Science.gov

Sample records for abstracts selects pollution

  1. Groundwater abstraction pollution risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P

    2003-01-01

    A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.

  2. Air Pollution Publications, A Selected Bibliography With Abstracts, 1966-1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Contained are over 1000 entries with abstracts spanning the literature from 1966 to 1968. The references are grouped into broad subject categories: emission sources; atmospheric interactions; measurement; control methods; biosciences and medicine; plants; materials deterioration; air quality; legal and administrative aspects; social aspects; basic…

  3. Mercury and Air Pollution: A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The Air Pollution Technical Information Center (APTIC) of the Office of Air Programs has selected and compiled this bibliography of abstracts on mercury and air pollution. The abstracted documents are considered representative of available literature, although not all-inclusive. They are grouped into eleven categories: (1) Emission Sources, (2)…

  4. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Toxicity bioassays: Water pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Toxicity bioassays: Water-pollution effects on aquatic animals and plants. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity bioassay studies of water pollution effects on reproduction, growth, and mortality of aquatic fauna and flora. Industrial and agricultural water pollutants such as heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides are evaluated and tested. Standard fish and algal assays are used to determine effects of potential toxicants. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  8. International oil pollution R and D abstract database

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Title VII of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Established the Interagency Committee to coordinate a comprehensive program of oil pollution research, technology development, and demonstration among the federal agencies, in cooperation with industry, universities, research institutions, State governments, and other nations...' The International Oil Pollution Research and Development Abstract Database was developed by the U.S. Coast Guard on behalf of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research to comply with this mandate. It is hoped that this exchange of information will reduce redundant research and encourage collaborative efforts.

  9. Ground water pollution transport: model studies. January 1975-March 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1975-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning analytical and numerical simulations of the movement and distribution of contaminants in ground water. Pollutant transport and dispersion, two- and three-dimensional modeling in homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, and site studies in specific hydrogeologic environments are among the topics discussed. Theoretical analyses and practical applications are included. (Contains 171 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  11. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  12. Abstracts of Selected Management Training Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Ilene

    Intended for evaluators--whether trainers, psychologists, management consultants or professors--this bibliography samples findings in management training evaluation between 1953 and 1975. It contains 28 abstracts of representative articles from journals in applied psychology and personnel management. Each abstract is a one-half to one-page…

  13. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  14. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography With Abstracts - Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cited are 558 references with abstracts translated from the original foreign languages, including 511 from Russian, 129 from German, and 18 from other countries. The entries are generally of a technical or advanced nature and are grouped into 13 subject areas: General, Emission Sources, Atmospheric Interaction, Measurement Methods, Control…

  15. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  16. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  17. Emergency Planning for Dams: Bibliography and Abstracts of Selected Publications,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Psychology . No. 2 (1971), pp. 187-203. Dynes, Russell R. Organizational Involvement & Changes in Community Structure in Disaster. Disaster Research Center, The...DAMS BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED PUBLICATIONS DTIC, JUL 3 0 198 JANUARY 1082 41E THE HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING CENTER * research *training U.S...Hydrologic Engineering Center 609 Second Street, Davis, California 95616 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE January 1982 IS. HUMBER

  18. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Santillán, Liliana I.; Sánchez-Escobar, Juan J.; Calixto-Romo, M. Angeles; Barbosa-Santillán, Luis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP) approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides). Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2). ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2. PMID:27366202

  19. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines. (Contains a minimum of 143 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  1. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to asbestos and silicate fibers in the workplace. Correlations are cited between occupational exposure, carcinogenesis, and mortality. Included are surveys of occupational exposure of shipyard and dockyard workers; mechanics, miners; insulation workers; sheet metal workers; millers; and workers in pottery mills, foundries, the chemical industry, and power stations. Surveys and health examinations are reported for workers and family members whose exposure resulted from contact with the worker. Asbestos and silicate pollution exposure standards and hazard control technology are cited. References to nonoccupational asbestos and silicate pollution are excluded and can be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. REMOVAL OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA BY HARDWOOD MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mix...

  4. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  5. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-03-04

    A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  6. Selected abstracts on engineering geology and related subjects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britt, Severine Hansenne

    1951-01-01

    Interlayered sand, silt, and clay of middle Eocene to late Paleocene age in east-central Georgia form the Gordon aquifer system which ranges in thickness from about 20 to 180 ft. Estimated transmissivities range from 620 to 13,000 sq ft/day. During 1980, approximately 24 million gpd (gallons per day) was withdrawn from the Gordon aquifer system, of which about 70% was used for irrigation. Water levels in the aquifer throughout the study area generally showed little change during 1934-68; however, during 1969-81, local declines as great as 33 ft have occurred in areas of increased irrigation or large scale municipal and industrial pumping. The Gordon aquifer system is recharged by precipitation in the outcrop area and in interstream drainage divides in and near the outcrop area, and by leakage through adjacent confining units. Discharge from the aquifer occurs predominantly as flow into streams or as leakage into underlying and overlying units. Water from the Gordon aquifer system is generally a calcium bicarbonate type that ranges from soft to hard, and in most areas has constituent concentrations that are within the Georgia Environmental Protection Division recommended drinking water standards. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.

    1994-01-01

    A method for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants comprising the steps of placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container, placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours, retrieving the container, collecting the contents of the container, and microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to inoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  8. Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, A; Hura, C; Schepens, P

    2001-12-03

    Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants, including PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined in soil, animal fat and human serum samples from Romania. All methods were rigorously tested and adequate quality control was ensured. Soil samples from lassy County showed a lower contamination with organochlorines than samples from other Romanian regions. While DDTs concentrations in soil were significantly higher at rural sites, only few samples (three out of 47) exceeded the official Romanian norms for DDTs. PCBs concentrations were low in rural sites (< 8 ng/g soil), but rather high (up to 134 ng/g soil) in urban soils collected mostly from parks (Bucharest, Arad, Baia Mare, Pitesti and Ploicsti). Animal fat samples from lassy showed high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs concentrations up to 12370 ng/g fat), but similar PCB concentrations when compared with Arad samples. Two samples (from 24) exceeded the EU norms (1000 ng/g fat) for HCHs and DDTs in animal fat. Organochlorines were found in higher concentrations in some samples of human serum from Timisoara due to a broader age range. Samples of human serum from lassy mothers showed higher HCHs and DDTs concentrations than samples from a similar group from Antwerp, Belgium. HCB and PCBs were higher in Antwerp cohort. Romanian samples showed a higher ratio DDT/sigmaDDTs, but similar ratios PCB 153/sigmaPCBs.

  9. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Cigarette pollution effects on humans. November 1986-October 1988 (Citations from Pollution abstracts). Report for November 1986-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning health consequences to human beings of primary and secondary exposure to cigarette smoke and its various gaseous and particulate components by themselves, and in conjunction with other pollutants encountered in the natural environment and in special types of environments. Technical and economic aspects of cigarette pollution are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 127 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  12. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Marine biodegradation: Chemical pollutants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of marine pollutants. The citations explore the microbial breakdown of petroleum, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other hazardous materials. The chemical details of biotransformation, and the development of microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants are presented. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and biochemical effects of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Citations discuss air, water, soil, and sediment pollution and control. Topics include vehicle emissions and control, pollutant pathways, carcinogens and mutagenic activity, and photoinduced toxicity. Food contamination, environmental monitoring, and soil contamination along highways are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 117 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Remote sensing of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to pollution in the ocean. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radiometry, lidar, radar, satellite observations, infrared scanning, laser spectrometry, acoustics, and microwaves. Articles address oil spills, coastal ecosystems, ocean dumping, dredging, and biological indications of marine pollution. Emphasis is placed on identifying and characterizing oil spills. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Ocean pollution detection: Petroleum. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection and monitoring of oil pollution in the ocean. The citations examine identification and mapping of oil spills, the monitoring of ocean dumping, and detection of pollution resulting from off-shore drilling for petroleum. Techniques discussed include satellite sensing, infrared imagery, UV fluorescence, thermal mapping, microwave radiometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Methodology for monitoring the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments, their bioconcentration in marine organisms, and their effects on marine ecosystems is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 179 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed upon using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Baloon-lofted pollutant sampling of open burning and open detonation: abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has developed a balloon-lofted, ~10 kg instrument pack for sampling open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) events for pollutants. The instrument pack, termed the “Flyer,” and its accompanying maneuverable balloon system, are intended to sample OB/OD plumes to de...

  3. Removal of selected pollutants from aqueous media by hardwood mulch.

    PubMed

    Ray, Asim B; Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Tafuri, Anthony N

    2006-08-21

    Generic hardwood mulch, usually used for landscaping, was utilized to remove several selected pollutants (heavy metals and toxic organic compounds) typically found in urban stormwater (SW) runoff. The hardwood mulch sorbed all the selected pollutants from a spiked stormwater mixture, including copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), chromium (Cr(6+)), lead (Pb(2+)), zinc (Zn(2+)), 1,3 dichlorobenzene (DCB), naphthalene (NP), fluoranthene (FA), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). Masses of the pollutants sorbed depended upon the pollutant species, contact time, and initial concentration which varied from 20 to 100%. Sorption rates of the metals, in general, were more rapid than those of the organics; however, mass removals (percent) of the organics, in contrast to those of the metals, were independent of their initial concentrations. With the exception of Cd, percentages (weight) of the metals removed declined as their initial concentrations decreased. None of the sorbed pollutants desorbed to any significant extent upon extended washing with water. It is quite feasible that in the presence of mulch the uptake of these pollutants by the aquatic species will be reduced significantly.

  4. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed upon using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Toxicity of mercury and mercury compounds. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. The citations examine mercury halides, organic mercury compounds, mercury metal, and mercury vapor. Metabolism, toxicology, occupational exposure, symptoms of exposure, mechanisms of interaction with biological systems, demographics of mercury accumulation and poisoning, and case reports are considered. Heavy metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 155 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Noise induced hearing impairment and loss. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmentally induced acoustic trauma. Occupational, residential, aircraft-related, and automotive noise stress are examined. Articles discuss noise control and reduction, diagnosis and pathology of hearing loss, regulation and legislation regarding noise pollution, personal protection, therapy, and risk assessment. Also included are related factors such as sound levels, sound frequencies, and exposure times. (Contains a minimum of 148 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Removal of heavy metals from effluent. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of lead, cadmium, mercury, and other heavy metals from waste waters. Precipitation, reverse osmosis, complexation, ultrafiltration, and adsorption are among the techniques described. The citations examine the efficiency, operational difficulties, cost effectiveness, and optimization of these methods. Prevention and remediation of metal pollution from electroplating, mining, smelting, and other industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Bioindicators of marine pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Waste treatment by ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ultrafiltration in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants are described. The results of bench-scale and pilot-plant studies, and the experiences derived from full-scale industrial installations are presented. Efficiency improvement methods, process design criteria, and comparisons of cost effectiveness versus other treatment methods are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Dioxins: Toxicity and health risks. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicology of dioxins and the health risks associated with dioxin exposure. Articles include mortality and physiological studies of major dioxin contamination, including the Seveso and Love Canal incidents. The biochemistry of dioxin poisoning, environmental impacts, sources of dioxin pollution, metabolism of dioxins by microorganisms, and carcinogenicity are considered. The citations also examine occupational exposure, and risk assessment of exposure of the general public to dioxin. References to Agent Orange exposure during the Vietnam War are cited. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 161 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Radioactive pollution: Oean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Radioactive pollution: Ocean environments. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distrubutions of radionuclides that indicate artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, Cesium-137, Cobalt-60, Strontium-90, Ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Waste treatment by ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ultrafiltration in the treatment of wastewaters. Techniques for the removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants are described. The results of bench-scale and pilot-plant studies, and the experiences derived from full-scale industrial installations are presented. Efficiency improvement methods, process design criteria, and comparisons of cost effectiveness versus other treatment methods are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Deirdre M.; Kelly, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8–16 and 18–30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research

  7. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil or water. The chemical or biological processes that destroy these contaminants or reduce their toxicity are discussed. Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated sites. The citations examine the relationship between the chemical structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rate of decomposition; selection of the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation; and factors which can accelerate or inhibit degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil or water. The chemical or biological processes that destroy these contaminants or reduce their toxicity are discussed. Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated sites. The citations examine the relationship between the chemical structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rate of decomposition; selection of the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation; and factors which can accelerate or inhibit degradation. (Contains a minimum of 108 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil or water. The chemical or biological processes that destroy these contaminants or reduce their toxicity are discussed. Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated sites. The citations examine the relationship between the chemical structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rate of decomposition; selection of the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation; and factors which can accelerate or inhibit degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Ltest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil or water. The chemical or biological processes that destroy these contaminants or reduce their toxicity are discussed. Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated sites. The citations examine the relationship between the chemical structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rate of decomposition; selection of the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation; and factors which can accelerate or inhibit degradation. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil or water. The chemical or biological processes that destroy these contaminants or reduce their toxicity are discussed. Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated sites. The citations examine the relationship between the chemical structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rate of decomposition; selection of the most effective microorganisms for biological degradation; and factors which can accelerate or inhibit degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  13. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  14. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  15. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, II. Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Ravina, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  16. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  17. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, I. Surface Energy Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Ravina, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  18. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  19. Emissions of organic pollutants from traffic and roads: Priority pollutants selection and substance flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Anna; Björklund, Karin; Eriksson, Eva; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Siopi, Anna

    2017-02-15

    A large number of organic pollutants (OPs) emitted from vehicles and traffic-related activities exhibit environmental persistence and a tendency to bioaccumulate, and may have detrimental long-term effects on aquatic life. The aim of the study was to establish a list of significant sources of OPs occurring in road runoff, identify the OPs emitted from these sources, select a number of priority pollutants (PP), and estimate the quantity of PPs emitted in a road environment case study using substance flow analysis (SFA). The priority pollutants included in the SFA were selected from a list of approximately 1100 compounds found after comprehensive screening, including literature and database searches, expert judgments, the Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards method, and chemical analysis of sediments. The results showed the following priority order: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)>alkanes C20-C40>alkylphenols>phthalates>aldehydes>phenolic antioxidants>bisphenol A>oxygenated-PAHs>naphtha C5-C12>amides>amines. Among these, PAHs were chosen for a SFA, which was performed for a highway case study area in Gothenburg (Sweden). The SFA showed that the main sources of PAHs emitted in the area were vehicle exhaust gases, followed by tyre wear, motor lubricant oils, road surface wear, and brake linings. Only 2-6% of the total 5.8-29kg annually emitted PAHs/ha ended up in the stormwater sewer system. The measured PAH loads were found in much smaller amounts than the calculated loads and the outflow to stormwater contained much more of the hazardous PAHs than the total loads emitted in the catchment area.

  20. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  1. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. |

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  2. Novel computational identification of highly selective biomarkers of pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Weisman, David; Liu, Hong; Redfern, Jessica; Zhu, Liya; Colón-Carmona, Adán

    2011-06-15

    The use of in vivo biosensors to acquire environmental pollution data is an emerging and promising paradigm. One major challenge is the identification of highly specific biomarkers that selectively report exposure to a target pollutant, while remaining quiescent under a diverse set of other, often unknown, environmental conditions. This study hypothesized that a microarray data mining approach can identify highly specific biomarkers, and, that the robustness property can generalize to unforeseen environmental conditions. Starting with Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data measuring responses to a variety of treatments, the study used the top scoring pair (TSP) algorithm to identify mRNA transcripts that respond uniquely to phenanthrene, a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Subsequent in silico analysis with a larger set of microarray data indicated that the biomarkers remained robust under new conditions. Finally, in vivo experiments were performed with unforeseen conditions that mimic phenanthrene stress, and the biomarkers were assayed using qRT-PCR. In these experiments, the biomarkers always responded positively to phenanthrene, and never responded to the unforeseen conditions, thereby supporting the hypotheses. This data mining approach requires only microarray or next-generation RNA-seq data, and, in principle, can be applied to arbitrary biomonitoring organisms and chemical exposures.

  3. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  4. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Effects of Feedback for Training and Development: Selected Research Abstracts. Training and Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    This report presents 23 research abstracts that investigate the effects of feedback on job performance. A narrative that precedes the abstracts lists generalizations and conclusions that are representative of the studies presented in the report. It concludes that the studies reviewed confirm that feedback improves the performance of subordinates.…

  6. Aconitine Challenge Test Reveals a Single Exposure to Air Pollution Causes Increased Cardiac Arrhythmia Risk in Hypertensive Rats - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been used repeatedly to examine the factors that increase the risk of such cardiac electrical dysfunction. In this study, ...

  7. Safe Drinking Water Act. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the United States Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and later amendments. Articles discuss the impacts these rulings have on industries and municipalities. The criteria developed for these regulations are examined. The citations also address general discussions of the law itself and explore specific concerns such as lead pollution, radon gas in drinking water, microbial pollutants, arsenic contamination, and other contaminants and techniques for disinfection/decontamination. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and radium as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 95 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

  10. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.W.; Martin, M.L.

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  11. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 243 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 138 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. January 1970-May 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, bogs, and other wetland areas to degrade, absorb, filter, consume, or mitigate natural and man-made pollution and wastes, while still providing refuge and breeding grounds for wildlife. The ecology, biochemistry, and viability of naturally occuring and artificially established wetlands as water-treatment systems and wildlife areas is considered. The effects of individual pollutants, environmental factors, species diversity, and cleansing ability of wetland areas on the potential for wildlife refuge, sewage treatment, treatment of industrial and municipal wastes, handling agricultural runoff, mitigating accidental spills, and flooding are discussed. (Contains 271 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Fractured rock hydrogeology (excluding modeling). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the nature and occurrence of groundwater in fractured crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Techniques for determining connectivity and hydraulic conductivity, pollutant distribution in fractures, and site studies in specific geologic environments are among the topics discussed. Citations pertaining to modeling studies of fractured rock hydrogeology are addressed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 54 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Fractured rock hydrogeology (excluding modeling). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the nature and occurrence of groundwater in fractured crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Techniques for determining connectivity and hydraulic conductivity, pollutant distribution in fractures, and site studies in specific geologic environments are among the topics discussed. Citations pertaining to modeling studies of fractured rock hydrogeology are addressed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 62 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Migrant Education, A Selected Bibliography (with ERIC Abstracts). ERIC/CRESS Supplement No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Las Cruces, NM.

    A supplement to seven previous bibliographies, this bibliography provides access to some of the latest resource material, research findings, and/or developments in migrant education. Part I contains 175 citations and abstracts which appeared in "Resources in Education" (RIE) from January 1976 through December 1976. Part II includes 14 citations of…

  17. Fetal Effects of Maternal/Paternal Alcohol and Other Drug Use: Abstracts of Selected Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Kathy; And Others

    This publication includes abstracts of 45 articles published in recent years on the effects of maternal and paternal alcohol and other drug use on the fetus; prevention and intervention programs; and teaching strategies to be used with prenatally drug-exposed children. While not an exhaustive list of available research on these topics, this review…

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the freshwater environment. Topics include sources, distribution, and accumulation rates for specific regions. The citations also discuss PCB bioaccumulation, pollutant pathways, introduction into the food chain, and results of long and short term monitoring of selected areas. Detection methods for PCB accumulation in fish and surficial sediments are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Clean Water Act. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the United States Clean Water Act of 1974. Articles discuss the enforcement and impacts of these regulations on industrial facilities and municipalities, water quality improvements resulting from these regulations, state responses, impacts on wetlands, and pros and cons for the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. Citations also discuss financial and economic considerations of water supply cleanup and preventive measures to ensure against future pollution of existing water supplies. (Contains a minimum of 249 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Bioindicators of marine pollution. January 1974-July 1989 (Citations from Oceanic abstracts). Report for January 1974-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of marine plants and animals as indicators of organic and inorganic pollutant distribution. Topics include descriptions of specific species and assemblages, regional and local monitoring studies, and analyses of the soft and hard parts of marine animals. Studies of algae, bivalves, corals, crustaceans, bacterial counts, and seagrasses in estuaries and benthic areas are included. (This updated bibliography contains 296 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. January 1978-July 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 330 citations, 66 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Toxic substances: Effects on fish. January 1978-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 356 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Toxic substances: effects on fish. January 1970-July 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical and physiological effects of toxic substances on fish populations. Particular emphasis is placed on using fish as an indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Toxicity effects of mercury, zinc, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, lead, cadmium, copper, and aluminum in freshwater and seawater fish are included. (This updated bibliography contains 264 citations, 24 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search. [Dual use wildlife refuges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Tritium contamination in the environment. January 1970-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, tritium bioaccumulation, tritium genotoxicity, tritium transport through the food chain, tritium presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and tritium buildup in the soil. Regulations on the permissible tritium levels discharged into the environment are described. (Contains 153 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Improving sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with photo-selective dryer cabinet materials (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photo-selective materials have previously been studied for their effects on the pre-harvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential post-harvest effects. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (u...

  7. Dioxins: Toxicity and health risks. January 1979-August 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1979-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicology of dioxins and the health risks associated with dioxin exposure. Articles include mortality and physiological studies of major dioxin contamination such Seveso and Love Canal. The biochemistry of dioxin poisoning, environmental impacts, sources of dioxin pollution, metabolism of dioxins by microorganisms, carcinogenicity, occupational exposure, and risk assessment of dioxin exposure by the general public are also discussed. Some mention is made of Agent Orange exposure in the military during the Vietnam War. (Contains 276 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Radioactive pollution: ocean environments. January 1974-May 1989 (Citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Report for January 1974-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning radioactive pollution of the marine environment. Distributions of radionuclides indicative of artificial radioactive contamination are discussed including iodine-131, various uranium isotopes, cesium-137, cobalt-60, strontium-90, ruthenium-160, and plutonium isotopes. Ecosystems considered include coral reefs and atolls, planktonic zones in the open ocean, salt marshes, estuaries, coastal waters, and the Mediterranean Sea. Sources of radioactive contamination examined include atomic bomb blasts, fossil-fuel combustion, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear accidents. Experimental simulation of radionuclide transport in marine biota is included. (Contains 108 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Component Selection, Accelerated Testing, and Improved Modeling of AMTEC Systems for Space Power (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Suitor, J.; O'Connor, D.

    1993-01-01

    Alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) designs for space power are numerous, but selection of materials for construction of long-lived AMTEC devices has been limited to electrodes, current collectors, and the solid electrolyte. AMTEC devices with lifetimes greater than 5 years require careful selection and life testing of all hot-side components. The likely selection of a remote condensed design for initial flight test and probable use with a GPHS in AMTEC powered outer planet probes requires the device to be constructed to tolerate T greater than 1150K, as well as exposure to Na(sub (g)), and Na(sub (liq)) on the high pressure side. The temperatures involved make critical high strength and chemical resistance to Na containing Na(sub 2)O. Selection among materials which can be worked should not be driven by ease of fabricability, as high temperature stability is the critical issue. These concepts drive the selection of Mo alloys for Na(sub (liq)) containment in AMTEC cells for T to 1150K operation, as they are significantly stronger than comparable NB or Ta alloys, are less soluble in Na(sub (liq)) containing dissolved Na(sub 2)O, are workable compared to W alloys (which might be used for certain components), and are ductile at the T greater than 500K of proposed AMTEC modules in space applications.

  10. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  11. The Fate of Selected Organic Pollutants During Landfill Disposal Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-11

    DAMD17-85-C-5024 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Fort Detrick PROGRAM PROJECT ITASK iWORK UNIT Frederick, Maryland...inclusion by commercial and industrial operations are additional sources of priority pollutants in sanitary landfills. DeWalle and Chian (6) detected numerous...palmitate Butanol Dibutyl phthalate Tetrahydrofuran Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Diethylether Terpineol C15 Chloroform Dichloroethane Base/Neutral

  12. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 4, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Ismail, Ed.

    This selected list of 121 citations on the public education system of Pakistan is annotated to give the description and appropriate level of each document. Entries are arranged according to 33 major topics: 1) education administration, organization, and finance; 2) educational history, educational philosophy; 3) educational development,…

  13. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  14. Selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Italian environment.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; De Felip, Elena; Magliuolo, Mariella; Ferri, Fabiola; Di Domenico, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The ratification of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a departure point for several considerations on their presence in environmental matrices. In this paper, the Italian situation is presented with emphasis on the most toxic compounds--chemicals with dioxin-like toxic action, and the activity in the area of interest of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Biotic, as well as abiotic matrices have been taken in consideration and, where possible, a comparation between their contamination levels with the levels reported on similar matrices by other European countries has been reported.

  15. (abstract) A Brief, Selective Review of Thermal Cycling Fatigue in Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews selected parts of the current literature relevant to thermo-mechanical fatigue mechanisms in eutectic tin-lead solder, and suggests a general outline to account for some observed failures. The field is found to be complex. One recent experimental study finds some failure modes to be sensitive to joint geometry. Attempts to extrapolate from test environments to service environments have had only limited success. Much work remains to be done before fatigue failures in this material can be considered as under practical control.

  16. (abstract) Synthesis of Speaker Facial Movements to Match Selected Speech Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Kenneth C.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a system for synthesizing image sequences the simulate the facial motion of a speaker. To perform this synthesis, we are pursuing two major areas of effort. We are developing the necessary computer graphics technology to synthesize a realistic image sequence of a person speaking selected speech sequences. Next, we are developing a model that expresses the relation between spoken phonemes and face/mouth shape. A subject is video taped speaking an arbitrary text that contains expression of the full list of desired database phonemes. The subject is video taped from the front speaking normally, recording both audio and video detail simultaneously. Using the audio track, we identify the specific video frames on the tape relating to each spoken phoneme. From this range we digitize the video frame which represents the extreme of mouth motion/shape. Thus, we construct a database of images of face/mouth shape related to spoken phonemes. A selected audio speech sequence is recorded which is the basis for synthesizing a matching video sequence; the speaker need not be the same as used for constructing the database. The audio sequence is analyzed to determine the spoken phoneme sequence and the relative timing of the enunciation of those phonemes. Synthesizing an image sequence corresponding to the spoken phoneme sequence is accomplished using a graphics technique known as morphing. Image sequence keyframes necessary for this processing are based on the spoken phoneme sequence and timing. We have been successful in synthesizing the facial motion of a native English speaker for a small set of arbitrary speech segments. Our future work will focus on advancement of the face shape/phoneme model and independent control of facial features.

  17. Modeling the selectivity of indoor pollution gases over N2 on covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenliang; Pang, Yujia; Zhang, Jingping

    2014-07-01

    The selectivity of indoor pollution gases (including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) over N2 on a set of 37 covalent organic frameworks (COFs) was modeled by combining classical grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) methods and periodic density functional theory with dispersion correction (DFT-D2). The pore volume, pore size, and the isosteric heat (Q st) of gases on COFs were investigated to explore the origin of the high selectivity of pollution gases over N2. We found that the size match between the pore of the COFs and the corresponding pollution gases is the key factor for high selectivity. Additionally, the Q st for the investigated four gases follows the order of toluene > benzene > formaldehyde > N2, which is consistent with the order of selectivity. Furthermore, the favorite sites and interaction energies of pollution gases on COFs were calculated by the periodic DFT-D2 method. Our simulation procedure offers an alternative approach with which to evaluate or design the best candidate porous materials in capture pollution gases.

  18. Selective responses of benthic foraminifera to thermal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titelboim, Danna; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Ovadia, Ofer; Abramovich, Sigal

    2016-04-01

    Predictions of future climate and recent observations point towards a trend of rising temperatures in the Middle East region. The temperature rise propagates into the marine environment, with shallow, coastal ecosystems being most affected. An ideal model system to study the effect of increased temperatures in coastal ecosystems is presented by benthic foraminifera. The persistent of thermohaline pollution at a site along the northern coast of Israel, attributed to a power and desalination plant, is used as a natural laboratory to evaluate the effects of rising temperature and salinity on benthic foraminifera living in shallow hard bottom habitats. Biomonitoring of the disturbed area and a control station shows that elevated temperature is a more significant stressor than salinity. The deleterious effect of extreme temperatures is indicated by a decrease in numerical abundances and reduced species richness, eventually leading to substantial changes in community composition. Critical temperature thresholds were observed at 30° C and 35° C, the latter observed by the most thermally tolerant species Pararotalia calcariformata, the only symbiont bearing species observed within the heated area. Common species of the shallow hard bottom habitats are almost absent from the most extreme site indicating that they presently live very close to their upper temperature threshold, and that excess warming will likely impede their future survival in the Eastern Mediterranean. Several of these species are either proven or suspected to be tropical Lessepsian. Thus, considering present models of expected north-western future expansion of Lessepsian species in the Mediterranean, our study show that it is important to consider excess warming as a major stressor that will limit their distribution.

  19. Evaluation of transmittance of selected infrared bands. [of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Computer programs were developed for evaluating homogeneous path transmittance with line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations. Spectral transmittances for some selected bands of different gases (CO, N2O, CO2, H2O) were obtained using these programs. Results of theoretical computations are compared with available experimental measurements. Significant errors are observed in the results obtained from a quasi-random band model formulation, indicating that it is inadequate to meet the accuracy requirements for atmospheric work.

  20. Selective photocatalytic degradation of aquatic pollutants by titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guan; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Seok Han; Hong, Suk Bong

    2011-04-15

    The selective photocatalytic degradation of charged pollutants in water was achieved on titania encapsulated into FAU-type zeolites. The electrostatic attraction of cationic substrates and repulsion of anionic substrates by the negatively charged zeolite framework facilitated the selective photocatalytic degradation of charged substrates. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were prepared through the ion-exchange method. The titania clusters were mainly well distributed within the cavities of FAU-type zeolites whereas no TiO(2) nanoparticles aggregates were observed on the external surface of zeolite crystals. The hybrid zeolite-titania photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The selective degradation of charged pollutants was investigated by employing three pairs of oppositely charged substrates. The comparison between the cationic and anionic substrates clearly showed that the degradation rates for the cationic substrates on the hybrid photocatalysts are markedly higher than those for the anionic substrates. Among the cationic substrates, the smaller cations such as tetramethylammoniums were preferentially degraded. This enabled the selective removal of cationic substrates among the mixture. Such a selective photocatalytic degradation of water pollutants may provide a useful strategy for the development of economical photocatalytic process by targeting only the most recalcitrant pollutant.

  1. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 3: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Abstracts of selected technical reports and publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A. F. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Selected information is presented from an assemblage of reports and publications on heat transfer and fluid dynamics with direct applicability to oxygen systems. For each document cited, an abstract has been prepared together with key words and a listing of most important references found in the document. Additionally, an author index, a subject index, and a key word index have been provided to simplify the retrieval of specific information from this work. In each subject area - e.g., boiling heat transfer - the individual citations are listed alphabetically by first author, with review papers dually noted under the appropriate subject category and under review papers. Of the documents reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in this publication, coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. However, work not specifically oxygen-designated but considered applicable to oxygen by the reviewer e.g., a two-phase friction factor correlation derived from nitrogen experiments is occasionally given where no actual oxygen data exist, as an aid to the reader. Approximately 130 abstracts are listed.

  2. Genetic signatures of natural selection in response to air pollution in red spruce (Picea rubens, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Bashalkhanov, Stanislav; Eckert, Andrew J; Rajora, Om P

    2013-12-01

    One of the most important drivers of local adaptation for forest trees is climate. Coupled to these patterns, however, are human-induced disturbances through habitat modification and pollution. The confounded effects of climate and disturbance have rarely been investigated with regard to selective pressure on forest trees. Here, we have developed and used a population genetic approach to search for signals of selection within a set of 36 candidate genes chosen for their putative effects on adaptation to climate and human-induced air pollution within five populations of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), distributed across its natural range and air pollution gradient in eastern North America. Specifically, we used FST outlier and environmental correlation analyses to highlight a set of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were overly correlated with climate and levels of sulphate pollution after correcting for the confounding effects of population history. Use of three age cohorts within each population allowed the effects of climate and pollution to be separated temporally, as climate-related SNPs (n = 7) showed the strongest signals in the oldest cohort, while pollution-related SNPs (n = 3) showed the strongest signals in the youngest cohorts. These results highlight the usefulness of population genetic scans for the identification of putatively nonneutral evolution within genomes of nonmodel forest tree species, but also highlight the need for the development and application of robust methodologies to deal with the inherent multivariate nature of the genetic and ecological data used in these types of analyses.

  3. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  4. Effect of fuels and domestic heating appliance types on emission factors of selected organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Šyc, Michal; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Krpec, Kamil; Tomšej, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Pekárek, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on the first complex data set of emission factors (EFs) of selected pollutants from combustion of five fuel types (lignite, bituminous coal, spruce, beech, and maize) in six different domestic heating appliances of various combustion designs. The effect of fuel as well as the effect of boiler type was studied. In total, 46 combustion runs were performed, during which numerous EFs were measured, including the EFs of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), etc. The highest EFs of nonchlorinated pollutants were measured for old-type boilers with over-fire and under-fire designs and with manual stoking and natural draft. Emissions of the above-mentioned pollutants from modern-type boilers (automatic, downdraft) were 10 times lower or more. The decisive factor for emission rate of nonchlorinated pollutants was the type of appliance; the type of fuel plays only a minor role. Emissions of chlorinated pollutants were proportional mainly to the chlorine content in fuel, but the type of appliance also influenced the rate of emissions significantly. Surprisingly, higher EFs of PCDD/F from combustion of chlorinated bituminous coal were observed for modern-type boilers (downdraft, automatic) than for old-type ones. On the other hand, when bituminous coal was burned, higher emissions of HxCBz were found for old-type boilers than for modern-type ones.

  5. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  6. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water and their effects on public health. Topics examine the toxicological effects of prolonged exposure incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Quantification factors, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Goundwater contamination by landfill leachates, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  8. An efficient recyclable magnetic material for the selective removal of organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Monteil, Clément; Bar, Nathalie; Bee, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Summary Wastewater cleaning strategies based on the adsorption of materials are being increasingly considered, but the wide variety of organic pollutants at low concentrations still makes their removal a challenge. The hybrid material proposed here consists of a zwitterionic polyethylenimine polymer coating a magnetic core. Polyethylenimine is phosphonated at different percentages by a one-step process and used to coat maghemite nanoparticles. It selectively extracts high amounts of cationic and anionic contaminants over a wide range of pH values, depending on the adjustable number of phosphonate groups introduced on the polymer. After recovering the nanoparticles with a magnet, pollutants are quantitatively released by repeated washing with low amounts of pH-adjusted water. The material can be reused many times without noticeable loss of efficiency and is designed to resist high temperatures, oxidation and harsh conditions. PMID:27826519

  9. Preparation and Dissemination of Abstracts and Full Translations of Selected Contents of East European Journals Concerned with Applied Linguistics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznan (Poland).

    The Center for Applied Linguistics, in Cooperation with Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, undertook to cover experimentally, for a period of 18 months, foreign language Journal material on applied linguistics published in Central and Eastern Europe and to select for abstracting, and in some cases, translation, articles of particular…

  10. Reactions of the cumyloxyl and benzyloxyl radicals with tertiary amides. Hydrogen abstraction selectivity and the role of specific substrate-radical hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Milan, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-06-21

    A time-resolved kinetic study in acetonitrile and a theoretical investigation of hydrogen abstraction reactions from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out. CumO(•) reacts with both substrates by direct hydrogen abstraction. With DMF, abstraction occurs from the formyl and N-methyl C-H bonds, with the formyl being the preferred abstraction site, as indicated by the measured kH/kD ratios and by theory. With DMA, abstraction preferentially occurs from the N-methyl groups, whereas abstraction from the acetyl group represents a minor pathway, in line with the computed C-H BDEs and the kH/kD ratios. The reactions of BnO(•) with both substrates were best described by the rate-limiting formation of hydrogen-bonded prereaction complexes between the BnO(•) α-C-H and the amide oxygen, followed by intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. This mechanism is consistent with the very large increases in reactivity measured on going from CumO(•) to BnO(•) and with the observation of kH/kD ratios close to unity in the reactions of BnO(•). Our modeling supports the different mechanisms proposed for the reactions of CumO(•) and BnO(•) and the importance of specific substrate/radical hydrogen bond interactions, moreover providing information on the hydrogen abstraction selectivity.

  11. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    PubMed

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  12. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  13. A distance-decay variable selection strategy for land use regression modeling of ambient air pollution exposures.

    PubMed

    Su, J G; Jerrett, M; Beckerman, B

    2009-06-01

    Land use regression (LUR) has emerged as an effective and economical means of estimating air pollution exposures for epidemiological studies. To date, no systematic method has been developed for optimizing the variable selection process. Traditionally, a limited number of buffer distances assumed having the highest correlations with measured pollutant concentrations are used in the manual stepwise selection process or a model transferred from another urban area. In this paper we propose a novel and systematic way of modeling long-term average air pollutant concentrations through "A Distance Decay REgression Selection Strategy" (ADDRESS). The selection process includes multiple steps and, at each step, a full spectrum of correlation coefficients and buffer distance decay curves are used to select a spatial covariate of the highest correlation (compared to other variables) at its optimized buffer distance. At the first step, the series of distance decay curves is constructed using the measured concentrations against the chosen spatial covariates. A variable with the highest correlation to pollutant levels at its optimized buffer distance is chosen as the first predictor of the LUR model from all the distance decay curves. Starting from the second step, the prediction residuals are used to construct new series of distance decay curves and the variable of the highest correlation at its optimized buffer distance is chosen to be added to the model. This process continues until a variable being added does not contribute significantly (p>0.10) to the model performance. The distance decay curve yields a visualization of change and trend of correlation between the spatial covariates and air pollution concentrations or their prediction residuals, providing a transparent and efficient means of selecting optimized buffer distances. Empirical comparisons suggested that the ADDRESS method produced better results than a manual stepwise selection process of limited buffer distances

  14. Determination of selected persistent organic pollutants in wastewater from landfill leachates, using an amperometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Gumbi, Bhekumuzi P.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    Landfill leachates that contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a big threat to groundwater systems and are projected to have hazardous effects in the long term if proper management strategies of the landfills are not put in place by those responsible. Monitoring the levels of POPs in landfill leachates is very crucial. This work presents an amperometric biosensor for determination of selected POPs in landfill leachates. The biosensor is based on kinetic inhibition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The enzyme was immobilised by electrostatic attachment on a polyaniline-modified Pt electrode surface. Selected POPs inhibited HRP enzyme activity and the decrease in the enzyme activity was used to determine these environmental pollutants. Selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the analytes of choice because they are commonly found in South Africa water systems. Limits of detection for the amperometric biosensor were established as 0.014, 0.018, 0.022, 0.016 and 0.019 μg l-1 for BDE-100, PBB-1, PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB-101, respectively. The HRP biosensor system gave different linear ranges for; BDE-100 (0.424-25.8 μg l-1), PBB-1 (0.862-13.4 μg l-1), PCB-1 (0.930-18.1 μg l-1), PCB-28 (0.730-15.7 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.930-27.1 μg l-1). Inhibition studies on HRP biosensor response toward the reduction of H2O2 in the absence and presence of the selected POPs were carried out to investigate the inhibition kinetics and its mechanism. The results obtained indicated that the inhibition mechanism was competitive for PBDEs and non-competitive for biphenyls (PCBs and PBBs). The application of the biosensor was tested on wastewater samples obtained from landfill leachate for determination of selected POPs. The leachate samples were found to contain PCB-28 (0.28 ± 0.03 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.31 ± 0.02 μg l-1). The samples were also analysed by GC-MS as a cross-check method and the

  15. A survey of laser and selected optical systems for remote measurement of pollutant gas concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Menzies, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique to the remote sensing of pollutant gases are surveyed. In the DIAl technique, the differential absorption of two laser beams reflected back to a receiver from a target determines the concentration of the gas being studied. The types of instruments available are considered in detail: dye lidar (to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone); carbon dioxide laser (for ozone, ethylene, ammonia, and hydrazine), helium-neon laser (for methane); hydrogen fluoride laser (for HF); and tunable diode laser (for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide). DIAL instruments are compared with other optical remote sensors such as Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers, correlation spectrometers (COSPEC and GASPEC), and grating spectrometers; and criteria for the selection of an appropriate gas measuring system are suggested. Laser and other optical remote sensors are found to be cost effective in many cases, despite the fact that they are more costly than point-monitoring systems.

  16. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan, Volume 9, Number 4: Period Covered, October-December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Geti, Comp.

    Contained in this annotated bibliography are 100 references to selected educational materials published in Pakistan during the period October through December, 1975. Pakistani journals, newspapers, and government publications provide the source of the materials. They are organized into 26 categories: administration, organization and financing of…

  17. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan, Vol. 9, No. 2, Period Covered April-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Geti, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 101 entries of selected educational materials published in Pakistan during the period April through June 1975. Pakistani journals, newspapers, and government publications provide the source of the materials. They are organized into 28 categories: administration, organization, and financing of education; adult…

  18. Selected Bibliography and Abstracts of Educational Materials in Pakistan. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972. Period Covered January-March 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Geti, Comp.

    The annotated bibliography lists 111 entries of selected educational materials from Pakistan covering the period from January through March 1972. Entries are listed alphabetically by author under the following thirty-one categories; 1) administrative, organization and financing of education; 2) agricultural education; 3) childhood education; 4)…

  19. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  20. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. January 1978-August 1989 (a Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, bogs, and other wetland areas to degrade, absorb, filter, consume, or mitigate natural and man-made pollution and wastes, while maintaining their ability to provide refuge and breeding grounds for wildlife. The ecology, biochemistry, and viability of naturally occurring and artificially established wetlands as water-treatment systems and wildlife areas are considered. The effects of individual pollutants, environmental factors, species diversity, and cleansing ability of wetland areas on the potential for wildlife refuge, sewage treatment, treatment of industrial and municipal wastes, handling agricultural runoff, mitigating accidental spills, and flooding are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 243 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Au-decorated sodium titanate nanotubes as high-performance selective photocatalysts for pollutant degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rouby, Waleed M. A.; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Testa-Anta, Martín; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Salgueiriño, Verónica; Pérez-Lorenzo, Moisés; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from textile processing industries is nowadays a major environmental problem worldwide. In order to tackle this situation, several inorganic semiconductors have been tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of these harmful pollutants in the search of sustainable and cost-effective solutions. Nevertheless, these semiconductor materials often involve important limitations, such as poor efficiency and selectivity, which, in the end, substantially restrict their implementation at the industrial scale. As an alternative, we herein report the fabrication and application of Au-decorated titanate nanotubes (TNTs) as high-performance architectures for the selective degradation of organic contaminants. This synthetic strategy is intended to establish a synergetic integration of the physicochemical and photocatalytic features of these hybrid nanostructures, by combining the remarkable adsorption capabilities of TNTs with the enhanced light-harvesting efficiency provided by the incorporation of a noble metal component. The obtained results evidence the great potential that rationally designed plasmonic composites may have for the development of selective environmental remediation technologies and in particular on the current challenges faced by the wastewater treatment sector.

  2. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  3. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  4. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  5. Developing a multi-pollutant conceptual framework for the selection and targeting of interventions in water industry catchment management schemes.

    PubMed

    Bloodworth, J W; Holman, I P; Burgess, P J; Gillman, S; Frogbrook, Z; Brown, P

    2015-09-15

    In recent years water companies have started to adopt catchment management to reduce diffuse pollution in drinking water supply areas. The heterogeneity of catchments and the range of pollutants that must be removed to meet the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) limits make it difficult to prioritise areas of a catchment for intervention. Thus conceptual frameworks are required that can disaggregate the components of pollutant risk and help water companies make decisions about where to target interventions in their catchments to maximum effect. This paper demonstrates the concept of generalising pollutants in the same framework by reviewing key pollutant processes within a source-mobilisation-delivery context. From this, criteria are developed (with input from water industry professionals involved in catchment management) which highlights the need for a new water industry specific conceptual framework. The new CaRPoW (Catchment Risk to Potable Water) framework uses the Source-Mobilisation-Delivery concept as modular components of risk that work at two scales, source and mobilisation at the field scale and delivery at the catchment scale. Disaggregating pollutant processes permits the main components of risk to be ascertained so that appropriate interventions can be selected. The generic structure also allows for the outputs from different pollutants to be compared so that potential multiple benefits can be identified. CaRPow provides a transferable framework that can be used by water companies to cost-effectively target interventions under current conditions or under scenarios of land use or climate change.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives.

  7. Preparation and selective adsorption of organic pollutants by an inorganic molecular imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jiaobo; Song, Yanqun; Rong, Chuan; Wang, Yinghui; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Kefu

    A novel inorganic molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by adding Al(3+) to the Fe/SiO2 gel with Acid Orange II (AO II) as the template. The MIP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP enhanced the adsorption capacity of the target pollutants AO II. The selective adsorption capacity study indicated that the MIP adsorbed more AO II than the interferent Bisphenol A (BPA), which also has the structure of a benzene ring, thus proving the selective adsorption capacity of the MIP for template molecules AO II. In addition, the adsorption of AO II over MIP belonged to the Langmuir type and pseudo-second adsorption kinetics, and Dubinin-Radushkevich model indicates that the adsorption process of AO II over MIP and NIP are both given priority to chemical adsorption. The MIP reusability in performance was demonstrated in at least six repeated cycles.

  8. Characterization of Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 and its physiological potential for biodegradation of selected organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Vojtková, Hana; Kosina, Marcel; Sedláček, Ivo; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Harwotová, Markéta; Molinková, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 bacterial strain, deposited at the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, was originally isolated by Haľama and Augustín (1980) as a bacterium degrading aromatic hydrocarbons and derivates. A detailed study supported by a molecular genetics method of sequence analyses of rrs and rpoD genes was used to reclassify the strain, originally stored as 'Pseudomonas putida'. The physiological characteristics of the strain are complemented with research in the capacity to utilize selected organic pollutants (anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene). The obtained results point at very good biodegradation properties of the strain. Already after 7 days of the bacterial strain's action, there was a decrease in all the organic contaminants to 79.8 ± 2.6 %. In 14 days, the amount of organic contaminants dropped to 59.3 ± 2.8 %. After 21 days of biodegradation experiments, the overall quantity of the observed organic substances fell below the half limit to 45.7 ± 2.5 % of residuals. Finally, after 28 days, the residue was 35.4 ± 2.2 %, and after 35 days of the action of P. monteilii, the tested samples contained mere 27.8 ± 2.8 % of organic pollutants. The results imply that Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 is a prospective strain in terms of further biotechnological application in contaminated environment.

  9. Stereo-Selectivity of Human Serum Albumin to Enantiomeric and Isoelectronic Pollutants Dissected by Spectroscopy, Calorimetry and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ejaz; Rabbani, Gulam; Zaidi, Nida; Singh, Saurabh; Rehan, Mohd; Khan, Mohd Moin; Rahman, Shah Kamranur; Quadri, Zainuddin; Shadab, Mohd.; Ashraf, Mohd Tashfeen; Subbarao, Naidu; Bhat, Rajiv; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2011-01-01

    1–naphthol (1N), 2–naphthol (2N) and 8–quinolinol (8H) are general water pollutants. 1N and 2N are the configurational enantiomers and 8H is isoelectronic to 1N and 2N. These pollutants when ingested are transported in the blood by proteins like human serum albumin (HSA). Binding of these pollutants to HSA has been explored to elucidate the specific selectivity of molecular recognition by this multiligand binding protein. The association constants (Kb) of these pollutants to HSA were moderate (104–105 M−1). The proximity of the ligands to HSA is also revealed by their average binding distance, r, which is estimated to be in the range of 4.39–5.37 nm. The binding free energy (ΔG) in each case remains effectively the same for each site because of enthalpy–entropy compensation (EEC). The difference observed between ΔCpexp and ΔCpcalc are suggested to be caused by binding–induced flexibility changes in the HSA. Efforts are also made to elaborate the differences observed in binding isotherms obtained through multiple approaches of calorimetry, spectroscopy and bioinformatics. We suggest that difference in dissociation constants of pollutants by calorimetry, spectroscopic and computational approaches could correspond to occurrence of different set of populations of pollutants having different molecular characteristics in ground state and excited state. Furthermore, our observation of enhanced binding of pollutants (2N and 8H) in the presence of hemin signifies that ligands like hemin may enhance the storage period of these pollutants in blood that may even facilitate the ill effects of these pollutants. PMID:22073150

  10. Hydrogen atom abstraction selectivity in the reactions of alkylamines with the benzyloxyl and cumyloxyl radicals. The importance of structure and of substrate radical hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2011-10-19

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the hydrogen abstraction reactions from a series of primary and secondary amines by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out. The results were compared with those obtained previously for the corresponding reactions with tertiary amines. Very different hydrogen abstraction rate constants (k(H)) and intermolecular selectivities were observed for the reactions of the two radicals. With CumO(•), k(H) was observed to decrease on going from the tertiary to the secondary and primary amines. The lowest k(H) values were measured for the reactions with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) and tert-octylamine (TOA), substrates that can only undergo N-H abstraction. The opposite behavior was observed for the reactions of BnO(•), where the k(H) values increased in the order tertiary < secondary < primary. The k(H) values for the reactions of BnO(•) were in all cases significantly higher than those measured for the corresponding reactions of CumO(•), and no significant difference in reactivity was observed between structurally related substrates that could undergo exclusive α-C-H and N-H abstraction. This different behavior is evidenced by the k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) ratios that range from 55-85 and 267-673 for secondary and primary alkylamines up to 1182 and 3388 for TMP and TOA. The reactions of CumO(•) were described in all cases as direct hydrogen atom abstractions. With BnO(•) the results were interpreted in terms of the rate-determining formation of a hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex between the radical α-C-H and the amine lone pair wherein hydrogen abstraction occurs. Steric effects and amine HBA ability play a major role, whereas the strength of the substrate α-C-H and N-H bonds involved appears to be relatively unimportant. The implications of these different mechanistic pictures are discussed.

  11. Practical procedures for selected biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis--implications for marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Biomarkers are required to assess the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms in order to monitor ecosystem status, but their use is often limited by their strong variability due to environmental and/or intrinsic biological factors. Accordingly, the main aim of this work was to set up practical procedures for a battery of widely used biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), a phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and a neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), were considered. Several relevant aspects were studied in order to obtain a more realistic interpretation of biomarker responses, including the calculation of the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with a fixed error margin, the selection of the specific organ or tissue where the enzymatic activity is higher for each biomarker, and the influence of tidal height and temperature on the basal enzymatic activity. GST and CAT activities needed a minimum sample size of 12, whereas for GPx and AChE activities a minimum sample size of 14 was required. The gills were the organ with higher GST, GPx and AChE enzymatic activities, whereas the digestive gland showed the highest CAT activity. Also, the low inter-tidal was the recommended tide level whilst no significant effect of temperature was observed on GST, GPx and CAT, and no clear pattern could be identified for AChE. The implications for environmental monitoring are discussed.

  12. Program and abstracts of the 28th conference on Great Lakes research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 28th Conference on Great Lakes Research and the annual meeting of the International Association for Great Lakes Research covered two symposia. The first was a comparison of Great Lakes and Baltic ecosystems, which provided an opportunity for international exchanges of information and insights. The second featured pollution problems in the Green Bay estuary environment that is of particular value to Wisconsin and Michigan. There are 41 separate abstracts selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Four of those were also selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), six for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and two for INS.

  13. Testing Selected Behaviors to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, B. R.; Mathee, A.; Krieger, L.; Shafritz, L.; Favin, M.; Sherburne, L.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths and illness of millions of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the acceptability (willingness to try) and feasibility (ability to perform) of four indoor air pollution reduction behaviors (improve stove maintenance practices, child location practices, ventilation…

  14. How to select the best tree planting locations to enhance air pollution removal in the MillionTreesNYC initiative.

    PubMed

    Morani, Arianna; Nowak, David J; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    Highest priority zones for tree planting within New York City were selected by using a planting priority index developed combining three main indicators: pollution concentration, population density and low canopy cover. This new tree population was projected through time to estimate potential air quality and carbon benefits. Those trees will likely remove more than 10,000 tons of air pollutants and a maximum of 1500 tons of carbon over the next 100 years given a 4% annual mortality rate. Cumulative carbon storage will be reduced through time as carbon loss through tree mortality outweighs carbon accumulation through tree growth. Model projections are strongly affected by mortality rate whose uncertainties limit estimations accuracy. Increasing mortality rate from 4 to 8% per year produce a significant decrease in the total pollution removal over a 100 year period from 11 000 tons to 3000 tons.

  15. Defense Programs benchmarking in Chicago, April 1994: Identifying best practices in the pollution prevention programs of selected private industries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP) was the first US Department of Energy (DOE) Cognizant Secretarial Office (CSO) to attempt to benchmark private industries for best-in-class practices in the field of pollution prevention. Defense Programs` intent in this effort is to identify and bring to DOE field offices strategic and technological tools that have helped private companies minimize waste and prevent pollution. Defense Programs` premier benchmarking study focused on business practices and process improvements used to implement exceptional pollution prevention programs in four privately owned companies. The current interest in implementing partnerships information exchange, and technology transfer with the private sector prompted DP to continue to seek best practices in the area of pollution prevention through a second benchmarking endeavor in May 1994. This report presents the results of that effort. The decision was made to select host facilities that own processes similar to those at DOE plants and laboratories, that have programs that have been recognized on a local or national level, that have an interest in partnering with the Department on an information-sharing basis, and that are located in proximity to each other. The DP benchmarking team assessed the pollution prevention programs of five companies in the Chicago area--GE Plastics, Navistar, Northrop Corporation, Sundstrand and Caterpillar. At all facilities visited, Ozone Depleting Compounds (ODCs), hazardous wastes, releases under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), waste water and non-hazardous wastes are being eliminated, replaced, reduced, recycled and reused whenever practicable.

  16. Pan-European survey on the occurrence of selected polar organic persistent pollutants in ground water.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Comero, Sara; Contini, Serafino; Schwesig, David; Werres, Friedrich; Balsaa, Peter; Gans, Oliver; Weiss, Stefan; Blaha, Ludek; Bolchi, Monica; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This study provides the first pan-European reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European ground water. In total, 164 individual ground-water samples from 23 European Countries were collected and analysed (among others) for 59 selected organic compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, pesticides (and their transformation products), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), benzotriazoles, hormones, alkylphenolics (endocrine disrupters), Caffeine, Diethyltoluamide (DEET), and Triclosan. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and maximum concentrations detected were DEET (84%; 454 ng/L), Caffeine (83%; 189 ng/L), PFOA (66%; 39 ng/L), Atrazine (56%; 253 ng/L), Desethylatrazine (55%; 487 ng/L), 1H-Benzotriazole (53%; 1032 ng/L), Methylbenzotriazole (52%; 516 ng/L), Desethylterbutylazine (49%; 266 ng/L), PFOS (48%, 135 ng/L), Simazine (43%; 127 ng/L), Carbamazepine (42%; 390 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE(1)C) (42%; 11 microg/L), Bisphenol A (40%; 2.3 microg/L), PFHxS (35%; 19 ng/L), Terbutylazine (34%; 716 ng/L), Bentazone (32%; 11 microg/L), Propazine (32%; 25 ng/L), PFHpA (30%; 21 ng/L), 2,4-Dinitrophenol (29%; 122 ng/L), Diuron (29%; 279 ng/L), and Sulfamethoxazole (24%; 38 ng/L). The chemicals which were detected most frequently above the European ground water quality standard for pesticides of 0.1 microg/L were Chloridazon-desphenyl (26 samples), NPE(1)C (20), Bisphenol A (12), Benzotriazole (8), N,N'-Dimethylsulfamid (DMS) (8), Desethylatrazine (6), Nonylphenol (6), Chloridazon-methyldesphenyl (6), Methylbenzotriazole (5), Carbamazepine (4), and Bentazone (4). However, only 1.7% of all single analytical measurements (in total 8000) were above this threshold value of 0.1 microg/L; 7.3% were > than 10 ng/L.

  17. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  18. Stormwater biofilter treatment model (MPiRe) for selected micro-pollutants.

    PubMed

    Randelovic, Anja; Zhang, Kefeng; Jacimovic, Nenad; McCarthy, David; Deletic, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Biofiltration systems, also known as bioretentions or rain-gardens, are widely used for treatment of stormwater. In order to design them well, it is important to improve models that can predict their performance. This paper presents a rare model that can simulate removal of a wide range of micro-pollutants from stormwater by biofilters. The model is based on (1) a bucket approach for water flow simulation, and (2) advection/dispersion transport equations for pollutant transport and fate. The latter includes chemical non-equilibrium two-site model of sorption, first-order decay, and volatilization, thus is a compromise between the limited availability of data (on stormwater micro-pollutants) and the required complexity to accurately describe the nature of the phenomenon. The model was calibrated and independently validated on two field data series collected for different organic micro-pollutants at two biofilters of different design. This included data on triazines (atrazine, prometryn, and simazine), glyphosate, and chloroform during six simulated stormwater events. The data included variable and challenging biofilter operational conditions; e.g. variable inflow volumes, dry and wet period dynamics, and inflow pollutant concentrations. The model was able to simulate water flow well, with slight discrepancies being observed only during long dry periods when, presumably, soil cracking occurred. In general, the agreement between simulated and measured pollutographs was good. As with flows, the long dry periods posed a problem for water quality simulation (e.g. simazine and prometryn were difficult to model in low inflow events that followed prolonged dry periods). However, it was encouraging that pollutant transport and fate parameters estimated by the model calibration were in agreement with available literature data. This suggests that the model could probably be adopted for assessment of biofilter performance of other stormwater micro-pollutants (PAHs, phenols

  19. Air pollution induced changes in the photosynthetic pigments of selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P C; Swami, Abhishek

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the concentration of different photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll and carotenoids) were determined in the leaves of six tree species exposed to air pollution due to vehicular emissions. The six tree species, which are all economically important because of their being fruit bearers, used for timber fodder and as road side trees on the basis of their air pollution tolerance index. These included Mangifera indica L., Tectona grandis Linn.f , Shorea robusta Gaertn.f., Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch, Eucalyptus citridora Hook. Syn. and Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg. Reduction in chlorophyll 'a', 'b' and carotenoid was recorded in the leaf samples collected from polluted areas when compared with samples from control areas. The highest reduction in total chlorophyll was observed in Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) (48.73%) Planch whereas, the lowest reduction (17.84 %) was recorded in Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg. Similarly in case of carotenoid contents, highest reduction (43.02%) was observed in Eucalyptus citridora, and lowest in Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg (19.31%). The data obtained were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a significant change was recorded in the studied parameters. These studies clearly indicate that the vehicular induced air pollution reduces the concentration of photosynthetic pigments in the trees exposed to road side pollution.

  20. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  1. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  2. Geochemical modelling and speciation studies of metal pollutants present in selected water systems in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magu, M. M.; Govender, P. P.; Ngila, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollutants in water poses great threats to living beings and hence requires to be monitored regularly to avoid loss of lives. Various analytical methods are available to monitor these pollutants in water and can be improved with time. Modelling of metal pollutants in any water system helps chemists, engineers and environmentalists to greatly understand the various chemical processes in such systems. Water samples were collected from waste water treatment plant and river from highlands close to its source all the way to the ocean as it passing through areas with high anthropogenic activities. Pre-concentration of pollutants in the samples was done through acid digestion and metal pollutants were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectra (ICP-OES) to determine the concentration levels. Metal concentrations ranged between 0.1356-0.4658 mg/L for Al; 0.0031-0.0050 mg/L for Co, 0.0019-0.0956 mg/L for Cr; 0.0028-0.3484 mg/L for Cu; 0.0489-0.3474 mg/L for Fe; 0.0033-0.0285 mg/L for Mn; 0.0056-0.0222 mg/L for Ni; 0.0265-0.4753 mg/L for Pb and 0.0052-0.5594 mg/L for Zn. Modelling work was performed using PHREEQC couple with Geochemist's workbench (GWB) to determine speciation dynamics and bioavailability of these pollutants. Modelling thus adds value to analytical methods and hence a better complementary tool to laboratory-based experimental studies.

  3. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column for selective solid-phase microextraction of perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; Yang, Zihui; Huang, Yongbin; Jiang, Linbo; Chen, Yingzhuang; Shen, Yao; Chen, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel construction strategy of monolithic capillary column for selectively enriching perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants was proposed. The organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column was synthesized by a "one-pot" approach via the polycondensation of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane, then in situ copolymerization of 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes. The obtained monolithic columns were systematically characterized. The results demonstrated that the optimal column possessed good mechanical stability and high permeability. The adsorption capacities of the optimized monolithic column for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were 0.257 and 0.513 μg/mg, respectively. Adsorption capacities of the monoliths were proved to increasing with increasing the amounts of fluorinated monomers in the fluorous monoliths. Sodium 1-octanesulfonate, as a comparison compound, was hardly adsorbed on the fluorous monolith. In addition, the trace amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples can be successfully concentrated about 160 times to their original concentrations by this monolithic column. These results demonstrated that the capacity and selectivity of the affinity fluorous column is high and can be applied to the selective enrichment for the perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples.

  5. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  6. Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

  7. A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačič, G.; Ravbar, N.

    2005-02-01

    Slovenian karst areas extend over 43% of the country; limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. In Slovenia karst groundwater contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply. The quality of water is very high, despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. The present article is a study and a review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to the groundwater in the selected karst aquifers (the Kras, Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus), which differ in their natural characteristics. Unlike the other selected plateaus, the Kras plateau is inhabited. There are several settlements in the area and the industrial, agricultural and traffic activities carried out that represent a serious threat to the quality of karst groundwater. The Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus do not have permanent residents, however there are some serious hazards to the quality of the karst springs arising from sports, tourist, construction and farming activities, as well as from the traffic related to them. Despite relatively favourable conditions for protection, many important karst aquifers and springs are improperly protected in Slovenia. The reason is the lack of knowledge about sustainable water management in karst regions and the confusion in drinking water protection policy.

  8. Enantiomer-selective and quantitative trace analysis of selected persistent organic pollutants (POP) in traditional food from western Greenland.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Enantiomeric fractions (EF) are today considered a powerful tool to elucidate selective uptake processes of chiral contaminants in biota. In this study, concentration levels and EF were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and trans-, cis-, and oxychlordane in selected Greenlandic traditional food items, collected at the local market in Nuuk in 2010. The food items selected were raw and smoked fish (salmon and halibut, n = 6), whale meat (n = 8), seal meat (n = 2) and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber, n = 6). The EF were nonracemic (≠0.5) for all samples except for α-HCH in narwhal, trans-chlordane in whale and smoked salmon, and cis- and oxychlordane in seal. The EF for α-HCH were significant for all fish samples, but not for mammalian samples. Data indicate that different uptake and/or transformation mechanisms may be responsible for nonracemic distributions of chiral pesticides in mammals and fish species analyzed. There were no general enantiomer-selective transformation/accumulation trends found for chlordanes. Data indicate that enantiomer-specific properties are an important prerequisite for interaction of chiral contaminant with internal metabolic processes. However, marked differences within these groups were identified. The EF in ringed seals were racemic for most of the analyzed pesticides (i.e., chlordanes). However, narwhal were characterized by nonracemic EF for all chiral pesticides analyzed. Median levels of α-HCH ranged from 2 to 24 ng/g lw and from 15.1 to 626.6 ng/g lw for trans-nonachlor, with lowest levels observed in smoked salmon and highest levels in narwhal mattak. This study confirmed that concentration levels of analyzed pesticides in the investigated food items were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) threshold.

  9. Selective pressure of antibiotics on ARGs and bacterial communities in manure-polluted freshwater-sediment microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Wang, Mianzhi; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate selective pressure of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities in manure-polluted aquatic environment. Three treatment groups were set up in freshwater-sediment microcosms: tetracyclines group, sulfonamides group and fluoroquinolones group. Sediment and water samples were collected on day 14 after treatment. Antibiotic concentrations, ARGs abundances and bacterial community composition were analyzed. Antibiotic concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. ARGs abundances were quantified by real time quantitative PCR. Bacterial community composition was analyzed based on amplicon sequencing. Of the three classes of antibiotics analyzed in the treatment groups, accumulation amounts were tetracyclines> fluoroquinolone> sulfonamides in the sediment samples, while they were sulfonamides> fluoroquinolone> tetracyclines in the water samples. In the treatment groups, the relative abundances of some tet resistance genes [tet(W) and tet(X)] and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [oqx(B) and aac(6′)-Ib] in sediment samples were significantly higher than those in the paired water samples. Tetracyclines significantly selected the bacterial classes including Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and the genera including Salmonella, Escherichia/Shigella, Clostridium, Stenotrophomonas in sediment samples. The significant selection on bacterial communities posed by sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones was also observed. The results indicated that sediment may supply an ideal setting for maintenance and persistence of tet resistance genes [tet(W) and tet(X)] and PMQR genes [oqx(B) and aac(6′)-Ib] under antibiotic pollution. The results also highlighted that antibiotics significantly selected specific bacterial communities including the taxa associated with opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25814986

  10. Reclamation of DPK hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil using a selected bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Orji, Michael U; Anaukwu, Chika G; Okafor, Uchenna C; Azi, Fidelis; Martins, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laboratory scale bioremediation of dual purpose kerosene (DPK) hydrocarbon polluted soil using bulking agent (saw dust) was carried out. The effect of different parameters such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), dehydrogenase activity (DHase) and pH on bioremediation performance were evaluated. Studied parameters such as microbial dynamics, percentage degradation (95.20%), DHase (8.20 ± 0.43) were found to be higher in saw dust amended system and significantly differed with control at p < 0.05. Experimental data adequately fitted the first order kinetic thus, generated r(2) values (0.966), first order degradation constant (0.659 d(-1)), and degradation half-life t1/2 = ln2/k (1.05 d). Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus sp., Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus sp. were isolated from the study. The use of saw dust as bulking agent greatly increased biodegradation rate and resulted in effective DPK hydrocarbon clean up. Therefore, saw dust could serve as an effective biostimulant towards improved bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted environment.

  11. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution by thorium and uranium in selected regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Zoriy, P; Ostapczuk, P; Dederichs, H; Höbig, J; Lennartz, R; Zoriy, M

    2010-05-01

    Two former uranium mines and a uranium reprocessing factory in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan, may represent a risk of contaminating the surrounding areas by uranium and its daughter elements. One of the possible fingerprinting tools for studying the environmental contamination is using plant samples, collected in the surroundings of this city in 2007 and 2008. The distribution pattern of environmental pollution by uranium and thorium was evaluated by determining the thorium and uranium concentrations in plant samples (Artemisia austriaca) from the city of Aktau and comparing these results with those obtained for the same species of plants from an unpolluted area (town of Kurchatov). The determination of the uranium and thorium concentrations in different parts of A. austriaca plants collected from the analyzed areas demonstrated that the main contamination of the flora in areas surrounding the city of Aktau was due to dust transported by the wind from the uranium mines. The results obtained demonstrate that all the areas surrounding Aktau have a higher pollution level due to thorium and uranium than the control area (Kurchatov). A few "hot points" with high concentrations of uranium and thorium were found near the uranium reprocessing factory and the uranium mines.

  12. New Strategies for Designing Inexpensive but Selective Bioadsorbants for Environmental Pollutants: Selection of specific Ligands and Their Cell Surface Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Brent L. Iverson; George Georgiou; Mohammad M. Ataai; Richard R. Koepsel

    2001-02-22

    The Broad, long term objective of the research plan is to develop exquisitely selective polypeptide metal chelators for the remediation of aqueous systems. A variety of polypeptide chelators will be developed and optimized ranging from antibodies to small peptides. Then, through unique molecular engineering approaches developed in our laboratories, the polypeptide chelators will be anchored directly on the surface of the cells that produce them. Thus, instead of using isolated biomolecules we will employ inexpensive genetically engineered whole cell adsorbents. Following a simple, easily scaleable treatment, the engineered cells can be used to manufacture an inexpensive, particulate adsorbent for metal removal.

  13. Heavy metals in drinking water: Standards, sources, and effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water and their effects on public health. Topics examine the toxicological effects of prolonged exposure incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Quantification factors, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Goundwater contamination by landfill leachates, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Heavy metals in drinking water: standards, sources, and effects. January 1977-December 1987 (citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the public health aspects and documented studies of heavy metal pollutants in drinking water. Topics include human exposure studies and the toxicological effects incurred by ingestion of lead, copper, nickel, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and zinc. Prolonged exposure and quantification factors and effects, federal and state regulations and standards, and laboratory animal studies are discussed. Sources from landfill contamination of groundwater, acid precipitation contributions to groundwater pollution, and corrosion by-products in residential plumbing and public water supply transport systems are examined. (This updated bibliography contains 139 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  16. Concentrations, deposition, and effects of nitrogenous pollutants in selected California ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Padgett, P E; Parry, S D; Fenn, M E; Arbaugh, M J

    2001-11-28

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3) and particulate ammonium (NH4+) from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate (NO3-) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95%) of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3), drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  17. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Luis; Rincón, Jesusa; Asencio, Isaac; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2007-01-01

    High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

  18. Allelic diversity of metallothionein in Orchesella cincta (L.): traces of natural selection by environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, M J T N; Ellers, J; Van Straalen, N M

    2007-05-01

    The advances made in statistical methods to detect selection from DNA sequence variation has resulted in an enormous increase in the number of studies reporting positive selection. However, a disadvantage of such statistical tests is that often no insight into the actual source of selection is obtained. Finer understanding of evolution can be obtained when those statistical tests are combined with field observations on allele frequencies. We assessed whether the metallothionein (mt) gene of Orchesella cincta (Collembola), which codes for a metal-binding protein, is subject to selection, by investigating alleles and allele frequencies among European metal-stressed and reference populations. Eight highly divergent alleles were resolved in Northwest Europe. At the nucleotide level, a total of 51 polymorphic sites (five of them implying amino-acid changes) were observed. Although statistical tests applied to the sequences alone showed no indication of selection, a G-test rejected the null hypothesis that alleles are homogeneously distributed over metal-stressed and reference populations. Analysis of molecular variance assigned a small, but significant amount of the total variance to differences between metal-stressed and non-stressed populations. In addition, it was shown that metal-stressed populations tend to be more genetically diversified at this locus than non-stressed ones. These results suggest that the mt gene and its surrounding DNA region are affected by environmental metal contamination. This study illustrates that, in addition to statistical tests, field observations on allele frequencies are needed to gain understanding of selection and adaptive evolution.

  19. Israel Education Abstracts: A Selected Bibliography of Current and Past Literature and Materials on the Philosophy, Policy and Practice of Education in Israel. Vol. 4, No. 3, August-November, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefant, William L., Ed.

    This 122-entry, selected bibliography contains English abstracts of books and articles in Hebrew on the philosophy, policy, and practice of education in Israel. The materials were submitted between August and November 1969; for earlier bibliographies see ED 027 810 and ED 032 806. A special section on the teaching of English in Israel comprises…

  20. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.

    2007-10-01

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  1. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Catherine, Tsangaris; Vanessa, Moschino; Evangelia, Strogyloudi; Valentina, Coatu; Andreja, Ramšak; Rana, Abu Alhaija; Susana, Carvalho; Serena, Felline; Alisa, Kosyan; Yiota, Lazarou; Ioannis, Hatzianestis; Andra, Oros; Daniela, Tiganus

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  2. Comparison of selected physicochemical characteristics of commercial phytases relevant to their application in phosphate pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Boyce, A; Walsh, G

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme phytase catalyses the dephosphorylation of phytic acid and it's salts, phytates. Supplementation of monogastric animal feed with microbial-derived phytase increases the bioavailability of phytic acid bound phosphate. This facilitates a reduction in the addition of inorganic phosphate to the feed and reduces phosphorus excretion. To achieve maximum efficacy in terms of phosphate pollution abatement, supplemental phytases added to animal feed must survive thermal processing of the feed, resist inactivation by the proteolytic enzymes encountered in the animal's digestive tract and display high activity at physiological temperature and pH. A series of in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the relative suitability of four major commercial phytase products for use in animal feed. The enzymes assessed lost between 14% and 72% of their original activities after heating to 80 degrees C for 5 minutes. After exposure to simulated upper digestive tract conditions, the phytases assessed retained between 0 and 28% of their original activities. The commercial phytases displayed between 98% and 67% of their maximum activities at 39 degrees C and all phytases assessed had an optimum pH between pH 4 and pH 5. None of the phytases assessed satisfied all of the criteria of an ideal phytase for use in animal feed.

  3. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  4. Development of a selective optical sensor for Cr(VI) monitoring in polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Güell, Raquel; Fontàs, Clàudia; Salvadó, Victòria; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2007-07-02

    An optical sensor is described for the sensitive and selective determination of the Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solutions. The optode membrane is prepared by incorporating Aliquat 336 as an ionophore and a chromoionophore (4',5'-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester) in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane containing ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE) as a plasticizer. The response to Cr(VI) is indicated by co-extraction of the target species and of hydrogen ions into the bulk of the membrane yielding large absorbance changes which can easily be measured in the visible spectral range. The optode membrane shows a reversible response in the concentration range of 1.1x10(-5)-1.0x10(-3) M and has been shown to be more selective towards the HCrO4(-) ion than other anions with a selectivity pattern HCrO4(-) > SCN- approximately = ClO4(-) > NO3(-) approximately = I- approximately = NO2(-) > H2PO4(-) approximately = Cl- approximately = SO4(2-). The sensing method developed has successfully been applied to the determination of Cr(VI) in spiked river water as well as in electroplating rinse waters.

  5. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    PubMed

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  6. Analysis of biological factors for determination of air pollution tolerance index of selected plants in Yamuna Nagar, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manju; Panwar, Neeraj; Arora, Pooja; Luhach, Jyoti; Chaudhry, Smita

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated for various plant species growing in vicinity of three different industrial areas (Paper mill, Sugar mill, Thermal Power Plant) and Yamuna River belt of Yamuna Nagar. Studies were carried out to determine the physiological response of ten plant species. The leaf samples collected from these plant species were used to determine their plant APTI by calculating the ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, pH, and relative water content for all selected sites. Highest pH, relative water content, ascorbic acid and total chlorophyll was observed in Castor (9.86), Parthenium (96.99%), Ficus benghalensis (14.90 mg g(-1)) and Amaranthus (7.08 mg g(-1)) at Yamuna river, Thermal power plant, Yamuna river and paper mill respectively. It was concluded that out of ten species studied only one species (Ficus benghalensis) showed moderately tolerant response in all selected sites, while other species showed sensitive response. According to observed APTI values, Ficus benghalensis showed the highest value (21.65) at sugar mill followed by thermal power plant (19.38), Paper mill (17.65) and Yamuna River (17.61). The lowest APTI values were reported in Oxalis corniculata (6.42) at Yamuna River belt followed by Malvestrum at sugar mill (7.71).

  7. Fate of selected organic pollutants during landfill codisposal with municipal refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic compound characteristics, leachate components, and the solid waste matrix on the fate of selected organic compounds codisposed with municipal refuse, focusing on sorption and volatilization processes. Test compounds included dibromomethane (DBM), trichloroethene (TCE), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 2-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), naphthalene (NAP), lindane (LIN), dieldrin (DIE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and bis-(2-ethylhexy)phthalate (BEHP). Equilibrium sorbed and solution concentrations for nine test compounds were linearly related. The coefficient of linearity demonstrated a strong linear correlation with the octanol/water partition coefficient. Mobility was determined for the test compounds placed at the top of three glass columns frilled with fresh, acidogenic phase, and stable refuse. The experimental work described herein demonstrated the capacity of a municipal refuse landfill to attenuate and/or assimilate many organic compounds.

  8. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony’s welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls–EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g−1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g−1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g−1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g−1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g−1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g−1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g−1, 3.1 pg g−1, and 2.9 pg g−1, respectively. PMID:27907097

  9. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  10. Assessment of metal pollution in urban road dusts from selected highways of the Greater Toronto Area in Canada.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Y; Rosen, Marc A; Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M

    2013-02-01

    Over the last several decades, there has been increased attention on the heavy metal contamination associated with highways because of the associated health hazards and risks. Here, the results are reported of an analysis of the content of metals in roadside dust samples of selected major highways in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. The metals analysed are lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe). In the samples collected, the recorded mean concentrations (in parts per million) are as follows: Cd (0.51), Cu (162), Fe (40,052), Cr (197.9), K (9647.6), Mg (577.4), Ca (102,349), Zn (200.3), Mn (1202.2), Pb (182.8) and Ni (58.8). The mean concentrations for the analysed samples in the study area are almost all higher than the average natural background values for the corresponding metals. The geo-accumulation index of these metals in the roadside dust under study indicates that they are not contaminated with Cr, Mn and Ca; moderately contaminate with Cd and K; strongly contaminated with Fe and Mg; strongly to extremely contaminated with Ni and Pb; and extremely contaminated with Cu and Zn. The pollution load index (PLI) is used to relate pollution to highway conditions, and the results show that PLI values are slightly low at different samples collected from Highways 401 and 404 and high in many samples collected from Highway 400 and the Don Valley Parkway. Highway 400 exhibits the highest PLI values.

  11. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  12. [Mercury pollution in selected food products in Poland in the context of their health safety].

    PubMed

    Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Tarasiuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Danuta; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    Mercury is a silvery-white chemically active transition metal without known physiological role. It is also a toxin accumulated in living organisms--especially in the aquatic creatures (fish and shellfish). Mercury compounds are involved in biogeochemical cycles (especially atmospheric and hydrobiologic), and thus they become contaminants of food. Such process is facilitated by the increasing environmental chemization. Toxic effects of mercury compounds result from their high affinity to sulfur (sulfhydryl groups of amino acids), accumulation in parenchymal organs, metallic mercury lipophilicity as well as long biological half-life period. In Poland the major sources of mercury exposure in diet are fish products and mushrooms. The role of mercury in human toxicology was presented in the work, along with a review of the literature concerning mercury content in selected food products in Poland. In general, most of foods do not pose a threat to consumers' health. Some restrictions in the amount of predatory fish and mushrooms consumed by pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as small children should be however recommended.

  13. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1A: Citations with abstracts, sections 1 through 9

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1B: Citations with abstracts, sections 10 through 16

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  16. EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH ABSTRACTING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HYER, ANNA L.

    THIS PROJECT PROVIDED ABSTRACTING COVERAGE OF 33 FINAL REPORTS OF U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION FINANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS IN EDUCATIONAL MEDIA. AN ABSTRACTOR, DR. WILLIAM ALLEN, WAS HIRED TO EVALUATE AND EDIT OR REWRITE ABSTRACTS SUBMITTED BY RESEARCHERS, AND TO PREPARE ABSTRACTS IF NECESSARY. TWO ANALYTICAL REVIEWS ON SELECTED AREAS OF MEDIA RESEARCH…

  17. Size-selected black carbon mass distributions and mixing state in polluted and clean environments of northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, Tomi; Brus, David; Hooda, Rakesh K.; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Asmi, Eija; Sharma, Ved P.; Arola, Antti; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    We have measured black carbon properties by using a size-selected single-particle soot photometer (SP2). The measurements were conducted in northern India at two sites: Gual Pahari is located at the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and Mukteshwar at the Himalayan foothills. Northern India is known as one of the absorbing aerosol hot spots, but detailed information about absorbing aerosol mixing state is still largely missing. Previous equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration measurements are available for this region, and these are consistent with our observations showing that refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations are about 10 times higher in Gual Pahari than those at Mukteshwar. Also, the number fraction of rBC-containing particles is higher in Gual Pahari, but individual rBC-containing particles and their size distributions are fairly similar. These findings indicate that particles at both sites have similar local and regional emission sources, but aerosols are also transported from the main source regions (IGP) to the less polluted regions (Himalayan foothills). Detailed examination of the rBC-containing particle properties revealed that they are most likely irregular particles such as fractal aggregates, but the exact structure remains unknown.

  18. Ground water: Isostope tracing. January 1977-July 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of environmental and artificial radioisotopes to analyze flow paths and mixing, and the physical and chemical characteristics of aquifers. Topics include isotope selection criteria, recharge studies, and aquifer-leakage analyses. Considerable attention is given to methods used in site-specific studies. (Contains 115 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  20. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  1. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  2. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  3. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  4. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  5. Mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) devices and their use for pollution exposure monitoring in breath and ambient air-pilot study.

    PubMed

    Storer, Malina; Salmond, Jennifer; Dirks, Kim N; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Studies of health effects of air pollution exposure are limited by inability to accurately determine dose and exposure of air pollution in field trials. We explored the feasibility of using a mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) device, housed in a van, to determine ambient air and breath levels of benzene, xylene and toluene following exercise in areas of high motor vehicle traffic. The breath toluene, xylene and benzene concentration of healthy subjects were measured before and after exercising close to a busy road. The concentration of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in ambient air were also analysed in real time. Exercise close to traffic pollution is associated with a two-fold increase in breath VOCs (benzene, xylene and toluene) with levels returning to baseline within 20 min. This effect is not seen when exercising away from traffic pollution sources. Situating the testing device 50 m from the road reduced any confounding due to VOCs in the inspired air prior to the breath testing manoeuvre itself. Real-time field testing for air pollution exposure is possible using a mobile SIFT-MS device. This device is suitable for exploring exposure and dose relationships in a number of large scale field test scenarios.

  6. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  7. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  8. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  9. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  10. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  12. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  13. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  15. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  16. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  17. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  18. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  19. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric contribution to nonpoint-source-runoff pollution of nitrogen, in the form of nitrite-plus-nitrate, and lead was extremely high contributing as much as 84 percent of the runoff load. In contrast, phosphorus and chloride inputs were low averaging of 6 percent of the total runoff load. Future investigations of nonpoint-source pollution in runoff might include collection of data on atmospheric deposition of nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen and lead because of the importance of that source of these constituents in runoff.

  20. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  1. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  2. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  3. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  4. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  5. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  6. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  7. Assessment of indoor pollutants generated from bio and synthetic fuels in selected villages of Burdwan, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, N K; Bhaumik, R; Das, C R; Aditya, P; Datta, J K; Banerjee, A; Das, K

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to access the pollutant generated from bio-fuels like bamboo sticks, cow dung, paddy straw, carbon dust cake, gobar gas, jute stick, and mustard stick and synthetic fuel like LPG during cooking in rural villages of Burdwan, West Bengal, India and its fluctuation in living room. The average SO2 released from the fuels was found in the following order: bamboo stick > cow dung > paddy straw > carbon cake > gobar gas > jute stick > LPG > mustard stick; NO2 emission was in the following order : mustard stick > carbon dust cake > paddy straw > cow dung cake > LPG, jute stick > gobar gas > bamboo stick > and SPM was obtained in the following sequence: cow dung cake > bamboo stick > carbon dust cake > gobar gas > LPG > mustard stick > paddy straw > jute stick, respectively. The highest living room to kitchen room (L/K) ratio of SO2, NO, and SPM was found in LPG, gobar gas, jute stick respectively in 2009 and followed by bamboo stick > paddy straw > jute stick > cow dung cake, respectively in 2010. Results of this study suggest that different fuels released different amount of air pollutants, but more extensive study is needed to confirm the relationship between fuels and released air pollutants.

  8. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  9. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  12. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  13. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  14. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  15. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  16. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  17. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  19. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  20. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  1. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  2. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  3. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  5. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  6. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  8. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  9. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  10. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  12. Preparation of zeolite from incinerator ash and its application for the remediation of selected inorganic pollutants: A greener approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqra, J.; Faryal, M.; Uzaira, R.; Noshaba, T.

    2014-06-01

    Zeolites are potential materials and can conveniently be processed as adsorbents for the removal of environmental pollutants. A wide range of commercial zeolites have been marketed but due to high cost are of limited use. The present research offers a green approach for the synthesis of zeolite using Incinerator waste (ash) as precursor. The significance rests on the conversion of hazardous waste into a useful resource (adsorbent).Incinerator ash (IA) was converted hydrothermally under strongly alkaline conditions into zeolite (ZIA). The synthesized ZIA was applied as virgin adsorbent in batch mode for the removal of primary metal pollutants of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead. The residual concentration of each metal was analyzed on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Each series of batch was conducted at four varying induced concentration of metal salts as a function of time. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized on FTIR spectrophotometer to assess the involvement of functional group in metal binding to adsorbent surface. The results depicted the performance of ZIA (1mg/Kg) in removing 99.5 %, 84% and 78% of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead, respectively, upon adsorbate-adsorbent contact for 30 minutes, at lower dose of ZIA. It was also found that higher is the induced concentration, less is the removal efficiency. It may be due to limiting factor of adsorbent dose. Correlation matrix suggests positive relationship of Pb and Cr, Pb and Cd, Cr and Cd. No negative correlation was found. The study recommends the reutilization of Incinerator ash as a potential adsorbent, which can greatly enhance the sustainability of useful resources.

  13. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  14. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  15. Strong positive selection and habitat-specific amino acid substitution patterns in MHC from an estuarine fish under intense pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    Population-level studies using the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) have linked specific alleles with specific diseases, but data requirements are high and the power to detect disease association is low. A novel use of Mhc population surveys involves mapping allelic substitutions onto the inferred structural molecular model to show functional differentiation related to local selective pressures. In the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus, populations experiencing strong differences in antigenic challenges show significant differences in amino acid substitution patterns that are reflected as variation in the structural location of changes between populations. Fish from a population genetically adapted to severe chemical pollution also show novel patterns of DNA substitution at a highly variable Mhc class II B locus including strong signals of positive selection at inferred antigen-binding sites and population-specific signatures of amino acid substitution. Heavily parasitized fish from an extreme PCB-contaminated (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund) site show enhanced population-specific substitutions in the a-helix portion of the inferred antigen-binding region. In contrast, fish from an unpolluted site show a significantly different pattern focused on the first strand of the B-pleated sheet. Whether Mhc population profile differences represent the direct effects of chemical toxicants or indirect parasite-mediated selection, the result is a composite habitat-specific signature of strong selection and evolution affecting the genetic repertoire of the major histocompatibility complex.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  18. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  19. Investigation of selected persistent organic pollutants in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), salmon aquaculture feed, and fish oil components of the feed.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    There is extensive literature documenting the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment, but relatively little data are available on contamination pathways in aquaculture systems such as that for farmed salmon. In recent years,the salmon industry has grown significantly in Europe. This study reports on the determination of a wide range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in farmed and wild European Atlantic salmon fish, aquaculture feeds, and fish oils used to supplement the feeds. The study confirms previous reports of relatively high concentrations of PCBs and indicates moderate concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PBDEs in farmed Scottish and European salmon. Concentrations of the selected persistent organic pollutants varied among the samples: PCBs (salmon, 145-460 ng/g lipid; salmon feeds, 76-1153 ng/g lipid; fish oils, 9-253 ng/g lipid), S DDTs (salmon, 5-250 ng/g lipid; salmon feeds, 34-52 ng/g lipid; fish oils, 11-218 ng/g lipid), and PBDEs (salmon, 1-85 ng/g lipid: salmon feeds, 8-24 ng/g lipid; fish oils, ND-13 ng/g lipid). Comparison of the samples for all groups of contaminants, except for HCHs, showed an increase in concentration in the order fish oil < feed < salmon. Homologue profiles were similar, with an increase in contribution of hepta- and octa-PCBs in the fish, and profiles of DDTs were similar in all three types of samples. With a constant contribution to the total PCB content, the ICES 7 PCBs appear to be reliable predictors of the PCB contamination profile through all the samples. For PBDEs, BDE 47 dominated the profiles, with no significant difference in the PBDE profiles for the three matrixes. Samples with higher PCB contents generally showed higher levels of the pesticide residues, but this was not the case with the PBDEs, indicating the existence of different pollution sources.

  20. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)).

  15. Magnetic motive, ordered mesoporous carbons with partially graphitized framework and controllable surface wettability: preparation, characterization and their selective adsorption of organic pollutants in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Chen; Kong, Weiping; Qi, Chenze

    2016-06-01

    Magnetically active, ordered and stable mesoporous carbons with partially graphitized networks and controllable surface wettability (PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800) have been synthesized through direct carbonization of Fe or Ni functionalized, and ordered mesoporous polymers at 800°C, which could be synthesized from self assembly of resol (phenol/formaldehyde) with block copolymer template (P123) in presence of Fe3+ or Ni2+, and hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800 possess ordered and uniform mesopores, large BET surface areas, good stabilities, controllable surface wettability and partially graphitized framework. The above structural characteristics result in their enhanced selective adsorption property and good reusability for organic pollutants such as RhB, p-nitrophenol and n-heptane in water, which could be easily regenerated through separation under constant magnetic fields and washing with ethanol solvent. The unique magnetically active and adsorptive property found in PR-Fe-P123-800 and PR-Ni-P123-800 will be very important for them to be used as efficient absorbents for removal of various organic pollutants in water.

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  17. Monitoring Wadi El Raiyan lakes of the egyptian desert for inorganic pollutants by ion-selective electrodes, ion chromatography, and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M A; Ewane, E; Jones, J; Wilson, B L

    2000-03-01

    Wadi El Raiyan is a great depression located southwest of Cairo in the western desert of Egypt, one of the most arid regions of the world. In 1973, Wadi El Raiyan was connected with the agricultural wastewater drainage system of the El Faiyum province to provide a reservoir for the wastewater that exceeded the capacity of Lake Qarun north of the province. Pollutants from agricultural waste including pesticides and fertilizers as well as other effluents of industrial activities and runoffs certainly will pass into the biotic elements of the ecosystem. This report presents the status of inorganic pollutants including anions, cations, and trace metals in the two lakes and the surrounding springs of Wadi El Raiyan using ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The report also includes the levels of selected metals in the vegetation community of the area. The result of this investigation revealed a great improvement in water quality of the Wadi El Raiyan lakes compared to 1988 report by Saleh et al. Mercury was not detected in any of the samples and the level of lead was significantly reduced. Cadmium levels were much higher than those seen earlier. The higher level of cadmium might be used as an indicator to track the contamination of water by human waste. Concentrations of common anions were not significantly different from those reported earlier. However, an increase in the level of cyanide was observed. Levels of heavy metals in vegetation around the lakes were also found to be lower than previously reported.

  18. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  19. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  20. Chemical speciation, human health risk assessment and pollution level of selected heavy metals in urban street dust of Shiraz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Tazarvi, Zahra; Rajabzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najmeddin, Ali

    2015-10-01

    The distribution, pollution level, sources and health risk of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn in urban street dust were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis of dust samples shows that the mineralogy of airborne dusts is dominated by calcite, dolomite and quartz. The total concentration of trace elements across the sampling sites ranged from 36.8 to 234.3 mg kg-1 for Pb, 0.004-4.504 mg kg-1 for Hg, 160.9-778.3 mg kg-1 for Zn, 245-652 mg kg-1 for Mn, 39.4-117.9 mg kg-1 for Ni, 31.6-105.9 mg kg-1 for Cr, 49.8-232.5 mg kg-1 for Cu, 5.3-8.6 mg kg-1 for As, 0.31-0.85 mg kg-1 for Cd, 0.76-9.45 mg kg-1 for Sb, and 16,300-24,900 mg kg-1 for Fe. The enrichment factor results reveal the following order: Cu > Hg > Sb > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > As > Mn > Cd > Fe. Among the measured elements, the highest mobility factor belongs to Pb (79.2%), Hg (74.6%), Zn (64.1%) and Mn (56.4%). According to the calculated Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI), special attention should be paid to Hg, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the street dusts of Shiraz. Multivariate statistics indicate that traffic, natural soil particles and industrial activities are likely to be the main sources of heavy metals in Shiraz street dusts.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  4. From Great Potential to Amazing Performance: Factors That Make a Difference. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from the] Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (6th, Lawrence, Kansas, September 20-21, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    Twenty-two abstracts of papers presented at a symposium on the psychological development of gifted children comprise this document. Abstracts typically include the title of the paper; the author's name, title, institutional affiliation, location, telephone number, and electronic mail address; and a summary of the paper ranging from a short…

  5. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  6. Concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants across pregnancy trimesters in maternal and in cord serum in Trujillo, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Horton, Kevin; Sjodin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguillar-Villalobos, Manuel; Cassidy, Brandon E.; Vena, John E.; Needham, Larry L.; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Although the production and use of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned or highly restricted, human exposure remains a subject of investigation due to their environmental persistence. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the disposition of POPs in the mother’s body, and thus fetal exposure. Changes in serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) across pregnancy trimesters, and trans-placental transfer to the fetus were investigated. Seventy-nine pregnant women in Trujillo, Peru were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy, and provided blood samples for the analysis of 35 PCB congeners, 9 OCPs, and 11 polybrominated biphenyl diethers (PBDEs). Subsequently, maternal blood samples were collected in the second (n = 64) and third trimesters (n = 59), and cord blood samples (n = 50) were collected at delivery. There were statistically significant changes across trimesters (p <0.05) for both fresh weight (increase) and lipid adjusted concentrations (decrease) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p′-DDE), PCB-74, 118, 138–158, 153, 170, 180 and 194. Fresh weight concentrations of these POPs increased from first to third trimester by 10–28%. On the other hand lipid adjusted concentrations decreased from first to third trimester by 16–28%. Serum lipids increased from first to third trimester by 53% indicating the dilution of the POPs in the lipids. Concentrations of 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), its metabolite p,p′-DDE, PCB-118, 138-158, 153, 170 and 180 above their limits of detection were measured in >60% of cord serum samples. Intra-individual correlations in maternal serum concentrations were high for most of the POPs (ρ = 0.62–0.99; p <0.05) while correlations between maternal and cord serum concentrations were also high (ρ = 0.68–0.99; p < 0.05). Results indicate that the disposition in the body

  7. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Sand filtration. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and applications of sand filtration for water and wastewater purification. Applications include purification of drinking water and catchment water, as well as sewage treatment and wastewater reclamation. Mathematical models of sand filters are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 175 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Bioremediation of PCBs. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts) Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the microbes and microbial processes capable of reducing the toxicity of, or destroying, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated soil or water. The citations examine conditions which facilitate decomposition, such as use of the most effective microorganisms, and factors which can accelerate or inhibit the degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Highly selective GaN-nanowire/TiO2-nanocluster hybrid sensors for detection of benzene and related environment pollutants.

    PubMed

    Aluri, Geetha S; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V; Oleshko, Vladimir P; Bertness, Kris A; Sanford, Norman A; Rao, Mulpuri V

    2011-07-22

    Nanowire-nanocluster hybrid chemical sensors were realized by functionalizing gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoclusters for selectively sensing benzene and other related aromatic compounds. Hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN NWs followed by the deposition of TiO(2) nanoclusters using RF magnetron sputtering. The sensor fabrication process employed standard microfabrication techniques. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy using energy-dispersive x-ray and electron energy-loss spectroscopies confirmed the presence of the anatase phase in TiO(2) clusters after post-deposition anneal at 700 °C. A change of current was observed for these hybrid sensors when exposed to the vapors of aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and chlorobenzene mixed with air) under UV excitation, while they had no response to non-aromatic organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, chloroform, acetone and 1,3-hexadiene. The sensitivity range for the noted aromatic compounds except chlorobenzene were from 1% down to 50 parts per billion (ppb) at room temperature. By combining the enhanced catalytic properties of the TiO(2) nanoclusters with the sensitive transduction capability of the nanowires, an ultra-sensitive and selective chemical sensing architecture is demonstrated. We have proposed a mechanism that could qualitatively explain the observed sensing behavior.

  17. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  18. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  19. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  20. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    sulfate (SLS), Teepol 610, Tween 80 and Tween 60. Five fresh isolates each of Bacteroides melaninogenicus ss intermedius , B. ochraceus and Fusobacterium... Streptococcus mutans cells on hydroxyapatite surfaces. The enzyme was then tested in animals to evaluate its caries-preventive potential. Seventeen day-old... Streptococcus mutans in initial plaque samples grown in a selective colorimetric broth medium (Shklair, et al., IADR Abst. 241, 1976) and the remaining 4

  1. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  2. Paraphrasing for condensation in journal abstracting.

    PubMed

    Kittredge, Richard

    2002-08-01

    When authors of empirical science articles write abstracts, they employ a wide variety of distinct linguistic operations which interact to condense and rephrase a subset of sentences from the source text. An on-going comparison of biological and biomedical journal articles with their author-written abstracts is providing a basis for a more linguistically detailed model of abstract derivation using syntactic representations of selected source sentences. The description makes use of rich dictionary information to formulate paraphrasing rules of differing degrees of generality, including some which are sublanguage-specific, and others which appear valid in several languages when formulated using "lexical functions" to express important semantic relationships between lexical items. Some paraphrase operations may use both lexical functions and rhetorical relations between sentences to reformulate larger chunks of text in a concise abstract sentence. The descriptive framework is computable and utilizes existing linguistic resources.

  3. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  4. Health Effects Profiles for Searching Selected Lockheed DIALOG Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Linda Lee

    This preliminary study attempted to determine the most effective search strategies for the topic "health effects" in relation to specific chemicals and/or pollutants--in this case, asbestos--for each of five selected Lockheed DIALOG data bases: BIOSIS Previews, Chemical Abstracts Condensates (Chemcon), NTIS, Enviroline, and Pollution…

  5. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification.

  6. Isotopic analysis of N and O in NO3- by selective bacterial reduction to N2O for groundwater pollution.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingjing; Ma, Chuanming; Liu, Cunfu; Yue, Xiangbing

    2014-12-01

    We describe a method to determine the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in groundwater samples ((15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, respectively), which is based on the analysis of nitrous oxide gas (N2O) that is produced quantitatively from nitrate by denitrifying bacteria. This method which is simple, inexpensive and effective in the removal of nitrite is greatly selective for NO2(-) and was used for mixed samples containing both NO2(-) and NO3(-) with little or no measurable cross-contamination. The precision of δ(15)N and δ(18)O are 0.3 and 0.17‰ respectively, compared to that of 0.1 and 0.5‰ abroad (Brand et al. in Org Geochem 21:585-594, 1994; Begley and Scrimgeour in Anal Chem 69(8): 1530-1535, 1997; Kornexl et al. in Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13(16):1685-1693, 1999; Böhlke et al. in Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:1835-1846, 2003; Gehre and Strauch in Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17(13):1497-1503, 2003; Werner in Isot Environ Health Stud 39:85-104, 2003).

  7. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  8. [Investigation of pollution characteristics of erythromycin resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and the relevant selective factors].

    PubMed

    Li, Kan-Zhu; Wu, Li-Le; Huang, Sheng-Lin; He, Shi; Liu, Zhen-Hong; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin

    2014-12-01

    Occurrence and distribution of twelve pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in a sewage treatment plant in Shanghai using solid-phase extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the distribution and removal of seven erythromycin resistance genes (ERY-ARGs). The results showed that five PPCPs including sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, carbamazepine and triclosan were detected in the collected wastewater samples with concentrations in the ranges of 24.5- 38.7, 47.5-49.2, 43.1-85.4, 2.5-3.9 and 423.2-8 973.3 ng x L(-1), respectively. During the wastewater treatment process, a significant reduction of triclosan was observed, but the removal efficiencies for the other detected PPCPs were relatively low. Additionally, all target ERY-ARGs were detected in the wastewater samples ranging from 9.28 x 10(3) (ermA) to 1.83 x 10(8) (ereA) copies x L(-1) in raw influent. Though significant reductions (1.19 log-3.97 log) of ERY-ARGs were obtained, their concentrations found in the final effluent were still high. Moreover, the concentration of ERY-ARGs exhibited significant positive correlation with the concentration of erythromycin and triclosan (P < 0.05), respectively, elucidating that erythromycin played an important role in the occurrence and spread of ERY-ARGs, while triclosan may confer cross-selection for ERY-ARGs.

  9. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  10. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials ... Trials GuLF Study What NIEHS is Doing on Water Pollution Survival of the resilient: rapid killifish evolution ...

  11. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  14. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  15. Selecting the best AOP for isoxazolyl penicillins degradation as a function of water characteristics: Effects of pH, chemical nature of additives and pollutant concentration.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzman, Paola; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Florez, Oscar; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Pulgarin, Cesar; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2017-04-01

    To provide new insights toward the selection of the most suitable AOP for isoxazolyl penicillins elimination, the degradation of dicloxacillin, a isoxazolyl penicillin model, was studied using different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ultrasound (US), photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe(2+)) and TiO2 photocatalysis (UV/TiO2). Although all processes achieved total removal of the antibiotic and antimicrobial activity, and increased the biodegradability level of the solutions, significant differences concerning the mineralization extend, the pH of the solution, the pollutant concentration and the chemical nature of additives were found. UV/TiO2 reached almost complete mineralization; while ∼10% mineralization was obtained for UV/H2O2/Fe(2+) and practically zero for US. Effect of initial pH, mineral natural water and the presence of organic (glucose, 2-propanol and oxalic acid) were then investigated. UV/H2O2/Fe(2+) and US processes were improved in acidic media, while natural pH favored UV/TiO2 system. According to both the nature of the added organic compound and the process, inhibition, no effect or enhancement of the degradation rate was observed. The degradation in natural mineral water showed contrasting results according to the antibiotic concentration: US process was enhanced at low concentration of dicloxacillin followed by detrimental effects at high substrate concentrations. A contrary effect was observed during photo-Fenton, while UV/TiO2 was inhibited in all of cases. Finally, a schema illustrating the enhancement or inhibiting effects of water matrix is proposed as a tool for selecting the best process for isoxazolyl penicillins degradation.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  17. Developing General vs. Specific Abilities and Their Relationship to Diversity. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (4th, Lawrence, Kansas, September 30-October 1, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 32 papers on the development of general versus specific abilities and their relationship to diversity in gifted and talented students. Sample topics include: creative development at the college level; cultural and linguistic differences in gifted children; Project High Hopes, a program for gifted students with…

  18. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  19. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  20. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  1. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  2. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  3. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  4. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  5. Current content of selected pollutants in moss, humus, soil and bark and long-term radial growth of pine trees in the Mezaparks forest in Riga.

    PubMed

    Pīrāga, Dace; Tabors, Guntis; Nikodemus, Oļģerts; Žīgure, Zane; Brūmelis, Guntis

    2015-11-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of various indicators in the assessment of environmental pollution and to determine the response of pine to changes of pollution levels. Mezaparks is a part of Riga that has been subject to various long-term effects of atmospheric pollution and, in particular, historically from a large superphosphate factory. To determine the spatial distribution of pollution, moss, pine bark and soil O and B horizons were used as sorbents in this study, as well as the additional annual increment of pine trees. The current spatial distribution of pollution is best shown by heavy metal accumulation in mosses and the long-term accumulation of P2O5 pollution by the soil O horizon. The methodological problems of using these sorbents were explored in the study. Environmental pollution and its changes could be associated with the tree growth ring annual additional increment of Mezaparks pine forest stands. The additional increment increased after the closing of the Riga superphosphate factory.

  6. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  7. Autism genes are selectively targeted by environmental pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, bisphenol A, phthalates and many others in food, cosmetics or household products.

    PubMed

    Carter, C J; Blizard, R A

    2016-10-27

    The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin). Numerous other suspected endocrine disruptors (over 100) selectively targeted ASG's including paraquat, atrazine and other pesticides not yet studied in autism and many compounds used in food, cosmetics or household products, including tretinoin, soy phytoestrogens, aspartame, titanium dioxide and sodium fluoride. Autism polymorphisms influence the sensitivity to some of these chemicals and these same genes play an important role in barrier function and control of respiratory cilia sweeping particulate matter from the airways. Pesticides, heavy metals and pollutants also disrupt barrier and/or ciliary function, which is regulated by sex steroids and by bitter/sweet taste receptors. Further epidemiological studies and neurodevelopmental and behavioural research is warranted to determine the relevance of large number of suspect candidates whose addition to the environment, household, food and cosmetics might be fuelling the autism epidemic in a gene-dependent manner.

  8. Levels and patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) in selected food items from Northwest Russia (1998-2002) and implications for dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Savinova, T N; Tkachev, A; Løken, K B; Odland, J O; Skaare, J U

    2010-10-15

    Residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in 70 selected food items from Northwest Russia in 1998-2002. Levels of PCBs ranged from 0.2 to 16ng/g wet weight (ww) in dairy products and fats, 0.2 to 23ng/g ww in meat products, 0.5 to 16ng/g ww in eggs and 0.3 to 30ng/g ww in fish. High levels of DDT (16ng/g ww) were found in locally produced butter from Kola Peninsula, in pork fat from Arkhangels region (10 to 130ng/g ww) and in some fish samples from White Sea and Kargopol region (17 and 30ng/g ww). Findings of low DDE/DDT ratios in many of the studied food items indicated recent contamination to DDTs. Mean levels of sum TEQs(WHO1998) of dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs: PCBs 105, 118, 156 and 157 (∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998)) were highest in dairy products, chicken eggs and fish, with levels of 0.292, 0.245 and 0.254pg/g ww, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for ∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998) was 0.74pg/kgbw/day and in the same range as in Sweden and Denmark. Fish, dairy products, eggs and meat were the main contributors to the EDI of ∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998). The EDIs of DDTs, HCHs and HCB were several times higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Consumption of meat and poultry were important sources for intake of DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Contamination of animal feed and agricultural practice were assumed the most important causes for the results in the present study. However, increased control on maximum residue levels in food and feed may have resulted in large changes on levels and patterns of POPs in food in the studied areas.

  9. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  10. Comparative analysis of selected semi-persistent and emerging pollutants in wild-caught fish and aquaculture associated fish using Bogue (Boops boops) as sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Montero, Daniel; Camacho, María; Ginés, Rafael; Boada, Luis D; Ramírez Bordón, Besay; Valerón, Pilar F; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Haroun, Ricardo; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-03-01

    The marine environment acts as a sink for diverse anthropogenic pollutants, although the environmental contamination may be non-uniformly distributed. In recent decades, the aquaculture sector has experienced a steady growth postulating as a good alternative for seafood production. However, a social debate exits about the differential level of pollutants in wild and farmed species. This study was designed to evaluate the level of pollutants in a sentinel species: Bogue (Boops boops) associated and non-associated to fish-farm cages. A total of 82 chemical substances were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including persistent (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), semi-persistent (bromodiphenyl ethers (BDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), and emerging pollutants (such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and UV-filters). In general, aquaculture-associated bogues showed lower levels of semi-persistent and emerging pollutants than wild-caught fish, especially when sums were considered. Thus, sum of BDEs was significantly lower in the aquaculture group (p=0.01). A similar trend was also observed for benzo(a)anthracene, the UV-filter 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate and some OPFRs. In the case of persistent pollutants, the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and sum of DDTs were lower in the group of wild-caught bogues (p=0.034 and p=0.003, respectively) than in aquaculture-associated bogues, as previously described for some aquaculture species. Fish feed appear as an important factor in the uptake of such substances suggesting a diet intervention to reduce their levels in the aquaculture products. Another interesting result is that for almost all chemical substances analyzed, bogues captured near sewage outfalls showed the highest levels of pollutants, pointing out the need of stringent measures for wastewater treatment units discharging in coastal areas. On the light of these results, further research in specific

  11. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  12. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  14. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  16. A further characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shu-Wen; Xia, Shunyou

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we give a characteristic of abstract convexity structures on topological spaces with selection property. We show that if a convexity structure defined on a topological space has the weak selection property then satisfies H0-condition. Moreover, in a compact convex subset of a topological space with convexity structure, the weak selection property implies the fixed point property.

  17. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  18. Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  20. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  1. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  2. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  3. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  4. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  5. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  6. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  7. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  8. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  9. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  10. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  11. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  12. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  13. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  14. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals in the surface sediments of South Brittany coastal waters: An assessment using pollution indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, M. C.; Menier, D.; Noor Azhar, M. S.; Dupont, V.; Révillon, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in South Brittany water, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of heavy metals of the area. One of the aims of this work was to assess heavy metals contamination in Gulf of Morbihan and Quiberon Bay. Another aim was to use interpolation surfaces per metals to assess the contamination separately per metal. A total of 196 bottom sediment samples were collected from the coastal waters in order to determine the spatial concentration of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. The average heavy metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cu>Cd. In the gulf, metal enrichments observed compared to the bay environment may due river run-off from three major river (Auray, Le Marle and Novalo rivers) which carried municipal waste and maritime activities along the coastal area within the gulf. Beside those factors, the natural factors such as the sheltered basin morphology itself, fine sediment and low hydrodynamic regime which favour the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The level of pollution levels attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CF) based on reference element and background value to compensate for the influence of the natural variability in sediment mineralogy and to assess whether the concentration observed in surface sediment represent background and contaminated levels and visualize using ArcGIS software. These analyses validated that the bottom sediment only enriched in Pb and the other metals in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Overall, geochemistry of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic

  15. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  16. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  17. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2017-03-23

    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol(-1). This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans

  18. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    difference, consider an example frequently discussed in the history of science, namely the Ptolemaic system in which the planet earth is surrounded by...tend to imagine systems with the human observer in the center. While a Ptolemaic viewpoint is known to be wrong (or, more precisely, infeasible) in...physics, it naturally appears in the systems we construct. Consequently, the Ptolemaic viewpoint yields a natural abstraction principle for computer

  19. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  20. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomers, the mirror image isomers of chiral pollutants, are known to be selective in their interaction with other chiral molecules, including enzymes and other biochemicals. Considerable research has shown, for example, that chiral pesticides are degraded selectively by micr...

  1. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Air Quality Index (AQI) The EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is ... For more tools to help you learn about air quality, visit Tracking Air Quality . Top of Page File ...

  2. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  3. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  4. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  5. Role of snow and cold environment in the fate and effects of nanoparticles and select organic pollutants from gasoline engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Kurien, Uday; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo B; Ariya, Parisa A

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to vehicle exhaust can drive up to 70 % of excess lifetime cancer incidences due to air pollution in urban environments. Little is known about how exhaust-derived particles and organic pollutants, implicated in adverse health effects, are affected by freezing ambient temperatures and the presence of snow. Airborne particles and (semi)volatile organic constituents in dilute exhaust were studied in a novel low-temperature environmental chamber system containing natural urban snow under controlled cold environmental conditions. The presence of snow altered the aerosol size distributions of dilute exhaust in the 10 nm to 10 μm range and decreased the number density of the nanoparticulate (<100 nm) fraction of exhaust aerosols, yet increased the 100-150 nm fraction. Upon 1 hour exhaust exposure, the total organic carbon increased in the natural snow from 0.218 ± 0.014 to 0.539 ± 0.009 mg L(-1), and over 40 additional (semi)volatile organic compounds and a large number of exhaust-derived carbonaceous and likely organic particles were identified. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) increased from near the detection limit to 52.48, 379.5, 242.7, and 238.1 μg kg(-1) (± 10 %), respectively, indicating the absorption of exhaust-derived toxic organic compounds by snow. The alteration of exhaust aerosol size distributions at freezing temperatures and in the presence of snow, accompanied by changes of the organic pollutant content in snow, has potential to alter health effects of human exposure to vehicle exhaust.

  6. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  7. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  8. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  9. Levels of abstraction in orangutan (Pongo abelii) categorization.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2004-03-01

    Levels of abstraction have rarely been manipulated in studies of natural concept formation in nonhumans. Isolated examples have indicated that animals, relative to humans, may learn concepts at varying levels of abstraction with differential ease. The ability of 6 orangutans (Pongo abelii) of various ages to make natural concept discriminations at 3 levels of abstraction was therefore investigated. The orangutans were rewarded for selecting photos of orangutans instead of humans and other primates (concrete level), primates instead of other animals (intermediate level), and animals instead of nonanimals (abstract level) in a 2-choice touch screen procedure. The results suggest that, like a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) tested previously (Vonk & MacDonald, 2002), orangutans can learn concepts at each level of abstraction, and unlike other nonhumans, most of these subjects rapidly learned the intermediate level discrimination.

  10. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  11. Abstract art by shape classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Zhe; Pickup, David; Li, Chuan; Rosin, Paul; Hall, Peter

    2013-08-01

    This paper shows that classifying shapes is a tool useful in nonphotorealistic rendering (NPR) from photographs. Our classifier inputs regions from an image segmentation hierarchy and outputs the "best" fitting simple shape such as a circle, square, or triangle. Other approaches to NPR have recognized the benefits of segmentation, but none have classified the shape of segments. By doing so, we can create artwork of a more abstract nature, emulating the style of modern artists such as Matisse and other artists who favored shape simplification in their artwork. The classifier chooses the shape that "best" represents the region. Since the classifier is trained by a user, the "best shape" has a subjective quality that can over-ride measurements such as minimum error and more importantly captures user preferences. Once trained, the system is fully automatic, although simple user interaction is also possible to allow for differences in individual tastes. A gallery of results shows how this classifier contributes to NPR from images by producing abstract artwork.

  12. Content of selected elements and low-molecular-weight organic acids in fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. from unpolluted and polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Gąsecka, Monika; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Zalicka, Sylwia; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) investigate the potential of edible mushroom Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr. to accumulate 53 elements from unpolluted acidic sandy soil and polluted alkaline flotation tailing sites in Poland, (ii) to estimate the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) profile and contents in fruit bodies, and finally (iii) to explore the possible relationship between elements and LMWOA content in mushrooms. The content of most elements in fruiting bodies collected from the flotation tailings was significantly higher than in mushrooms from the unpolluted soils. The occurrence of elements determined in fruiting bodies of B. badius has been varied (from 0.01 mg kg(-1) for Eu, Lu, and Te up to 18,932 mg kg(-1) for K). The results established the high importance of element contents in substrate. Among ten organic acids, nine have been found in wide range: from below 0.01 mg kg(-1) for fumaric acid to 14.8 mg g(-1) for lactic acid. Lactic and succinic acids were dominant in both areas, and citric acid was also in high content in polluted area. The correlation between element contents and the individual and total content of LMWOAs was confirmed.

  13. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  14. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  15. Food pollution.

    PubMed

    Trevino, R J

    1999-06-01

    Food can influence the human body in many ways, both positively and negatively. Several key elements of contemporary food cultivation and production are presented, along with their potential consequences to our health. The history of food cultivation and consumption is contrasted between early hunter-gatherer societies and modern day societies. Natural nutrient-rich foods produced from the soil in early societies have been replaced with artificial supplements and treated with pesticides and herbicides to control plant disease. The evolution of pesticides is chronicled from the synthesis of DDT in 1870 to present day. Several commonly used chemicals are described along with their documented side effects. A number of methods of pest control from ancient to modern day are offered as alternatives to polluting chemicals. Integrated pest management is proposed as a promising, economically feasible method of pest management, reducing pollution and risk to wildlife and human health.

  16. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  17. The influences of selected soil properties on Pb availability and its transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a polluted calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Safari, Yaser; Delavar, Mohammad-Amir; Zhang, Chaosheng; Esfandiarpour-Boroujeni, Isa; Owliaie, Hamid-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface layer of agricultural soils may be transferred through the food chain via plant uptake processes. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in the soils and wheat plants and to determine the soil properties which may affect the Pb transferring from soil to wheat plants in Zanjan Zinc Town area, northwestern Iran. A total of 110 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were systematically collected from an agricultural area near a large metallurgical factory for the analyses of physico-chemical properties and total and bioavailable Pb concentrations. Furthermore, a total of 65 wheat samples collected at the same soil sampling locations were analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts. The results showed that elevated Pb concentrations were mostly found in soils located surrounding the industrial source of pollution. The bioavailable Pb concentration in the studied soils was up to 128.4 mg kg(-1), which was relatively high considering the observed soil alkalinity. 24.6% of the wheat grain samples exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permitted concentration of Pb in wheat grain (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Correlation analyses revealed that soil organic matter, soil pH, and clay content showed insignificant correlation with Pb concentration in the soil and wheat grains, whereas calcium carbonate content showed significantly negative correlations with both total and bioavailable Pb in the soil, and Pb content in wheat grains, demonstrating the strong influences of calcium carbonate on Pb bioavailability in the polluted calcareous soils.

  18. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  19. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  20. Gasohol sourcebook - Literature survey and abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    A review is provided of biomass and bioconversion technology literature, giving particular attention to gasohol and related fuels. Literature cited and reviewed covers a variety of subjects such as properties of biomass, overviews of bioconversion technologies, toxic and hazardous properties of alcohols, and sources of biomass. Source listings and selected abstracts are provided back to 1965. Both U.S. government reports and journal publications are listed. Foreign publications are also included. A listing is presented of both U.S. and foreign patents on various subjects related to bioconversion technology and gasohol production. Ethanol and methanol production is considered along with automotive and other fuel uses, the production of chemical feedstocks, and the economics of alcohol production.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.J.

    1993-03-01

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  2. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  3. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  4. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  5. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  6. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways.

  7. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  8. Journalism and Journalism Education: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the status, function, and perceived needs of journalism in the high schools of West Virginia; (2) environmental pollution news coverage; (3) a critical history…

  9. Writing competitive research conference abstracts: AMEE Guide no. 108.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Amiel, Jonathan; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-09-01

    The ability to write a competitive research conference abstract is an important skill for medical educators. A compelling and concise abstract can convince peer reviewers, conference selection committee members, and conference attendees that the research described therein is worthy for inclusion in the conference program and/or for their attendance in the meeting. This AMEE Guide is designed to help medical educators write research conference abstracts that can achieve these outcomes. To do so, this Guide begins by examining the rhetorical context (i.e. the purpose, audience, and structure) of research conference abstracts and then moves on to describe the abstract selection processes common to many medical education conferences. Next, the Guide provides theory-based information and concrete suggestions on how to write persuasively. Finally, the Guide offers some writing tips and some proofreading techniques that all authors can use. By attending to the aspects of the research conference abstract addressed in this Guide, we hope to help medical educators enhance this important text in their writing repertoire.

  10. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and II-consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the II-consistency results. PMID:28216589

  11. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-02-14

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  12. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  13. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  14. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  15. Core foundations of abstract geometry.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Moira R; Huang, Yi; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-27

    Human adults from diverse cultures share intuitions about the points, lines, and figures of Euclidean geometry. Do children develop these intuitions by drawing on phylogenetically ancient and developmentally precocious geometric representations that guide their navigation and their analysis of object shape? In what way might these early-arising representations support later-developing Euclidean intuitions? To approach these questions, we investigated the relations among young children's use of geometry in tasks assessing: navigation; visual form analysis; and the interpretation of symbolic, purely geometric maps. Children's navigation depended on the distance and directional relations of the surface layout and predicted their use of a symbolic map with targets designated by surface distances. In contrast, children's analysis of visual forms depended on the size-invariant shape relations of objects and predicted their use of the same map but with targets designated by corner angles. Even though the two map tasks used identical instructions and map displays, children's performance on these tasks showed no evidence of integrated representations of distance and angle. Instead, young children flexibly recruited geometric representations of either navigable layouts or objects to interpret the same spatial symbols. These findings reveal a link between the early-arising geometric representations that humans share with diverse animals and the flexible geometric intuitions that give rise to human knowledge at its highest reaches. Although young children do not appear to integrate core geometric representations, children's use of the abstract geometry in spatial symbols such as maps may provide the earliest clues to the later construction of Euclidean geometry.

  16. SERS internship fall 1995 abstracts and research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Beverly

    1996-05-01

    This report is a compilation of twenty abstracts and their corresponding full papers of research projects done under the US Department of Energy Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) program. Papers cover a broad range of topics, for example, environmental transport, supercomputers, databases, biology. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion the the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Community Integration Policy and Practice Abstracts. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Julia; Harris, Perri

    This compilation of about 200 abstracts features journal articles relevant to the community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Articles were selected based on their relevance to policy and practice. Research articles were included if they had a strong applied emphasis with clear implications for contemporary policy and…

  18. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouger, H. Garland

    1992-11-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  19. LDEF: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouger, H. Garland (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a free-flying cylindrical structure that housed self-contained experiments in trays mounted on the exterior of the structure. Launched into orbit from the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984, the LDEF spent almost six years in space before being recovered in 1990. The 57 experiments investigated the effects of the low earth orbit environment on materials, coatings, electronics, thermal systems, seeds, and optics. It also carried experiments that measured crystals growth, cosmic radiation, and micrometeoroids. This bibliography contains 435 selected records from the NASA aerospace database covering the years 1973 through June of 1992. The citations are arranged within subject categories by author and date of publication.

  20. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  1. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  2. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  3. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  4. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-ar

  8. Abstract models of molecular walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the

  9. Added-value from a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series at ungauged pollution control-sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, Gilles; Ben Khediri, Wiem; Conan, Céline

    2016-05-01

    We explore the potential of a multi-criteria selection of donor catchments in the prediction of continuous streamflow series by the spatial proximity method. Three criteria have been used: (1) spatial proximity; (2) physical similarity; (3) stream gauging network topology. An extensive assessment of our spatial proximity method variant is made on a 149 catchment-data set located in the Rhine-Meuse catchment. The competitiveness of the method is evaluated against spatial interpolation of catchment model parameters with ordinary kriging. We found that the spatial proximity approach is more efficient than ordinary kriging. When distance to upstream/downstream stream gauge stations is considered as a second order criterion in the selection of donor catchments, an unprecedented level of efficiency is reached for nested catchments. Nevertheless, the spatial proximity method does not take advantage from physical similarity between donor catchments and receiver catchments because catchments that are the most hydrologically similar to each catchment poorly match with the catchments that are the most physically similar to each catchment.

  10. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  11. Abstract thinking following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, B P; Charbonneau, S; Solomon, C R; Lepore, F

    1993-01-01

    Abstract abilities were studied in a sample of 34 individuals with severe TBI and a control group. The results indicate that TBI interferes with performance on tests requiring individuals to process information into new categories. There appears to be a dissociation between verbal abstract abilities and visual-perceptual abstract abilities. There is evidence that Goldstein and Sheerer's [1] postulate of a general 'abstract attitude' was at least partially correct. This attitude does not appear to be related to a general verbal ideational process, as dysphasic subjects were only deficient on a purely verbal abstract task.

  12. ABSTRACT PRESENTATION--PHARMACEUTICALS AS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals comprise a large and diverse array of contaminants that can occur in the environmentfrom the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary andagricultural use. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for med

  13. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  14. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  15. Abstract and concrete categories? Evidences from neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Eleonora; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Plebani, Valentina; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the performance of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA) in a series of tasks involving both abstract and concrete stimuli, which were controlled for most of the variables that have been shown to affect performance on lexical-semantic tasks. Our aims were to compare the patients׳ performance on abstract and concrete stimuli and to assess category-effects within the abstract and concrete domains. The results showed: (i) a better performance on abstract than concrete concepts in sv-PPA patients. (ii) Category-related effects in the abstract domain, with emotion concepts being preserved in AD and social relations being selectively impaired in sv-PPA. In addition, a living-non living dissociation may be (infrequently) observed in individual AD patients after controlling for an extensive set of potential confounds. Thus, differences between and within the concrete or abstract domain may be present in patients with semantic memory disorders, mirroring the different brain regions involved by the different pathologies.

  16. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines.

  17. Pollution Prevention Guideline for Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edwin; Barnett, Stanley M.; Ray, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to manage waste after a classroom laboratory experiment which generally has the potential to generate large amounts of waste. Focuses on pollution prevention and the selection processes to eliminate or minimize waste. (YDS)

  18. Data and Summaries for Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table 1 summarizes and explanis the Operating Conditions of the SCR Reactor used in the Benzene-Destruction.Table 2 summarizes and explains the Experimental Design and Test Results.Table 3 summarizes and explains the Estimates for Individual Effects and Cross Effects Obtained from the Linear Regression Models for Destruction of C6H6 and Reduction of NO.Fig. 1 shows the Down-flow SCR reactor system in detail.Fig. 2 shows the graphical summary of the Effect of the inlet C6H6 concentration to the SCR reactor on the destruction of C6H6.Fig.3 shows the summary of Carbon mass balance for C6H6 destruction promoted by the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lee , C., Y. Zhao, S. Lu, and W.R. Stevens. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Polutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 30(3): 2240-2247, (2016).

  19. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  20. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  1. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from <2.4 to 2.4 ng/g (dry wt) in river sediment and <2.4-15 ng g(-1) (dry wt) in harbor sediment. Viable count of total bacteria ranged from 2.0 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(7)cfu/g, and counts of TBT-resistant bacteria ranged <1.0 x 10(2) to 2.5 x 10(4)cfu/g. The estimated occurrence rate of TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from <0.01 to 34% and was highest in upstream sites in Cambodia. The occurrences of TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  2. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  3. Probing planetary pollution from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space are reviewed. These instruments include a gas cell correlation radiometer named MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites), the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. Particular attention is given to differential absorption lidar technology which can determine the vertical distribution of aerosols and selected trace gases with considerably more resolution than passive remote sensing techniques. The current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms are also discussed.

  4. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  5. A brief on writing a successful abstract.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.

  6. Bioindication capacity of metal pollution of native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi under various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kosior, G; Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2010-09-01

    During a period of 90d assays were carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to 27 sites selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia (Poland). The native mosses of this species were collected from the polluted sites. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in P. schreberi and in the soil of all of the sites. The sites were divided into more and less polluted ones. The obtained results indicate that the native P. schreberi from the more polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn than the transplanted moss from the same sites. The transplanted P. schreberi from the less polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cr, Pb, Zn, significantly less Cu and comparable amounts of Cd, as compared to the native moss. The selection of native versus transplant P. schreberi as a bioindicator depends on the level of pollution.

  7. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  8. Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; SaravanaDevi, S; Wate, Satish R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To rank pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes according to their effect on human health using a risk-based approach. Methods Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps. The disease burden due to each pollutant was estimated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) using data on the pollutant’s concentration, exposure to the pollutant, the severity of its health effects and the consumer population. Findings The pollutants identified were microbial organisms, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc. All were detected in the catchments but only cadmium, cobalt, chromium, manganese and lead exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values after water treatment. Post-treatment contamination was observed. The estimated disease burden was greatest for chromium in both schemes, followed in decreasing order by cadmium, lead, manganese and cobalt. The total disease burden of all pollutants in the two schemes was 46 000 and 9500 DALYs per year or 0.14 and 0.088 DALYs per person per year, respectively, much higher than the WHO reference level of 1 × 10−6 DALYs per person per year. For each metal, the disease burden exceeded the reference level and was comparable with that due to microbial contamination reported elsewhere in Africa. Conclusion The estimated disease burden of metal contamination of two Nigerian water supply systems was high. It could best be reduced by protection of water catchment and pretreatment by electrocoagulation. PMID:23940402

  9. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge.

  10. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Hermann, Fredrick S

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens' perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  11. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Fredrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects. PMID:27703863

  12. ERP Modulation during Observation of Abstract Paintings by Franz Kline

    PubMed Central

    Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Berchio, Cristina; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of the static consequences of hand gestures devoid of any meaning.In order to verify this hypothesis we performed an EEG experiment presenting to participants images of abstract works of art with marked traces of brushstrokes. The EEG data were analyzed by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). We aimed to demonstrate a direct involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of these selected works of abstract art. The stimuli consisted of three different abstract black and white paintings by Franz Kline. Results verified our experimental hypothesis showing the activation of premotor and motor cortical areas during stimuli observation. In addition, abstract works of art observation elicited the activation of reward-related orbitofrontal areas, and cognitive categorization-related prefrontal areas. The cortical sensorimotor activation is a fundamental neurophysiological demonstration of the direct involvement of the cortical motor system in perception of static meaningless images belonging to abstract art. These results support the role of embodied simulation of artist’s gestures in the perception of works of art. PMID:24130693

  13. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  14. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  15. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  16. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  17. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  18. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  19. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  20. Discourse-Level Structure in Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    An investigation was undertaken into the possibility of automatically detecting how concepts exist in relation to each other in abstracts, a text-type commonly used in free-text retrieval. The end goal of this research is to capture these relationships in structured representations of abstracts' contents so that users can require not only that the…

  1. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  2. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  3. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  4. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  5. Prefrontal Cortex Organization: Dissociating Effects of Temporal Abstraction, Relational Abstraction, and Integration with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  6. Visible Light Photo-oxidation of Model Pollutants Using CaCu3Ti4O12: An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Optical Properties, Electronic Structure, and Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Charge transfer between metal ions occupying distinct crystallographic sublattices in an ordered material is a strategy to confer visible light absorption on complex oxides to generate potentially catalytically active electron and hole charge carriers. CaCu3Ti4O12 has distinct octahedral Ti4+ and square planar Cu2+ sites and is thus a candidate material for this approach. The sol−gel synthesis of high surface area CaCu3Ti4O12 and investigation of its optical absorption and photocatalytic reactivity with model pollutants are reported. Two gaps of 2.21 and 1.39 eV are observed in the visible region. These absorptions are explained by LSDA+U electronic structure calculations, including electron correlation on the Cu sites, as arising from transitions from a Cu-hybridized O 2p-derived valence band to localized empty states on Cu (attributed to the isolation of CuO4 units within the structure of CaCu3Ti4O12) and to a Ti-based conduction band. The resulting charge carriers produce selective visible light photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol (monitored by mass spectrometry) by Pt-loaded CaCu3Ti4O12 which is attributed to the chemical nature of the photogenerated charge carriers and has a quantum yield comparable with commercial visible light photocatalysts. PMID:21158451

  7. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  8. The microenvironmental modelling approach to assess children's exposure to air pollution - A review.

    PubMed

    Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2014-11-01

    Exposures to a wide spectrum of air pollutants were associated to several effects on children's health. Exposure assessment can be used to establish where and how air pollutants' exposures occur. However, a realistic estimation of children's exposures to air pollution is usually a great ethics challenge, especially for young children, because they cannot intentionally be exposed to contaminants and according to Helsinki declaration, they are not old enough to make a decision on their participation. Additionally, using adult surrogates introduces bias, since time-space-activity patterns are different from those of children. From all the different available approaches for exposure assessment, the microenvironmental (ME) modelling (indirect approach, where personal exposures are estimated or predicted from microenvironment measurements combined with time-activity data) seemed to be the best to assess children's exposure to air pollution as it takes into account the varying levels of pollution to which an individual is exposed during the course of the day, it is faster and less expensive. Thus, this review aimed to explore the use of the ME modelling approach methodology to assess children's exposure to air pollution. To meet this goal, a total of 152 articles, published since 2002, were identified and titles and abstracts were scanned for relevance. After exclusions, 26 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely: (i) study design and outcomes, including location, study population, calendar time, pollutants analysed and purpose; and (ii) data collection, including time-activity patterns (methods of collection, record time and key elements) and pollution measurements (microenvironments, methods of collection and duration and time resolution). The reviewed studies were from different parts of the world, confirming the worldwide application, and mostly cross-sectional. Longitudinal studies were also found enhancing the applicability of

  9. Automobiles and pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Degobert, P.

    1995-12-31

    This book explores the impact automobile emissions have on air pollution, focusing objectively on the share of pollution that can actually be attributed to the use of vehicles. Automobiles and Pollution begins with a presentation of general information on atmospheric pollution, including its regulatory aspects. The book`s focus then shifts to a more in-depth analysis of how pollutants can be eliminated from car exhaust emissions. Automobiles and Pollution will serve as a thorough and up-to-date reference for the specialist, and an informative primer to the nonspecialist needing an objective opinion on the subject.

  10. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  11. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  12. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  13. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  14. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  15. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  16. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  17. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  18. A Modeling Investigation of Human Exposure to Select Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in the Tampa Area: Spatiotemporal Distributions of Concentrations, Social Distributions of Exposures, and Impacts of Urban Design on Both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haofei

    Increasing vehicle dependence in the United States has resulted in substantial emissions of traffic-related air pollutants that contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. Exposure to urban air pollutants trigger a number of public health concerns, including the potential of inequality of exposures and health effects among population subgroups. To better understand the impact of traffic-related pollutants on air quality, exposure, and exposure inequality, modeling methods that can appropriately characterize the spatiotemporally resolved concentration distributions of traffic-related pollutants need to be improved. These modeling methods can then be used to investigate the impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, pollution exposures, and related inequality. This work will address these needs with three objectives: 1) to improve modeling methods for investigating interactions between city and transportation design choices and air pollution exposures, 2) to characterize current exposures and the social distribution of exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the case study area of Hillsborough County, Florida, and 3) to determine expected impacts of urban design and transportation management choices on air quality, air pollution exposures, and exposure inequality. To achieve these objectives, the impacts of a small-scale transportation management project, specifically the '95 Express' high occupancy toll lane project, on pollutant emissions and nearby air quality was investigated. Next, a modeling method capable of characterizing spatiotemporally resolved pollutant emissions, concentrations, and exposures was developed and applied to estimate the impact of traffic-related pollutants on exposure and exposure inequalities among several population subgroups in Hillsborough County, Florida. Finally, using these results as baseline, the impacts of sprawl and compact urban forms, as well as vehicle fleet electrification

  19. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  20. Information Technology Division Technical Paper Abstracts 1995,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Division (ITD), one of the largest research and development collectives at the Naval Research Laboratory. The abstracts are organized into sections that represent the six branches with ITD: the Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Communications Systems, the Center for High Assurance Computer Systems, Transmission Technology, Advanced Information Technology , and the Center for Computational Science. Within each section, a list of branch papers published in 1993 and 1994 has also been included; abstracts

  1. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  2. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  3. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  4. Rhetorical Variation across Research Article Abstracts in Environmental Science and Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeeaw, Supachai; Tangkiengsirisin, Supong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking…

  5. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  6. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  7. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  8. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  9. Applying model abstraction techniques to optimize monitoring networks for detecting subsurface contaminant transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving strategies for monitoring subsurface contaminant transport includes performance comparison of competing models, developed independently or obtained via model abstraction. Model comparison and parameter discrimination involve specific performance indicators selected to better understand s...

  10. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  11. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  12. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  13. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  17. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  18. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  19. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1992, phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Sacknoff, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of 346 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1992 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 346, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1992 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  20. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1991 phase 1 projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. Carl; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of 301 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1991 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 301, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1991 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.