to the formation of dIz directly from guanine and not through oxidation of 8oxoG. The damage to dR was found to account for about 13% of the total damage, with majority of lesions (33%) originating from the C4' oxidation. The contribution of C1' oxidation also turned out to be significant (17% of all dR damages) despite of the steric problems associated with the abstraction of the C1'-hydrogen. However, no evidence of base-to-sugar free valence transfer as a possible alternative to direct hydrogen abstraction at C1' was found. PMID:27043476

  16. Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, (fiscal year) 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year 1987 under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). The program is designed for implementation in a three-phase process, with Phase I determining the scientific or technical merit and feasibility of ideas proposed for investigation. The period of performance in this initial phase is relatively brief, typically about 6 months, and the awards are limited to $50,000. Phase II is the principal research or research and development effort, and the awards are as high as $500,000 for work to be performed in periods of up to 2 years. Phase III is the commercial application. The 111 Phase I projects described were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 942 proposals received in response to the 1987 Solicitation. They cover the fields of chemistry, materials, control systems, plant natural products, instrumentation, nuclear medicine, health and environmental effects, high energy physics, particle accelerators, nuclear physics, plasma diagnostics and confinement, fusion energy systems, robotics and remote systems, nuclear reactors, space nuclear power, fuel cycle, decontamination/decommissioning, commputers in nuclear plants, coal, enhanced oil recovery/tar sands, fossil energy, photovoltaics, solar thermal, ceramics for heat engines, and industrial separation, conversion and recovery processes. (DLC)

  17. Moving beyond Solving for "x": Teaching Abstract Algebra in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper details an inquiry-based approach for teaching the basic notions of rings and fields to liberal arts mathematics students. The task sequence seeks to encourage students to identify and comprehend core concepts of introductory abstract algebra by thinking like mathematicians; that is, by investigating an open-ended mathematical context,…

  18. Investigations in Science Education, Vol. 2 No. 1. Expanded Abstracts and Critical Analyses of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.; Blosser, Patricia E., Ed.

    This volume contains analyses of 12 recent studies in science education. The research topics of the studies include cognitive development, instruction, statistical methodology, teacher education, and testing. Each analysis is written by a science education specialist and contains an expanded abstract identifying the purpose, rationale,…

  19. Information from Multiple Modalities Helps 5-Month-Olds Learn Abstract Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Marcus, Gary F.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    By 7 months of age, infants are able to learn rules based on the abstract relationships between stimuli ( Marcus et al., 1999 ), but they are better able to do so when exposed to speech than to some other classes of stimuli. In the current experiments we ask whether multimodal stimulus information will aid younger infants in identifying abstract…

  20. A Comparative Study of Differences in Judged Relevance of Abstracts Located by Two Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John

    Differences in judged relevance of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) abstracts identified by two different information systems were investigated. A national semi-private educational service agency which utilizes mechanical searching of the research literature was one information system, while the other was a regional,…

  1. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING TO IDENTIFY BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT 2005 SESSION ABSTRACT

    GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING TO IDENTIFY BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    David J. Dix. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  2. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  3. The effects of psychological distance on abstraction: Two meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, Courtney K; Callahan, Shannon P; Kochersberger, Annie O; Amit, Elinor; Ledgerwood, Alison

    2015-05-01

    Psychological distance and abstraction both represent key variables of considerable interest to researchers across cognitive, social, and developmental psychology. Moreover, largely inspired by construal level theory, numerous experiments across multiple fields have now connected these 2 constructs, examining how psychological distance affects the level of abstraction at which people mentally represent the world around them. The time is clearly ripe for a quantitative synthesis to shed light on the relation between these constructs and investigate potential moderators. To this end, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of research examining the effects of psychological distance on abstraction and its downstream consequences. Across 106 papers containing a total of 267 experiments, our results showed a reliable and medium-sized effect of psychological distance on both level of abstraction in mental representation and the downstream consequences of abstraction. Importantly, these effects replicate across time, researchers, and settings. Our analyses also identified several key moderators, including the size of the difference in distance between 2 levels of a temporal distance manipulation and the dependent variable's capacity to tap processing of both abstract and concrete features (rather than only one or the other). We discuss theoretical and methodological implications, and highlight promising avenues for future research. PMID:25420220

  4. Decoding Concrete and Abstract Action Representations During Explicit and Implicit Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Ariani, Giacomo; Greenlee, Mark W; Lingnau, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Action understanding requires a many-to-one mapping of perceived input onto abstract representations that generalize across concrete features. It is debated whether such abstract action concepts are encoded in ventral premotor cortex (PMv; motor hypothesis) or, alternatively, are represented in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC; cognitive hypothesis). We used fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis to decode observed actions at concrete and abstract, object-independent levels of representation. Participants observed videos of 2 actions involving 2 different objects, using either an explicit or implicit task with respect to conceptual action processing. We decoded concrete action representations by training and testing a classifier to discriminate between actions within each object category. To identify abstract action representations, we trained the classifier to discriminate actions in one object and tested the classifier on actions performed on the other object, and vice versa. Region-of-interest and searchlight analyses revealed decoding in LOTC at both concrete and abstract levels during both tasks, whereas decoding in PMv was restricted to the concrete level during the explicit task. In right inferior parietal cortex, decoding was significant for the abstract level during the explicit task. Our findings are incompatible with the motor hypothesis, but support the cognitive hypothesis of action understanding. PMID:26223260

  5. [The abstract--why and how it should be written].

    PubMed

    Kourilová, M; Hulín, I

    1989-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide stimuli for writing concise and coherent abstracts imaging the original article without loss of critical substance and clarity. The main functions of abstracts in providing quick information and reliable sources for indexing are emphasized. The purposes of the prospective reader have to be considered as they should determine the form and content of the abstract. The two main types, i.e. indicative and informative abstracts are assessed. The indicative abstract states what the full paper is about and is thus suitable only for review papers, essays, and nonexperimental studies. As its primary purpose is to help decide whether the full article should be read, it is practically useless when it accompanies a paper written in a different and not commonly accessible language (e.g. Slovak article, English abstract). The informative abstract has a high load of specified information. When concerning experimental work, it should state the aim, the material or subjects involved and methods used, the results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. The recently introduced structured abstract for clinical papers presents a comprehensive image of the full article in a format that makes explicit the elements of critical argument. A framework of useful steps for writing abstracts is provided by analyzing the three main phases of the abstracting process, i.e. 1. analytic reading, 2. extraction, organization and reduction of information, and 3. critical editing. The presented summary of hints for writing reader oriented abstracts and the list of actual examples of obfuscation should increase the awareness and commitment of authors in preparing good-quality abstracts. PMID:2819492

  6. Abstract models for the synthesis of optimization algorithms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G. G. L.; Polak, E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic approach to the problem of synthesis of optimization algorithms. Abstract models for algorithms are developed which guide the inventive process toward ?conceptual' algorithms which may consist of operations that are inadmissible in a practical method. Once the abstract models are established a set of methods for converting ?conceptual' algorithms falling into the class defined by the abstract models into ?implementable' iterative procedures is presented.

  7. Concept Representation Reflects Multimodal Abstraction: A Framework for Embodied Semantics.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Pendl, Suzanne L; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicates that sensory and motor cortical areas play a significant role in the neural representation of concepts. However, little is known about the overall architecture of this representational system, including the role played by higher level areas that integrate different types of sensory and motor information. The present study addressed this issue by investigating the simultaneous contributions of multiple sensory-motor modalities to semantic word processing. With a multivariate fMRI design, we examined activation associated with 5 sensory-motor attributes--color, shape, visual motion, sound, and manipulation--for 900 words. Regions responsive to each attribute were identified using independent ratings of the attributes' relevance to the meaning of each word. The results indicate that these aspects of conceptual knowledge are encoded in multimodal and higher level unimodal areas involved in processing the corresponding types of information during perception and action, in agreement with embodied theories of semantics. They also reveal a hierarchical system of abstracted sensory-motor representations incorporating a major division between object interaction and object perception processes. PMID:25750259

  8. Musical expertise induces audiovisual integration of abstract congruency rules.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-12-12

    Perception of everyday life events relies mostly on multisensory integration. Hence, studying the neural correlates of the integration of multiple senses constitutes an important tool in understanding perception within an ecologically valid framework. The present study used magnetoencephalography in human subjects to identify the neural correlates of an audiovisual incongruency response, which is not generated due to incongruency of the unisensory physical characteristics of the stimulation but from the violation of an abstract congruency rule. The chosen rule-"the higher the pitch of the tone, the higher the position of the circle"-was comparable to musical reading. In parallel, plasticity effects due to long-term musical training on this response were investigated by comparing musicians to non-musicians. The applied paradigm was based on an appropriate modification of the multifeatured oddball paradigm incorporating, within one run, deviants based on a multisensory audiovisual incongruent condition and two unisensory mismatch conditions: an auditory and a visual one. Results indicated the presence of an audiovisual incongruency response, generated mainly in frontal regions, an auditory mismatch negativity, and a visual mismatch response. Moreover, results revealed that long-term musical training generates plastic changes in frontal, temporal, and occipital areas that affect this multisensory incongruency response as well as the unisensory auditory and visual mismatch responses. PMID:23238733

  9. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  10. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  11. How to prepare and submit abstracts for scientific meetings.

    PubMed

    Japiassú, Andre Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of study results is a key step in scientific research, and submitting an abstract to a meeting is often the first form of public communication. Meeting abstracts have a defined structure that is similar to abstracts for scientific articles, with an introduction, the objective, methods, results and conclusions. However, abstracts for meetings are not presented as part of a full article and, therefore, must contain the necessary and most relevant data. In this article, we detail their structure and include tips to make them technically correct. PMID:23917970

  12. MICROTASK CROWDSOURCING FOR DISEASE MENTION ANNOTATION IN PUBMED ABSTRACTS

    PubMed Central

    Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I

    2014-01-01

    Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the ‘training set’ of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http

  13. Hanford Personnel Dosimeter supporting studies FY-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, G.W.R.; Cummings, F.M.; Aldrich, J.M.; Thorson, M.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections of this report which describe fundamental characteristics of the Hanford multipurpose personnel dosimeter (HMPD). Abstracts were not prepared for Appendix A and Appendix B which deal with calculated standard deviations for 100 mrem mixed field exposures and detailed calculations of standard deviations, respectively. (KRM)

  14. Reading and Abstracting Journal Articles in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Susan Howes

    1991-01-01

    An assignment centered on reading journal articles and writing abstracts is an effective way to improve student reading and writing skills in sedimentology and stratigraphy laboratories. Each student reads two articles and writes informative abstracts from the author's point of view. (PR)

  15. Bilingual Vocational Education. Project Abstracts 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Abstracts are provided for 16 bilingual vocational education projects offered in 1987-88. Each abstract provides information on: grantee; state; project title; project director, address, and telephone number; project officer and U.S. Department of Education address; language group(s) served; occupational skills area(s); length of training cycle…

  16. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  17. Effects of Abstract and Concrete Simulation Elements on Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, T.; Veermans, K.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary evidence on the effectiveness of concrete and abstract representations in science education is based solely on studies conducted in college context. There it has been found that learning with abstract representations produces predominantly better outcomes than learning with concrete representations and combining the representations…

  18. The Neural Development of an Abstract Concept of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    As literate adults, we appreciate numerical values as abstract entities that can be represented by a numeral, a word, a number of lines on a scorecard, or a sequence of chimes from a clock. This abstract, notation-independent appreciation of numbers develops gradually over the first several years of life. Here, using functional magnetic resonance…

  19. A Dialectical Approach to the Formation of Mathematical Abstractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper is structured in two sections. The first examines views of mathematical abstraction in two broad categories: empiricist and dialectical accounts. It documents the difficulties involved in and explores the potentialities of both accounts. Then it outlines a recent model which takes a dialectical materialist approach to abstraction in…

  20. The Role of Comprehension in Learning Concrete and Abstract Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy; Royer, James M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made to assess the effect of comprehension on the recognition of meaning and wording changes with concrete and abstract sentences. The results of the experiment were discussed in light of recent models which propose different storage mechanisms for concrete and abstract sentences. (Author/RM)